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Sample records for immunization completion rate

  1. High rate of complete responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma previously exposed to epigenetic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Falchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL after brentuximab vedotin (Bv and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT are limited. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI are active in this population but rarely induce complete response (CR. Ten patients with R/R cHL after ASCT and Bv received pembrolizumab (n = 8 or nivolumab (n = 2. Five had been previously exposed to 5-azacitidine on a phase 1 study. Among nine evaluable patients, seven (78% achieved CR, one partial response, and one reduction of tumor burden. All five patients who had received 5-azacitidine prior to ICI achieved CR, while only two of four who did not receive prior 5-azacitidine achieved CR. At a median follow-up of 9.9 months [0.5–14.3], eight patients are alive and five are still receiving treatment. We documented an unprecedented CR rate after ICI in patients with R/R cHL. We hypothesize that hypomethylating agents might have an immune priming effect and enhance the efficacy of ICI.

  2. Improving professional IT doctorate completion rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kisalay Burmeister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Professional doctorates in Information Technology (IT have been a relatively recent phenomenon, giving IT professionals career management choices not previously available to them. However, successful completion rates are the lowest of all disciplines. Completed doctorates rate in quality equivalent to PhDs, and retention has been identified as a major obstacle to completion. This qualitative study, involving 44 semi-structured interviews with students, supervisors and institutional support personnel, investigated the obstacles. Amongst the strategies discovered to improve completion rates were retention, student engagement with supervisors, feedback on progress, student engagement in the course, and student involvement in institutional communities of practice.

  3. Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1982-01-01

    Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable

  4. Immunizations challenge healthcare personnel and affects immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohfus, Pamela K; Kim, Susan C; Palma, Sara; Duke, Russell A; Remington, Richard; Roberts, Caleb

    2017-02-01

    This study measured 1. medical office immunization rates and 2. health care personnel competency in managing vaccine practices before and after evidence-based immunization education was provided. This descriptive study compared 32 family medicine and pediatric offices and 178 medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians in knowledge-based testing pre-education, post-education, and 12-months post-education. Immunization rates were assessed before and 18-months post-education. Immunization rates increased 10.3% - 18months post-education; knowledge increased 7.8% - 12months post-education. Family medicine offices, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants showed significant knowledge deficits before and 12-months post-education. All demographic groups scored less in storage/handling 12-months post-education. This study is one of the first studies to identify competency challenges in effective immunization delivery among medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, and family medicine offices. Formal and continuous education in immunization administration and storage/handling is recommended among these select groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

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    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  6. Barriers to Immunizations and Strategies to Enhance Immunization Rates in Adults with Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases.

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    Kirchner, Elizabeth; Ruffing, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    For as long as there have been immunizations, there have been barriers to them. Immunization rates in the United States are below target. Rheumatologists and rheumatology practitioners need to understand the issues of immunizations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory disease to identify and overcome barriers to immunization. Several strategies for overcoming these barriers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  8. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  9. Impact of Pharmacist Immunization Authority on Seasonal Influenza Immunization Rates Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Edward M; Miller, Laura; Johnsrud, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunization Dropout Rates in Ihe, Awgu Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunization against childhood diseases is one of the most important ways of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality. Aims: The objective of this study is to review the dropout rates of immunization of children in a health center using a single dose of diphtheria‑pertussis‑tetanus (DPT1) and three doses of ...

  11. Immunization Dropout Rates in Ihe, Awgu Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccine. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross sectional study where immunization dropout rate of ... especially with the addition of other vaccines such as yellow fever in endemic areas and tetanus toxoid (injections for the pregnant women.

  12. 10 CFR 903.21 - Completion of rate development; provisional rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business principles. The rates shall be submitted promptly to the FERC for confirmation and approval on a..., Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.21 Completion of rate development; provisional rates...

  13. Clinicians completion rate of radiology request card in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of adequately completing the radiology request card by the clinicians, in management of patient cannot be overemphasized. Omission of information on the request card may lead to reporting error. This study investigated the compliance rate of filling the radiology request card by clinicians received in a ...

  14. Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.

    2016-09-01

    Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by

  15. Improving pediatric immunization rates: description of a resident-led clinical continuous quality improvement project.

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    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Gren, Lisa H; Backman, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Increased emphasis is being placed on the continuous quality improvement (CQI) education of residents of all specialties. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement (CQI) project, based on a novel curriculum, to improve the immunization rates of children under 2 years old at the Madsen Family Health Center (MHC). All third-year residents were trained in the FOCUS-PDSA CQI methodology through concurrent didactic lectures and experience leading the CQI team. The CQI team included clinical staff led by a third-year family medicine resident and mentored by a member of the family medicine faculty. Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic as the intervention. Compliance with the intervention (process measure), as well as immunization rates at 2 and 5 months post-intervention (outcome measure), were monitored. Immunization records were printed on 84% of clinic days from October 24, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The percentage of patients immunized at baseline was 66%. The percentage immunized as of December 31, 2011 was 96% and was 91% as of March 31, 2012. An important educational experience was organized for third-year family medicine residents through learning CQI skills, leading a CQI team, and directing a CQI project to completion. Significant improvement in the percentage of patients under 2 years old immunized at the MHC was achieved by presenting provider-medical assistant teamlets with immunization records of all pediatric patients on the daily clinic schedule.

  16. Atypical tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy.

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    König, Kai; Ringe, Hannelore; Dorner, Brigitte G; Diers, Alexander; Uhlenberg, Birgit; Müller, Dominik; Varnholt, Verena; Gaedicke, Gerhard

    2007-11-01

    We report the uncommon clinical course of tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy. His initial symptoms, which included a flaccid paralysis, supported a diagnosis of botulism. Preliminary mouse-test results with combined botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from tetanus-immunized horses, backed this diagnosis. The change in his clinical course from paralysis to rigor and the negative, more specific, botulinum mouse test with isolated botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from nonvaccinated rabbits, disproved the diagnosis of botulism. Tetanus was suspected despite complete vaccination. The final results of a positive mouse test performed with isolated tetanus antitoxin confirmed the diagnosis. Adequate treatment was begun, and the boy recovered completely.

  17. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates.

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    Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2009-05-01

    Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.

  18. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

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    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  19. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

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    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  20. Patient reminder and recall interventions to improve immunization rates.

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    Jacobson Vann, Julie C; Jacobson, Robert M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-01-18

    Immunization rates for children and adults are rising, but coverage levels have not reached optimal goals. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. In an era of increasing complexity of immunization schedules, rising expectations about the performance of primary care, and large demands on primary care providers, it is important to understand and promote interventions that work in primary care settings to increase immunization coverage. One common theme across immunization programs in many nations involves the challenge of implementing a population-based approach and identifying all eligible recipients, for example the children who should receive the measles vaccine. However, this issue is gradually being addressed through the availability of immunization registries and electronic health records. A second common theme is identifying the best strategies to promote high vaccination rates. Three types of strategies have been studied: (1) patient-oriented interventions, such as patient reminder or recall, (2) provider interventions, and (3) system interventions, such as school laws. One of the most prominent intervention strategies, and perhaps best studied, involves patient reminder or recall systems. This is an update of a previously published review. To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of various types of patient reminder and recall interventions to improve receipt of immunizations. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL to January 2017. We also searched grey literature and trial registers to January 2017. We included randomized trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series evaluating immunization-focused patient reminder or recall interventions in children, adolescents, and adults who receive immunizations in any setting. We included no-intervention control groups, standard practice activities that did not include immunization patient reminder or recall, media-based activities aimed at promoting immunizations

  1. Factors that influence MSc (Med) (Pharmacy) completion rates at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %). Only 35.5% of part-time postgraduates and those who communicated more frequently with their supervisors received their degree. Those who completed their degree also scored higher on quality of communication with and accessibility of ...

  2. Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective: To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had ‘timely immunization completion’ (2000–2011 and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Design: Secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, which sampled women aged 15–49 from the 1999 Vietnamese Population and Housing Census frame, were analyzed. Multilevel analysis using Poisson regression was undertaken. Results: Proportions of children under five who had timely immunization completion were low, especially for HBV dose 2 and HBV dose 3, which decreased between 2000 and 2011. Among seven vaccines used in the National Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI in 2000, 2006, and 2011, measles dose 1 had the highest timely immunization completion at 65.3%, 66.7%, and 73.6%, respectively, and hepatitis B dose 1 had the lowest at 17.5%, 19.3%, and 45.5%, respectively. Timely immunization completion was less common among children whose mothers had relatively less household wealth, were from ethnic minorities, lived in rural areas, and had less education. At the community level, the child's region of residence was the main predictor of timely immunization completion, and the availability of hospital delivery and community prenatal care in the local community were also determinants. Conclusion: The EPI should include ‘timely immunization completion’ as a quality indicator. There should also be greater focus and targeting in rural areas, and among women who have relatively low education, belong to minority groups, and have less household wealth. Further research on this topic using multilevel analysis is needed to better understand how these factors interact.

  3. Effectiveness of a citywide patient immunization navigator program on improving adolescent immunizations and preventive care visit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Humiston, Sharon G; Gallivan, Sarah; Albertin, Christina; Sandler, Martha; Blumkin, Aaron

    2011-06-01

    To assess the impact of a tiered patient immunization navigator intervention (immunization tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach) on improving immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. Randomized clinical trial allocating adolescents (aged 11-15 years) to intervention vs standard of care control. Eight primary care practices. Population-based sample of adolescents (N = 7546). Immunization navigators at each practice implemented a tiered protocol: immunization tracking, telephone or mail reminder/recall, and home visits if participants remained unimmunized or behind on preventive care visits. Immunization rates at study end. Secondary outcomes were preventive care visit rates during the previous 12 months and costs. The intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics (mean age, 13.5 years; 63% black, 14% white, and 23% Hispanic adolescents; and 74% receiving Medicaid), immunization rates, and preventive care visit rates. Immunization rates at the end of the study were 44.7% for the intervention group and 32.4% for the control group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5); preventive care visit rates were 68.0% for the intervention group and 55.2% for the control group (1.2; 1.2-1.3). Findings were similar across practices, sexes, ages, and insurance providers. The number needed to treat for immunizations and preventive care visits was 9. The intervention cost was $3.81 per adolescent per month; the cost per additional adolescent fully vaccinated was $465, and the cost per additional adolescent receiving a preventive care visit was $417. A tiered tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach intervention improved immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00581347.

  4. Trends in Immunization Completion and Disparities in the Context of Health Reforms: The case study of Tanzania

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    Semali Innocent A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of global concern is the decline in under five children mortality which has reversed in some countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA since the early 1990 s which could be due to disparities in access to preventive services including immunization. This paper is aimed at determining the trend in disparities in completion of immunization using Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. Methods DHS studies randomly selected representative households from all regions in Tanzania since 1980 s, is repeated every five years in the same enumeration areas. The last three data sets (1990, 1996 and 2004 were downloaded and analyzed using STATA 9.0. The analysis included all children of between 12-23 months who would have completed all vaccinations required at 12 months. Results Across the time periods 1990, 1996 to 2004/05 the percentage of children completing vaccination was similar (71.0% in 1990, 72.7% in 1996 and 72.3% in 2005. There was no disparity in completion of immunization with wealth strata in 1990 and 1996 (p > 0.05 but not 2004. In 2004/05 there was marked disparity as most poor experienced significant decline in immunization completion while the least poor had significant increase (p Conclusion Equity that existed in 1990 and more pronounced in 1996 regressed to inequity in 2005, thus though at national level immunization coverage did not change, but at sub-group there was significant disparity associated with the changing contexts and reforms. To address sub-group disparities in immunization it is recommended to adopt strategies focused at governance and health system to reach all population groups and most poor.

  5. Adolescent immunization rates and the effect of socio-demographic factors on immunization in a cosmopolitan city (ERZURUM) in the eastern Turkey.

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    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Arikan, Duygu; Ozyazicioğlu, Nurcan

    2006-04-01

    Pediatric vaccinations have decreased the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases in children, but adolescents continue to be adversely affected by vaccine preventable disease. The present study was performed to determine the status of adolescents immunization and to investigate the effect of several socio-demographic factors on immunization. Using the cluster-sampling method, 817 adolescents were selected in 24 high schools (15,000 students) in central district of Erzurum (Turkey). Adolescents were categorized as completely vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, unvaccinated or vaccination status unknown. Of the 817 adolescents, 6.9% were completely vaccinated, 24.4% were incompletely vaccinated and 64.1% were unvaccinated. The vaccination status of 4.6% of adolescents was unknown. A significantly correlation was seen between the number of siblings, the level of mother and father education, the level of parent's socio-economics status, health insurance and immunization status. Our findings indicated a small percentage of adolescents receive all of the recommended vaccine. In immunization programs in Turkey, priority should be given to increase adolescent immunization rate with a middle school and/or adolescents, vaccination.

  6. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  7. Influence of Motivational Design on Completion Rates in Online Self-Study Pharmacy-Content Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Amy; Doering, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Student retention rates are a constant concern in higher education, but this concern has become especially challenging as online courses become more common and there are widespread reports of low completion rates for online, self-study courses. We evaluated four self-study online pharmacy courses with a history of very high completion rates for…

  8. Isoniazid completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection among college students managed by a community pharmacist.

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    Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery; Wu, Joanne; Johnson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The authors' objective was to document 9-month and previously recommended 6-month treatment completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a pharmacist-managed LTBI clinic in a community pharmacy on a college campus, and to describe patient characteristics. Participants were university students diagnosed with LTBI. The authors conducted a retrospective review of pharmacy records from 2000 to 2006. Main outcome measures included 6-month and 9-month LTBI treatment completion rates, total isoniazid (INH) tablets taken, characteristics of completers versus noncompleters, average time to treatment completion, and reported adverse drug events. The 9-month completion rate was 59%, and the 6-month completion rate was 67%. Among those not completing treatment, 15.2% experienced fatigue and 2.2% experienced a rash (p=.04 and p=.03, respectively). LTBI clinics are a unique niche for community pharmacies and can provide individualized patient care to ensure LTBI treatment adherence, monitoring for disease progression, and safety of INH.

  9. Acquired Immune Resistance Follows Complete Tumor Regression without Loss of Target Antigens or IFN gamma Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Harbst, Katja; van Buuren, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy can result in durable tumor regressions in some patients. However, patients who initially respond often experience tumor progression. Here, we report mechanistic evidence of tumoral immune escape in an exemplary clinical case: a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed ...

  10. Estimation of age-specific rates of reactivation and immune boosting of the varicella zoster virus

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    Isabella Marinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies into the impact of vaccination against the varicella zoster virus (VZV have increasingly focused on herpes zoster (HZ, which is believed to be increasing in vaccinated populations with decreasing infection pressure. This idea can be traced back to Hope-Simpson's hypothesis, in which a person's immune status determines the likelihood that he/she will develop HZ. Immunity decreases over time, and can be boosted by contact with a person experiencing varicella (exogenous boosting or by a reactivation attempt of the virus (endogenous boosting. Here we use transmission models to estimate age-specific rates of reactivation and immune boosting, exogenous as well as endogenous, using zoster incidence data from the Netherlands (2002–2011, n = 7026. The boosting and reactivation rates are estimated with splines, enabling these quantities to be optimally informed by the data. The analyses show that models with high levels of exogenous boosting and estimated or zero endogenous boosting, constant rate of loss of immunity, and reactivation rate increasing with age (to more than 5% per year in the elderly give the best fit to the data. Estimates of the rates of immune boosting and reactivation are strongly correlated. This has important implications as these parameters determine the fraction of the population with waned immunity. We conclude that independent evidence on rates of immune boosting and reactivation in persons with waned immunity are needed to robustly predict the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence of HZ.

  11. Comparison of immunization rates of adults ages 65 years and older managed within two nurse practitioner-owned clinics with national immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wendy L; Morrell, Elise; Lee, Jennie; Cuellar, Norma Graciela; White, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Adults ages ≥65 years are at increased risk for infectious diseases. Ensuring these individuals are fully vaccinated is imperative. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunization rates of adults ages ≥65 years managed by nurse practitioners (NPs) and compare the results with national immunization rates and Healthy People 2020 goals. A convenience sample of adults ages ≥65 years was obtained from two NP-managed clinics. The vaccine records of each subject were reviewed for documentation of having received five vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; influenza; pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13; and herpes zoster vaccine). One hundred and fifty females (70.8%) and 62 males (29.2%) met inclusion criteria. NP-managed patients had higher immunization rates than the national averages across all five major vaccines. The herpes zoster vaccination rates exceeded the recommendations from Healthy People 2020 whereas pneumococcal and influenza rates were below. The stocking of vaccines within the NP-managed clinics, direct billing to Medicare for Part D vaccines, and previsit care planning likely contributed to the high vaccination rates. These high immunization rates in patients managed by NPs provide support for the important role that NPs play in the care of older adults. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most

  13. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunizations among Asian American College Students: Infection, Exposure, and Immunity Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…

  14. Enhancement of immune response induced by DNA vaccine cocktail expressing complete LACK and TSA genes against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Jorjani, Ogholniaz; Sharifi, Zohreh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Hassan, Zuhair M; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh; Khoshzaban, Fariba; Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei

    2013-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important disease in humans. Leishmania homologue of receptor for Activated C Kinase (LACK) and thiol specific antioxidant (TSA) as immuno-dominant antigens of Leishmania major are considered the most promising molecules for a DNA vaccine. We constructed a DNA cocktail, containing plasmids encoding LACK and TSA genes of Leishmania major and evaluated the immune response and survival rate in BALB/c mice. IgG and Interferon gamma values were noticeably increased in the immunized group with DNA cocktail vaccine, which were significantly higher than those in the single-gene vaccinated and control groups (p 0.05). The immunized mice with the cocktail DNA vaccine presented a considerable reduction in diameter of lesion compared to other groups and a significant difference was observed (p < 0.05) in this regard. The survival time of the immunized mice with the cocktail DNA vaccine was significantly higher than that in the other groups (p < 0.05) after their being challenged with Leishmania major. The findings of this study indicated that the cocktail DNA vaccine increased the cellular response and survival rate and induced protection against infection with Leishmania in the mice. © 2012 The Authors © 2012 APMIS.

  15. A Study of Course Design Factors that Influence E-Learning Course Completion Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathews, Edward

    2004-01-01

    .... Although there is significant variation among institutions - with some reporting course-completion rates of more than 80 percent and others finding that fewer than 50 percent of distance-education...

  16. Immunization dropout rate and data quality among children 12-23 months of age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguune, Benjamin; Ndago, Joyce Aputere; Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba

    2017-01-01

    Immunization against diseases is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, a proportion of children particularly in Africa are not fully immunized with the recommended vaccines. Thus, many children are still susceptible to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) targeted diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the immunization dropout rate and data quality among children aged 12-23 months in Techiman Municipality, Ghana. A cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted among 600 children. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Before the main data collection, the tools were pre-tested in three different communities in the Municipality. The mothers/caregivers were interviewed, extracted information from the child immunization cards and observation employed to confirm the presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar on each child. Routine immunization data was also extracted from immunization registers and annual reports in the Municipality. I mmunization coverage for each of the fifteen vaccines doses is above 90.0% while full childhood immunized status is 89.5%. Immunization dropout rate was 5.6% (using BCG and Measles as proxy vaccines). This is lower than the 10.0% cutoff point by World Health Organization. However, routine administrative data was characterized by some discrepancies (e.g. > 100.0% immunization coverage for each of the vaccines) and high dropout rate (BCG - Measles = 31.5%). Binary regression was performed to determine predictors of dropout rate. The following were statistically significant: married (OR = 0.31; 95% = CI 0.15-0.62; and p  = 0.001), Christianity (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.13-0.91; and p  dropout. Childhood full immunized status (89.5%) and immunization coverages (>90%) are high while dropout rate is lower than the recommended cutoff point by WHO

  17. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  18. Balanced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 are required for a complete plant innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An important layer of plant innate immunity to host-adapted pathogens is conferred by intracellular nucleotide-binding/oligomerization domain-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors recognizing specific microbial effectors. Signaling from activated receptors of the TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-NB-LRR class converges on the nucleo-cytoplasmic immune regulator EDS1 (Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1. In this report we show that a receptor-stimulated increase in accumulation of nuclear EDS1 precedes or coincides with the EDS1-dependent induction and repression of defense-related genes. EDS1 is capable of nuclear transport receptor-mediated shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus. By enhancing EDS1 export from inside nuclei (through attachment of an additional nuclear export sequence (NES or conditionally releasing EDS1 to the nucleus (by fusion to a glucocorticoid receptor (GR in transgenic Arabidopsis we establish that the EDS1 nuclear pool is essential for resistance to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens and for transcriptional reprogramming. Evidence points to post-transcriptional processes regulating receptor-triggered accumulation of EDS1 in nuclei. Changes in nuclear EDS1 levels become equilibrated with the cytoplasmic EDS1 pool and cytoplasmic EDS1 is needed for complete resistance and restriction of host cell death at infection sites. We propose that coordinated nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 enable the plant to mount an appropriately balanced immune response to pathogen attack.

  19. Rates of coverage and determinants of complete vaccination of children in rural areas of Burkina Faso (1998-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Drissa; Fournier, Pierre; Kobiané, Jean-François; Sondo, Blaise K

    2009-11-17

    Burkina Faso's immunization program has benefited regularly from national and international support. However, national immunization coverage has been irregular, decreasing from 34.7% in 1993 to 29.3% in 1998, and then increasing to 43.9% in 2003. Undoubtedly, a variety of factors contributed to this pattern. This study aims to identify both individual and systemic factors associated with complete vaccination in 1998 and 2003 and relate them to variations in national and international policies and strategies on vaccination of rural Burkinabé children aged 12-23 months. Data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys and the Ministry of Health's 1997 and 2002 Statistical Yearbooks, as well as individual interviews with central and regional decision-makers and with field workers in Burkina's healthcare system, were used to carry out a multilevel study that included 805 children in 1998 and 1,360 children in 2003, aged 12-23 months, spread over 44 and 48 rural health districts respectively. In rural areas, complete vaccination coverage went from 25.9% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2003. District resources had no significant effect on coverage and the impact of education declined over time. The factors that continued to have the greatest impact on coverage rates were poverty, with its various dimensions, and the utilization of other healthcare services. However, these factors do not explain the persistent differences in complete vaccination between districts. In 2003, despite a trend toward district homogenization, differences between health districts still accounted for a 7.4% variance in complete vaccination. Complete vaccination coverage of children is improving in a context of worsening poverty. Education no longer represents an advantage in relation to vaccination. Continuity from prenatal care to institutional delivery creates a loyalty to healthcare services and is the most significant and stable explanatory factor associated with complete vaccination of

  20. Using the North Dakota Immunization Information System to determine adolescent vaccination rates and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMurray, Keith; Sander, Molly

    2011-01-01

    We described the uptake and coverage rates of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4); tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in North Dakota using the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). We analyzed all available MCV4, Tdap, and HPV4 doses given after vaccine licensure and through December 31, 2009, obtained from the NDIIS to identify trends and patterns in vaccine administration. We analyzed all data by administration date, age group, and health-care provider type. We also calculated missed opportunities to complete all recommended vaccines among vaccinated adolescents. For adolescents aged 13-17 years, 69.2% had > or = 1 dose of Tdap and 62.8% had > or = 1 dose of MCV4. Of females aged 13-17 years, 42.8% initiated the HPV4 vaccination series and 24.9% received > or = 3 HPV4 doses. Only 48.7% of males aged 13-17 years received both Tdap and MCV4 at the same visit, and only 11.5% of females aged 13-17 years received Tdap, MCV4, and HPV4 doses at the first visit. The NDIIS is useful in tracking adolescent vaccine uptake. The immunization rates for all three routinely recommended adolescent vaccines are rising in North Dakota, although at different paces. Providers should be educated about the importance of not missing opportunities to vaccinate, and school-based vaccination clinics should be used to reach adolescents who are less likely to have preventive care visits.

  1. Determinants of defaulting from completion of child immunization in Laelay Adiabo District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Gebretnsae Aregawi

    from completion of child immunization.Postnatal care follow-up, household visits by health extension workers and maternal participation in women's development groups are important mediums for disseminating information and increasing knowledge to mothers about child immunization. To reduce the rate of defaulters, health providers should motivate and counsel mothers to attend postnatal care. Health extension workers should visit households at least once per month and strengthen mothers' participation in the women's development groups.

  2. Hepatitis B seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years after completion of basic hepatitis B immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Homenta Rampengan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of hepatitis B viral (HBV infection in Indonesia is high. The most effective way to control HBV infection is by hepatitis B (HB immunization. Many studies reported that hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs seroprotection declines in children > 10 years of age. In addition many factors can influence anti-HBs titer. Objective To measure anti-HBs titer and evaluate possible factors associated with anti-HBs titer. Methods This cross sectional  study was conducted in children 10-15 years of age from ten schools at Tuminting District, Manado, North Sulawesi, from October to November 2014. All subjects had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme. By stratified random sampling, 105 children were selected as subjects. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results. From 48 schools, we selected 10 schools from which to draw a total of 105 children, but only 23 (21.9% children had detectable anti-HBs . Of all subjects, 76 (72.4%  were female, 78 (74.3%  had good nutritional status, and 98 (93.3%  had birth weight ≥2,500 grams. Data from immunization record books showed that 26 (24.8% subjects received the HB-1 vaccination at ≤7 days of age and 45 (42.9% subjects had a ≥2 month interval between the HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations. Multivariate analysis showed that administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age  and a ≥2 month interval between HB-2 and HB-3  had significant associations with anti-HB seroprotection in children. Conclusion A low proportion of subjects who had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme had detectable anti-HBs titer (21.9%. Administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age and a ≥2-month interval between HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations are important factors in anti-HB seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years.

  3. Completion Rates--A False Trail to Measuring Course Quality? Let's Call in the HEROEs Instead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Alastair; Reneland-Forsman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Statistics are often used to reveal significant differences between online and campus-based education. The existence of online courses with low completion rates is often used to justify the inherent inferiority of online education compared to traditional classroom teaching. Our study revealed that this type of conclusion has little substance. We…

  4. Isoniazid Completion Rates for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among College Students Managed by a Community Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery; Wu, Joanne; Johnson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors' objective was to document 9-month and previously recommended 6-month treatment completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a pharmacist-managed LTBI clinic in a community pharmacy on a college campus, and to describe patient characteristics. Participants: Participants were university students diagnosed with…

  5. Differences in Texas Community College Certificate Completion Rates by Ethnicity/Race, Gender, and Institution Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the first study within this journal-ready dissertation was to determine the extent to which ethnicity/race-based differences were present in Texas community college completion rates specifically within workforce certificate programs. Regarding the second study, the purpose was to determine the extent to which gender…

  6. The Use of Gap Analysis to Increase Student Completion Rates at Travelor Adult School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Blanca Estela

    2013-01-01

    This project applied the gap analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008) in order to help develop strategies to increase completion rates at Travelor Adult School. The purpose of the study was to identify whether the knowledge, motivation and organization barriers were contributing to the identified gap. A mixed method approached…

  7. 34 CFR 668.45 - Information on completion or graduation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.45 Information on completion or graduation rates. (a)(1... Management and Budget under control number 1845-0004) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1092) [74 FR 55944, Oct. 29, 2009] ...

  8. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  9. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  10. Cyclic efforts to improve completion rates of masters’ degree students in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Roets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Supervisors at Higher Education Institutions are challenged to shorten throughput of Master’s degree students in nursing as researchers are needed to improve the art and science of the nursing profession. Globally the completion time for a postgraduate degree in the health sciences varies between 4.7 and 5.5 years. The purpose of the study was to describe strategies that were implemented to shorten completion time and attrition rate of postgraduate students. A cyclic technical, scientific collaborative mode within an action research methodology was used to identify factors impeding completion time in this study. Contrary to other studies, supervision was not an inhibiting factor in this study. Physical, technical, academic and financial aspects were identified by postgraduate students through questionnaires and informal discussion groups with supervisors as well as progress reports. Strategies were implemented to address these. Following implementation of all strategies, 42% of the postgraduate students in the School of Nursing completed their Master’s degree within two years. This implies a 34% improvement. Although the completion rate improved it was still unsatisfactory and new challenges were identified during the second cycle, for example, the number of inexperienced supervisors increased and they needed mentoring. Speed mentoring is a possible solution to the problem.

  11. State-level high school completion rates: Concepts, measures, and trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Warren

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1970s the national rate at which incoming 9th graders have completed high school has fallen slowly but steadily; this is also true in 41 states. In 2002, about three in every four students who might have completed high school actually did so; in some states this figure is substantially lower. In this paper I review state-level measures of high school completion rates and describe and validate a new measure that reports these rates for 1975 through 2002. Existing measures based on the Current Population Survey are conceptually imperfect and statistically unreliable. Measures based on Common Core Data (CCD dropout information are unavailable for many states and have different conceptual weaknesses. Existing measures based on CCD enrollment and completion data are systematically biased by migration, changes in cohort size, and/or grade retention. The new CCD-based measure described here is considerably less biased, performs differently in empirical analyses, and gives a different picture of the dropout situation across states and over time.

  12. EFFECT OF IMMUNIZATION OF RABBIT WITH ZONA PELLUCIDA ANTIGEN ON CONCEPTION RATE AND LITTER SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fayemi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty mature female rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was immunized with zona pellucida (ZP antigen and the second group was injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS at the corresponding time of immunization (control group. When bred by male rabbits, the conception rate in the immunized group (30% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than 100% recorded for the unimmunized (control group. The litter size was 1.67 ± 0.50 for the immunized group and was significantly lower than 7.3 ± 0.82 for the control group (P< 0.001. It is concluded that ZP antigens may become better candidates for contraception than steroids.

  13. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... tariff structure modifies in a relatively non-uniform fashion the relationship between most rates...

  14. Impact of the raising immunizations safely and effectively (RISE) program on healthcare worker influenza immunization rates in long term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, David A; Handler, Steven M; Hoffman, Erika L; Perera, Subashan

    2012-11-01

    National influenza immunization rates for healthcare workers (HCW) in long-term care (LTC) remain unacceptably low. This poses a serious public health threat to residents. Prior work has suggested high staff turnover rates as a contributing factor to low immunization rates. There is a critical need to identify and deploy successful models of HCW influenza immunization programs to LTC facilities. This report describes one potential model that has been successfully initiated in a network of LTC facilities. All facilities served by a single regional LTC pharmacy were invited to participate in a HCW influenza immunization program. This voluntary immunization program began in 2005 and continues to the present. As part of the program, the pharmacy promoted organizational change by assuming oversight and control of HCW immunization policies and processes for all facilities. Primary and secondary outcomes are the number of facilities reaching HCW influenza immunization rates of 60% and 80%. Fourteen of the 16 LTC facilities participated. Facilities were diverse and included both nursing and assisted living facilities; unionized and nonunionized facilities; and urban, suburban, and rural facilities. The pharmacy provided educational and communication materials, centralized data collection using a standardized definition for HCW immunization rates, and facility feedback. All 14 LTC facilities achieved the primary goal of 60% and nearly two thirds reached the secondary goal of 80%. Twenty percent reached the new Healthy People 2020 goal of 90%. It is possible for LTC facilities to improve HCW immunization rates using a pharmacy based, voluntary HCW influenza immunization approach. Such an approach may help attenuate the negative influence of staff turnover on HCW immunizations. Attainment of the new Health People 2020 goals still remains a challenge and may require mandatory programs. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Primary completion rates across socio-religious communities in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Zakir; Chatterjee, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    Primary completion rates of Muslims in West Bengal are substantially lower than that of upper caste communities as well as backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes. Further, analysis of age-specific pcr indicates that differences in pcr between Muslims and other communities may have actually increased in recent years. An econometric analysis reveals that age, gender, household size and expenditure levels, education and gender of decision-maker, etc, are importan...

  16. Clinical comparison and complete cure rates of Terbinafine efficacy in affected onychomycotic toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, A; Sakka, N; Baran, R; Scher, R; Amichai, B; Norman, L; Farhi, R; Magun, R; Brazilai, A; Daniel, R

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies regarding complete cure rate of onychomycosis using oral Terbinafine have a very broad range (14-90%) based solely on response to treatment on the big toenail. To evaluate the efficacy of Terbinafine in all affected onychomycotic toenails and, furthermore, to evaluate differences in mycological, clinical and complete cure rate between affected onychomycotic toenails. Inclusion criteria are as follows: distolateralsubungual onychomycotic involvement of the hallux and additional involvement of at least two more toenails of the same foot. Exclusion criteria are as follows: patients with nail traumata and hypersensitivity to Terbinafine. Patients were treated with oral Terbinafine 250 mg/day for 16 weeks. Mycological analysis was performed using direct microscopy and culture. Clinical improvement was assessed using digital photography. Statistically significant difference was found in clinical improvement between the great toenail and all other involved toenails. The rate of complete cure (100% clinical cure and mycological cure) of the big toenail was lower (23%) as compared to the second (65%), third (51%) and the fourth toenail (67%). This is a case series study that was based on a single-centre cohort. Our results support findings that efficacy of Terbinafine should be based on all involved onychomycotic toenails; the big toenail is not superior in response compared to other affected toenails. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Gothard, Elizabeth; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2018-01-01

    In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  18. Improving Immunization Rates Using Lean Six Sigma Processes: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative III Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina-Syeda, Hussaini; Kimbrough, Christina; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti

    2013-01-01

    Quality improvement education and work in interdisciplinary teams is a healthcare priority. Healthcare systems are trying to meet core measures and provide excellent patient care, thus improving their Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers & Systems scores. Crittenton Hospital Medical Center in Rochester Hills, MI, aligned educational and clinical objectives, focusing on improving immunization rates against pneumonia and influenza prior to the rates being implemented as core measures. Improving immunization rates prevents infections, minimizes hospitalizations, and results in overall improved patient care. Teaching hospitals offer an effective way to work on clinical projects by bringing together the skill sets of residents, faculty, and hospital staff to achieve superior results. WE DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED A STRUCTURED CURRICULUM IN WHICH INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAMS ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE ON QUALITY IMPROVEMENT AND TEAMWORK, WHILE FOCUSING ON A SPECIFIC CLINICAL PROJECT: improving global immunization rates. We used the Lean Six Sigma process tools to quantify the initial process capability to immunize against pneumococcus and influenza. The hospital's process to vaccinate against pneumonia overall was operating at a Z score of 3.13, and the influenza vaccination Z score was 2.53. However, the process to vaccinate high-risk patients against pneumonia operated at a Z score of 1.96. Improvement in immunization rates of high-risk patients became the focus of the project. After the implementation of solutions, the process to vaccinate high-risk patients against pneumonia operated at a Z score of 3.9 with a defects/million opportunities rate of 9,346 and a yield of 93.5%. Revisions to the adult assessment form fixed 80% of the problems identified. This process improvement project was not only beneficial in terms of improved quality of patient care but was also a positive learning experience for the interdisciplinary team, particularly for the residents. The

  19. Video capsule endoscopy after bariatric and gastric surgery: oral ingestion is associated with satisfactory completion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Kleinman, Bryan; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the outcomes of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) performed on patients after bariatric and gastric surgery with a focus on delivery method (oral ingestion or endoscopic placement). There is minimal published data regarding the use of VCE in patients after bariatric and gastric surgery and the optimal delivery method is unknown. Retrospective case series of patients with bariatric or gastric surgery undergoing VCE in a tertiary care center over 3 years. Outcomes of interest were completion of the procedure and bowel transit times. Twenty-three patients met study criteria. They underwent 24 VCE in the study period, with 13/16 (81.3%; 95% CI, 54%-96%) completed to the colon after oral ingestion and 5/8 (62.5%; 95% CI, 24%-91%) completed after endoscopic deployment. The median gastric transit time after oral ingestion was 440) (P=0.48). There were no instances of capsule retention. Oral ingestion of VCE resulted in a satisfactory completion rate with rapid gastric transit after bariatric and gastric surgery. There were no capsule retention events. Given this and the favorable risk and cost profile, oral ingestion should be favored over endoscopic placement in this patient population.

  20. Determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children aged 12 to 23 months in south Ethiopia: unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abiyot Getachew; Koye, Digsu Negese; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is a cost effective interventions of vaccine preventable disease. There is still, 2.5 million children die by vaccine preventable disease every year in developing countries. In Ethiopia, default to fully completion of child immunization is high and determinants of default to completions are not explored well in the study setting. The aim of the study was to identify determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children between ages 12 to 23 months in Sodo Zurea District, Southern Ethiopia. Community based unmatched case-control study was conducted. Census was done to identify cases and controls before the actual data collection. A total of 344 samples (172 cases and 172 controls) were selected by simple random sampling technique. Cases were children in the age group of 12 to 23 months old who missed at least one dose from the recommended schedule. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinant factors. Odds ratio, 95%CI and p - value less than 0.05 was used to measure the presence and strength of the association. Mothers of infants who are unable to read and write (AOR=8.9; 95%CI: 2.4, 33.9) and attended primary school (AOR=4.1; 95% CI:1.4-15.8), mothers who had no postnatal care follow up (AOR=0.4; 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), good maternal knowledge towards immunization (AOR= 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) and maternal favorable perception towards uses of health institution for maternal and child care (AOR= 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) were significant determinant factors to default to fully completion of immunization. Working on maternal education, postnatal care follow up, promoting maternal knowledge and perception about child immunization are recommended measures to mitigate defaults to complete immunization.

  1. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  2. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837

  3. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2010 Cohort (Signature Report No. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala; Yuan, Xin; Nathan, Angel; Hwang, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    This fifth annual report on national college completion rates offers a look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010, toward the end of the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May 2016 for the different student…

  4. Improving completion rates of students in biomedical PhD programs: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viđak, Marin; Tokalić, Ružica; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach. The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. We compared performance of PhD students between the new and existing programs and analyzed their current status, time to obtain a degree (from enrolment to doctorate), age at doctorate, number of publications on which the thesis was based and the impact factor of journals in which these were published. These improvement strategies were associated with higher thesis completion rate and reduced time to degree for students enrolled in the TRIBE program. There was no change in the impact factor or number of publications that were the basis for the doctoral theses. Our study describes good practices which proved useful in the design or reform of the PhD training program.

  5. Increasing Completion Rate of an M4 Emergency Medicine Student End-of-Shift Evaluation Using a Mobile Electronic Platform and Real-Time Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Tews

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students on an emergency medicine rotation are traditionally evaluated at the end of each shift with paper-based forms, and data are often missing due to forms not being turned in or completed. Because students’ grades depend on these evaluations, change was needed to increase form rate of return. We analyzed a new electronic evaluation form and modified completion process to determine if it would increase the completion rate without altering how faculty scored student performance. Methods: During fall 2013, 29 faculty completed paper N=339 evaluations consisting of seven competencies for 33 students. In fall 2014, an electronic evaluation form with the same competencies was designed using an electronic platform and completed N=319 times by 27 faculty using 25 students’ electronic devices. Feedback checkboxes were added to facilitate collection of common comments. Data was analyzed with IBM® SPSS® 21.0 using multi-factor analysis of variance with the students’ global rating (GR as an outcome. Inter-item reliability was determined with Cronbach alpha. Results: There was a significantly higher completion rate (p=0.001 of 98% electronic vs. 69% paper forms, lower (p=0.001 missed GR rate (1% electronic. vs 12% paper, and higher mean scores (p=0.001 for the GR with the electronic (7.0±1.1 vs. paper (6.8±1.2 form. Feedback checkboxes were completed on every form. The inter-item reliability for electronic and paper forms was each alpha=0.95. Conclusion: The use of a new electronic form and modified completion process for evaluating students at the end of shift demonstrated a higher faculty completion rate, a lower missed data rate, a higher global rating and consistent collection of common feedback. The use of the electronic form and the process for obtaining the information made our end-of-shift evaluation process for students more reliable and provided more accurate, up-to-date information for student feedback and when

  6. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s, by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  8. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  9. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  10. Immune-Mediated Damage Completes the Parabola: Cryptococcus neoformans Pathogenesis Can Reflect the Outcome of a Weak or Strong Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liise-anne Pirofski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17 that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis. This finding has fundamental implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of cryptococcal disease; it helps explain why immunotherapy has been largely unsuccessful in treatment and provides insight into the paradoxical observation that HIV-associated cryptococcosis may have a better prognosis than cryptococcosis in those with no known immune impairment. The demonstration that host-mediated damage can drive cryptococcal disease provides proof of concept that the parabola put forth in the damage-response framework has the flexibility to depict complex and changing outcomes of host-microbe interaction.

  11. A class of stochastic delayed SIR epidemic models with generalized nonlinear incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuangang; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Shujing; Wei, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A class of SIR epidemic model with generalized nonlinear incidence rate is presented in this paper. Temporary immunity and stochastic perturbation are also considered. The existence and uniqueness of the global positive solution is achieved. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the extinction and persistence of the epidemic disease are established. Moreover, the threshold behavior is discussed, and the threshold value R0 is obtained. We show that if R0 extinct with probability one, whereas if R0 > 1, then the system remains permanent in the mean.

  12. The Aftermath of Remedial Math: Investigating the Low Rate of Certificate Completion among Remedial Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…

  13. Immunity against poliomyelitis in the Netherlands, assessed in 2006 to 2007: the importance of completing a vaccination series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, N A; Mollema, L; Berbers, G A; van Rooijen, D M; van der Avoort, H G; Conyn-Van Spaendonck, M A; de Melker, H E; van der Klis, F R

    2014-02-20

    Europe has been declared polio-free since 2002. Here we describe the seroprotection against poliomyelitis in the Dutch population using banked serum samples. Samples from 1,581 inhabitants of eight municipalities with low vaccination coverage (LVC) and an additional 6,386 samples from a nationwide (NS) group (clinical trial number: ISRCTN20164309; collected in 2006–07) were tested for neutralising antibodies (log² reciprocal titres (GMT); non-protection poliomyelitis serotypes. Demographic and epidemiological data were used for statistical regression analysis. Seroprevalence in the NS was 94.6% (type 1), 91.8% (type 2) and 84.0% (type 3). Infants (0–7 months-old) had ≥80% seroprevalence for all serotypes. The highest seroprevalence was found in children, with type 1 and type 2 in five year-olds and type 3 in nine to 10 year-olds. In the LVC group, orthodox protestants, many of whom refuse vaccination, showed seroprevalence rates of 64.9% (type 1), 61.0% (type 2) and 62.1% (type 3). In the NS group, non-Western immigrants and travellers to non-European continents had higher seroprevalences compared to Western immigrants and travellers within Europe, respectively. The Dutch National Immunisation Programme against poliomyelitis has provided good seroprotection, with high and long-lasting GMTs against all serotypes upon completion. The unvaccinated population remains at risk.

  14. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  15. A population-based study examining hepatitis B virus infection and immunization rates in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current baseline data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infections and the immune status in hyperendemic areas is necessary in evaluating the effectiveness of ongoing HBV prevention and control programs in northwest China. This study aims to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infections, past exposure rates, and immune response profiles in Wuwei City, northwest China in 2010. METHODS: Cross-sectional household survey representative of the Wuwei City population. 28,579 participants were interviewed in the seroepidemiological survey ≥1 year of age. House to house screening was conducted using a standard questionnaire. All serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies against HBV surface antigen, and antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen. RESULTS: Among individuals ≥1 year of age, 7.2% (95%CI: 6.3-8.1% had chronic HBV infections, 43.9% (CI: 40.4-47.4% had been exposed to HBV, and 23.49% (CI: 21.6-25.3% had vaccine-induced immunity. Multi-factor weighted logistic regression analysis showed that having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 2.3-3.0 and beauty treatments in public places (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3 were the risk factors of HBV infection in whole population. Having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.2-6.5 and lack of hepatitis vaccination (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.3 were the risk factors for HBV infection in children aged 1-14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health problem in northwest China. Having household contact with HBV carriers and beauty treatments in public places represented HBV infection risk factors. Hepatitis B vaccine immunization strategies need further improvement, particularly by targeting the immunization of rural migrant workers.

  16. Low completion rate of hepatitis B vaccination in female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Rosilane de Lima Brito; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Renata Karina; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to assess predictive factors for noncompletion of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule in female sex workers in the city of Teresina, Northeastern Brazil. 402 women were interviewed and, for those who did not wish to visit specialized sites, or did not know their hepatitis B vaccination status, the vaccine was offered at their workplaces. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. of the 284 women eligible for vaccination, 258 (90.8%) received the second dose, 157/258 (60.8%) and 68/258 (26.3%) received the second and third doses, respectively. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. the high acceptability of the vaccine's first dose, associated with low completion rates of the vaccination schedule in sex workers, shows the need for more persuasive strategies that go beyond offering the vaccine at their workplaces. avaliar fatores preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B em mulheres que se prostituem em Teresina, Nordeste do Brasil. Um total de 402 mulheres foi entrevistado e, para as que se negaram a irem a lugares especializados, ou desconheciam sua situação vacinal contra hepatite B, a vacina foi oferecida no local do trabalho. Análises bi e multivariadas foram realizadas para identificar potenciais preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal. Das 284 mulheres elegíveis para vacinação, 258 (90,8%) receberam a primeira dose, 157/258 (60,8%) e 68/258 (26,3%) receberam a segunda e terceira doses. Trabalhar em boates e consumir drogas ilícitas foram preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal (p<0,05). A elevada aceitabilidade da primeira dose da vacina, associada à baixa completude do esquema vacinal em profissionais do sexo, evidencia a necessidade de estratégia mais persuasiva que vá além da oferta da vacina no local de trabalho.

  17. 34 CFR 668.48 - Report on completion or graduation rates for student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.48 Report on completion or graduation... Management and Budget under control number 1845-0004) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1092) [60 FR 61788, Dec. 1, 1995...

  18. Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John

    In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

  19. Mutations in Cas9 Enhance the Rate of Acquisition of Viral Spacer Sequences during the CRISPR-Cas Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heler, Robert; Wright, Addison V; Vucelja, Marija; Bikard, David; Doudna, Jennifer A; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-01-05

    CRISPR loci and their associated (Cas) proteins encode a prokaryotic immune system that protects against viruses and plasmids. Upon infection, a low fraction of cells acquire short DNA sequences from the invader. These sequences (spacers) are integrated in between the repeats of the CRISPR locus and immunize the host against the matching invader. Spacers specify the targets of the CRISPR immune response through transcription into short RNA guides that direct Cas nucleases to the invading DNA molecules. Here we performed random mutagenesis of the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to look for variants that provide enhanced immunity against viral infection. We identified a mutation, I473F, that increases the rate of spacer acquisition by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlight the role of Cas9 during CRISPR immunization and provide a useful tool to study this rare process and develop it as a biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2014. NCES 2018-117

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joel; Cui, Jiashan; Stark, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This report draws on an array of nationally representative surveys and administrative datasets to present statistics on high school dropout and completion rates. The report includes estimates of the percentage of students who drop out in a given 12-month period (event dropout rates), the percentage of young people in a specified age range who are…

  1. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  2. Multiple myeloma patients in long-term complete response after autologous stem cell transplantation express a particular immune signature with potential prognostic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche-López, A; Kreutzman, A; Alegre, A; Sanz Martín, P; Aguado, B; González-Pardo, M; Espiño, M; Villar, L M; García Belmonte, D; de la Cámara, R; Muñoz-Calleja, C

    2017-06-01

    The proportion of multiple myeloma patients in long-term complete response (LTCR-MM) for more than 6 years after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is small. To evaluate whether this LTCR is associated with a particular immune signature, peripheral blood samples from 13 LTCR-MM after ASCT and healthy blood donors (HBD) were analysed. Subpopulations of T-cells (naïve, effector, central memory and regulatory), B-cells (naïve, marginal zone-like, class-switched memory, transitional and plasmablasts) and NK-cells expressing inhibitory and activating receptors were quantified by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC). Heavy/light chains (HLC) were quantified by nephelometry. The percentage of CD4 + T-cells was lower in patients, whereas an increment in the percentage of CD4 + and CD8 + effector memory T-cells was associated with the LTCR. Regulatory T-cells and NK-cells were similar in both groups but a particular redistribution of inhibitory and activating receptors in NK-cells were found in patients. Regarding B-cells, an increase in naïve cells and a corresponding reduction in marginal zone-like and class-switched memory B-cells was observed. The HLC values were normal. Our results suggest that LTCR-MM patients express a particular immune signature, which probably reflects a 'high quality' immune reconstitution that could exert a competent anti-tumor immunological surveillance along with a recovery of the humoral immunity.

  3. HPV detection rate in saliva may depend on the immune system efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamopoulou, Maria; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Panis, Vassilis; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedreich W; Yapijakis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been established as a major etiological factor of anogenital cancer. In addition, HPV has also been implicated in oral carcinogenesis but its detection rates appear to be highly variable, depending on the patient population tested, the molecular methodology used, as well as the type of oral specimen investigated. For example, saliva is an oral fluid that may play a role in HPV transmission, although the detection rates of the virus are lower than tissue. Recent evidence has indicated that HPV-related pathology is increased in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. In order to investigate whether the presence of different HPV types in saliva depends on immune system efficiency, oral fluid samples of patients with oral cancer and without any known immune deficiency were compared with those of HIV-positive individuals. Saliva samples were collected from 68 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 34 HIV seropositive individuals. HPV DNA sequences were detected by L1 concensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing for HPV typing. HPV DNA was detected in 7/68 (10.3%) of the oral cancer patients and in 12/34 (35.3%) of the HIV-positive individuals, a highly significant difference (p = 0.006; odds ratio 4.753; 95% confidence interval 1.698-13.271). Among HPV-positive samples, the prevalence of HPV types associated with high oncogenic risk was similar in oral cancer and HIV-positive cases (71.4% and 66.7%, respectively). In both groups, the most common HPV type was high-risk 16 (50% and 42.8%, respectively). Although a similar pattern of HPV high-risk types was detected in oral cancer and HIV-positive cases, the quantitative detection of HPV in saliva significantly depended on immune system efficiency. Furthermore, the significantly increased detection rates of HPV in saliva of HIV-positive individuals may be

  4. The Impact of Training on the Accuracy of Teacher-Completed Direct Behavior Ratings (DBRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Teresa J.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three levels of training (direct, indirect, and none) on teachers' ability to accurately rate video of student behavior. Direct and indirect training groups received instructional sessions on direct behavior ratings (DBRs), with the direct training group receiving opportunities for…

  5. The Performance Of Alternative Interest Rate Risk Measures And Immunization Strategies Under A Heath-Jarrow-Morton Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Agca, Senay

    2002-01-01

    The Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) model represents the latest in powerful arbitrage-free technology for modeling the term structure and managing interest rate risk. Yet risk management strategies in the form of immunization portfolios using duration, convexity, and M-square are still widely used in bond portfolio management today. This study addresses the question of how traditional risk measures and immunization strategies perform when the term structure evolves in the HJM manner. Using Monte Ca...

  6. An ICSI rate of 90% minimizes complete failed fertilization and provides satisfactory implantation rates without elevating fetal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Marjanovich, Nicole; Ye, Yun; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Keane, Kevin N

    2018-05-22

    IVF cycles utilizing the ICSI technique for fertilization have been rising over the 25 years since its introduction, with indications now extending beyond male factor infertility. We have performed ICSI for 87% of cases compared with the ANZARD average of 67%. This retrospective study reports on the outcomes of 1547 autologous ART treatments undertaken over a recent 3-year period. Based on various indications, cases were managed within 3 groupings - IVF Only, ICSI Only or IVF-ICSI Split insemination where oocytes were randomly allocated. Overall 567 pregnancies arose from mostly single embryo transfer procedures up to December 2016, with 402 live births, comprising 415 infants and a low fetal abnormality rate (1.9%) was recorded. When the data was adjusted for confounders such as maternal age, measures of ovarian reserve and sperm quality, it appeared that IVF-generated and ICSI-generated embryos had a similar chance of both pregnancy and live birth. In the IVF-ICSI Split model, significantly more ICSI-generated embryos were utilised (2.5 vs 1.8; p < 0.003) with productivity rates of 67.8% for pregnancy and 43.4% for livebirths per OPU for this group. We conclude that ART clinics should apply the insemination method which will maximize embryo numbers and the first treatment for unexplained infertility should be undertaken within the IVF-ICSI Split model. Whilst ICSI-generated pregnancies are reported to have a higher rate of fetal abnormalities, our data is consistent with the view that the finding is not due to the ICSI technique per se. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of partial and complete variable loop deletions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein on the breadth of gp160-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Bolesta, Elizabeth; Wierzbicki, Andrew; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Naito, Toshio; Honda, Mitsuo; Komuro, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Yutaro; Kozbor, Danuta

    2004-01-01

    Induction of cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to the HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoprotein was examined after DNA immunization of BALB/c mice with gp140 89.6 -derived constructs exhibiting partial or complete deletions of the V1, V2, and V3 domains. It was demonstrated that specific modification of the V3 loop (mV3) in combination with the V2-modified (mV2) or V1/V2-deleted (ΔV1/V2) region elicited increased levels of cross-reactive CD8 + T cell responses. Mice immunized with the mV2/mV3 or ΔV1/V2/mV3 gp140 89.6 plasmid DNA were greater than 50-fold more resistant to challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) expressing heterologous env gene products than animals immunized with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Sera from mV2/mV3- and ΔV1/V2/mV3-immunized mice exhibited the highest cross-neutralizing activity and displayed intermediate antibody avidity values which were further enhanced by challenge with rVV expressing the homologous gp160 glycoprotein. In contrast, complete deletion of the variable regions had little or no effect on the cross-reactive antibody responses. The results of these experiments indicate that the breadth of antibody responses to the HIV-1 env glycoprotein may not be increased by removal of the variable domains. Instead, partial deletions within these regions may redirect specific responses toward conserved epitopes and facilitate approaches for boosting cross-reactive cellular and antibody responses to the env glycoprotein

  8. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal loading of power devices are closely related to the reliability performance of the whole converter system. The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal...

  9. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete characteristics of rating estimations economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper allocates complete characteristics of indicators of economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Their system representation has appeared more informative, than system of simple social and economic indexes as allows reflecting variety of communications between them, providing preserving and development of researched objects. It is established that at deterioration of state of the economy of regions of their structure change the role in formation of base indicators. At the first stage it is expressed by change of a vector of development with an opposite direction; on the second — in transition from an optimum condition of available structures on periphery; on the third — in the termination of their participation in forming of under laying echelons. At transition of subsystems of social and economic indexes from the first on the second echelon the contribution of the moved potential from structures «resource-product» and «process» for elements of activization increases, for structures «object», on the contrary, decreases, while for final elements the opposite situation is observed. As approaching the top echelon there is a reduction of interaction of base indicators from structures «resource-product» and «process», and on the contrary, growth to structures «object». The conclusion is drawn that successful social and economic activity of regions is determined by synchronous interaction of all allocated structures («resource-product», «process» and «object». Use of the offered algorithm on the basis of complete characteristics allows not only to find out problem regions, but also shows possibility of management on the basis of revealed statistical regularities their condition by forming of optimum mutual relations between the allocated subsystems and, finally, creation of the big possibilities for realization of the having potential

  11. A Study of the Significant Factors That Affect the Job Placement Rates of Students Who Have Completed a HERO Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Development and Evaluation Associates, Inc., Berkeley, MI.

    A three-year study examined the significant factors that affect the job placement rates of students completing a Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO) program. Other purposes of the study were to develop and pilot test a model that could be used to determine factors related to student placement in a variety of vocational education programs and…

  12. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days with th...

  13. Agitation Rate and Time for Complete Dissolution in BCS Biowaivers Based on Investigation of a BCS Biowaiver for Dexketoprofen Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Gordon, John; Gwaza, Luther; Mangas-Sanjuan, V; Álvarez, Covadonga; Torrado, Juan J

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the validity of the existing requirements for BCS biowaivers of immediate release products containing a class I drug in relation to the agitation rate (50 or 75 rpm in the paddle apparatus) and the time limit for complete dissolution (30 min) in the current biowaivers in vitro dissolution tests. Further, the possibility of extensions will be examined since it has been proposed that the time limit for complete dissolution should be revised to 60 min, and also, if cone formation occurs with apparatus 2 at 50 rpm, then a higher agitation rate is acceptable to eliminate it. The development of four generic dexketoprofen immediate release tablets is described. Dexketoprofen is the eutomer of ketoprofen. According to the BCS, dexketoprofen is a class I drug. Three out of the four products failed to show bioequivalence for Cmax in the initial bioequivalence study conducted with the product despite similar but nonrapid dissolution profiles at 50 rpm in the paddle apparatus, or similar and very rapid dissolution profiles at 75 rpm. In conclusion, these data indicate that BCS biowaivers for class I drugs should be granted only when dissolution with the paddle apparatus is complete in 30 min at 50 rpm. The time limit for complete dissolution should not be extended to 60 min. Furthermore, the agitation rate should not be increased to 75 rpm, even in the case of a coning effect.

  14. Predicting Basal Metabolic Rate in Men with Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Tom E; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2018-01-08

    To assess the accuracy of existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) prediction equations in men with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary aim is to develop new SCI population-specific BMR prediction models, based on anthropometric, body composition and/or demographic variables that are strongly associated with BMR. Thirty men with chronic SCI (Paraplegic; n = 21, Tetraplegic; n = 9), aged 35 ± 11 years (mean ± SD) participated in this cross-sectional study. Criterion BMR values were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and anthropometric measurements (circumferences and diameters) were also taken. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop new SCI-specific BMR prediction models. Criterion BMR values were compared to values estimated from six existing and four developed prediction equations RESULTS: Existing equations that use information on stature, weight and/or age, significantly (P BMR by a mean of 14-17% (187-234 kcal/day). Equations that utilised fat-free mass (FFM) accurately predicted BMR. The development of new SCI-specific prediction models demonstrated that the addition of anthropometric variables (weight, height and calf circumference) to FFM (Model 3; r = 0.77), explained 8% more of the variance in BMR than FFM alone (Model 1; r = 0.69). Using anthropometric variables, without FFM, explained less of the variance in BMR (Model 4; r = 0.57). However, all the developed prediction models demonstrated acceptable mean absolute error ≤ 6%. BMR can be more accurately estimated when DXA derived FFM is incorporated into prediction equations. Utilising anthropometric measurements provides a promising alternative to improve the prediction of BMR, beyond that achieved by existing equations in persons with SCI.

  15. Completeness and underestimation of cancer mortality rate in Iran: a report from Fars Province in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Dortaj, Eshagh; Bahrampour, Abbas; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2015-03-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. Valid data are needed for measuring the cancer burden and making appropriate decisions toward cancer control. We evaluated the completeness of death registry with regard to cancer death in Fars Province, I. R. of Iran. We used data from three sources in Fars Province, including the national death registry (source 1), the follow-up data from the pathology-based cancer registry (source 2) and hospital based records (source 3) during 2004 - 2006. We used the capture-recapture method and estimated underestimation and the true age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for cancer. We used log-linear (LL) modeling for statistical analysis. We observed 1941, 480, and 355 cancer deaths in sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After data linkage, we estimated that mortality registry had about 40% underestimation for cancer death. After adjustment for this underestimation rate, the ASMR of cancer in the Fars Province for all cancer types increased from 44.8 per 100,000 (95% CI: 42.8 - 46.7) to 76.3 per 100,000 (95% CI: 73.3 - 78.9), accounting for 3309 (95% CI: 3151 - 3293) cancer deaths annually. The mortality rate of cancer is considerably higher than the rates reported by the routine registry in Iran. Improvement in the validity and completeness of the mortality registry is needed to estimate the true mortality rate caused by cancer in Iran.

  16. Demographic buffering: titrating the effects of birth rate and imperfect immunity on epidemic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sinead E; Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2015-03-06

    Host demography can alter the dynamics of infectious disease. In the case of perfectly immunizing infections, observations of strong sensitivity to demographic variation have been mechanistically explained through analysis of the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that assumes lifelong immunity following recovery from infection. When imperfect immunity is incorporated into this framework via the susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model, with individuals regaining full susceptibility following recovery, we show that rapid loss of immunity is predicted to buffer populations against the effects of demographic change. However, this buffering is contrary to the dependence on demography recently observed for partially immunizing infections such as rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. We show that this discrepancy arises from a key simplification embedded in the SIR(S) framework, namely that the potential for differential immune responses to repeat exposures is ignored. We explore the minimum additional immunological information that must be included to reflect the range of observed dependencies on demography. We show that including partial protection and lower transmission following primary infection is sufficient to capture more realistic reduced levels of buffering, in addition to changes in epidemic timing, across a range of partially and fully immunizing infections. Furthermore, our results identify key variables in this relationship, including R0.

  17. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Cheng Tianmin; Li Yuan; Wei Shuqing

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction were studied in rats with combined injury of 3-8 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation plus 15% total body surface area full thickness burn induced by exposure to a 5 kw bromotungsten lamp. The allogeneic skin was transplanted 24 hours after injury. It was found that all the skin grafts failed to survive in 10 days and the immune reaction significantly increased in the early stage of burn injury. But the immune reaction was obviously suppressed by the combined radiation-burn injury. The survival rates of skin grafts were 20% and 30% in the combined injury of burn plus 3 and 4 Gy irradiation respectively. When the radiation doses increased to 5,6 and 8 Gy, the survival rates elevated to 69%, 88% and 100% respectively (in the group of 8 Gy, bone marrow transplantation was conducted before receiving skin graft). At day 30 post-transplantation the survival rates were still 36%, 42% and 100% respectively. Compared with burn group, there was a significant difference in survival rate when the radiation doses were higher than 5 Gy. These results indicate that the survival rate of the allogeneic skin graft increases concurrently with the increase in radiation dose and decreases with the elapse of the post-transplantation time

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Complete Genome of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP2 and Potential Candidate Genes for Host Immune System Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Woori; Kim, Kwondo; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Heebal; Heo, Jaeyoung; Cho, Seoae

    2016-04-28

    Acute respiratory virus infectious diseases are a growing health problem, particularly among children and the elderly. Much effort has been made to develop probiotics that prevent influenza virus infections by enhancing innate immunity in the respiratory tract until vaccines are available. Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP2, isolated from a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, has exhibited preventive effects on influenza virus infection in mice. To identify the molecular basis of this strain, we conducted a whole-genome assembly study. The single circular DNA chromosome of 3,284,304 bp was completely assembled and 3,250 proteinencoding genes were predicted. Evolutionarily accelerated genes related to the phenotypic trait of anti-infective activities for influenza virus were identified. These genes encode three integral membrane proteins, a teichoic acid export ATP-binding protein and a glucosamine - fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase involved in host innate immunity, the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Dps, which protects bacteria from oxidative damage, and the response regulator of the three-component quorum-sensing regulatory system, which is related to the capacity of adhesion to the surface of the respiratory tract and competition with pathogens. This is the first study to identify the genetic backgrounds of the antiviral activity in L. plantarum strains. These findings provide insight into the anti-infective activities of L. plantarum and the development of preventive probiotics.

  20. Interferon alpha therapy for hepatitis C: treatment completion and response rates among patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftis Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs are at increased risk for hepatitis C viral infection (HCV, and few studies have explored their treatment responses empirically. The objective of this study was to assess interferon alpha therapy (IFN completion and response rates among patients with HCV who had a history of comorbid SUDs. More data is needed to inform treatment strategies and guidelines for these patients. Using a medical record database, information was retrospectively collected on 307,437 veterans seen in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 20 (VISN 20 of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA between 1998 and 2003. For patients treated with any type of IFN (including regular or pegylated IFN or combination therapy (IFN and ribavirin who had a known HCV genotype, IFN completion and response rates were compared among patients with a history of SUD (SUD+ Group and patients without a history of SUD (SUD- Group. Results Odds ratio analyses revealed that compared with the SUD- Group, the SUD+ Group was equally likely to complete IFN therapy if they had genotypes 2 and 3 (73.1% vs. 68.0%, and if they had genotypes 1 and 4 (39.5% vs. 39.9%. Within the sample of all patients who began IFN therapy, the SUD- and SUD+ groups were similarly likely to achieve an end of treatment response (genotypes 2 and 3, 52.8% vs. 54.3%; genotypes 1 and 4, 24.5% vs. 24.8% and a sustained viral response (genotypes 2 and 3, 42.6% vs. 41.1%; genotypes 1 and 4: 16.0% vs. 22.3%. Conclusion Individuals with and without a history of SUD responded to antiviral therapy for HCV at similar rates. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients who have co-morbid SUD and HCV diagnoses can successfully complete a course of antiviral therapy.

  1. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  2. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  3. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  4. Understanding differences between caregivers and non-caregivers in completer rates of Chronic Disease Self-Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; McCallion, P; Ferretti, L A

    2017-06-01

    The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) was developed to advance participants' self-care of chronic illness and may be offered to both individuals with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Previous studies of CDSMP have identified multiple resulting health benefits for participants as well as factors associated with participants' completion rates. This study investigated differences on these issues between caregiving and non-caregiving participants. Secondary analysis using regression analysis to predict the outcome. Baseline data were collected directly from adult (over 18 years) participants of CDSMP workshops in New York State from 2012 to 2015 (n = 2685). Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to compare the difference on completion of workshops (attended four or more of sessions) and contributing factors with the independent variable of whether participants provided care/assistance to a family member or friends with long-term illness or disability. Additional individual-level variables controlled for in the model were age, gender, race/ethnicity, living arrangement, education, the number of chronic conditions and disabilities; as were workshop-level characteristics of class size, language used, workshop leader experience, location urbanity and delivery site type. Participants who provided care to family or friends were 28% more likely to complete the workshop compared with those who did not (odds ratio = 1.279, P < 0.05). Different factors influenced the completion of CDSMP workshop for caregivers and non-caregivers. People who provide care to others appeared to have stronger motivation to complete the workshops with greater benefits. Agencies offering CDSMP should encourage caregivers to attend. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Live birth rates in the first complete IVF cycle among 20 687 women using a freeze-all strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Li; Lu, Xuefeng; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Yun; Kuang, Yanping

    2018-05-01

    What is the chance of having a child following one complete IVF cycle for patients using a freeze-all strategy? The chance of having a child after the first complete IVF cycle was 50.74% with the freeze-all strategy. Several studies have reported on live birth rates (LBRs) based on only the fresh embryo transfer cycle or fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. However, the LBR using a freeze-all strategy in IVF is unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 20 687 women who started their first IVF cycles using a freeze-all strategy during the period from 1 January 2007, through 31 March 2016, in China. Data on 20 687 women undergoing their first complete cycles using a freeze-all strategy from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed to estimate LBRs. The LBR in a complete cycle was defined as the chance of a live birth from an ovarian stimulation cycle including all subsequent frozen embryo transfers from this stimulation. The relationship between LBR and number of oocyte was explored. The LBR for the first complete cycle was 50.74% for patients using a freeze-all strategy. By age group, the LBR declined from 63.81% for women under 31 years old to 4.71% for women over 40 years old after the first complete cycle. The LBRs improved as the number of oocytes retrieved increased up to 25 in the freeze-all strategy. This was a retrospective study without a control group. Data on BMI and smoking status were not collected in this database. Our results showed that 50.74% of patients could achieve a live birth after the first complete cycle via a freeze-all strategy. In addition, the LBRs were positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved via the freeze-all strategy. These findings are critical for patients and clinicians in making an informed decision to embark on IVF treatment. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (31770989 to Y.W.) and the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Foundation of China (JYLJ030

  6. Improved Completion Rates and Characterization of Drug Reactions with an Intensive Chagas Disease Treatment Program in Rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Gilman, Robert H.; Castellon, Mario; Solano Mercado, Marco A.; Sullca, Walter; Torrico, Faustino; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease treatment is limited by drug availability, adverse side effect profiles of available medications, and poor adherence. Methods Adult Chagas disease patients initiating 60-days of benznidazole were randomized to weekly or twice-weekly evaluations of medication adherence and screening for adverse drug events (ADEs). Mid-week evaluations employed phone-based evaluations. Adherence was measured by self-report, pill counts with intentional over-distribution, and Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS). Prospective data were compared to historical controls treated with benznidazole at the same hospital. Results 162 prospective patients were compared to 172 historical patients. Pill counts correlated well with MEMS data (R = 0.498 for 7-day intervals, R = 0.872 for intervals >7 days). Treatment completion rates were higher among prospective than historical patients (82.1% vs. 65.1%), primarily due to lower abandonment rates. Rates of ADEs were lower among prospective than historical patients (56.8% vs. 66.9%). Twice-weekly evaluations increased identification of mild ADEs, prompting higher suspension rates than weekly evaluations. While twice-weekly evaluations identified ADEs earlier, they did not reduce incidence of moderate or severe ADEs. Many dermatologic ADEs were moderately severe upon presentation (35.6%), were not reduced by use of antihistamines, occurred among adult patients of all ages, and occurred throughout treatment, rather than the first few weeks alone. Conclusions Intensive management improved completion and identified more ADEs, but did not reduce moderate or severe ADEs. Risk of dermatologic ADEs cannot be reduced by selecting younger adults or monitoring only during the first few weeks of treatment. Pill counts and phone-based encounters are reliable tools for treatment programming in rural Bolivia. PMID:24069472

  7. Introducing a pneumococcal vaccine to an existing influenza immunization program : vaccination rates and predictors of noncompliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W; Hak, E; Verheij, T J; van Essen, G A

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Influenza vaccination has been recommended for all elderly people in The Netherlands since 1996, with greater than 80% compliance. It is unknown, however, if the addition of another vaccine to this immunization program will affect compliance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: General practitioners

  8. The learning curve to achieve satisfactory completion rates in upper GI endoscopy: an analysis of a national training database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S T; Hancox, A; Mohammed, M A; Ismail, T; Griffiths, E A; Valori, R; Dunckley, P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the number of OGDs (oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopies) trainees need to perform to acquire competency in terms of successful unassisted completion to the second part of the duodenum 95% of the time. OGD data were retrieved from the trainee e-portfolio developed by the Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy (JAG) in the UK. All trainees were included unless they were known to have a baseline experience of >20 procedures or had submitted data for 90% trainees had attained a 95% completion rate. Total number of OGDs performed, trainee age and experience in lower GI endoscopy were factors independently associated with OGD completion. There are limited published data on the OGD learning curve. This is the largest study to date analysing the learning curve for competency acquisition. The JAG competency requirement for 200 procedures appears appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2012. Compendium Report. NCES 2015-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Patrick; Noel, Amber M.

    2015-01-01

    This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2012, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last four decades (1972-2012), and examines the characteristics of high school…

  10. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.C. Buzatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR rate from patients (n=86 with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012. Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03. The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively. Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03 and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02. In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment.

  11. Improved survival and complete response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with concurrent ipilimumab and radiotherapy versus ipilimumab alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristian M; Mackley, Heath B; Liu, Jason; Wagner, Henry; Talamo, Giampaolo; Schell, Todd D; Pameijer, Colette; Neves, Rogerio I; Anderson, Bryan; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Mallon, Carol A; Drabick, Joseph J

    2017-01-02

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not. We then evaluated the treatment response following completion of ipilimumab. A total of 101 patients received ipilimumab in the prespecified time frame. 70 received Ipi-RT and 31 received ipilimumab without concurrent radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in the concurrent Ipi-RT arm at 19 months vs. 10 months for ipilimumab alone (p = 0.01). Median progression free survival (PFS) was marginally increased in the Ipi-RT group compare with the ipilimumab alone group (5 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.20). Rates of complete response (CR) were significantly increased in the Ipi-RT group vs. ipilimumab alone (25.7% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.04), and rates of overall response (OR) in the groups were 37.1% vs. 19.4% (p = 0.11). No increase in toxicities was observed in the Ipi-RT group compare with ipilimumab alone. Prospective trials are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy with ipilimumab, but these encouraging preliminary observations suggest that this combination can induce more durable responses to immunotherapy.

  12. External beam radiotherapy boosted with high dose rate brachytherapy in completely resected uterine sarcomas. Is this a treatment option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Ferrigno, Robson; Fogarolli, Ricardo; Salvajoli, Joao Vitor [Hospital de Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oncologia de Radiacao]. E-mail: pellizzon@aol.com

    2005-04-15

    Uterine sarcoma (US) is a relative rare tumor, which accounts for only about 3-5% of all uterine cancers. Aggressive cytoreductive surgery at the time of the initial diagnosis with maximum tumor debulking may lead to a prolonged survival or cure. Objective: to identify and review the role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) associated with high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) in the management of patients presenting US with complete resection. Material and methods: this study is a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with US treated from 10/92 to 03/03, with surgery, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB). The inclusion criteria for study participation included: histologically proven and graded US, completely resection of tumor, Karnofsky status 60-100, absence of significant infection, and recovery from recent surgery. Results: The median age of patients was 62 years (range 39-84); ten-year actuarial disease-free and overall survivals were 42.2% and 63.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, predictive factors for disease-free survival (DFS) were age at initial presentation (p=0.0268), parity (p=0.0441), tumor grade (p= 0.0095), cervical or vaginal invasion (p=0.0014) and node dissection at time of surgery (p= 0.0471). On multivariate analysis, the only predictive factor was cervical or vaginal invasion (p= 0.048), hazard ratio of 4.7. Conclusion: it is quite likely that neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy alone will appreciably improve survival in US. If radiation therapy provides better locoregional tumor control, hematogenous metastases will assume an even greater proportion of treatment failures. Unfortunately, our small and heterogeneous group analyzed precludes any definitive conclusions about the impact of HDRB associated to EBRT radiation therapy on recurrence or survival. (author)

  13. External beam radiotherapy boosted with high dose rate brachytherapy in completely resected uterine sarcomas. Is this a treatment option?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Ferrigno, Robson; Fogarolli, Ricardo; Salvajoli, Joao Vitor

    2005-01-01

    Uterine sarcoma (US) is a relative rare tumor, which accounts for only about 3-5% of all uterine cancers. Aggressive cytoreductive surgery at the time of the initial diagnosis with maximum tumor debulking may lead to a prolonged survival or cure. Objective: to identify and review the role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) associated with high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) in the management of patients presenting US with complete resection. Material and methods: this study is a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with US treated from 10/92 to 03/03, with surgery, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB). The inclusion criteria for study participation included: histologically proven and graded US, completely resection of tumor, Karnofsky status 60-100, absence of significant infection, and recovery from recent surgery. Results: The median age of patients was 62 years (range 39-84); ten-year actuarial disease-free and overall survivals were 42.2% and 63.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, predictive factors for disease-free survival (DFS) were age at initial presentation (p=0.0268), parity (p=0.0441), tumor grade (p= 0.0095), cervical or vaginal invasion (p=0.0014) and node dissection at time of surgery (p= 0.0471). On multivariate analysis, the only predictive factor was cervical or vaginal invasion (p= 0.048), hazard ratio of 4.7. Conclusion: it is quite likely that neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy alone will appreciably improve survival in US. If radiation therapy provides better locoregional tumor control, hematogenous metastases will assume an even greater proportion of treatment failures. Unfortunately, our small and heterogeneous group analyzed precludes any definitive conclusions about the impact of HDRB associated to EBRT radiation therapy on recurrence or survival. (author)

  14. Childhood immunization rates in rural Intibucá, Honduras: an analysis of a local database tool and community health center records for assessing and improving vaccine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zarychta, Alan; Ranz, Joseph B; Carroll, Mary; Singleton, Lori M; Wilson, Paria M; Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P

    2012-12-07

    Vaccines are highly effective at preventing infectious diseases in children, and prevention is especially important in resource-limited countries where treatment is difficult to access. In Honduras, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports very high immunization rates in children. To determine whether or not these estimates accurately depict the immunization coverage in non-urban regions of the country, we compared the WHO data to immunization rates obtained from a local database tool and community health center records in rural Intibucá, Honduras. We used data from two sources to comprehensively evaluate immunization rates in the area: 1) census data from a local database and 2) immunization data collected at health centers. We compared these rates using logistic regression, and we compared them to publicly available WHO-reported estimates using confidence interval inclusion. We found that mean immunization rates for each vaccine were high (range 84.4 to 98.8 percent), but rates recorded at the health centers were significantly higher than those reported from the census data (p ≤ 0.001). Combining the results from both databases, the mean rates of four out of five vaccines were less than WHO-reported rates (p 0.05), except for diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine (p=0.02) and oral polio vaccine (p Honduras were high across data sources, though most of the rates recorded in rural Honduras were less than WHO-reported rates. Despite geographical difficulties and barriers to access, the local database and Honduran community health workers have developed a thorough system for ensuring that children receive their immunizations on time. The successful integration of community health workers and a database within the Honduran decentralized health system may serve as a model for other immunization programs in resource-limited countries where health care is less accessible.

  15. The relationship between physical activity level and completion rate of small bowel examination in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Mori, Hiroki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Konishi, Masae; Fukuo, Yuka; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Beppu, Kazuko; Sakamoto, Naoto; Osada, Taro; Nagahara, Akihito; Otaka, Michiro; Ogihara, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) allows direct examination of the small bowel in a safe, noninvasive and well-tolerated manner. Nonetheless, experience indicates failure to reach the cecum in 20-30% of patients within the 8 hour battery life. Attempts to improve the completion rate (CR) as defined by reaching the cecum have been unsuccessful. This study was to investigate the relationship between patients' physical activity and CR. Between January 2009 and January 2010, 76 patients (44 men, 32 women; median age 64.5 yr) underwent CE for the diagnosis of small intestinal disorders. Indications for CE were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding/anemia (62 cases), others (14 cases). Patients were divided into an outpatient group (n=23), mild bed rest group (n=35) and strict bed rest group (n=18). For all patients, the average gastric transit time was 65.5 minutes, small bowel transit time was 301.4 minutes and the CR was 86.8%. However, the CR was 100% (23/23) in the outpatient group, an 85.7% (30/35) in the mild bed rest group, and 72.2% (13/18) in the strict bed rest group. The CR increased with physical activity of patients by Cochran-Armitage Trend Test (p=0.009). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, low physical activity was a significant risk factor for failure to reach the cecum during CE examination; adjusted OR: 3.39, 95% CI: 1.01-11.42 (p=0.048). Our observations suggested that increasing physical activity would increase the likelihood of a complete bowel examination by CE. Further, for CE, inconvenient bowel preparations like the use of polyethylene glycol may be avoided.

  16. Prospective study of probiotic supplementation results in immune stimulation and improvement of upper respiratory infection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Subjects received a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus paracasei (at least 3 × 107 colony forming units (CFU ml−1, Lactobacillus casei 431® (at least 3 × 107 CFU ml−1 and Lactobacillus fermentium PCC® (at least 3 × 106 CFU ml−1 or an identical placebo without probiotics for a 12-week study period. The consumption of probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory infection (p < 0.023 and flu-like symptoms with an oral temperature higher than 38 °C (p < 0.034 as compared to the placebo group. Subjects that consumed probiotics demonstrated a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in the serum (p < 0.001 and sIgA in the gut (p < 0.010 as compared to the placebo group and a significant higher level of serum IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and gut sIgA (p < 0.001 as compared to their baseline test results. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the serum IL-4, IL-10, IgA, IgG or IgM between the probiotics and the placebo groups. Results of this study demonstrated that probiotics were safe and effective for fighting the common cold and influenza-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system. Keywords: Probiotics, Upper respiratory infections, Human microbiota, IFN-γ, sIgA

  17. Are diet diaries of value in recording dietary intake of sugars? A retrospective analysis of completion rates and information quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheiam, A; Albadri, S; Brown, S; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Harris, R

    2016-11-04

    Objectives Current guidance recommends that dental practitioners should routinely give dietary advice to patients, with diet diaries as a tool to help diet assessment. We explored patients' compliance with diet-diaries usage in a paediatric clinic within a teaching hospital setting, where remuneration is not an issue. Objectives were to investigate associated factors affecting diet diaries return rate and the information obtained from returned diaries.Methods A retrospective study of 200 randomly selected clinical records of children aged 5-11 years who had received diet analysis and advice as part of a preventive dental care programme at a dental teaching hospital between 2010 and 2013. Clinical records, with a preventive care pro forma, were included in the study. Data on social and family history, DMFT-dmft, oral hygiene practices, dental attendance and dietary habits were obtained and compared with information given in completed diet-diaries. A deductive content analysis of returned diet-diaries was undertaken using a pre-developed coding scheme.Results Of 174 complete records included in this study, diet diaries were returned in 60 (34.5%) of them. Diet diaries were more likely to be returned by those children who reported that they regularly brushed their teeth (P diet diaries enabled the identification of harmful types of foods and drinks in 100% of diaries. General dietary issues, frequency and between-meals intake of sugars were also all captured in the majority of diaries (95.0%, N = 56). Information on sugar amount (53.0%, N = 32), prolonged-contact with teeth (57.0%, N = 34) and near bedtime intakes (17.0%, N = 28) was reported in fewer diaries.Conclusions The return rate of diet-diaries in this setting was low, and associated with patients' demographic and oral health characteristics. Returned diet-diaries showed a varied range of missing important dietary information, such as sugar amount, which appears to compromise their validity as a diet

  18. Estimating the Basal metabolic rate from fat free mass in individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S M; Kim, H-R; Shin, H I

    2017-09-01

    Cross-sectional study. This study aimed to validate the existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) predictive equations that include fat free mass (FFM) as an independent variable and, based on the FFM assessment, to develop a new SCI population-specific equation. Outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Our study group was formed of 50 individuals with chronic motor complete SCI: 27 patients with tetraplegia and 23 with paraplegia. Both BMR and FFM values were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and the whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. The BMR values measured by IC were compared with the values estimated from the Cunningham equation. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop a new FFM-based, BMR predictive equation. The mean value of BMR measured by IC was 1274.8 (s.d.=235.2) kcal day -1 . The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between values measured by IC and estimated from the Cunningham equation was 0.845 and the limits of agreement ranged from -30.6 to 241.3 kcal. SCI population specific BMR predictive equation was developed; BMR (kcal day -1 )=24.5 × FFM (kg)+244.4. The newly developed equation showed ICC of 0.866 with the limits of agreement from -229.0 to 233.1 kcal day -1 . A considerable bias from the BMR values measured by IC was still observed, which warrants clinical consideration when applying FFM-based BMR prediction equations to individuals with SCI.

  19. Influenza immunization rates in children and teenagers in Polish cities: conclusions from the 2009/2010 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Ernest; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Szenborn, Leszek; Wardyn, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine influenza vaccine coverage among children aged 0-18 years in inner city practices in Poland in the 2009/2010 season and factors that might have influenced low vaccination coverage. A retrospective review of 11,735 vaccination charts of children aged 0-18 from seven randomly selected general practices in the capital city of Warsaw and one large practice in the city of Wroclaw was performed. We calculated the numbers of children who were vaccinated in the 2009/2010 season and analyzed the age distribution of vaccinated children. We also reviewed the vaccination history in patients who were vaccinated against influenza including: previous influenza vaccinations, modification (widening) of standard immunization scheme, and a proportion of children who completed the recommended two-dose schedule of vaccination. In the calculations, 95% confidence intervals were used. Out of the total of 11,735 children surveyed, 362 (3.1%, CI: 2.8-3.4%) were vaccinated against influenza in the 2009/2010 season. For 115 of these 362 (31.8%, CI: 27.0-36.6%) children it was their first vaccination against influenza. The mean age of a vaccinated child was 6.0 ± 4.3 years. Children aged 2-5 were most commonly vaccinated (153/362, 42.3%, CI: 37.2-47.4%), while infants (aged 6-12 months) were vaccinated rarely (15/362, 4.4%, CI: 2.2-6.2%). In the group of children younger than 8 years (86/362 children) who were vaccinated for the first time in their life only 29/86 (33.7%, CI: 23.7-43.7%) completed the recommended two-dose schedule. In conclusion, the importance of vaccinating children against influenza is hugely understated in Poland. General physicians should actively recommend annual influenza immunization of children. Recommendations of National Immunization Program concerning influenza vaccine should be clearer, simpler, and easier to implement.

  20. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2013. Compendium Report. NCES 2016-117

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joel; Stark, Patrick; Cui, Jiashan

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of high school is related to a number of negative outcomes. For example, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who had not completed high school was roughly $26,000 in 2013. By comparison, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who completed their education with at least a high school credential (i.e., a regular…

  1. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  2. Heat dissipation does not suppress an immune response in laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-05-15

    The capacity for heat dissipation is considered to be one of the most important constraints on rates of energy expenditure in mammals. To date, the significance of this constraint has been tested exclusively under peak metabolic demands, such as during lactation. Here, we used a different set of metabolic stressors, which do not induce maximum energy expenditures and yet are likely to expose the potential constraining effect of heat dissipation. We compared the physiological responses of mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low basal metabolic rate (L-BMR) to simultaneous exposure to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen and high ambient temperature (Ta). At 34°C (and at 23°C, used as a control), KLH challenge resulted in a transient increase in core body temperature (Tb) in mice of both line types (by approximately 0.4°C). Warm exposure did not produce line-type-dependent differences in Tb (which was consistently higher by ca. 0.6°C in H-BMR mice across both Ta values), nor did it result in the suppression of antibody synthesis. These findings were also supported by the lack of between-line-type differences in the mass of the thymus, spleen or lymph nodes. Warm exposure induced the downsizing of heat-generating internal organs (small intestine, liver and kidneys) and an increase in intrascapular brown adipose tissue mass. However, these changes were similar in scope in both line types. Mounting a humoral immune response in selected mice was therefore not affected by ambient temperature. Thus, a combined metabolic challenge of high Ta and an immune response did not appreciably compromise the capacity to dissipate heat, even in the H-BMR mice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Intranasal immunization of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin confers complete protection against mouse adapted highly pathogenic H7N7 reassortant influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H7N7 virus poses a pandemic threat to human health because of its ability for direct transmission from domestic poultry to humans and from human to human. The wide zoonotic potential of H7N7 combined with an antiviral immunity inhibition similar to pandemic 1918 H1N1 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses is disconcerting and increases the risk of a putative H7N7 pandemic in the future, underlining the urgent need for vaccine development against this virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a recombinant vaccine by expressing the H7N7-HA protein on the surface of baculovirus (Bac-HA. The protective efficacy of the live Bac-HA vaccine construct was evaluated in a mouse model by challenging mice immunized intranasally (i.n. or subcutaneously (s.c. with high pathogenic mouse adapted H7N7 reassorted strain. Although s.c. injection of live Bac-HA induced higher specific IgG than i.n. immunization, the later resulted in an elevated neutralization titer. Interestingly, 100% protection from the lethal viral challenge was only observed for the mice immunized intranasally with live Bac-HA, whereas no protection was achieved in any other s.c. or i.n. immunized mice groups. In addition, we also observed higher mucosal IgA as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in the splenocytes of the surviving mice coupled with a reduced viral titer and diminished histopathological signs in the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that protection from high pathogenic H7N7 (NL/219/03 virus requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is also required for the protection against the H7N7 pathogen. Intranasal administration of live Bac-HA induced all these immune responses and protected the mice from lethal viral challenge. Therefore, live Bac-HA is an effective vaccine candidate against H7N7 viral infections.

  4. A clinical study to compare between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH before and after complete denture placement in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddugangadhar, B C; Sangur, Rajashekar; Rudraprasad, I V; Nandeeshwar, D B; Kumar, B H Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the flow rate and pH of resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva before and after complete denture placement in different age groups. Fifty healthy, non-medicated edentulous individuals of different age groups requiring complete denture prostheses were selected from the outpatient department. The resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva and pH were measured at three stages i.e., i)Before complete denture placement;ii)Immediately after complete denture placement; andiii)After 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. Saliva production was stimulated by chewing paraffin wax. pH was determined by using a digital pH meter. Statistically significant differences were seen in resting(unstimulated) and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No statistically significant differences were found between the different age groups in resting (unstimulated) as well as stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH. Stimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH were significantly higher than resting (unstimulated) whole salivary flow rates and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No age related variations in whole salivary flow rate and pH were observed in healthy, non-medicated individuals. The assessment of salivary flow rate, pH in different age groups is of prognostic value, which is an important aspect to be considered in the practice of removable prosthodontics.

  5. A clinical study to compare between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH before and after complete denture placement in different age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddugangadhar, B. C.; Sangur, Rajashekar; Rudraprasad, I. V.; Nandeeshwar, D. B.; Kumar, B. H. Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the flow rate and pH of resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva before and after complete denture placement in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy, non-medicated edentulous individuals of different age groups requiring complete denture prostheses were selected from the outpatient department. The resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva and pH were measured at three stages i.e., i)Before complete denture placement;ii)Immediately after complete denture placement; andiii)After 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. Saliva production was stimulated by chewing paraffin wax. pH was determined by using a digital pH meter. Results: Statistically significant differences were seen in resting(unstimulated) and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No statistically significant differences were found between the different age groups in resting (unstimulated) as well as stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH. Conclusion: Stimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH were significantly higher than resting (unstimulated) whole salivary flow rates and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No age related variations in whole salivary flow rate and pH were observed in healthy, non-medicated individuals. Clinical Implications: The assessment of salivary flow rate, pH in different age groups is of prognostic value, which is an important aspect to be considered in the practice of removable prosthodontics. PMID:26929540

  6. Academic Performance, Course Completion Rates, and Student Perception of the Quality and Frequency of Interaction in a Virtual High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Abigail; Graham, Charles R.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' perceptions of teacher-student interaction and academic performance at an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide virtual high school. Academic performance was measured by grade awarded and course completion. There were 2269 students who responded to an 18-item survey designed to measure student…

  7. Completion of Kr-81 and Kr-85 Analysis Development for Hydrogeology and Testing its Validity by Assessing Aquifer Recharge Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonnard, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective was to complete the development of a RIMS-based analytical technique to determine the concentration of the rare krypton radioisotopes, 81Kr and 85Kr, in samples of interest to the geoscience and planetary science community The key to RIMS is the use of tunable lasers to selectively and efficiently excite by resonant photon absorption atomic states unique to the chosen element. Ionization of the specified element can then occur while excluding all other constituents of the sample, bringing detection limits down to the single-atom level. Combining RIMS with several steps of isotopic enrichment makes detection of a rare isotope, such as 81Kr, feasible. A complete process for groundwater samples consists of starting with (1) collecting the groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water sample, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4 and 5) two isotopic enrichments reducing interfering isotopes by >109, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope using RIMS in a time-of-flight system. Required water sample size is 20 liters for 81Kr and 10 to 3 liters for 85Kr. Weak links in the above steps were to be identified and rectified. Most of the troublesome issues were resolved, but unfortunately, two key difficulties could not be resolved with the available resources, so the overall, final goal of completing a suite of measurements was not achieved. In spite of this, valuable collaborations were established to demonstrate the value of 81Kr and 85Kr measurements in two critical applications, the future site of a nuclear waste repository, where high efficiency 81Kr measurements would allow groundwater dating of low-yield formations, and a multi-method analysis of potential contamination inflow into a large municipal water system, where the simplicity of interpretation of 85Kr measurements could become a valuable future interpretive tool. Therefore, samples were collected anyway, and processing started using the working parts of the method, so that

  8. A clinical study to compare between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH before and after complete denture placement in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Muddugangadhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Stimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH were significantly higher than resting (unstimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No age related variations in whole salivary flow rate and pH were observed in healthy, non-medicated individuals. Clinical Implications: The assessment of salivary flow rate, pH in different age groups is of prognostic value, which is an important aspect to be considered in the practice of removable prosthodontics.

  9. Early Engagement in Course-Based Research Increases Graduation Rates and Completion of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbusch, Stacia E.; Hernandez, Paul R.; Simmons, Sarah L.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score–matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students’ probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students’ GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research. PMID:27252296

  10. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Fitts, Eric C; Popov, Vsevolod L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-12-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 10(6) CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but

  11. Early Engagement in Course-Based Research Increases Graduation Rates and Completion of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Hernandez, Paul R; Simmons, Sarah L; Dolan, Erin L

    2016-01-01

    National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score-matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students' probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students' GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research. © 2016 S. Rodenbusch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Impact of a new vaccine clinic on hepatitis B vaccine completion and immunological response rates in an HIV-positive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; de Barra, Eoghan; Sadlier, Corinna; Kelly, Sinead; Dowling, Catherine; McNally, Cora; Bergin, Colm

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus vaccination (HBVV) in the HIV-infected population has poor reported completion rates and immunological response rates. At our HIV clinic, we established a vaccine clinic to improve HBVV outcomes using interventions such as SMS text reminders and double-dose (DD) HBVV for standard-dose non-responders (SD NRs). A five-year (2003-2008) retrospective review of the completion rates and immunological response rates for HBVV after the establishment of the dedicated vaccine clinic was conducted. Statistical significance was assumed at presponse rate to DD HBVV among SD NRs. On-treatment analysis showed an 88% (155/176) overall immunological response to SD HBVV and DD HBVV, if required. High HBVV completion and response rates in this HIV cohort were enabled through the use of multiple interventions, including the use of SMS text message reminders and routine referral for DD vaccination. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Meeting the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) Goal of Increasing Postsecondary Graduation Rates and Completions: A Macro Perspective of Community College Student Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamraju, Pradeep; Blackman, Orville

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data system (IPEDS) data to simulate the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) goal introduced by President Obama in the summer of 2009. We estimate community college graduation rates and completion numbers under different scenarios that include the following sets of variables: (a) internal…

  14. Trends in Algebra II Completion and Failure Rates for Students Entering Texas Public High Schools. REL 2018-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Ginger; Mellor, Lynn; Sullivan, Kate

    2018-01-01

    This study examines Algebra II completion and failure rates for students entering Texas public high schools from 2007/08 through 2014/15. This period spans the time when Texas students, beginning with the 2007/08 grade 9 cohort, were required to take four courses each in English, math (including Algebra II), science, and social studies (called the…

  15. A Study of the Significant Factors That Affect the Job Placement Rates of Students Who Have Completed a HERO Program. Year 2 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Development and Evaluation Associates, Inc., Berkeley, MI.

    A three-year study examined the significant factors that affect the job placement rates of students completing a Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO) program. Other purposes of the study were to develop and pilot test a model that could be used to determine factors related to student placement in a variety of vocational education programs and…

  16. A Study of the Significant Factors That Affect the Job Placement Rates of Students Who Have Completed a HERO Program. Year Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Development and Evaluation Associates, Inc., Berkeley, MI.

    A three-year study examined the significant factors that affect the job placement rates of students completing a Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO) program. Other purposes of the study were to develop and pilot test a model that could be used to determine factors related to student placement in a variety of vocational education programs and…

  17. Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Namita; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Huntemann, Marcel; Deshpande, Shweta; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Chertkov, Olga; Daligault, Hajnalka; Davenport, Karen; Gu, Wei; Munk, Christine; Zhang, Xiaojing; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Xu, Yan; Quintana, Beverly; Reitenga, Krista; Kunde, Yulia; Green, Lance; Erkkila, Tracy; Han, Cliff; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Lang, Elke; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Das, Debabrata

    2013-12-20

    Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism.

  18. Scissor-type knife significantly improves self-completion rate of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: Single-center prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Yoji; Nagai, Kengo; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (C-ESD) is recognized as a difficult procedure. Recently, scissors-type knives were launched to reduce the difficulty of C-ESD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined use of a scissors-type knife and a needle-type knife with a water-jet function (WJ needle-knife) for C-ESD compared with using the WJ needle-knife alone. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial in a referral center. Eighty-five patients with superficial colorectal neoplasms were enrolled and randomly assigned to undergo C-ESD using a WJ needle-knife alone (Flush group) or a scissor-type knife-supported WJ needle-knife (SB Jr group). Procedures were conducted by two supervised residents. Primary endpoint was self-completion rate by the residents. Self-completion rate was 67% in the SB Jr group, which was significantly higher than that in the Flush group (39%, P = 0.01). Even after exclusion of four patients in the SB Jr group in whom C-ESD was completed using the WJ needle-knife alone, the self-completion rate was significantly higher (63% vs 39%; P = 0.03). Median procedure time among the self-completion cases did not differ significantly between the two groups (59 vs 51 min; P = 0.14). No fatal adverse events were observed in either group. In this single-center phase II trial, scissor-type knife significantly improved residents' self-completion rate for C-ESD, with no increase in procedure time or adverse events. A multicenter trial would be warranted to confirm the validity of the present study. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Immunization Milestones: A More Comprehensive Picture of Age-Appropriate Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve G. Robison

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A challenge facing immunization registries is developing measures of childhood immunization coverage that contain more information for setting policy than present vaccine series up-to-date (UTD rates. This study combined milestone analysis with provider encounter data to determine when children either do not receive indicated immunizations during medical encounters or fail to visit providers. Milestone analysis measures immunization status at key times between birth and age 2, when recommended immunizations first become late. The immunization status of a large population of children in the Oregon ALERT immunization registry and in the Oregon Health Plan was tracked across milestone ages. Findings indicate that the majority of children went back and forth with regard to having complete age-appropriate immunizations over time. We also found that immunization UTD rates when used alone are biased towards relating non-UTD status to a lack of visits to providers, instead of to provider visits on which recommended immunizations are not given.

  20. Association between timely initiation of hepatitis B vaccine and completion of the hepatitis B vaccine and national immunization program vaccine series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-nan Wu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Coverage with a timely first dose of HB vaccine is high in children in the community and newborns in hospital, and timely receipt of the first dose of HB vaccine is associated with an increased likelihood of completing the HB vaccine series and the NIPV series in Fujian, China.

  1. Combination approaches with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Swart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, immune checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune checkpoint blockade, aimed at increasing response-rates to the single treatments.

  2. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy achieves a high completion rate of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Matsuura, Kazuto; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate supportive care is essential for intensive chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and pain management is an important supportive care for CRT for head and neck cancer. We developed an opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT, and assessed its efficacy and safety. 110 head and neck cancer patients undergoing platinum-based concomitant CRT were enrolled from 10 cancer centers or university hospitals. Their pain caused by CRT was managed with a four-step opioid-based pain control program, and adverse events and usage of opioid were analyzed. 101 suitable cases of 110 patients were analyzed. 53% of cases suffered grade 3-4 mucositis. The rate of completion of radiotherapy was 99% and the rate of unplanned breaks in radiotherapy was 13%. The usage rate of opioid was 83% and the rate of compliance with the pain control program was 92%. The median maximum quantity of morphine used per day was 35 mg. No patient had to stop the opioid program or radiotherapy due to adverse effects of opioids. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT achieves a high completion rate of radiation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of asymmetries of blood flow rate and of circulation time by intravenous radionuclide cerebral angiography in patients with ischemic completed stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, A; Primavera, A; Gasparetto, B

    1984-12-01

    155 patients with ischemic completed stroke of varying severity and outcome have been evaluated by radionuclide cerebral angiography with analysis of regional time-activity curves. Two parameters have been evaluated: area under the upslope of the curve (Aup) reflecting regional blood flow rate and moment of the whole curve reflecting tracer circulation time (rABCT) Combination of these two methods ensured increased detection of perfusion asymmetries.

  4. Use of cellular phone contacts to increase return rates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in Kenya, failure to complete immunization schedules by children who previously accessed immunization services is an obstacle to ensuring that children are fully immunized. Home visit approaches used to track defaulting children have not been successful in reducing the dropout rate. Methods: This study ...

  5. Detection of the Single-Session Complete Ablation Rate by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound during Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the single-session complete ablation rate of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA for benign thyroid nodules. LA was performed in 90 patients with 118 benign thyroid nodules. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was used to evaluate complete nodule ablation one day after ablation. Thyroid nodule volumes, thyroid functions, clinical symptoms and complications were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after ablation. Results showed that all benign thyroid nodules successfully underwent LA. The single-session complete ablation rates for nodules with maximum diameters ≤2 cm, 2-3 cm and ≥3 cm were 93.4%, 70.3% and 61.1%, respectively. All nodule volumes significantly decreased than that one day after ablation (P0.05. Three patients had obvious pain during ablation; one (1.1% had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, but the voice returned to normal within 6 months after treatment. Thus, ultrasound-guided LA can effectively inactivate benign thyroid nodules. LA is a potentially viable minimally invasive treatment that offers good cosmetic effects.

  6. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  7. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Verbal autopsy completion rate and factors associated with undetermined cause of death in a rural resource-poor setting of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliti Deodatus V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used tool to assign probable cause of death in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Its uses in priority setting and health planning are well documented in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. However, there is a lack of data related to VA processing and completion rates in assigning causes of death in a community. There is also a lack of data on factors associated with undetermined causes of death documented in SSA. There is a need for such information for understanding the gaps in VA processing and better estimating disease burden. Objective The study's intent was to determine the completion rate of VA and factors associated with assigning undetermined causes of death in rural Tanzania. Methods A database of deaths reported from the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2002 to 2007 was used. Completion rates were determined at the following stages of processing: 1 death identified; 2 VA interviews conducted; 3 VA forms submitted to physicians; 4 coding and assigning of cause of death. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with deaths coded as "undetermined." Results The completion rate of VA after identification of death and the VA interview ranged from 83% in 2002 and 89% in 2007. Ninety-four percent of deaths submitted to physicians were assigned a specific cause, with 31% of the causes coded as undetermined. Neonates and child deaths that occurred outside health facilities were associated with a high rate of undetermined classification (33%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.05, 1.67, p = 0.016. Respondents reporting high education levels were less likely to be associated with deaths that were classified as undetermined (24%, OR = 0.76, 95% CI (0.60, -0.96, p = 0.023. Being a child of the deceased compared to a partner (husband or wife was more likely to be associated with undetermined cause of death classification

  9. Effect of increasing nitrobenzene loading rates on the performance of anaerobic migrating blanket reactor and sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor/completely stirred tank reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) reactor was operated at nitrobenzene (NB) loading rates increasing from 3.33 to 66.67 g NB/m 3 day and at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 days to observe the effects of increasing NB concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD), NB removal efficiencies, bicarbonate alkalinity, volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and methane gas percentage. Moreover, the effect of an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) reactor, following the anaerobic reactor, on treatment efficiencies was also investigated. Approximately 91-94% COD removal efficiencies were observed up to a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m 3 day in the AMBR reactor. The COD removal efficiencies decreased from 91% to 85% at a NB loading rate of 66.67 g/m 3 day. NB removal efficiencies were approximately 100% at all NB loading rates. The maximum total gas, methane gas productions and methane percentage were found to be 4.1, 2.6 l/day and 59%, respectively, at a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m 3 day. The optimum pH values were found to be between 7.2 and 8.4 for maximum methanogenesis. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentrations in the effluent were 110 and 70 mg/l in the first and second compartments at NB loading rates as high as 66.67 and 6.67 g/m 3 day, respectively, while they were measured as zero in the effluent of the AMBR reactor. In this study, from 180 mg/l NB 66 mg/l aniline was produced in the anaerobic reactor while aniline was completely removed and transformed to 2 mg/l of cathechol in the aerobic CSTR reactor. Overall COD removal efficiencies were found to be 95% and 99% for NB loading rates of 3.33 and 66.67 g/m 3 day in the sequential anaerobic AMBR/aerobic CSTR reactor system, respectively. The toxicity tests performed with Photobacterium phosphoreum (LCK 480, LUMIStox) and Daphnia magna showed that the toxicity decreased with anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system from the influent, anaerobic and to

  10. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  11. Completion rates of anterior and posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis in pediatric cataract surgery for surgery performed by trainee surgeons with the use of a low-cost viscoelastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muralidhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Pediatric cataract surgery is traditionally done with the aid of high-molecular-weight viscoelastics which are expensive. It needs to be determined if low-cost substitutes are just as successful. Aims : The study aims to determine the success rates for anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis and intraocular lens (IOL implantation in the bag for pediatric cataract surgery performed with the aid of a low-molecular-weight viscoelastic. Settings and Design : Nonrandomized observational study. Materials and Methods: Children less than 6 years of age who underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation in the period May 2008-May 2009 were included. The surgeries were done by pediatric ophthalmology fellows. A standard procedure of anterior capsulorrhexis, lens aspiration with primary posterior capsulorrhexis, anterior vitrectomy, and IOL implantation was followed. Three parameters were studied: successful completion of anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis and IOL implantation in the bag. Results: 33 eyes of 28 children were studied. The success rate for completion was 66.7% and 88.2 % for anterior and posterior capsulorrhexis, respectively. IOL implantation in the bag was successful in 87.9%. Conclusions: 2% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is a viable low-cost alternative to more expensive options similar to high-molecular-weight viscoelastics. This is of great relevance to hospitals in developing countries.

  12. Cumulative live birth rates after one or more complete cycles of IVF: a population-based study of linked cycle data from 178,898 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, David J; Maheshwari, Abha; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-03-01

    What is the chance of a live birth following one or more linked complete cycles of IVF (including ICSI)? The chance of a live birth after three complete cycles of IVF was 42.3% for treatment commencing from 1999 to 2007. IVF success has generally been reported on the basis of live birth rates after a single episode of treatment resulting in the transfer of a fresh embryo. This fails to capture the real chance of having a baby after a number of complete cycles-each involving the replacement of fresh as well as frozen-thawed embryos. Population-based observational cohort study of 178 898 women between 1992 and 2007. Participants included all women who commenced IVF treatment at a licenced clinic in the UK as recorded in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) national database. Exclusion criteria included women whose treatment involved donor insemination, egg donation, surrogacy and the transfer of more than three embryos. Cumulative rates of live birth, term (>37 weeks) singleton live birth, and multiple pregnancy were estimated for two time-periods, 1992-1998 and 1999-2007. Conservative estimates assumed that women who did not return for IVF would not have the outcome of interest while optimal estimates assumed that these women would have similar outcome rates to those who continued IVF. A total of 71 551 women commenced IVF treatment during 1992-1998 and an additional 107 347 during 1999-2007. After the third complete IVF cycle (defined as three fresh IVF treatments-including replacement of any surplus frozen-thawed embryos), the conservative CLBR in women who commenced IVF during 1992-1998 was 30.8% increasing to 42.3% during 1999-2007. The optimal CLBRs were 44.6 and 57.1%, respectively. After eight complete cycles the optimal CLBR was 82.4% in the latter time period. The conservative rate for multiple pregnancy per pregnant woman fell from 31.9% during the earlier time period to 26.2% during the latter. Linkage of all IVF treatments to

  13. Use of a Monte Carlo technique to complete a fragmented set of H2S emission rates from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2013-12-15

    The impact of ambient concentrations in the vicinity of a plant can only be assessed if the emission rate is known. In this study, based on measurements of ambient H2S concentrations and meteorological parameters, the a priori unknown emission rates of a tannery wastewater treatment plant are calculated by an inverse dispersion technique. The calculations are determined using the Gaussian Austrian regulatory dispersion model. Following this method, emission data can be obtained, though only for a measurement station that is positioned such that the wind direction at the measurement station is leeward of the plant. Using the inverse transform sampling, which is a Monte Carlo technique, the dataset can also be completed for those wind directions for which no ambient concentration measurements are available. For the model validation, the measured ambient concentrations are compared with the calculated ambient concentrations obtained from the synthetic emission data of the Monte Carlo model. The cumulative frequency distribution of this new dataset agrees well with the empirical data. This inverse transform sampling method is thus a useful supplement for calculating emission rates using the inverse dispersion technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni; relationship between membrane turnover rates and susceptibility to immune damage. Part of a coordinated programme on preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Tavares, C.A.

    1983-11-01

    It is known that the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni become refractory to damage by antibody and complement in vitro in the presence of serum, or Concanavalin A (Con A), or after contact with host tissues, presumably due to intrinsic changes in the surface membrane. This project studied the effect of dialysed fetal calf serum (DFCS) and Con A on the synthesis and turnover of individual proteins in the surface membrane using the incorporation of 14 C- and 3 H-labelled Arginine and the separation of the membrane proteins in SDS-PAGE. The results indicate that during the period in which schistosomules become resistant to immune attack, no qualitative alterations in electrophoretic patterns of surface proteins were observed. There was, however, a marked heterogeneity in synthesis and degradation among constituent proteins. In addition, Con A which had been shown to be effective in stimulating loss of susceptibility to immune attack, caused a slight decrease in the synthesis and turnover rate of high molecular weight proteins, whilst DFCS increased synthesis and turnover of low molecular weight proteins. This suggests that at least two processes occur in the membrane which may be related to the development of protection against immune attack. Serum might stimulate the loss of crucial antigens by accelerating their turnover making antibody attachment difficult, and Con A could be stabilizing the membrane by crosslinking large macromolecules. It is possible that in vivo both mechanisms occur to make the schistosomule surface refractory to damage

  15. BiRD (Biaxin [clarithromycin]/Revlimid [lenalidomide]/dexamethasone) combination therapy results in high complete- and overall-response rates in treatment-naive symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Jayabalan, David S; Christos, Paul J; Furst, Jessica R; Naib, Tara; Ely, Scott; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Pearse, Roger N; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Larow, April; Lent, Richard; Mark, Tomer; Cho, Hearn J; Shore, Tsiporah; Tepler, Jeffrey; Harpel, John; Schuster, Michael W; Mathew, Susan; Leonard, John P; Mazumdar, Madhu; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Coleman, Morton

    2008-02-01

    This trial determined the safety and efficacy of the combination regimen clarithromycin (Biaxin), lenalidomide (Revlimid), and dexamethasone (BiRD) as first-line therapy for multiple myeloma. Patients received BiRD in 28-day cycles. Dexamethasone (40 mg) was given orally once weekly, clarithromycin (500 mg) was given orally twice daily, and lenalidomide (25 mg) was given orally daily on days 1 to 21. Objective response was defined by standard criteria (ie, decrease in serum monoclonal protein [M-protein] by at least 50%, and a decrease in urine M-protein by at least 90%). Of the 72 patients enrolled, 65 had an objective response (90.3%). A combined stringent and conventional complete response rate of 38.9% was achieved, and 73.6% of the patients achieved at least a 90% decrease in M-protein levels. This regimen did not interfere with hematopoietic stem-cell harvest. Fifty-two patients who did not go on to receive transplants received continued therapy (complete response, 37%; very good partial response, 33%). The major adverse events were thromboembolic events, corticosteroid-related morbidity, and cytopenias. BiRD is an effective regimen with manageable side effects in the treatment of symptomatic, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00151203.

  16. Incomplete Early Childhood Immunization Series and Missing Fourth DTaP Immunizations; Missed Opportunities or Missed Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The successful completion of early childhood immunizations is a proxy for overall quality of early care. Immunization statuses are usually assessed by up-to-date (UTD) rates covering combined series of different immunizations. However, series UTD rates often only bear on which single immunization is missing, rather than the success of all immunizations. In the US, most series UTD rates are limited by missing fourth DTaP-containing immunizations (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis) due at 15 to 18 months of age. Missing 4th DTaP immunizations are associated either with a lack of visits at 15 to 18 months of age, or to visits without immunizations. Typical immunization data however cannot distinguish between these two reasons. This study compared immunization records from the Oregon ALERT IIS with medical encounter records for two-year olds in the Oregon Health Plan. Among those with 3 valid DTaPs by 9 months of age, 31.6% failed to receive a timely 4th DTaP; of those without a 4th DTaP, 42.1% did not have any provider visits from 15 through 18 months of age, while 57.9% had at least one provider visit. Those with a 4th DTaP averaged 2.45 encounters, while those with encounters but without 4th DTaPs averaged 2.23 encounters.

  17. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  18. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  19. An audiovisual feedback device for compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil can improve the CPR performance of lay persons during self-training on a manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Didon, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the scarce data available about the abilities of untrained lay persons to perform hands-only cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin and the improvement of their skills during training with an autonomous CPR feedback device. The study focuses on the following questions: (i) Is there a need for such a CPR training device? (ii) How adequate are the embedded visual feedback and audio guidance for training of lay persons who learn and correct themselves in real time without instructor guidance? (iii) What is the achieved effect of only 3 min of training? This is a prospective study in which 63 lay persons (volunteers) received a debriefing to basic life support and then performed two consecutive 3 min trials of hands-only CPR on a manikin. The pre-training skills of the lay persons were tested in trial 1. The training process with audio guidance and visual feedback from a cardio compression control device (CC-Device) was recorded in trial 2. After initial debriefing for correct chest compressions (CC) with rate 85–115 min −1 , depth 3.8–5.4 cm and complete recoil, in trial 1 the lay persons were able to perform CC without feedback at mean rate 95.9 ± 18.9 min −1 , mean depth 4.13 ± 1.5 cm, with low proportions of 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' at 33%, 43%, 87%, resulting in the scarce proportion of 14% for compressions, which simultaneously fulfill the three quality criteria ('correct all'). In trial 2, the training process by the CC-Device was established by the significant improvement of the CC skills until the 60th second of training, when 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' attained the plateau of the highest quality at 82%, 90%, 96%, respectively, resulting in 73% 'correct all' compressions within 3 min of training. The training was associated with reduced variance of the mean rate 102.4 ± 4

  20. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  1. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  2. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda O. Basaleem; Khaled A. Al-Sakkaf; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  3. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disease, and for 3 months convalescence 100 Thereafter rate residuals such as renal necrosis under the... complications of nervous system, vascular system, eyes or ears. (See DC 7004, syphilitic heart disease, DC 8013...

  4. Improving immunization delivery using an electronic health record: the ImmProve project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, David G; Persing, Nichole M; Solomon, Barry S; King, Tracy M; Murakami, Peter N; Thompson, Richard E; Engineer, Lilly D; Lehmann, Christoph U; Miller, Marlene R

    2013-01-01

    Though an essential pediatric preventive service, immunizations are challenging to deliver reliably. Our objective was to measure the impact on pediatric immunization rates of providing clinicians with electronic health record-derived immunization prompting. Operating in a large, urban, hospital-based pediatric primary care clinic, we evaluated 2 interventions to improve immunization delivery to children ages 2, 6, and 13 years: point-of-care, patient-specific electronic clinical decision support (CDS) when children overdue for immunizations presented for care, and provider-specific bulletins listing children overdue for immunizations. Overall, the proportion of children up to date for a composite of recommended immunizations at ages 2, 6, and 13 years was not different in the intervention (CDS active) and historical control (CDS not active) periods; historical immunization rates were high. The proportion of children receiving 2 doses of hepatitis A immunization before their second birthday was significantly improved during the intervention period. Human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization delivery was low during both control and intervention periods and was unchanged for 13-year-olds. For 14-year-olds, however, 4 of the 5 highest quarterly rates of complete HPV immunization occurred in the final year of the intervention. Provider-specific bulletins listing children overdue for immunizations increased the likelihood of identified children receiving catch-up hepatitis A immunizations (hazard ratio 1.32; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.56); results for HPV and the composite of recommended immunizations were of a similar magnitude but not statistically significant. In our patient population, with high baseline uptake of recommended immunizations, electronic health record-derived immunization prompting had a limited effect on immunization delivery. Benefit was more clearly demonstrated for newer immunizations with lower baseline uptake. Copyright © 2013 Academic

  5. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m 3 d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Gender Effects in the Relationship between Perceived Immune Functioning and Autistic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackus, Marlou; Kruijff, Deborah de; Otten, Leila S; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-04-12

    Altered immune functioning has been demonstrated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study explores the relationship between perceived immune functioning and experiencing ASD traits in healthy young adults. N = 410 students from Utrecht University completed a survey on immune functioning and autistic traits. In addition to a 1-item perceived immune functioning rating, the Immune Function Questionnaire (IFQ) was completed to assess perceived immune functioning. The Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was completed to examine variation in autistic traits, including the domains "social insights and behavior", "difficulties with change", "communication", "phantasy and imagination", and "detail orientation". The 1-item perceived immune functioning score did not significantly correlate with the total AQ score. However, a significant negative correlation was found between perceived immune functioning and the AQ subscale "difficulties with change" (r = -0.119, p = 0.019). In women, 1-item perceived immune functioning correlated significantly with the AQ subscales "difficulties with change" (r = -0.149, p = 0.029) and "communication" (r = -0.145, p = 0.032). In men, none of the AQ subscales significantly correlated with 1-item perceived immune functioning. In conclusion, a modest relationship between perceived immune functioning and several autistic traits was found.

  7. Estimating background rates of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Ontario in order to respond to safety concerns during pandemic H1N1/09 immunization campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosella Laura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The province of Ontario, Canada initiated mass immunization clinics with adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in October 2009. Due to the scale of the campaign, temporal associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and vaccination were expected. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate the number of background GBS cases expected to occur in the projected vaccinated population and to estimate the number of additional GBS cases which would be expected if an association with vaccination existed. The number of influenza-associated GBS cases was also determined. Methods Baseline incidence rates of GBS were determined from published Canadian studies and applied to projected vaccine coverage data to estimate the expected number of GBS cases in the vaccinated population. Assuming an association with vaccine existed, the number of additional cases of GBS expected was determined by applying the rates observed during the 1976 Swine Flu and 1992/1994 seasonal influenza campaigns in the United States. The number of influenza-associated GBS cases expected to occur during the vaccination campaign was determined based on risk estimates of GBS after influenza infection and provincial influenza infection rates using a combination of laboratory-confirmed cases and data from a seroprevalence study. Results The overall provincial vaccine coverage was estimated to be between 32% and 38%. Assuming 38% coverage, between 6 and 13 background cases of GBS were expected within this projected vaccinated cohort (assuming 32% coverage yielded between 5-11 background cases. An additional 6 or 42 cases would be expected if an association between GBS and influenza vaccine was observed (assuming 32% coverage yielded 5 or 35 additional cases; while up to 31 influenza-associated GBS cases could be expected to occur. In comparison, during the same period, only 7 cases of GBS were reported among vaccinated persons. Conclusions Our analyses do not

  8. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  9. Study of Patterns and Markers of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Progression and Unemployment Rate among Patients from Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Faika M; Raouf, May M; Elshaer, Noha S; Abdelhamid, Sarah M; Noor Eldeen, Reem A

    2017-12-04

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases. A cross sectional design was adopted. HIV infected cases attending Alexandria Fever Hospital (AFH) for one year. Interview questionnaire and four CD+4 counts were done for all patients, HIV VL and delta-32 CCR5 polymorphism were done for selected cases. Sexual transmission and drug abuse are the most important risk factors. Infectious comorbidity increases the rate of HIV progression. CD4+ count at the end of the study; CD+4 (4), count was significantly higher than all other CD4+ readings among the whole cohort and among the treated group. Also, VL at the end of the study; VL(2), was significantly higher than VL(1) among the untreated group. Unemployment rate was 40%. Male gender and obtaining vocational training were significant predictors of employment. It can be concluded that having a family member living with HIV and drug abusers are high risk groups for HIV acquisition. Factors responsible for progression of HIV should be further investigated. Antiretroviral therapy is very effective in checking HIV replication rate, delaying the progression of HIV, reconstituting the immune response and should be available for all cases detected.

  10. Age spectrometry of infant death rates as a probe of immunity: Identification of two peaks due to viral and bacterial diseases respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2017-11-01

    After birth, setting up an effective immune system is a major challenge for all living organisms. In this paper we show that this process can be explored by using the age-specific infant death rate as a kind of sensor. This is made possible because, as shown by the authors in Berrut et al. (2016), between birth and a critical age tc, for all mammals the death rate decreases with age as a smooth hyperbolic function. For humans tc is equal to 10 years. It turns out that for some causes of deaths and specific ages the hyperbolic fall displays temporary spikes which, it is assumed, correspond to specific events in the organism's response to exogenous factors. One of these spikes occurs 10 days after birth and there is another at the age of 300 days. It is shown that the first spike is related to viral infections whereas the second is related to bacterial diseases. By going back to former time periods during which infant mortality was much higher than it is currently, one gets a magnified view of these peaks. They give us useful information about how an organism adapts to new conditions. Apart from the reaction to pathogens, the same methodology can be used to study the response to changes in other external conditions, e.g. temperature or oxygen level.

  11. Variation in hepatitis B immunization coverage rates associated with provider practices after the temporary suspension of the birth dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullooly John P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S. Public Health Service recommended suspending the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine due to concerns about potential mercury exposure. A previous report found that overall national hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates decreased in association with the suspension. It is unknown whether this underimmunization occurred uniformly or was associated with how providers changed their practices for the timing of hepatitis B vaccine doses. We evaluate the impact of the birth dose suspension on underimmunization for the hepatitis B vaccine series among 24-month-olds in five large provider groups and describe provider practices potentially associated with underimmunization following the suspension. Methods Retrospective cohort study of children enrolled in five large provider groups in the United States (A-E. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the birth dose suspension and a child's probability of being underimmunized at 24 months for the hepatitis B vaccine series. Results Prior to July 1999, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth varied widely (3% to 90% across the five provider groups. After the national recommendation to suspend the hepatitis B birth dose, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth decreased in all provider groups, and this trend persisted after the policy was reversed. The most substantial decreases were observed in the two provider groups that shifted the first hepatitis B dose from birth to 5–6 months of age. Accounting for temporal trend, children in these two provider groups were significantly more likely to be underimmunized for the hepatitis B series at 24 months of age if they were in the birth dose suspension cohort compared with baseline (Group D OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 – 4.4; Group E OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3 – 4.2. This represented 6% more children in Group D and 9

  12. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. I. Serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune donors suppresses irradiation-enhanced IgE production in low responder mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, A.S.; Chiorazzi, N.; Katz, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Exposure of mice to low doses of x irradiation at or near the time of primary immunization with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-Ascaris suum extract (ASC) results in substantial enhancement of IgE anti-DNP antibody responses; the IgG antibody responses of such mice do not increase after such manipulations. This selective enhancement of IgE antibody production occurs in mice of both high and low IgE responder phenotype, although the extent of enhancement compared to unmanipulated control animals is more striking in low IgE responder mice. The studies presented here demonstrate that the irradiation-enhanced IgE antibody responses of low responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice as well as of intermediate responder AKR mice can be effectively suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum obtained from isologous donor mice. Moreover, adoptive secondary IgE antibody responses in SJL recipients of primed syngeneic spleen cells can be totally abolished by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum or ascitic fluid from CFA-immune mice. The suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum can be diminished or eliminated by exposure of CFA-primed donor mice to low dose x irradiation at an appropriate point during the priming regimen, after a single inoculation of CFA, and before collection of serum. Low dose x irradiation was not effective in eliminating suppressive activity of CFA-induced ascites fluid obtained from donor mice inoculated repeatedly with CFA. In contrast to the capacity of CFA-immune serum from isologous donors to suppress irradiation-enhanced IgE responses of low responder mice, similar sera or ascites fluids were ineffective in suppressing irradiation-enhanced responses of high responder BALB/c or (SJL x BALB/c)F 1 hybrid mice

  13. Perceived Immune Status and Sleep: A Survey among Dutch Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk A. M. T. Donners

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced immune functioning may have a negative impact on sleep and health, and vice versa. A survey among Dutch young adults (18–35 years old was administered to collect information on perception of reduced immunity and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep duration, and quality. Sleep disorders were assessed with the SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales of sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder, and daily functioning. Dutch young adults (N = 574 completed the survey. Among them, subjects (N = 209; 36.4% reported perceived reduced immunity. Relative to those with a normal immune status, subjects reporting reduced immunity had significantly higher scores (p=0.0001 on sleep apnea (2.6 versus 3.6, insomnia (5.1 versus 6.8, and circadian rhythm disorder (2.1 versus 2.7. Subjects reporting reduced immunity also had significantly poorer daily functioning scores (5.4 versus 7.6, p=0.0001. No differences were observed in total sleep time, but those reporting reduced immunity had significantly poorer ratings of sleep quality (6.8 versus 7.2, p=0.0001. Our findings suggest that perceived reduced immunity is associated with sleep disturbances, impaired daily functioning, and a poorer sleep quality. Experimental studies including the assessment of immune biomarkers and objective measures of sleep (polysomnography should confirm the current observations.

  14. The impact of altering filling pressures in diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy on the procedure completion rates and associated pain: a randomised double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Hisham M; Hassan, AbdelGany M A

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have compared different distension media and analgesics to optimise the efficiency of outpatient hysteroscopy. However, studies comparing different uterine filling pressures are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare different uterine filling pressures during diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy in an attempt to find the optimal pressure allowing adequate visualisation while minimising pain and increasing patient satisfaction. This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial. A total of 240 women who had diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy were randomly divided into three equal groups: the uterine filling pressure was 30 mm Hg in group 1, 50 mm Hg in group 2 and 80 mm Hg in group 3. The primary outcome was adequate visualisation, and secondary outcomes were the proportion of completed procedures, pain perceived during the procedure, immediately after the procedure and 30 min later. Adequate visualisation was lower in group 1 (88.7% vs 97.5% and 98.7%; P = 0.009), but was not different between groups 2 and 3 (P > 0.999). The proportion of completed procedures was not different among the groups. There was a progressive increase in pain scores from the lower to the higher pressure groups during the procedure, immediately after the procedure and 30 min after completing the procedure. Uterine filling pressure of 50 mm Hg was associated with better visualisation than 30 mm Hg and lower pain scores than that of 80 mmHg with no difference in the proportion of completed procedures. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Completely practicable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, P.; Preisig, H.

    2005-01-01

    This interview with Peter Hartmann and Hansruedi Preisig takes a look at the question why today's housing should be mechanically ventilated, why in spite of this such installations are quite few and far between and what must be done to change the situation. Questions covered include the reasons why housing should be equipped with such systems, the damage due to condensation and dampness resulting from too low an air-exchange rate. The use of such ventilation systems in northern countries is discussed and the history of efforts made in this direction in Switzerland is reviewed. The reasons for the limited success of fan-assisted balanced ventilation are reviewed. Health aspects are also discussed as are the main arguments for the installation of such systems in modern housing. The weak points of present day systems are looked at and measures to be taken are discussed. Finally, the role of architects in propagating the idea of fan-assisted balanced ventilation is discussed

  16. U.S. Immunization program adult immunization activities and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, LaDora O.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Graitcer, Samuel B.; Lamont, Brock

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adults are recommended to receive vaccines based on their age, medical conditions, prior vaccinations, occupation and lifestyle. However, adult immunization coverage is low in the United States and lags substantially below Healthy People 2020 goals. To assess activities and resources designated for adult immunization programs by state and local health department immunization programs in the United States, we analyzed 2012 and 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Program Annual Reports and Progress Assessments (PAPA) survey of CDC-funded immunization programs. Fifty-six of 64 funded US immunization programs' responses were included in the analysis. Eighty-two percent of (n = 46) programs reported having a designated adult immunization coordinator in 2012 and 73% (n = 41) in 2013. Of the 46 coordinators reported in 2012, 30% (n = 14) spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities, and only 24% (n = 10) of the 41 adult coordinators in 2013 spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities. In 2012, 23% (n = 13) of the 56 programs had a separate immunization coalition for adults and 68% (n = 38) included adult issues in their overall immunization program coalition. In 2013, 25% (n = 14) had a separate adult immunization coalition while 57% (n = 32) incorporated adult immunizations into their overall immunization program coalition. The results indicate substantial variation across the US in public health infrastructure to support adult immunizations. Continued assessment of adult immunization resources and activities will be important in improving adult immunization coverage levels though program support. With many programs having limited resources dedicated to improving adult immunization rates in the in US, efforts by the health departments to collaborate with providers and other partners in their jurisdictions to increase awareness, increase the use of proven strategies to improve

  17. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  18. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  19. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  20. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  1. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. II. Strain-specificity of the suppressive activity of serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune low responder mouse donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.H.; Tung, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    IgE antibody production in mice of high and low IgE responder phenotypes, respectively, can be appreciably enhanced in magnitude after low-dose whole-body x irradiation. Such enhanced responses, as well as adoptive secondary IgE responses, can be markedly suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum in low responder strains, but not in high responder strains. The studies presented here demonstrate that the suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum on IgE antibody production is strain specific. This is true even in reciprocal combinations of low IgE responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice, in which it was shown that serum capable of suppressing mice of the isologous strain was ineffective in diminishing IgE antibody production in the other low responder strain. Absence of suppressive activity in CFA-immune sera obtained from H-2 haplotypes while sharing many similarities in the background genome and, conversely, effective suppressive activity of H-2 congenic donor sera when H-2-identities between donor and recipient mice existed, strongly suggested a role, at least in part, of H-2 genes in dictating the strain specificity of such suppressive activity. Additional experiments provided evidence for a possible role of macrophages in catabolism of the active molecules in CFA-immune sera. These observations, together with those presented in the preceding paper, may provide valuable insight toward successful development of appropriate manipulations that could ultimately convert high IgE responder individuals into low responders

  2. Cognate CD4 T-cell licensing of dendritic cells heralds anti-CMV CD8 T-cell immunity after human allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinsenberg, T W H; Spel, Lotte; Jansen, M; Koning, D; de Haar, C; Plantinga, M; Scholman, R; van Loenen, M M; Nierkens, S; Boon, L; van Baarle, D; Heemskerk, M H M; Boelens, J J; Boes, M

    2014-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is hazardous to patients undergoing allogeneic cord-blood transplantation (CBT), lowering survival rates by approximately 25%. While antiviral treatment ameliorates viremia, complete viral control requires CD8(+) T-cell-driven immunity. Mouse studies

  3. High rates of chronic HBV genotype E infection in a group of migrants in Italy from West Africa: Virological characteristics associated with poor immune clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnino, Vincenzo; Salpini, Romina; Maffongelli, Gaetano; Battisti, Arianna; Fabeni, Lavinia; Piermatteo, Lorenzo; Colagrossi, Luna; Fini, Vanessa; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Andreoni, Massimo; Svicher, Valentina; Sarmati, Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E almost exclusively occurs in African people, and its presence is more commonly associated with the development of chronic HBV (CHB) infection. Moreover, an epidemiological link has been found between the distribution of HBV genotype E infection and African countries with high incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma. As part of a programme for the health assessment of migrants, we evaluated 358 young African subjects for HBV infection; 58.1% (208/358) were positive for an HBV marker, and 54 (25.5%) had CHB. Eighty-one percent of the CHB subjects were infected with HBV genotype E, with a median serum HBV-DNA of 3.2 (IQR: 2.7-3.6) logIU/ml. All patients had high serum HBsAg titres (10,899 [range 5,359-20,272] IU/ml), and no correlation was found between HBsAg titres and HBV-DNA plasma levels. RT sequence analysis showed the presence of a number of immune escape mutations: strains from all of the patients had a serine at HBsAg position 140; 3 also had T116N, Y100C, and P142L+S143L substitutions; and 1 had a G112R substitution. Six (18%) patients had stop-codons at position 216. In 5 of the 9 (26.5%) CHB patients, ultrasound liver biopsy, quantification of total intrahepatic HBV-DNA and cccDNA, and RT/HBsAg sequencing were performed. The median (IQR) total intrahepatic HBV-DNA was 766 (753-1139) copies/1000 cells, and the median (IQR) cccDNA was 17 (10-27) copies/1000 cells. Correlations were observed for both total intrahepatic HBV-DNA and cccDNA with serum HBV-DNA, while no correlation was found for the HBsAg titres. A difference of 2.5/1,000 nucleotides was found in the HBsAg sequences obtained from plasma and from liver tissue, with 3 cases of possible viral anatomical compartmentalization. In conclusion, a high rate of CHB infection due to the E genotype was demonstrated in a group of immigrants from Western Africa. An analysis of the viral strains obtained showed the virological characteristics of immune escape, which may be the

  4. Improved constraints on in situ rates and on quantification of complete chloroethene degradation from stable carbon isotope mass balances in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Elsner, Martin; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Atteia, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Spills of chloroethenes (CEs) at industrial and urban sites can create groundwater plumes in which tetrachloro- and trichloroethene sequentially degrade to dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene, or ethane under reducing conditions. For detoxification, degradation must go beyond VC. Assessments based on ethene and ethane, however, are difficult because these products are volatile, may stem from alternative sources, can be further transformed and are not always monitored. To alternatively quantify degradation beyond VC, stable carbon isotope mass balances have been proposed where concentration-weighted CE isotope ratios are summed up and compared to the original source isotope ratio. Reported assessments, however, have provided not satisfactorily quantified results entailing greatly differing upper and lower estimates. This work proposes an integrative approach to better constrain the extent of total chloroethene degradation in groundwater samples. It is based on fitting of measured concentration and compound-specific stable carbon isotope data to an analytical reactive transport equation simulating steady-state plumes in two dimensions using an EXCEL spreadsheet. The fitting also yields estimates of degradation rates, of source width and of dispersivities. The approach is validated using two synthetic benchmark cases where the true extent of degradation is well known, and using data from two real field cases from literature.

  5. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  6. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  7. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  8. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system-with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology-immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer.

  9. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system—with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology—immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer

  10. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  11. A modified live canine parvovirus vaccine. II. Immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C; Pollock, R V

    1983-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of an attenuated canine parvovirus (A-CPV) vaccine was evaluated in both experimental and in field dogs. After parenteral vaccination, seronegative dogs developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers as early as postvaccination (PV) day 2. Maximal titers occurred within 1 week. Immunity was associated with the persistence of HI antibody titers (titers greater than 80) that endured at least 2 years. Immune dogs challenged with virulent CPV did not shed virus in their feces. The A-CPV vaccine did not cause illness alone or in combination with living canine distemper (CD) and canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, nor did it interfere with the immune response to the other viruses. A high rate (greater than 98%) of immunity was engendered in seronegative pups. In contrast, maternal antibody interfered with the active immune response to the A-CPV. More than 95% of the dogs with HI titers less than 10 responded to the vaccine, but only 50% responded when titers were approximately 20. No animal with a titer greater than 80 at the time of vaccination became actively immunized. Susceptibility to virulent CPV during that period when maternal antibody no longer protects against infection, but still prevents active immunization, is the principal cause of vaccinal failure in breeding kennels where CPV is present. Reduction, but not complete elimination, of CPV disease in large breeding kennels occurred within 1-2 months of instituting an A-CPV vaccination program.

  12. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  13. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  14. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  15. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumina Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12–23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Result Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Conclusion Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating

  16. Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Andrew K; Mugnai, Kristen

    2015-02-10

    In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative bacterial agent of canine Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted following prolonged attachment and feeding of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. Its prevention is predicated upon tick-avoidance, effective on-animal tick control and effective immunization strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize dogs that are newly seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in relation to compliant use of a recombinant OspA canine Lyme borreliosis vaccine. Specifically, Preventive Fractions (PF) and Risk Ratios (RR) associated with the degree of vaccine compliancy (complete versus incomplete) are determined. 6,202 dogs were tested over a five year period in a single veterinary hospital utilizing a non-adjuvanted, recombinant OspA vaccine according to a 0, 1, 6 month (then yearly) protocol. Rates of newly acquired "Lyme-positive" antibody test results were compared between protocol compliant and poorly compliant (incompletely and/or non-vaccinated) dogs. Over the five-year span, one percent (range 0.39 - 1.3) of protocol compliant vaccinated, previously antibody negative dogs became seropositive for infection. Approximately twenty-one percent (range 16.8 - 33.3) of incompletely vaccinated dogs became positive for infection-specific antibodies. The Preventative Fraction for testing positive for antibodies specific for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in any given year based on optimal vaccine compliance was, on average, 95.3% (range 93.29 - 98.08). The Risk Ratio for becoming infected with Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in any given year if vaccine non-compliant was 21.41 (range 14.9 - 52.1). There was a high statistically significant relationship (p = <0.0001) in the observed data in terms of vaccination protocol compliance and the probability of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in each of the five years under study. The recombinant outer surface protein A (rOspA) vaccine for dogs is highly

  17. Using motivational interviewing in the community pharmacy to increase adult immunization readiness: A pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Amber; Butler, Michell; Chapman, Liza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the use of motivational interviewing (MI) in the community pharmacy improves immunization readiness and rates for hepatitis B, hepatitis A/B combination, herpes zoster, pneumococcal, and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis immunizations. Kroger Pharmacy. Grocery store pharmacies located in the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area offering a variety of patient care services, including medication therapy management and immunizations. Patients were identified during workflow, and MI encounters were initiated to those eligible to receive hepatitis A/B combination, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, pneumococcal and/or tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines. Following each encounter, pharmacists completed patient demographic information and responses to 5-point Likert scale questions assessing patient readiness to receive immunizations at the beginning and end of the encounter, and if follow-up occurred, 5-point Likert scale questions assessing pharmacists' perception of using MI. Immunization rates at the intervention site did not significantly increase due to the small sample size and other project limitations. Patient readiness to receive immunizations improved from the beginning to the end of the MI encounter and was statistically significant for hepatitis B (P = 0.001) and pneumococcal (P = 0.033) vaccines. Pharmacists agreed MI was an effective tool to discuss immunizations, agreed they could communicate more effectively about immunizations, and agreed MI could be incorporated into the community pharmacy workflow. Motivational interviewing may be a useful tool for community pharmacists to use in discussing immunizations. Larger studies need to be completed to determine the impact MI could have on immunization readiness and rates in the community pharmacy.

  18. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fully immunized child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it ...

  20. Hepatitis A and B screening and vaccination rates among patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jonathan C; Ackerman, Kimberly; Strain, Sasha C; Ahmed, Syed T; de Los Santos, Mario J; Sears, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are recommended for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), yet implementation of these recommendations is lacking. This study reviewed HAV and HBV antibody testing and vaccination status of patients with CLD. In 2008, we began using pre-printed liver order sets, which included vaccination options. We compared Scott & White liver clinic CLD patient records from 2005 (238) with patient records from 2008 (792). Screening rates for immunity and vaccination rates of those lacking immunity were calculated. In 2005, 66% of CLD patients were screened for HAV immunity. In 2008, 56% of CLD patients were screened. The HAV vaccination completion rate was 37% in 2005, while in 2008, the rate was 46%. In 2005, 66% of CLD patients were screened for HBV immunity; in 2008, 56 % CLD patients were screened. The HBV vaccination completion rate was 26% in 2005 compared with 36% in 2008. Although there was a lower percentage of screening in 2008, the overall number of patients tripled between 2005 and 2008. There was a significant increase in the total number of patients screened and vaccinated in 2008. Some physicians may have vaccinated their patients without checking for immunity. In January 2008, we implemented pre-printed order sets with checkboxes to help remind providers to order labs to screen for immunity against HAV and HBV and to order vaccinations for those who lacked immunity. The use of these sets may have aided in the increase of vaccination completion rates.

  1. The impact of an immunization check-up at a pharmacist-provided employee health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amy; Brookhart, Andrea L; Goode, Jean-Venable Kelly R

    To determine which types of vaccine recommendations were accepted and acted upon by patients after an immunization check-up at a pharmacist-provided employee health screening, and to evaluate if there was a difference between influenza and non-influenza vaccines. Retrospective, observational. Supermarket chain. Employees and covered spouses. Immunization check-up. Acceptance rate of immunization recommendation. This retrospective observational study evaluated the impact of an immunization check-up in individuals who participated in one of the 252 pharmacist-provided health screenings in central Virginia in 2015. All employee health screenings were completed from July 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015. Because immunization status was assessed 6 months after each person received his or her health screening, data were collected from January 1, 2016, to March 30, 2016, and analyzed to collect the number and type of vaccines recommended during the immunization check-up. Each eligible participant's profile was evaluated to determine if he or she received the vaccines at any Kroger pharmacy within 6 months. Patient identifiers were not collected; however, demographics including age, relevant disease state history, and smoking status were collected with immunization recommendations and uptake. Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. A total of 349 immunization recommendations were made, including 248 influenza; 42 pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV23); 40 tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap); 12 herpes zoster; 4 pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13); and 3 hepatitis B. Both influenza and PCV13 had acceptance rates of 50%, and herpes zoster, Tdap, hepatitis B, and PPSV23 had 42%, 35%, 33%, and 24% acceptance rates, respectively. Influenza recommendations had a 50% acceptance rate compared with a 32% acceptance rate of non-influenza recommendations (P = 0.002). An immunization check-up performed at a pharmacist-provided employee health screening can lead to

  2. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  3. Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates.Results: Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients with the pooled data from the nine

  4. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  5. Improving vaccine registries through mobile technologies: a vision for mobile enhanced Immunization information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine M; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2016-01-01

    Immunization registries or information systems are critical to improving the quality and evaluating the ongoing success of immunization programs. However, the completeness of these systems is challenged by a myriad of factors including the fragmentation of vaccine administration, increasing mobility of individuals, new vaccine development, use of multiple products, and increasingly frequent changes in recommendations. Mobile technologies could offer a solution, which mitigates some of these challenges. Engaging individuals to have more control of their own immunization information using their mobile devices could improve the timeliness and accuracy of data in central immunization information systems. Other opportunities presented by mobile technologies that could be exploited to improve immunization information systems include mobile reporting of adverse events following immunization, the capacity to scan 2D barcodes, and enabling bidirectional communication between individuals and public health officials. Challenges to utilizing mobile solutions include ensuring privacy of data, access, and equity concerns, obtaining consent and ensuring adoption of technology at sufficiently high rates. By empowering individuals with their own health information, mobile technologies can also serve as a mechanism to transfer immunization information as individuals cross local, regional, and national borders. Ultimately, mobile enhanced immunization information systems can help realize the goal of the individual, the healthcare provider, and public health officials always having access to the same immunization information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  7. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  8. Immunization history of children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Ing Shian; deBruyn, Jennifer C C; Wrobel, Iwona

    2013-04-01

    Protection against vaccine-preventable diseases is important in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to frequent immunosuppressive therapy use. The chronic relapsing nature and treatment regimen of IBD may necessitate modified timing of immunizations. To evaluate the completeness of immunizations in children with IBD. Immunization records of all children with IBD followed at the Alberta Children's Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) were reviewed. For children with incomplete immunization according to the province of Alberta schedule, the reasons for such were clarified. Demographic data and age at diagnosis were also collected. Immunization records were obtained from 145 (79%) children with IBD. Fifteen children had incomplete routine childhood immunizations, including two with no previous immunizations. The most common incomplete immunizations included hepatitis B (n=9), diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis at 14 to 16 years of age (n=7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio at four to six years of age (n=6). The reasons for incomplete immunization included use of immunosuppressive therapy at time of scheduled immunization; IBD-related symptoms at time of scheduled immunization; parental refusal; recent move from elsewhere with different immunization schedule; unawareness of routine immunization; and needle phobia. Although the majority of children with IBD had complete childhood immunizations, suboptimal immunizations were present in 10%. With increasing use of immunosuppressive therapy in IBD, physicians caring for children with IBD must periodically evaluate immunization status and ensure the completeness of childhood immunizations.

  9. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  10. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  11. Evaluation of Different Parameters of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples: Humoral Response Potentially Implicated in Modulating Transmission Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the HIV/AIDS pandemic still progresses, understanding the mechanisms governing viral transmission as well as protection from HIV acquisition is fundamental. In this context, cohorts of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples (SDC represent a unique tool. The present study was aimed to evaluate specific parameters of innate, cellular and humoral immune responses in SDC. Specifically, plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines, HIV-specific T-cell responses, gp120-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, and HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC activity were assessed in nine HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (ESN and their corresponding HIV seropositive partners (HIV+-P, in eighteen chronically infected HIV subjects (C, nine chronically infected subjects known to be HIV transmitters (CT and ten healthy HIV− donors (HD. Very low magnitude HIV-specific cellular responses were found in two out of six ESN. Interestingly, HIV+-P had the highest ADCC magnitude, the lowest IgA levels and the highest IgG/IgA ratio, all compared to CT. Positive correlations between CD4+ T-cell counts and both IgG/IgA ratios and %ADCC killing uniquely distinguished HIV+-P. Additionally, evidence of IgA interference with ADCC responses from HIV+-P and CT is provided. These data suggest for the first time a potential role of ADCC and/or gp120-specific IgG/IgA balance in modulating heterosexual transmission. In sum, this study provides key information to understand the host factors that influence viral transmission, which should be considered in both the development of prophylactic vaccines and novel immunotherapies for HIV-1 infection.

  12. Puerto Rican kindergartners' self-worth as coded from the Attachment Story Completion Task: correlated with other self-evaluation measures and ratings of child behavior toward mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L

    2013-01-01

    This multi-method multi-informant study assessed 105 Puerto Rican kindergartners' sense of self-worth in family relationships as coded from their responses to the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). The ASCT scores were compared with responses to two other age-appropriate self-evaluation measures (the Cassidy Puppet Interview and the Pictorial Scales of Social Acceptance). Correlations of children's scores on the three self-measures with maternal ratings of the mother-child relationship and teacher ratings of the child's prosocial behavior with peers were then compared. ASCT self-worth and Puppet Interview scores were strongly correlated with each other and both were modestly related to the pictorial social acceptance scales. All three measures were significantly associated with maternal and teacher reports of child behavior, but the strongest correlations were obtained with the ASCT. Coding the ASCT in terms of self-worth appears to be a promising approach for evaluating young children's (vicariously expressed) self-worth in family relationships.

  13. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  14. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  15. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  16. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  17. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glenthøj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.

  18. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner

    2016-01-01

    diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients......-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...... mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS....

  19. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

  2. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  3. Study of Patterns and Markers of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Progression and Unemployment Rate among Patients from Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    GHONEIM, FAIKA M.; RAOUF, MAY M.; ELSHAER, NOHA S.; ABDELHAMID, SARAH M.; NOOR ELDEEN, REEM A.

    2017-01-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of ...

  4. Overcoming Challenges to Childhood Immunizations Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Svapna S; Conway, James H

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, preventing both mortality and morbidity. However, overall immunization rates are still below the 90% target for Healthy People 2020. There remain significant disparities in immunization rates between children of different racial/ethnic groups, as well as among economically disadvantaged populations. There are systemic issues and challenges in providing access to immunization opportunities. In addition, vaccine hesitancy contributes to underimmunization. Multiple strategies are needed to improve immunization rates, including improving access to vaccines and minimizing financial barriers to families. Vaccine status should be assessed and vaccines given at all possible opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paper- or Web-Based Questionnaire Invitations as a Method for Data Collection: Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Differences in Response Rate, Completeness of Data, and Financial Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jonas Fynboe; Huibers, Linda; Christensen, Bo; Christensen, Morten Bondo

    2018-01-23

    Paper questionnaires have traditionally been the first choice for data collection in research. However, declining response rates over the past decade have increased the risk of selection bias in cross-sectional studies. The growing use of the Internet offers new ways of collecting data, but trials using Web-based questionnaires have so far seen mixed results. A secure, online digital mailbox (e-Boks) linked to a civil registration number became mandatory for all Danish citizens in 2014 (exemption granted only in extraordinary cases). Approximately 89% of the Danish population have a digital mailbox, which is used for correspondence with public authorities. We aimed to compare response rates, completeness of data, and financial costs for different invitation methods: traditional surface mail and digital mail. We designed a cross-sectional comparative study. An invitation to participate in a survey on help-seeking behavior in out-of-hours care was sent to two groups of randomly selected citizens from age groups 30-39 and 50-59 years and parents to those aged 0-4 years using either traditional surface mail (paper group) or digital mail sent to a secure online mailbox (digital group). Costs per respondent were measured by adding up all costs for handling, dispatch, printing, and work salary and then dividing the total figure by the number of respondents. Data completeness was assessed by comparing the number of missing values between the two methods. Socioeconomic variables (age, gender, family income, education duration, immigrant status, and job status) were compared both between respondents and nonrespondents and within these groups to evaluate the degree of selection bias. A total 3600 citizens were invited in each group; 1303 (36.29%) responded to the digital invitation and 1653 (45.99%) to the paper invitation (difference 9.66%, 95% CI 7.40-11.92). The costs were €1.51 per respondent for the digital group and €15.67 for paper group respondents. Paper

  6. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. Immune functions in crustaceans: lessons from flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stet, R.J.M.; Arts, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years insects, notably Drosophila, have emerged as a popular model for studying immune responses to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the availability of the complete genome sequence, genome-wide scans of immune responses have been performed using microarray analyses. These analyses

  8. The impact of a knowledge translation intervention employing educational outreach and a point-of-care reminder tool vs standard lay health worker training on tuberculosis treatment completion rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; van Lettow, Monique; Makwakwa, Austine; Chan, Adrienne K; Hamid, Jemila S; Kawonga, Harry; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Schull, Michael J; van Schoor, Vanessa; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Barnsley, Jan; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-09-07

    Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact. The goals of this study are to improve TB care provided by LHWs in Malawi by refining, implementing, and evaluating a knowledge translation strategy designed to address a recognized gap in LHWs' TB and job-specific knowledge and, through this, to improve patient outcomes. We are employing a mixed-methods design that includes a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation using qualitative methods. Trial participants will include all health centers providing TB care in four districts in the South East Zone of Malawi. The intervention employs educational outreach, a point-of-care reminder tool, and a peer support network. The primary outcome is proportion of treatment successes, defined as the total of TB patients cured or completing treatment, with outcomes taken from Ministry of Health treatment records. With an alpha of 0.05, power of 0.80, a baseline treatment success of 0.80, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.1 based on our pilot study, and an estimated 100 clusters (health centers providing TB care), a minimum of 6 patients per cluster is required to detect a clinically significant 0.10 increase in the proportion of treatment successes. Our process evaluation will include interviews with LHWs and patients, and a document analysis of LHW training logs, quarterly peer trainer meetings, and mentorship meeting notes. An estimated 10-15 LHWs and 10-15 patients will be required to reach saturation in each of 2 planned interview

  9. Cellular immune therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although chemotherapy can induce complete responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is not considered curative. Treated patients generally develop recurrent disease requiring additional therapy, which can cause worsening immune dysfunction, myelosuppression, and selection for

  10. Fully immunized child: coverage, timing and sequencing of routine immunization in an urban poor settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas; Ravn, Henrik; Mwaniki, Peter; Echoka, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization. This paper documents the levels of coverage, timing and sequencing of routine childhood vaccines. The study was conducted between 2007 and 2014 in two informal urban settlements in Nairobi. A total of 3856 children, aged 12-23 months and having a vaccination card seen were included in analysis. Vaccination dates recorded from the cards seen were used to define full immunization coverage, timeliness and sequencing. Proportions, medians and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess and describe the levels of full immunization coverage, vaccination delays and sequencing. The findings indicate that 67 % of the children were fully immunized by 12 months of age. Missing measles and third doses of polio and pentavalent vaccine were the main reason for not being fully immunized. Delays were highest for third doses of polio and pentavalent and measles. About 22 % of fully immunized children had vaccines in an out-of-sequence manner with 18 % not receiving pentavalent together with polio vaccine as recommended. Results show higher levels of missed opportunities and low coverage of routine childhood vaccinations given at later ages. New strategies are needed to enable health care providers and parents/guardians to work together to increase the levels of completion of all required vaccinations. In particular, more focus is needed on vaccines given in multiple doses (polio, pentavalent and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines).

  11. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  12. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  13. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  14. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  15. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  16. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  17. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F A; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-02-25

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 children 12-23 months. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS software package. Results showed that vaccination coverage as revealed by showed vaccination card alone was 63.4% while it was increased to 82.2% when both history and cards were used. Some (5.6%) of children were completely non-vaccinated. The factors contributing to the low vaccination coverage were found to be knowledge problems of mothers (51%), access problems (15%) and attitude problems (34%). Children whose mother attended antenatal care and those from urban areas were more likely to complete their immunization schedule. In conclusion, the vaccination coverage in the studied area was low compared to the national coverage. Efforts to increase vaccination converge and completion of the scheduled plan should focus on addressing concerns of caregivers particularly side effects and strengthening the Expanded Programmer on Immunization services in rural areas.

  18. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaya, Kazuhiko; Kuniki, Hiromichi; Neki, Miyuki

    1978-01-01

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F 1 -type cells. F 1 -type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F 1 -skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F 1 -type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brendon J Coventry, Martin L AshdownDiscipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained?Over some 20 years, realization that (1 chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2 the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of "final common pathways" of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This "missing" aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer

  20. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  1. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  4. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, Tim W E [Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 26 Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1411 (United States)

    2007-03-23

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction.

  5. Population growth changes targets for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, S; John, A M

    1995-01-01

    The faster the rate of population growth in developing countries, the less likely it is that current protocols for immunization against measles, rubella, and mumps will eradicate these childhood diseases. Standard protocols (timing, percentage of children to be immunized) do not take into account the rapid rates of population growth in developing countries (3.0% per year on average in sub-Saharan Africa and 2.0% in the rest of Africa, in Latin America, and in Asia, excluding China). Most public health planning models in this area were created based on static infant populations. The World Health Organization advises vaccinating at least 85% of children aged 6 to 9 months, a 3-month immunization window during which maternal antibodies are low (so the vaccination takes) and herd immunity is high (the probability that a child will encounter the disease is low because most children have been immunized). In practice, the immunization window in developing countries is 1 year or more. More susceptible children are present than assumed by the models. A larger number of susceptible babies are added each year during rapid population growth. As the age range for immunization widens, a higher percentage of children must be vaccinated to eradicate disease (chart). The proportion of each birth cohort that must be immunized rises as the population growth rate increases. At zero population growth, 94% must be vaccinated; at population growth rates greater than 3%, 98% must be vaccinated.

  6. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV

  7. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  9. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  10. Organizational culture influences health care workers' influenza immunization behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Nicole; Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Crosson, Jesse C; Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara; Winston, Carla A

    2009-03-01

    Low rates of influenza immunization among health care workers (HCWs) pose a potential health risk to patients in primary care practices. Despite previous educational efforts and programs to reduce financial barriers, HCW influenza immunization rates remain low. Variation in practice-level organizational culture may affect immunization rates. To explore this relationship, we examined organizational cultures and HCWs' influenza immunization behaviors in three family medicine practices. We used a multi-method comparative case study. A field researcher used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews to collect data in each practice in November-December 2003. A diverse team used grounded theory to analyze text data. Organizational culture varied among practices and differing HCW immunization rates were observed. The most structured and business-like practice achieved immunization of all HCWs, while the other two practices exhibited greater variation in HCW immunization rates. Physicians in the practices characterized as chaotic/disorganized or divided were immunized at higher rates than other members of the practices. In these practices, organizational culture was associated with varying rates of influenza immunization for HCWs, especially among nonphysicians. Addressing elements of organizational culture such as beliefs regarding influenza immunization and office policies may facilitate the immunization of all staff members.

  11. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  12. Experiences from polio supplementary immunization activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... lessons from supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted in the State that will be useful to ... Poliovirus invades the central nervous system and causes ..... The vaccine wastage rate of 6.6% was slightly higher.

  13. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  14. Role of maternally derived immunity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P; Nayak, S K

    2009-08-01

    Maternal immunity is of paramount importance for protection of young ones at early stage of life since the immune factors of an immunocompetent female are transferred transplacentally or through colostrum, milk or yolk to an immunologically naive neonate. Both innate and adaptive type of immunity are transferred of from mother to offspring in fishes. These factors include immunoglobulin (Ig)/antibody, complement factors, lysozymes, protease inhibitors like alpha macroglobulin, different types of lectins and serine proteases like molecules. Among different types of Ig viz. IgM, IgD, IgT/IgZ and IgM-IgZ chimera types, IgM is present in most of the teleostean fishes. In teleosts, IgM either as a reduced/breakdown product or monomeric form is usually transferred to the offsprings. The maternally derived IgM usually persists for a limited duration, exhausts within the completion of yolk absorption process, and completely disappears thereafter during larval stages. Maternal transfer of immunity which provides defense to embryo and larvae depends upon the health as well as the immune status of brood fish. The overall health status of brood fish can affect breeding performances, quality seed production and protection of offsprings. However, factors such as age, maturation, reproductive behaviour and nutrition (micro and macro-nutrients) may affect the immunity in brood fishes. Besides these, seasonal changes such as photoperiods, temperature, adverse environmental conditions, and stress conditions like handling, crowding, and water pollution/contamination can also affect the immunity of brood fishes. The maintenance of the brood stock immunity at high level during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, is utmost important for reducing mortalities at larval/post larval stages through maximum/optimum transfer of maternal immunity. Brood stock immunization prior to breeding as well as selective breeding among the disease resistant families might be the ideal criteria for producing

  15. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  16. Immunophenotypes and Immune Markers Associated with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD2+, CD34+, and CD56+ immunophenotypes are associated with poor prognoses of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. The present study aimed to explore the role of APL immunophenotypes and immune markers as prognostic predictors on clinical outcomes. A total of 132 patients with de novo APL were retrospectively analyzed. Immunophenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Clinical features, complete remission (CR, relapse, and five-year overall survival (OS rate were assessed and subjected to multivariate analyses. The CD13+CD33+HLA-DR-CD34− immunophenotype was commonly observed in patients with APL. Positive rates for other APL immune markers including cMPO, CD117, CD64, and CD9 were 68.7%, 26%, 78.4%, and 96.6%, respectively. When compared with patients with CD2− APL, patients with CD2+ APL had a significantly higher incidence of early death (50% versus 15.7%; P=0.016, lower CR rate (50% versus 91.1%; P=0.042, and lower five-year OS rate (41.7% versus 74.2%; P=0.018. White blood cell (WBC count before treatment was found to be the only independent risk factor of early death, CR failure, and five-year mortality rate. Flow cytometric immunophenotype analysis can facilitate prompt APL diagnosis. Multivariate analysis has demonstrated that WBC count before treatment is the only known independent risk factor that predicts prognosis for APL in this study population.

  17. Deceptive Imprinting and Immune Refocusing in Vaccine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of the world’s most widespread and problematic pathogens evade host immune responses by inducing strain specific immunity to immunodominant epitopes with high mutation rates capable of altering antigenic profiles. The immune system appears to be decoyed into reacting to these immunod...

  18. Imbalanced immune homeostasis in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  20. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performance...

  1. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  2. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  3. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  4. A complete woman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    treated me like a son in the way he encouraged my education, while my mother ... cine gives me a lot of satisfaction when I see my patients getting cured. Teaching ... thing in life as a complete woman in different roles – daughter, wife, mother ...

  5. Factors influencing completion of multi-dose vaccine schedules in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Gallagher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of multiple dose vaccine schedules is crucial to ensure a protective immune response, and maximise vaccine cost-effectiveness. While barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have recently been reviewed, there is no comprehensive review of factors influencing subsequent adherence or completion, which is key to achieving vaccine effectiveness. This study identifies and summarises the literature on factors affecting completion of multi-dose vaccine schedules by adolescents. Methods Ten online databases and four websites were searched (February 2014. Studies with analysis of factors predicting completion of multi-dose vaccines were included. Study participants within 9–19 years of age were included in the review. The defined outcome was completion of the vaccine series within 1 year among those who received the first dose. Results Overall, 6159 abstracts were screened, and 502 full texts were reviewed. Sixty one studies were eligible for this review. All except two were set in high-income countries. Included studies evaluated human papillomavirus vaccine, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and varicella vaccines. Reported vaccine completion rates, among those who initiated vaccination, ranged from 27 % to over 90 %. Minority racial or ethnic groups and inadequate health insurance coverage were risk factors for low completion, irrespective of initiation rates. Parental healthcare seeking behaviour was positively associated with completion. Vaccine delivery in schools was associated with higher completion than delivery in the community or health facilities. Gender, prior healthcare use and socio-economic status rarely remained significant risks or protective factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Almost all studies investigating factors affecting completion have been carried out in developed countries and investigate a limited range of variables. Increased understanding of barriers to completion in adolescents will

  6. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  8. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  9. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  11. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  12. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  13. An Immunization Strategy Based on Propagation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquity of smart phones, wearable equipment, and wireless sensors, the topologies of networks composed by them change along with time. The immunization strategies in which network immune nodes are chosen by analyzing the static aggregation network topologies have been challenged. The studies about interaction propagations between two pathogens show that the interaction can change propagation threshold and the final epidemic size of each other, which provides a new thinking of immunization method. The eradication or inhibition of the virus can be achieved through the spread of its opposite party. Here, we put forward an immunization strategy whose implementation does not depend on the analysis of network topology. The immunization agents are randomly placed on a few of individuals of network and spread out from these individuals on network in a propagation method. The immunization agents prevent virus infecting their habitat nodes with certain immune success rate. The analysis and simulation of evolution equation of the model show that immune propagation has a significant impact on the spread threshold and steady-state density of virus on a finite size of BA networks. Simulations on some real-world networks also suggest that the immunization strategy is feasible and effective.

  14. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  15. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  16. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  17. Genetic Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Catherine S; Giannakis, Marios; Wells, Daniel K; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Quist, Michael; Nowak, Jonathan A; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Inamura, Kentaro; Morikawa, Teppei; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Abril-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Connolly, Charles; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Geybels, Milan S; Grady, William M; Hsu, Li; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Kim, Yeon Joo; Krystofinski, Paige; Leiserson, Mark D M; Montoya, Dennis J; Nadel, Brian B; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pritchard, Colin C; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Quist, Elleanor H; Raphael, Ben J; Salipante, Stephen J; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Shinbrot, Eve; Shirts, Brian; Shukla, Sachet; Stanford, Janet L; Sun, Wei; Tsoi, Jennifer; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Catherine J; Yu, Ming; Zaidi, Syed H; Zaretsky, Jesse M; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Garraway, Levi A; Hudson, Thomas J; Fuchs, Charles S; Ribas, Antoni; Ogino, Shuji; Peters, Ulrike

    2018-06-01

    To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/β-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/β-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion. Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadjanyan Michael G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.

  19. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  1. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  2. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  3. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  4. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  5. Strengthening health system to improve immunization for migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.

  6. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  7. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  8. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  10. Spreading of multiple epidemics with cross immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Florian; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Pathogen-host relationships are the result of an ongoing coevolutionary race where the immune system of the host attempts to eliminate the pathogen, while the successful pathogen mutates to become invisible for the host's immune system. We here propose a minimal pathogen-host evolution model that takes into account cross immunization and allows for evolution of a spatially heterogeneous immune status of a population of hosts. With only the mutation rate as a determining parameter, the model allows us to produce an evolutionary tree of diseases which is highly branched, but hardly ever splits into separate long-lived trunks. Side branches remain short lived and seldom diverge to the extent of losing all cross immunizations.

  11. Global Immunizations: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E

    Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.

  12. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  13. Complete rerouting protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Protection of communication against network failures is becoming increasingly important and in this paper we present the most capacity efficient protection method possible, the complete rerouting protection method, when requiring that all communication should be restored in case of a single link...... network failure. We present a linear programming model of the protection method and a column generation algorithm. For 6 real world networks, the minimal restoration overbuild network capacity is between 13% and 78%. We further study the importance of the density of the network, derive analytical bounds...

  14. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  15. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  16. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune mechanisms in Babesia-infected animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The course of a Babesia infection depends on the species of host and parasite involved. Animals infected with virulent babesias may need chemotherapy before acquired immunity develops. Maintenance of immunity is not dependent on the presence of the parasite. Babesia infections are characteristically of long duration. The immune response to babesias includes both humoral and cellular components. Antibody levels detected in serodiagnostic tests do not relate to levels of resistance to the parasite. Some antibodies, however, appear to be protective. Antiparasitic antibodies may damage parasites in or outside the red cell and act as opsonins. T-cell-deficient and anti-lymphocyte-serum-treated rodents are more susceptible to rodent piroplasms indicating a role for T-cells as either helper cells and/or as mediators of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). There is indirect evidence of CMI, but the cell-mediated mechanisms involved in parasite killing are not known. In domestic animals immunity is largely species- and strain-specific. Antigenic variation by babesias occurs. In rodents, however, there is cross-immunity between different species of rodent piroplasms and between rodent piroplasms and some malaria parasites. Prior infection with agents such as BCG, and Corynebacterium parvum, gives mice non-specific resistance to rodent piroplasms possibly mediated through a soluble non-antibody factor. This factor may also be liberated during piroplasm infections and by being toxic to malaria parasites account for heterologous immunity. Active immunization against babesias has been achieved with avirulent strains, irradiated parasites and dead parasites in adjuvant. During Babesia infections the primary and, to a lesser degree, the secondary immune response to heterologous antigens can be depressed. Maximum depression coincides with peak parasitaemia when antigen priming may be abolished completely. Immunosuppression during Babesia infections can prolong or exacerbate concurrent

  18. Complete atrioventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Raffaele; Limongelli, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification). CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months) but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators) plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  19. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  20. Immunization registries in the EMR Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay A.; Palma, Jonathan P.; Pandher, Kiran K.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The CDC established a national objective to create population-based tracking of immunizations through regional and statewide registries nearly 2 decades ago, and these registries have increased coverage rates and reduced duplicate immunizations. With increased adoption of commercial electronic medical records (EMR), some institutions have used unidirectional links to send immunization data to designated registries. However, access to these registries within a vendor EMR has not been previously reported. Purpose: To develop a visually integrated interface between an EMR and a statewide immunization registry at a previously non-reporting hospital, and to assess subsequent changes in provider use and satisfaction. Methods: A group of healthcare providers were surveyed before and after implementation of the new interface. The surveys addressed access of the California Immunization Registry (CAIR), and satisfaction with the availability of immunization information. Information Technology (IT) teams developed a “smart-link” within the electronic patient chart that provides a single-click interface for visual integration of data within the CAIR database. Results: Use of the tool has increased in the months since its initiation, and over 20,000 new immunizations have been exported successfully to CAIR since the hospital began sharing data with the registry. Survey data suggest that providers find this tool improves workflow and overall satisfaction with availability of immunization data. (p=0.009). Conclusions: Visual integration of external registries into a vendor EMR system is feasible and improves provider satisfaction and registry reporting. PMID:23923096

  1. Immune evasion in ebolavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jonathan; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-02-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infects humans as well as several animal species. It can lead to a highly lethal disease, with mortality rates approaching 90% in primates. Recent advances have deepened our understanding of how this virus is able to prevent the development of protective immune responses. The EBOV genome encodes eight proteins, four of which were shown to interact with the host in ways that counteract the immune response. The viral protein 35 (VP35) is capable of capping dsRNA and interacts with IRF7 to prevent detection of the virus by immune cells. The main role of the soluble glycoprotein (sGP) is still unclear, but it is capable of subverting the anti-GP1,2 antibody response. The GP1,2 protein has shown anti-tetherin activity and the ability to hide cell-surface proteins. Finally, VP24 interferes with the production of interferons (IFNs) and with IFN signaling in infected cells. Taken together, these data point to extensive adaptation of EBOV to evade the immune system of dead end hosts. While our understanding of the interactions between the human and viral proteins increases, details of those interactions in other hosts remain largely unclear and represent a gap in our knowledge.

  2. GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fill in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

  3. Direct and Electronic Health Record Access to the Clinical Decision Support for Immunizations in the Minnesota Immunization Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sripriya; Bieringer, Aaron; Wallerius, Stephanie; Jensen, Daniel; Winden, Tamara; Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead

    2016-01-01

    Immunization information systems (IIS) are population-based and confidential computerized systems maintained by public health agencies containing individual data on immunizations from participating health care providers. IIS hold comprehensive vaccination histories given across providers and over time. An important aspect to IIS is the clinical decision support for immunizations (CDSi), consisting of vaccine forecasting algorithms to determine needed immunizations. The study objective was to analyze the CDSi presentation by IIS in Minnesota (Minnesota Immunization Information Connection [MIIC]) through direct access by IIS interface and by access through electronic health records (EHRs) to outline similarities and differences. The immunization data presented were similar across the three systems examined, but with varying ability to integrate data across MIIC and EHR, which impacts immunization data reconciliation. Study findings will lead to better understanding of immunization data display, clinical decision support, and user functionalities with the ultimate goal of promoting IIS CDSi to improve vaccination rates.

  4. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  5. Parametric Immunization in Bond Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Jorge; Fonseca, José

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the relative immunization performance of the multifactor parametric interest rate risk model based on the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson specification of the yield curve with that of standard benchmark investment strategies, using European Central Bank yield curve data in the period between January 3, 2005 and December 31, 2011. In addition, we examine the role of portfolio design in the success of immunization strategies, particularly the role of the maturit...

  6. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs.

  7. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  8. Sociocultural factors and the success of immunization in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, immunization has been considered as one of the effective methods of reducing child morbidity and mortality rate. In spite of the increasing immunization coverage worldwide, Kaduna state in Nigeria has remained one of the areas with high mortality rate as a result of vaccine preventable diseases. Research ...

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  10. Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressing, Maaike E; van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Hooykaas, Marjolein J G; Piersma, Sytse J; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to a large extent, the virus is not cleared. Instead, EBV establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes characterized by limited viral gene expression. For the production of new viral progeny, EBV reactivates from these latently infected cells. During the productive phase of infection, a repertoire of over 80 EBV gene products is expressed, presenting a vast number of viral antigens to the primed immune system. In particular the EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T lymphocytes can respond within hours, potentially destroying the virus-producing cells before viral replication is completed and viral particles have been released. Preceding the adaptive immune response, potent innate immune mechanisms provide a first line of defense during primary and recurrent infections. In spite of this broad range of antiviral immune effector mechanisms, EBV persists for life and continues to replicate. Studies performed over the past decades have revealed a wide array of viral gene products interfering with both innate and adaptive immunity. These include EBV-encoded proteins as well as small noncoding RNAs with immune-evasive properties. The current review presents an overview of the evasion strategies that are employed by EBV to facilitate immune escape during latency and productive infection. These evasion mechanisms may also compromise the elimination of EBV-transformed cells, and thus contribute to malignancies associated with EBV infection.

  11. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  12. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles Associated with a Combined Paralysis of Three Oculomotor Nerves: A Case Report. ... CASE DETAILS: A 40 years old patient was seen for a pain of the right side of the face and a complete immobility of the eyeball. The diagnosis of V1 shingles with a pan uveitis ...

  13. Hispanic mothers’ beliefs regarding HPV vaccine series completion in their adolescent daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Mu�oz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (∼39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers’ salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series. Thirty-two mothers of girls (aged 11–17) that had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, completed in-depth interviews. Six girls had received one dose of the HPV vaccine, 10 girls had received two doses, and 16 girls had received all three doses. The questions elicited salient: (i) experiential and instrumental attitudes (behavioral beliefs); (ii) supporters and non-supporters (normative beliefs) and (iii) facilitators and barriers (control beliefs). Directed content analysis was employed to select the most salient beliefs. Mothers: (i) expressed salient positive feelings (e.g. good, secure, happy and satisfied); (ii) believed that completing the series resulted in positive effects (e.g. protection, prevention); (iii) believed that the main supporters were themselves, their daughter’s father and doctor with some of their friends not supporting series completion and (iv) believed that vaccine affordability, information, transportation, ease of scheduling and keeping vaccination appointments and taking their daughter’s immunization card to appointments were facilitators. This study represents the first step in building theory-based framework of vaccine series completion for this population. The beliefs identified provide guidance for health care providers and intervention developers. PMID:28088755

  14. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  15. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  16. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  17. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  18. Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Harlene; Voelz, Kerstin

    2017-09-05

    Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection characterised by rapid filamentous growth, which leads to angioinvasion, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis. The high mortality rates (50-100%) associated with mucormycosis are reflective of not only the aggressive nature of the infection and the poor therapeutics currently employed, but also the failure of the human immune system to successfully clear the infection. Immune effector interaction with Mucorales is influenced by the developmental stage of the mucormycete spore. In a healthy immune environment, resting spores are resistant to phagocytic killing. Contrarily, swollen spores and hyphae are susceptible to damage and degradation by macrophages and neutrophils. Under the effects of immune suppression, the recruitment and efficacy of macrophage and neutrophil activity against mucormycetes is considerably reduced. Following penetration of the endothelial lining, Mucorales encounter platelets. Platelets adhere to both mucormycete spores and hyphae, and exhibit germination suppression and hyphal damage capacity in vitro. Dendritic cells are activated in response to Mucorales hyphae only, and induce adaptive immunity. It is crucial to further knowledge regarding our immune system's failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth under immunocompromised conditions, in order to understand mucormycosis pathogenicity and enhance therapeutic strategies for mucormycosis.

  19. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  20. Improving Immunizations in Children: A Clinical Break-even Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Spain, Chad; Wright, Hannah; Gren, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years of age at two urban family medicine residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention. Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic to decrease missed opportunities. An outreach intervention by letter, followed by telephone call reminders, was conducted to reach children under 3 years of age who were behind on recommended immunizations for age (total n=457; those behind on immunizations n=101). Immunization rates were monitored at 3 months following start of intervention. A break-even analysis to the clinics for the outreach intervention was performed. Immunizations were improved from a baseline of 75.1% (n=133) and 79.6% (n=223) at the two clinics to 92.1% (n=163) and 89.6% (n=251), respectively, at 3 months following the start of intervention (Pbreak-even point required 36 immunizations to be administered. Significant improvement in the immunization rate of patients under 3 years of age at two family medicine residency training clinics was achieved through decreasing missed opportunities for immunization in clinic, and with outreach through letters and follow-up phone calls. The intervention showed positive revenue to both clinics. © 2015 Marshfield Clinic.

  1. Difference in effect of single immunosuppressive agents (cyclophosphamide, CCNU, 5-FU) on peripheral blood immune cell parameters and central nervous system immunoglobulin synthesis rate in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, W W; Baumhefner, R W; Tourtellotte, W W; Haskell, C M; Korn, E L; Fahey, J L

    1983-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY), 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were given in single course schedules to chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients clinically stable for 6 months. The following peripheral immune cellular parameters were measured before, during and after each drug administration: white blood count (WBC), polymorphonuclear count (PMN), lymphocyte count, percentage of T cells, T cell response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), percentage of B cells, percentage of cells bearing receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin (% FcR cells), killer (K) cell activity defined by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and natural killer (NK) cell activity. Central nervous system (CNS) immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis was also measured. The patients were followed carefully by both quantitative and qualitative methods for any change in their neurologic condition. Selective reduction in NK activity was observed with CY and 5-FU while no significant alteration was seen in %FcR cells and K activity. CY differed from 5-FU in reducing lymphocyte count and B cell percentage while 5-FU decreased the percentage of T cells. CCNU, but not the other drugs, reduced T cell proliferative response to PHA. In addition, CCNU, which is known to penetrate well into the nervous system, caused a modest reduction in CNS IgG synthesis, while 5-FU had an uncertain effect. Clinically the patients were unchanged or continued to progress in their disability. The results suggest an independence of the CNS immune from the systemic immune system in MS in response to many immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:6603303

  2. TRISTAN - mission complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The high energy physics mission of the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory ended in May. TRISTAN was the first accelerator in Japan at the high energy frontier, and its success owes a great deal to help and encouragement from the world high energy physics community. Its success also marks the first step toward the KEKB project now underway and the subsequent Linear Collider scheme. TRISTAN began operation in November 1986 with a collision energy of 50 GeV, the world's highest electron-positron collision energy at that time. With the addition of superconducting radiofrequency cavities, the energy was continuously increased, reaching a maximum of 64 GeV in 1989. In this exploratory era, the three large detectors - AMY,TOPAZ and VENUS - together with the smaller SHIP group made a rapid survey of particle phenomena in this new energy range. The sixth ('top') quark was first on the list of wanted particles, but the three large groups concluded that there were no new quarks below 32 GeV. The CDF and DO Collaborations at Fermilab's Tevatron recently reported the top quark as being six times as heavy as TRISTAN'S physics reach. Although initial experimental results suggested that the event-shape distributions of multi-hadron events were broadly consistent with the production of the five known quarks, the production rate of hadrons, compared to muons, was seen to rise with energy. The increased energy reach of TRISTAN increased the visibility of the subtle virtual effects of the Z (the electrically neutral carrier of the weak force) produced through the interference of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The rise was found to be slightly larger than expected from five quarks and a Z mass of 92 or 93 GeV, the accepted value at that time. This hinted that the Z mass had to be smaller, as later verified when the SLC and LEP electron-positron colliders at SLAC (Stanford) and CERN respectively came into operation in 1989

  3. On Modelling an Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy, Raúl; Saab, Rosa; Godínez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Immune systems of live forms have been an abundant source of inspiration to contemporary computer scientists. Problem solving strategies, stemming from known immune system phenomena, have been successfully applied to challenging problems of modern computing. However, research in artificial immune systems has overlooked establishing a coherent model of known immune system behaviour. This paper aims reports on an preliminary computer model of an immune system, where each immune system component...

  4. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  5. Low proportion of high school senior athletes receiving recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Rizzone, Katherine H; Cribbs, Sarah P; Roumie, Christianne L

    2014-05-01

    The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) often serves as the only preventive health care visit for athletes, but immunization status is not uniformly addressed in such visits. Thus, athletes may not be receiving recommended immunizations. Our aim was to determine the proportion of high school senior athletes who received all recommended immunizations. Our hypothesis was that females would be less likely than males to receive all recommended immunizations given suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey evaluation of the immunization status of high school senior athletes in Davidson County, TN. The primary composite outcome was receipt of recommended immunizations for tetanus, meningococcal, and seasonal influenza. For females, the primary outcome also included completion of the HPV series. A total of 162 participants, 104 males and 58 females, were included. More males than females received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 3.5%; P = 0.02). When HPV immunization was excluded from the composite outcome, there was no difference in the proportion of males and females who received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 15.5%; P = 0.98). The odds of receiving all recommended immunizations was 0.14 (95% CI, 0.03-0.72) for females compared with males when adjusted for covariates. Athletes seen at retail-based clinics for their PPE were less likely to receive all recommended immunizations compared with athletes seen in primary care (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.69). Only 1 in 6 high school senior athletes received the recommended tetanus, meningococcal, and influenza immunizations. A lower proportion of females, only 1 in 28, received all recommended immunizations due to the HPV series. Policy changes requiring a review of immunizations at the PPE would benefit many high school athletes.

  6. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  7. Concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Phien, Ho N.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework called concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion (ICTAC), which recovers missing entries of color images with high accuracy. Typical images are second- or third-order tensors (2D/3D) depending if they are grayscale or color, hence tensor completion algorithms are ideal for their recovery. The proposed framework performs image completion by concatenating copies of a single image that has missing entries into a third-order tensor,...

  8. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  10. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  11. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  12. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.

  13. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  14. Immune responses to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors

  15. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  16. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  17. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  18. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Ashdown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs) from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies) for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained? Over some 20 years, realization that (1) chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2) the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of “final common pathways” of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This “missing” aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer therapy. This aspect has been somewhat obscured and has been “lost in translation” to date

  19. Immunization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruslin, Andrée; Steben, Marc; Halperin, Scott; Money, Deborah M; Yudin, Mark H

    2009-11-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization, risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to June 2008 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. The quality of evidence reported in this document has been assessed using the evaluation of evidence criteria in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). (1) All women of childbearing age should be evaluated for the possibility of pregnancy before immunization. (III-A). (2) Health care providers should obtain a relevant immunization history from all women accessing prenatal care. (III-A). (3) In general, live and/or live-attenuated virus vaccines should not be administered during pregnancy, as there is a, largely theoretical, risk to the fetus. (II-3B). (4) Women who have inadvertently received immunization with live or live-attenuated vaccines during pregnancy should not be counselled to terminate the pregnancy because of a teratogenic risk. (II-2A). (5) Non-pregnant women immunized with a live or live-attenuated vaccine should be counselled to delay pregnancy for at least four weeks. (III-B). (6) Inactivated viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines, and toxoids can be used safely in pregnancy. (II-1A). (7) Women who are breastfeeding can still be immunized (passive-active immunization, live or killed

  20. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  1. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  3. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  4. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  5. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  6. Mammalian Gut Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502

  7. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Musialski, Przemyslaw; Liu, Ligang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions

  8. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  9. Maternal immunization increases nestling energy expenditure, immune function, and fledging success in a passerine bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burness

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Female birds transfer maternally derived antibodies (matAb to their nestlings, via the egg yolk. These antibodies are thought to provide passive protection, and allow nestlings to avoid the costs associated with mounting an innate immune response. To test whether there is an energetic benefit to nestlings from receiving matAb, we challenged adult female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor prior to clutch initiation with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline (Control. Following hatching, one half of each female's nestlings were immunized on day 8 post-hatch with LPS or saline, and the 4-h post-immunization nestling metabolic rate (MR was measured. There was no difference in either LPS-reactive antibodies or total Ig levels between offspring of immunized and non-immunized mothers on day 6 or 14 post-hatch, possibly reflecting a relatively short half-life of matAbs in altricial birds. Additionally, we found no evidence that nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers could avoid the growth suppression that may result from activation of an inflammatory response. Unexpectedly, we found that control nestlings from LPS mothers had higher resting MR than control nestlings of control mothers. We attribute the increased MR to the costs associated with a general non-specific enhancement of immune function in nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers. Consistent with enhanced immune function, nestlings of immunized mothers had a more robust inflammatory response to phytohaemagglutinin and higher fledging success. Our results suggest that maternal antigen exposure pre-laying can result in increased fitness for both mothers and offspring, depending on food availability.

  10. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  11. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  12. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  13. Inequity in access to childhood immunization in Enugu urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal components analysis in STATA software was used to characterize socioeconomic inequity. Results: Immunization coverage was as follows: Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus third dose(DPT3), 3, 65.3%; oral polio vaccine 3, 78.0%; hepatitis B3, 65.2%; and measles, 55.8%. The full immunization rates for children 1–5 ...

  14. The impact of changing medicaid enrollments on New Mexico's Immunization Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    Full Text Available Immunizations are an important component to pediatric primary care. New Mexico is a relatively poor and rural state which has sometimes struggled to achieve and maintain its childhood immunization rates. We evaluated New Mexico's immunization rates between 1996 and 2006. Specifically, we examined the increase in immunization rates between 2002 and 2004, and how this increase may have been associated with Medicaid enrollment levels, as opposed to changes in government policies concerning immunization practices.This study examines trends in childhood immunization coverage rates relative to Medicaid enrollment among those receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF in New Mexico. Information on health policy changes and immunization coverage was obtained from state governmental sources and the National Immunization Survey. We found statistically significant correlations varying from 0.86 to 0.93 between immunization rates and Medicaid enrollment.New Mexico's improvement and subsequent deterioration in immunization rates corresponded with changing Medicaid coverage, rather than the state's efforts to change immunization practices. Maintaining high Medicaid enrollment levels may be important for achieving high childhood immunization levels.

  15. The Impact of Changing Medicaid Enrollments on New Mexico's Immunization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Sharmen, Tom; Romain, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Immunizations are an important component to pediatric primary care. New Mexico is a relatively poor and rural state which has sometimes struggled to achieve and maintain its childhood immunization rates. We evaluated New Mexico's immunization rates between 1996 and 2006. Specifically, we examined the increase in immunization rates between 2002 and 2004, and how this increase may have been associated with Medicaid enrollment levels, as opposed to changes in government policies concerning immunization practices. Methods and Findings This study examines trends in childhood immunization coverage rates relative to Medicaid enrollment among those receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in New Mexico. Information on health policy changes and immunization coverage was obtained from state governmental sources and the National Immunization Survey. We found statistically significant correlations varying from 0.86 to 0.93 between immunization rates and Medicaid enrollment. Conclusions New Mexico's improvement and subsequent deterioration in immunization rates corresponded with changing Medicaid coverage, rather than the state's efforts to change immunization practices. Maintaining high Medicaid enrollment levels may be important for achieving high childhood immunization levels. PMID:19107189

  16. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  17. Filoviral Immune Evasion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Basler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Filoviridae family of viruses, which includes the genera Ebolavirus (EBOV and Marburgvirus (MARV, causes severe and often times lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filoviral infections are associated with ineffective innate antiviral responses as a result of virally encoded immune antagonists, which render the host incapable of mounting effective innate or adaptive immune responses. The Type I interferon (IFN response is critical for establishing an antiviral state in the host cell and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune responses. Several filoviral encoded components target Type I IFN responses, and this innate immune suppression is important for viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, EBOV VP35 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF-3/7 by the TBK-1/IKKε kinases in addition to sequestering viral RNA from detection by RIG-I like receptors. MARV VP40 inhibits STAT1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the JAK family kinases. EBOV VP24 inhibits nuclear translocation of activated STAT1 by karyopherin-α. The examples also represent distinct mechanisms utilized by filoviral proteins in order to counter immune responses, which results in limited IFN-α/β production and downstream signaling.

  18. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  1. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  2. Primary Immunization Status In Rural Block Of Kanpur District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Kaushal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the status of primary immunization of children in the age group of 12-23 month Objective: To assess the status of Primary immunization in age group of 12 to 23 month Children, To compare the primary immunization in intensive and twilight villages, To study the influence of socialfactors affecting immunization & Tofind out reasons for immunization default Study design: cross sectional study Setting and participants: rural block of.Kanpur District and mothers ofchildren in age group of 12-23 months. Study period: July to December 2005 Sample size: 280 mothers of study group children. Study variable: Immunization status, socialfactors, vaccine, reasons for immunization default Results : 32.85% of children were fully immunized. Highest (92.85% covered antigen were found as OPV-1 and lowest (41.78% covered antigen as DPT-3.Literacy and joint family had positive impact on immunization status. The main reasons were observed for immunization default as ignorance (about need/place/person/time and distance factor. Conclusion : Quantity1 wise coverage was quite satisfactory. High dropout rate due to ignorance and distance factors should be taken into

  3. Electronic Immunization Alerts and Spillover Effects on Other Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julia M; Rivera, Maria; Persing, Nichole; Bundy, David G; Psoter, Kevin J; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Miller, Marlene R; Solomon, Barry S

    2017-08-01

    The impact of electronic health record (EHR) immunization clinical alert systems on the delivery of other preventive services remains unknown. We assessed for spillover effects of an EHR immunization alert on delivery of 6 other preventive services, in children 18 to 30 months of age needing immunizations. We conducted a secondary data analysis, with additional primary data collection, of a randomized, historically controlled trial to improve immunization rates with EHR alerts, in an urban, primary care clinic. No significant differences were found in screening for anemia, lead, development, nutrition, and injury prevention counseling in children prompting EHR immunization alerts (n = 129), compared with controls (n = 135). Significant increases in oral health screening in patients prompting EHR alerts (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.8-13.0) were likely due to practice changes over time. An EHR clinical alert system targeting immunizations did not have a spillover effect on the delivery of other preventive services.

  4. Completeness theorems in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since K. M.; Case's famous 1960 paper, transport theorists have been studying the questions of full- and half-range completeness for various transport type equations. The purpose of this note is to try to define exactly what is meant by completeness as it is needed, and used, in solving transport equations and to discuss some of the various techniques which have been, or might be, used to verify completeness. Attention is restricted to the question of full-range completeness. As a paradigm the generalized form of the transport equation first introduced by Beals is adopted

  5. Radioresistance of immunized animals in internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Ponomareva, T.V.; Shubik, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of an immunization with bacterial vaccines and antimeasles-gamma-globulin on the radioresistance of raceless white mice was studied. In the vaccinated animals a higher survival rate and duration of life, a better general condition and a better curve of weight and stronger physical stamina were stated compared to the merely irradiated mice. The higher radioresistance is ascribed to the stimulation of cellular and humoral factors of the unspecific protection against infection, to the repair of the lymphoid tissue of the immunized animals and to the decrease in autosensibilization. (author)

  6. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  7. Pentraxins and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when there are indications of inflammation. PTX3 is related to inflammation in the periodontal tissue and it can be suggested that salivary concentrations may be used for diagnosing the same.

  8. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  9. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  10. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cesarean Section and Chronic Immune Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the develo......OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated...... with the development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We...... studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression...

  12. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Latino College Completion: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Perception of Childhood Immunization among Mothers of Under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global immunization rates were at 83%. Increased knowledge ... Chain and Logistics systems are aging and often ... of better cold chain and supply logistic systems and promoting ... clearance was obtained from the management of St. Charles ...

  19. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  20. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  1. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  2. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  3. Complexity of Products of Some Complete and Complete Bipartite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of spanning trees in graphs (networks is an important invariant; it is also an important measure of reliability of a network. In this paper, we derive simple formulas of the complexity, number of spanning trees, of products of some complete and complete bipartite graphs such as cartesian product, normal product, composition product, tensor product, and symmetric product, using linear algebra and matrix analysis techniques.

  4. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  5. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  6. Amyloid and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2018-03-01

    Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Brody, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  8. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  9. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  10. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  11. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  12. What Works for Doctoral Students in Completing Their Thesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Writing a thesis is one of the most challenging activities that a doctoral student must undertake and can represent a barrier to timely completion. This is relevant in light of current and widespread concerns regarding doctoral completion rates. This study explored thesis writing approaches of students post or near Ph.D. completion through…

  13. [Comparison of immune response after oral and intranasal immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing ETEC F41].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankui; Wei, Chunhua; Hou, Xilin; Wang, Guihua; Yu, Liyun

    2009-04-01

    In order to represent a promising strategy for mucosal vaccination, oral or intranasal immunization of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) BALB/c mice were performed. The mucosal immunity, systemic immune and protective immune responses were compared after immunization with the recombinant Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) harboring enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41. The recombinant fusion proteins were detected by Western blot. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Six-week-old female SPF BALB/c mice (160 heads) were divided into 4 groups for immunization and control. Oral and intranasal immunization of mice was performed with the recombinant strain L. casei harboring pLA-F41 or pLA. For oral immunization, the mice were inoculated daily on days 0 to 4, 7 to 11, 21 to 25, and 49 to 53. A lighter schedule was used for nasal immunization (days 0 to 2, 7 to 9, 21 and 49). Specific anti-F41 IgG antibody in the serum and specific anti-F41 secret immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibody in the lung, intestines, vagina fluid and feces of mice were detected by indirect ELISA. The mice orally or intranasally immunized with pLA-F41/L. casei and pLA/IL. casei were challenged with standard-type ETEC F41 (C83919) (2 x 10(3) LD50). Mice immunized with pLA-F41/L. casei could produce remarkable anti-F41 antibody level. More than 90% survived in oral immunization group whereas more than 85% survived in intranasal immunization group after challenged with C83919, all dead in the control group. Ninety percent of the pups survived in oral immunization group whereas 80% survived in intranasal immunization group after challenged with C83919, but only a 5% survival rate for pups that were either immunized with a control pLA vector or unimmunized. Oral or intranasal immunization with recombinant L. casei displaying ETEC F41 antigens on the surface induced effective and similar systemic and mucosal immune responses against the

  14. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  15. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be too late for the vaccine to work. The best time to immunize kids is when they're healthy. Can immunizations cause a bad reaction in my child? The most common reactions to vaccines are minor ...

  17. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  18. Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in

  19. Assessing Pharmacists' Attitudes and Barriers Involved with Immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aldrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists are considered the most accessible health care professional. Immunizations create an opportunity for the profession to grow and develop toward direct patient care. Between 1995 and 2004 programs involving immunizations led to a national initiative to train pharmacists that became a significant leap toward pharmacist's involvement in direct patient care. Although immunizations can be considered a catalyst to change the pharmacist's role, little was known about pharmacist's attitudes and the barriers involved with immunizing. Few studies have assessed barriers, attitudes, and practice issues experienced by immunizing pharmacists. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists' attitudes toward immunizations and more specifically to assess possible barriers involved with this practice. Five hundred pharmacists were randomly selected for inclusion in the study from the State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy Database, of which 137 (27.4% completed the survey. A 37- item questionnaire was administered via an e-mail invitation to take an online survey using Qualtrics software with a Likert-type scale, where 1 = strongly disagree and 7 = strongly agree. Several topics were assessed regarding immunizations including time constraints, workflow constraints, adequacy of training, technician support, worksite conditions and space, immunization processes, reimbursement issues, safety issues, documentation issues, and the future direction of immunizations. Demographics included gender, age, degree, number of years practicing, practice site, and number of years immunizing. Seventy-three percent of pharmacists believed that immunizing could lead to prescription filling errors (mean=4.45, SD=1.79. Pharmacists strongly agreed that having more technicians on staff would make providing immunizations easier (mean=5.80, SD=1.39 and that they play a vital role in keeping the process running smoothly (mean=6.08, SD=1.16. Also, pharmacists strongly agreed

  20. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  1. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  2. Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bottin, Jr., Robert R

    2001-01-01

    ... (MCNP) Program. The program was formerly known as the Monitoring Completed Coastal Projects Program, but was modified in the late 1990s to include all navigation projects, inland as well as coastal...

  3. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  4. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  5. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  6. Vitamin E, immunity, and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A normally functioning immune system is critical for the body to fight and eliminate invading pathogens from the environment. On the other hand, the immune system also protects the body from internal risks such as neoplasia growing within and autoimmune responses that attack self. The immune system ...

  7. Civil war and child health: regional and ethnic dimensions of child immunization and malnutrition in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola

    2003-06-01

    This study arises from a general proposition that different levels and types of exposure to war are crucial in shaping health outcomes in a population under war-induced duress. We analyze civil war-related regional and ethnolinguistic differentials in age-adequate immunization (complete vaccination for age) and levels of malnutrition in Angola. Our analysis is based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some 2 years after the end of one of the most destructive periods of hostilities in the history of Angolan civil war. The data show that despite Angola's unique mineral wealth, the nation's levels of child age-adequate immunization is lower and malnutrition rates are higher than in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine age-adequate immunization and chronic malnutrition we fit logistic regression models that include the regional degree of war impact and ethnolinguistic group, in addition to rural-urban differences and other conventional sociodemographic characteristics. The tests reveal a significant disadvantage of rural children relative to urban children in both immunization and chronic malnutrition. Net of the rural-urban differences, we also detect a significant disadvantage of children residing in parts of the country that had been most affected by the fighting. The tests also point to a lower level of immunization and higher level of chronic malnutrition among children from the ethnolinguistic group commonly identified with the opposition. These associations tend to be stronger among children who were born and/or grew up during war than among children who were born after peace was re-established.

  8. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  9. Rendezvous endoscopic recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Stefano; Kratt, Thomas; Gani, Cihan; Stueker, Dietmar; Zips, Daniel; Malek, Nisar P; Goetz, Martin

    2018-03-30

    Complete esophageal obstruction after (chemo)radiation for head and neck cancers is rare. However, inability to swallow one's own saliva strongly inflicts upon quality of life. Techniques for endoscopic recanalization in complete obstruction are not well established. We assessed the efficacy and safety of rendezvous recanalization. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent endoscopic recanalization of complete proximal esophageal obstruction after radiotherapy between January 2009 and June 2016. Technical success was defined as an ability to pass an endoscope across the recanalized lumen, clinical success by changes in the dysphagia score. Adverse events were recorded prospectively. 19 patients with complete obstruction (dysphagia IV°), all of whom had failed at least one trial of conventional dilatation, underwent recanalization by endoscopic rendezvous, a combined approach through a gastrostomy and perorally under fluoroscopic control. Conscious sedation was used in all patients. In 18/19 patients (94.7%), recanalization was technically successful. In 14/18 patients (77.8%), the post-intervention dysphagia score changed to ≤ II. Three patients had their PEG removed. Factors negatively associated with success were obstruction length of 50 mm; and tumor recurrence for long-term success. No severe complications were recorded. Rendezvous recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction is a reliable and safe method to re-establish luminal patency. Differences between technical and clinical success rates highlight the importance of additional functional factors associated with dysphagia. Given the lack of therapeutic alternatives, rendezvous recanalization is a valid option to improve dysphagia.

  10. Renal AA amyloidosis in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary complete C4 deficiency has until now been reported in 30 cases only. A disturbed clearance of immune- complexes probably predisposes these individuals to systemic lupus erythematosus, other immune- complex diseases and recurrent microbial infections. We present here a 20- year- old female with hereditary complete C4 deficiency. Renal biopsy demonstrated renal AA amyloidosis. This unique case further substantiates that deficiency of classical pathway components predisposes to the development of recurrent microbial infections and that the patients may develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, in clinical practice, the nephrotic syndrome occurring in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency should lead to the suspicion of renal AA amyloidosis.

  11. Heat and immunity: an experimental heat wave alters immune functions in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Janine; Janssen, Hannah; Kuske, Andra; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to lead to increased temperatures and more extreme climatic events. This may influence host-parasite interactions, immunity and therefore the impact of infectious diseases on ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of rising temperatures on immune defence, in particular in ectothermic animals, where the immune system is directly exposed to external temperature change. Fish are ideal models for studying the effect of temperature on immunity, because they are poikilothermic, but possess a complete vertebrate immune system with both innate and adaptive immunity. We used three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) originating from a stream and a pond, whereby the latter supposedly were adapted to higher temperature variation. We studied the effect of increasing and decreasing temperatures and a simulated heat wave with subsequent recovery on body condition and immune parameters. We hypothesized that the immune system might be less active at low temperatures, but will be even more suppressed at temperatures towards the upper tolerable temperature range. Contrary to our expectation, we found innate and adaptive immune activity to be highest at a temperature as low as 13 °C. Exposure to a simulated heat wave induced long-lasting immune disorders, in particular in a stickleback population that might be less adapted to temperature variation in its natural environment. The results show that the activity of the immune system of an ectothermic animal species is temperature dependent and suggest that heat waves associated with global warming may immunocompromise host species, thereby potentially facilitating the spread of infectious diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  12. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  13. Agency privileges and immunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Switzerland has become the thirty-fifth Member State to be a party to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Its Resident Representative, Ambassador Alfred Eschler, deposited his Government's instrument of acceptance on 16 September. This is the fourth such instrument to be deposited with the Agency since the beginning of this year, the others being Ecuador on 16 April, Niger on 17 June and Vietnam on 31 July. (author)

  14. Immune disorders in anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    SŁOTWIŃSKA, SYLWIA MAŁGORZATA; SŁOTWIŃSKI, ROBERT

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters pla...

  15. Ebola and Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a formidable disease whose surges always result in a high number of victims in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no official treatment against the virus, which makes the task of containment extremely delicate. However, the existence of survivors to the virus demonstrates curable nature of the disease and suggests the existence of favorable factors of immunity. The author examines these factors and their challenges and perspectives in the cure of the disease.

  16. The fate of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Francis T; Einstein, Gilles O

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether and how people deactivate prospective memory (PM) intentions after they have been completed. One view proposes that PM intentions can be deactivated after completion, such that they no longer come to mind and interfere with current tasks. Another view is that now irrelevant completed PM intentions exhibit persisting activation, and continue to be retrieved. In Experiment 1, participants were given a PM intention embedded within the ongoing task during Phase 1, after which participants were told either that the PM task had been completed or suspended until later. During Phase 2, participants were instructed to perform only the ongoing task and were periodically prompted to report their thoughts. Critically, the PM targets from Phase 1 reappeared in Phase 2. All of our measures, including thoughts reported about the PM task, supported the existence of persisting activation. In Experiment 2, we varied conditions that were expected to mitigate persisting activation. Despite our best attempts to promote deactivation, we found evidence for the persistence of spontaneous retrieval in all groups after intentions were completed. The theoretical and practical implications of this potential dark side to spontaneous retrieval are discussed.

  17. Adolescent Immunization Coverage and Implementation of New School Requirements in Michigan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Stefanie F.; Vranesich, Patricia A.; Boulton, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect of Michigan’s new school rules and vaccine coadministration on time to completion of all the school-required vaccine series, the individual adolescent vaccines newly required for sixth grade in 2010, and initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, which was recommended but not required for girls. Methods. Data were derived from the Michigan Care Improvement Registry, a statewide Immunization Information System. We assessed the immunization status of Michigan children enrolled in sixth grade in 2009 or 2010. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to identify significant associations between each factor and school completeness. Results. Enrollment in sixth grade in 2010 and coadministration of adolescent vaccines at the first adolescent visit were significantly associated with completion of the vaccines required for Michigan’s sixth graders. Children enrolled in sixth grade in 2010 had higher coverage with the newly required adolescent vaccines by age 13 years than did sixth graders in 2009, but there was little difference in the rate of HPV vaccine initiation among girls. Conclusions. Education and outreach efforts, particularly regarding the importance and benefits of coadministration of all recommended vaccines in adolescents, should be directed toward health care providers, parents, and adolescents. PMID:24922144

  18. Immune disorders in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  19. Immune disorders in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  20. Hyperthermia, immunity and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of literature data concerning local hyperthermia effects shows that temperatures over 41-42 deg C (in the whole tumor volume), causing tumor growth inhibition and cell injury, can change antigenic nature of a malignant tissue. The tumor injured by thermal effect is able probably the full length of time of injured tissue resorption to maintain at a sufficiently high level antitumoral immunity and lay obstacles to emergence of metastases or even cause regression of those tumoral foci which have not been exposed to direct effect of the injuring agent. The facts of tumoral foci regression take place also upon radiation effect which is associated as well with participation of immune mechanisms. In.experiments with animals an essential increase of immunogenic character of malignant cells exposed to ionizing radiation effect has been observed. It follows that radiation injury of tumoral tissue as well as thermal one is able to stimulate antitumoral immunity and reduce the probability of emergence of metastases. But in case of radiotherapy immunosuppression effect of ionizing radiation (at the expense of inhibition of proliferation and death of immunocompetent cells) can essentially overlap immunostimulating effect related to the changes in antigenic character of tumoral cells

  1. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Immune Responses Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Teimourpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV. M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+ T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis. Although cell-mediated immunity is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of humoral and innate immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

  3. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  4. High agreement between the new Mongolian electronic immunization register and written immunization records: a health centre based audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring of vaccination coverage is vital for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. Electronic immunization registers have been increasingly adopted to assist with the monitoring of vaccine coverage; however, there is limited literature about the use of electronic registers in low- and middle-income countries such as Mongolia. We aimed to determine the accuracy and completeness of the newly introduced electronic immunization register for calculating vaccination coverage and determining vaccine effectiveness within two districts in Mongolia in comparison to written health provider records. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional record review among children 2–23 months of age vaccinated at immunization clinics within the two districts. We linked data from written records with the electronic immunization register using the national identification number to determine the completeness and accuracy of the electronic register. Results: Both completeness (90.9%; 95% CI: 88.4–93.4 and accuracy (93.3%; 95% CI: 84.1–97.4 of the electronic immunization register were high when compared to written records. The increase in completeness over time indicated a delay in data entry. Conclusion: Through this audit, we have demonstrated concordance between a newly introduced electronic register and health provider records in a middle-income country setting. Based on this experience, we recommend that electronic registers be accompanied by routine quality assurance procedures for the monitoring of vaccination programmes in such settings.

  5. Newly Emerging Immune Checkpoints: Promises for Future Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Torphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1, and the poliovirus receptor (PVR-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Committee Opinion No. 661: Integrating Immunizations Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is an essential component of women's primary and preventive health care. Despite the importance of vaccination and clear guidance from public health agencies, rates of vaccination lag behind national goals. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a major role in reducing morbidity and mortality from a range of vaccine-preventable diseases, including pertussis, influenza, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis. Given demonstrated vaccine efficacy and safety, and the large potential for prevention of many infectious diseases that affect adults, pregnant women, and newborns, obstetrician-gynecologists should include immunizations as an integral part of their practice. To do so, they must embrace their role as important sources of information and advice on immunization for adults, adolescents, and pregnant women, and advance their patients' well-being with continued efforts to augment immunization services in their offices. Increasing awareness combined with the many suggestions in this document will work to enhance immunization uptake.

  7. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  8. Impact of pharmacists providing immunizations on adolescent influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the Oregon law change in 2011 to allow pharmacists to immunize adolescents 11 to 17 years of age increased influenza immunizations or changed existing immunization venues. With the use of Oregon's ALERT Immunization Information System (IIS), 2 measures of impact were developed. First, the change in adolescent age 11-17 influenza immunizations before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) the pharmacy law change was evaluated against a reference cohort (aged 7-10) not affected by the law. Community pharmacies were also compared with other types of influenza immunization sites within one of the study influenza seasons (2013-2014). From 2007 to 2014, adolescent influenza immunizations at community pharmacies increased from 36 to 6372 per year. After the 2011 pharmacy law change, adolescents aged 11 to 17 were more likely to receive an influenza immunization compared with the reference population (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Analysis of the 2013-2014 influenza season suggests that community pharmacies immunized a different population of adolescents than other providers. The 2011 change in Oregon law allowed pharmacists to increase the total of influenza immunizations given to adolescents. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Quantum space and quantum completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Tajron

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.

  11. Completely integrable operator evolutionary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present natural generalizations of classical completely integrable equations where the functions are replaced by arbitrary operators. Among these equations are the non-linear Schroedinger, the Korteweg-de Vries, and the modified KdV equations. The Lax representation and the Baecklund transformations are presented. (Auth.)

  12. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  13. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetic...

  14. The Completeness Theorem of Godel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Completeness Theorem of Godel. 2. Henkin's Proof for First Order Logic. S M Srivastava is with the. Indian Statistical,. Institute, Calcutta. He received his PhD from the Indian Statistical. Institute in 1980. His research interests are in descriptive set theory. I Part 1. An Introduction to Math- ematical ...

  15. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  16. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  17. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Document Server

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  18. Radiotherapy and antitumoral immunity. Fundamentals of immunooncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimovich, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental states of immunooncology are described briefly: conception of immunologic inspection, antiblastomic immunologic factors, antigeny of tumor cells and mechanisms of slipping out of immune inspection, problastomic immunologic factors. The conclusion is made that tumor formation and extenstion go on under the action of opposite directed but not mutually exclusive factors of immunologic nature. Growth rate and regression of neoplasm are determined by balance between antiblastomic mechanism activity and activity of problastomic factors and factors of immunoresistant neoplasms

  19. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Her-2 are predictors of favorable outcome and reduced complete response rates, respectively, in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancers treated by concurrent radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy: A report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Wu, C.-L.; Kaufman, Donald; Hammond, Elizabeth; Parliament, Matthew; Tester, William; Hagan, Michael; Grignon, David; Heney, Niall; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Erb-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR) and Erb-2 (Her-2) are two of the best characterized members in the EGFR pathway. In many tumor types, overexpression of these proteins is associated with enhanced malignant potential. Our objective in this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of EGFR and Her-2 expression in bladder cancer cases from four prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) bladder preservation trials using cisplatin-containing chemoradiation (RTOG 8802, 8903, 9506, and 9706). Methods and materials: Tumors from 73 cases from patients with muscle-invading T2-T4a bladder cancers had slides interpretable for EGFR staining; 55 cases had slides interpretable for Her-2 staining. Additionally, the respective prognostic values of p53, pRB, and p16 immunostaining were concomitantly examined. Staining and interpretation of staining were done in a blinded manner, without knowledge of clinical outcome. Staining was judged as positive or negative. Subsequently, staining was correlated with clinical outcome. Results: On univariate analysis, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.044); disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = 0.042); and DSS with intact bladder (p = 0.021). There was also a trend for association between EGFR expression and reduced frequency of distant metastasis (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis adding tumor stage, tumor grade, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was done or not, and patient age to the model, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved DSS. On univariate analysis, Her-2 positivity was significantly associated with reduced complete response (CR) rates (50% vs. 81%, p = 0.026) after chemoradiation which remained significant on multivariate analysis. The other markers examined in this study were not found to have any prognostic value in this setting. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor expression

  20. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  2. Poliovirus immunity in newly resettled adult refugees in Idaho, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Gilles, Ryan; Reed, Alex J; Messerschmidt, Matt; Kinney, Rebecca

    2015-06-12

    In the United States, vaccines have eliminated wild poliovirus (WPV) infection, though resettling refugees may lack immunity and importation of WPV remains a concern. A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence of poliovirus immunity in adult refugees resettling in Boise, Idaho, U.S.A.; immunity was evaluated using two definitions: serotypes 1, 2 and 3 positive, or serotypes 1 and 3 positive. This survey evaluated 795 adult refugees between August 2010 and November 2012. Poliovirus immunity in adults >18 years was 55.3% for serotypes 1, 2 and 3 combined, and 60% for serotypes 1 and 3 only. This study demonstrated a WPV immunity rate of poliovirus immunity in all newly arrived adult refugees, either by expanding pre-departure immunization or by screening for immunity at resettlement and vaccinating when indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of immune response by bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aldapa-Vega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a molecule that is profusely found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is also a potent stimulator of the immune response. As the main molecule on the bacterial surface, is also the most biologically active. The immune response of the host is activated by the recognition of LPS through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and this receptor-ligand interaction is closely linked to LPS structure. Microorganisms have evolved systems to control the expression and structure of LPS, producing structural variants that are used for modulating the host immune responses during infection. Examples of this include Helicobacter pylori, Francisella tularensis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella spp. High concentrations of LPS can cause fever, increased heart rate and lead to septic shock and death. However, at relatively low concentrations some LPS are highly active immunomodulators, which can induce non-specific resistance to invading microorganisms. The elucidation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the recognition of LPS and its structural variants has been fundamental to understand inflammation and is currently a pivotal field of research to understand the innate immune response, inflammation, the complex host-pathogen relationship and has important implications for the rational development of new immunomodulators and adjuvants.

  4. Pseudoachondroplasia with immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.

    1988-01-01

    A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)

  5. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  6. Sovereign immunity: Principles and application in medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Tort law seeks accountability when parties engage in negligent conduct, and aims to compensate the victims of such conduct. An exception to this general rule governing medical negligence is the doctrine of sovereign immunity. Historically, individuals acting under the authority of the government or other sovereign entity had almost complete protection against tort liability. This article addressed the following: (1) the development of sovereign immunity in law, (2) the lasting impact of the Federal Tort Claims Act on sovereign immunity, and (3) the contemporary application of sovereign immunity to medical malpractice, using case examples from Virginia and Florida. I performed an Internet search to identify sources that addressed the concept of sovereign immunity, followed by a focused search for relevant articles in PubMed and LexisNexis, literature databases for medical and legal professionals, respectively. Historically, sovereign liability conferred absolute immunity from lawsuits in favor of the sovereign (ie, the government). Practical considerations in our democratic system have contributed to an evolution of this doctrine. Understanding sovereign immunity and its contemporary application are of value for any physician interested in the debate concerning medical malpractice in the United States. Under certain circumstances, physicians working as employees of the federal or state government may be protected against individual liability if the government is substituted as the defendant.

  7. Suppression of adoptive antituberculosis immunity by normal recipient animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefford, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Adoptive immunity is poorly expressed in normal syngeneic mice. This phenomenon was studied by using experimental antituberculosis immunity as a model system representing pure cell-mediated immunity. Expression of adoptive immunity was facilitated by pretreating recipients with sublethal ionizing radiation (500 rads) or high doses (200 mg/kg) of cyclophosphamide or by using adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone-marrow-reconstituted (TXB) mice. Adult thymectomy was less effective, and a low dose of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) was completely ineffective. The beneficial effect of sublethal irradiation was reduced over time; it persisted for 4 weeks and was absent after 8 weeks. Attempts to restore the suppressed state of normal mice to sublethally irradiated mice by using normal spleen or thymus cells did not succeed. Even in rats, which express adoptive antituberculosis immunity without immunosuppressive treatment, the use of sublethally irradiated or TXB recipients potentiated adoptive immunity. It was concluded that suppression of adoptive immunization in normal recipient mice is mediated predominantly, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes that are sensitive to a number of immunosuppressive agents. The suppressor cells are long-lived and can be regenerated from precursors that are resistant to 500 but not to 900 rads of ionizing radiation

  8. Auditing the quality of immunization data in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kouni Chahed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a data quality audit for the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring in Kasserine governorate in Tunisia, where immunization coverage rates more than 100%, negative dropout and conflicting coverage rates had been reported. Methods: In a randomly selected sample of 12 primary health care facilities in 2 districts all files used to record immunization data were checked to verify the accuracy of the reported 3rd dose of diphtheriatetanus-pertussis vaccine during a calendar year. Results: The results found frequent overreporting or under-reporting of doses being administrated in all health facilities. The regional verification factor was estimated as 85% and quality index was 55%. Conclusions: Data quality audit provides a effective tool for self-assessment implementation and developing a critical analysis of the quality of routine immunization data at all levels of health service.

  9. Complete spacelike immersions with topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fairly large class of Lorentz manifolds is defined, called WH normal manifolds, which are approximately those for which timelike infinity is a single point. It is shown that, in such a space, an immersed spacelike hypersurface which is complete must, if it is self-intersecting, not achronal or proper, satisfy strong topological conditions; in particular, if the immersion is injective in the fundamental group, then the hypersurface must be closed, embedded and achronal (i.e. a partial Cauchy surface). WH normal spaces include products of any Riemannian manifold with Minkowski 1-space; in such space, a complete immersed spacelike hypersurface must be immersed as a covering space for the Riemannian factor. (author)

  10. Inequity in childhood immunization in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joseph L

    2012-03-01

    Despite a reduction in disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases through childhood immunization, considerable progress needs to be made in terms of ensuring efficiency and equity of vaccination coverage. To conduct a systematic review to identify and explore factors associated with inequities in routine vaccination of children in India. Publications reporting vaccination inequity were retrieved through a systematic search of Medline and websites of the WHO, UNICEF and demographic health surveys in India. No restrictions were applied in terms of study designs. The primary outcome measure was complete vaccination or immunization defined as per the standard WHO definition. There were three nationwide data sets viz. the three National Family Health Surveys (NFHS), a research study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and a UNICEF coverage evaluation survey. In addition, several publications representing different population groups or geographic regions were available. A small number of publications were reanalyses of data from the NFHS series. There is considerable inequity in vaccination coverage in different states. Within states, traditionally poor performing states have greater inequities, although there are significant inequities even within better performing states. There are significant inequities in childhood vaccination based on various factors related to individual (gender, birth order), family (area of residence, wealth, parental education), demography (religion, caste), and the society (access to health-care, community literacy level) characteristics. Girls fare uniformly worse than boys and higher birth order infants have lower vaccination coverage. Urban infants have higher coverage than rural infants and those living in urban slums. There is an almost direct relationship between household wealth and vaccination rates. The vaccination rates are lower among infants with mothers having no or low literacy, and families with

  11. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  12. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  13. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  14. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  15. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  16. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%– vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage. PMID:25760670

  17. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  18. ENDOCANNABINOIDS AND EICOSAMOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS AND INTERACTIONS WITH IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. K. Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is dedicated to modern concepts of arachidonic acid metabolites, i.e., endocannabinoids and eicosanoids, their biosynthetic pathways, cross-talk mechanisms and participation in immune response. New information from literature and own results include data concerning overlapping enzymatic pathways controlling biosynthesis of endocannabinoids and eicosanoids. Impact of synthetic cannabinoid receptor ligands upon production rates of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids is discussed, as like as relationships among immune system reactivity and expression levels of cannabinoid receptors.

  19. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jennifer L; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Lucas, John A; Osteen, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease. PMID:21895474

  20. Pathologic features of suicidal complete decapitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, M; Türk, E E; Uchigasaki, S; Püschel, K

    2004-01-28

    Despite high suicide rates all over the world, complete decapitation as a consequence of violent suicide methods is exceptionally rare and there is always a potential for confusion with homicide as well as with body dismemberment or mutilation. We analyzed the phenomenology and morphology of 10 cases (six male, four female; individual age 18-60 years) of suicidal complete decapitation that were subjected to medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Hamburg, Germany, between 1995 and 2002. All decapitations occurred while the person was alive as proven by signs of vitality. Blood alcohol levels were positive in five cases and ranged between 28 and 202 mg/dl. The applied methods of suicide were running over by a train in eight cases and hanging in two cases. In suicidal hanging resulting in complete decapitation the wound margins were clear-cut with an adjacent sharply demarcated circumferential band-like abrasion zone showing a homogenous width, the latter determined by the thickness of the rope. In decapitations due to railway interference a broad spectrum of pathologic alterations such as the co-existence of irregular, ragged and sharp-edged wound margins, vascular and nervous pathways forming bridges in the depth of the wound and bruising could be observed. In such cases skin abrasion zones were generally not circumferential and showed a heterogenous width. Concerning hanging-related complete decapitations, our findings are well in line with those of other authors, namely that heavy body weight of the suicidal, fall from a great height and in some cases inelastic and/or thin rope material used for the noose are the determining factors decisive for complete decapitation.

  1. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Brand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.

  2. Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Faivre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  3. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  4. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  5. mTOR at the Transmitting and Receiving Ends in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Yakir; Nordmann, Thierry M; Roszik, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Immunity is critical for cancer control. Cancer cells exhibit high mutational rates and therefore altered self or neo-antigens, eliciting an immune response to promote tumor eradication. Failure to mount a proper immune response leads to cancer progression. mTOR signaling controls cellular metabolism, immune cell differentiation, and effector function. Deregulated mTOR signaling in cancer cells modulates the tumor microenvironment, thereby affecting tumor immunity and possibly promoting carcinogenesis.

  6. mTOR at the Transmitting and Receiving Ends in Tumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakir Guri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Immunity is critical for cancer control. Cancer cells exhibit high mutational rates and therefore altered self or neo-antigens, eliciting an immune response to promote tumor eradication. Failure to mount a proper immune response leads to cancer progression. mTOR signaling controls cellular metabolism, immune cell differentiation, and effector function. Deregulated mTOR signaling in cancer cells modulates the tumor microenvironment, thereby affecting tumor immunity and possibly promoting carcinogenesis.

  7. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  8. Child Health and Immunization – An Indian Perspective: A study on immunization strategies for improving child health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Shefin Vellara

    2013-01-01

    Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy UNICEF reported that only less than fifty percent of children in India receive full immunization. It indicates that majority of children are not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. High infant mortality rate of sixty three deaths for every thousand live birth also points to the neglected child health activities in India. The thesis explores strategies which are needed for improving child immunization in India....

  9. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of the immune system after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver; Walsh, Neil P; Simpson, Richard J

    2017-05-01

    The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an "open window" of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions [e.g., natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and CD8 + T cells]. These lymphocytes most likely translocate to peripheral sites of potential antigen encounter (e.g., lungs and gut). This redeployment of effector lymphocytes is an integral part of the physiological stress response to exercise. Current knowledge about changes in immune function during recovery from exercise is derived from assessment at the cell population level of isolated cells ex vivo or in blood. This assessment can be biased by large changes in the distribution of immune cells between blood and peripheral tissues during and after exercise. Some evidence suggests that reduced immune cell function in vitro may coincide with changes in vivo and rates of illness after exercise, but more work is required to substantiate this notion. Among the various nutritional strategies and physical therapies that athletes use to recover from exercise, carbohydrate supplementation is the most effective for minimizing immune disturbances during exercise recovery. Sleep is an important aspect of recovery, but more research is needed to determine how sleep disruption influences the immune system of athletes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  12. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  13. Liver or blood-stage arrest during malaria sporozoite immunization: the later the better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nganou Makamdop, C.K.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    So far, the best immunization strategies to achieve high levels of protection against malaria are based on whole parasites. Complete sterile protection can be obtained in rodent models after immunization with sporozoites and chemoprophylaxis, or with sporozoites attenuated either genetically or by

  14. Transdermal influenza immunization with vaccine-coated microneedle arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G Koutsonanos

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease caused by a pathogenic virus, with outbreaks all over the world and thousands of hospitalizations and deaths every year. Due to virus antigenic drift and short-lived immune responses, annual vaccination is required. However, vaccine coverage is incomplete, and improvement in immunization is needed. The objective of this study is to investigate a novel method for transdermal delivery using metal microneedle arrays (MN coated with inactivated influenza virus to determine whether this route is a simpler and safer approach than the conventional immunization, capable to induce robust immune responses and confer protection against lethal virus challenge.Inactivated A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2 influenza virus was coated on metal microneedle arrays and applied to mice as a vaccine in the caudal dorsal skin area. Substantial antibody titers with hemagglutination inhibition activity were detected in sera collected two and four weeks after a single vaccine dose. Challenge studies in mice with 5 x LD(50 of mouse adapted Aichi virus demonstrated complete protection. Microneedle vaccination induced a broad spectrum of immune responses including CD4+ and CD8+ responses in the spleen and draining lymph node, a high frequency of antigen-secreting cells in the lung and induction of virus-specific memory B-cells. In addition, the use of MN showed a dose-sparing effect and a strong Th2 bias when compared to an intramuscular (IM reference immunization.The present results show that delivery of inactivated influenza virus through the skin using metal microneedle arrays induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses capable of conferring protection against virus challenge as efficiently as intramuscular immunization, which is the standard vaccination route. In view of the convenience of delivery and the potential for self-administration, vaccine-coated metal microneedles may provide a novel and highly effective immunization method.

  15. Immunization Information System and Informatics to Promote Immunizations: Perspective From Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead; Rajamani, Sripriya

    2017-01-01

    The vision for management of immunization information is availability of real-time consolidated data and services for all ages, to clinical, public health, and other stakeholders. This is being executed through Immunization Information Systems (IISs), which are population-based and confidential computerized systems present in most US states and territories. Immunization Information Systems offer many functionalities, such as immunization assessment reports, client follow-up, reminder/recall feature, vaccine management tools, state-supplied vaccine ordering, comprehensive immunization history, clinical decision support/vaccine forecasting and recommendations, data processing, and data exchange. This perspective article will present various informatics tools in an IIS, in the context of the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

  16. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  17. Partial immunity in murine by immunization with a toxoplasmic DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arsenal

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... vaccine can be effective in partial protection against this parasite. In this study ... that mice immunized by pcROP1 with or without alum produced high Th1 immune response compared .... antigen-specific antibodies, 96-well costar plates were coated .... vaccines against some protozoa, for example, malaria,.

  18. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  19. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  20. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  2. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  3. Complete family of separability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Parrilo, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a family of separability criteria that are based on the existence of extensions of a bipartite quantum state ρ to a larger number of parties satisfying certain symmetry properties. It can be easily shown that all separable states have the required extensions, so the nonexistence of such an extension for a particular state implies that the state is entangled. One of the main advantages of this approach is that searching for the extension can be cast as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program. Whenever an extension does not exist, the dual optimization constructs an explicit entanglement witness for the particular state. These separability tests can be ordered in a hierarchical structure whose first step corresponds to the well-known positive partial transpose (Peres-Horodecki) criterion, and each test in the hierarchy is at least as powerful as the preceding one. This hierarchy is complete, in the sense that any entangled state is guaranteed to fail a test at some finite point in the hierarchy, thus showing it is entangled. The entanglement witnesses corresponding to each step of the hierarchy have well-defined and very interesting algebraic properties that, in turn, allow for a characterization of the interior of the set of positive maps. Coupled with some recent results on the computational complexity of the separability problem, which has been shown to be NP hard, this hierarchy of tests gives a complete and also computationally and theoretically appealing characterization of mixed bipartite entangled states

  4. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  5. AEgIS installation completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gravity. Despite first being described over three centuries ago, it remains one of the least understood of the fundamental forces explored by physicists. At CERN’s recently completed AEgIS experiment, a team has set out to examine the effect of gravity on an as-yet-uncharted realm: antimatter.   The complete AEgIS set-up. Located in the AD hall, the AEgIS experiment plans to  make the first direct measurement of Earth’s gravitation effect on antimatter. By sending a beam of antihydrogen atoms through very thin gratings, the experiment will be able to measure how far the antihydrogen atoms fall and in how much time – giving the AEgIS team a measurement of the gravitational coupling. “By the end of 2012, we had finished by putting all the elements of the experiment together,” explains Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. “Now we have to show that they can all work together and, unfortunately, we will have no antiproton beams fo...

  6. Utilização de medicamentos por aposentados brasileiros: 2 - Taxa de resposta e preenchimento de questionário postal em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of medication by Brazilian retirees: 2 - Response rate and item completeness in a postal survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos a taxa de resposta e o preenchimento de questionários auto-administrados num inquérito postal sobre o perfil de utilização de medicamentos por aposentados e pensionistas do INSS, de 60 anos ou mais de idade no Município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2003. Os questionários foram enviados duas vezes para os endereços de 800 indivíduos sorteados por amostragem aleatória simples, com base no banco de dados do INSS. A taxa de resposta ao inquérito postal foi de 47,8% e não houve diferença significativa tanto entre participantes e não participantes quanto entre respondentes iniciais e tardios em relação às características selecionadas. Para a maioria das variáveis sócio-demográficas e de saúde, os percentuais de omissão de respostas não ultrapassaram 5%, tanto no total da amostra, quanto em cada um dos subgrupos de respondentes. As informações mais omitidas ocorreram para as variáveis relativas ao uso de medicamentos, com destaque para a não-utilização de medicamentos que deveriam ser usados, a dose e laboratório fabricante do medicamento. Nossos resultados indicam que o detalhamento de aspectos relacionados ao uso de medicamentos deve ser reconsiderado em questionários de autopreenchimento.This paper reports on the response rate and completeness of item response in a self-administered postal survey questionnaire on use of medication by retirees 60 years or older under the Brazilian Social Security System, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, in 2003. Questionnaires were sent in two rounds to 800 postal addresses of subjects selected by simple random sampling. The response rate was 47.8%, and there were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between respondents and non-respondents, or between early and late respondents. For almost all socio-demographic and health variables, item omission was less than or equal to 5% for both the entire sample and early or late responders

  7. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  8. Campylobacter Immunity and Quantitative Excretion Rates in Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    vitro studies suggest that other pathogens, in- excluded if the diarrhea had lasted >3 days or jfthe patient had C 0 ~~~~~~~recently received...antibiotics. Age.smtsadciclancluding Shigella and Salmonella species and Escherichia coli. . . symptoms. and clinical and treatment data were recorded, and...ubiq- static cellulitic lesions progressing to bullae formation, skin uitous in the estuarine environment. It can cause a syndrome necrosis, necrotizin

  9. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  10. Is quantum theory predictably complete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupczynski, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, 585 King-Edward Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Departement de l' Informatique, UQO, Case postale 1250, succursale Hull, Gatineau, Quebec J8X 3X 7 (Canada)], E-mail: mkupczyn@uottawa.ca

    2009-07-15

    Quantum theory (QT) provides statistical predictions for various physical phenomena. To verify these predictions a considerable amount of data has been accumulated in the 'measurements' performed on the ensembles of identically prepared physical systems or in the repeated 'measurements' on some trapped 'individual physical systems'. The outcomes of these measurements are, in general, some numerical time series registered by some macroscopic instruments. The various empirical probability distributions extracted from these time series were shown to be consistent with the probabilistic predictions of QT. More than 70 years ago the claim was made that QT provided the most complete description of 'individual' physical systems and outcomes of the measurements performed on 'individual' physical systems were obtained in an intrinsically random way. Spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCEs), performed to test the validity of Bell inequalities, clearly demonstrated the existence of strong long-range correlations and confirmed that the beams hitting far away detectors somehow preserve the memory of their common source which would be destroyed if the individual counts of far away detectors were purely random. Since the probabilities describe the random experiments and are not the attributes of the 'individual' physical systems, the claim that QT provides a complete description of 'individual' physical systems seems not only unjustified but also misleading and counter productive. In this paper, we point out that we even do not know whether QT is predictably complete because it has not been tested carefully enough. Namely, it was not proven that the time series of existing experimental data did not contain some stochastic fine structures that could have been averaged out by describing them in terms of the empirical probability distributions. In this paper, we advocate various statistical tests that

  11. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  12. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  13. Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Philippe, M.; Galen, F.X.; Corvol, P.; Menard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Primate renins (human and monkey) are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. After a control period of 2 months, five male marmosets, on their usual sodium-poor diet, were immunized against pure human renin by three subcutneous injections of 30 μg each, with complete and then incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly. After the third injection, the five marmosets immunized against renin developed a high titer of renin antibodies (50% binding of 125 I-labeled human renin at a dilution of ≥ 1:10,000). The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly. Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in the animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After 1-4 months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterize by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found. No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney

  14. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a 'Th2 polarized' immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in

  15. In vitro senescence of immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Rita B; Dagarag, Mirabelle; Valenzuela, Hector F

    2003-01-01

    Immune cells are eminently suitable model systems in which to address the possible role of replicative senescence during in vivo aging. Since there are more than 10(8) unique antigen specificities present within the total T lymphocyte population of each individual, the immune response to any single antigen requires massive clonal expansion of the small proportion of T cells whose receptors recognize that antigen. The Hayflick Limit may, therefore, constitute a barrier to effective immune function, at least for those T cells that encounter their specific antigen more than once over the life course. Application of the fibroblast replicative senescence model to the so-called cytotoxic or CD8 T cell, the class of T cells that controls viral infection and cancer, has revealed certain features in common with other cell types as well as several characteristics that are unique to T cells. One senescence-associated change that is T cell-specific is the complete loss of expression of the activation signaling surface molecule, CD28, an alteration that enabled the documentation of high proportions of senescent T cells in vivo. The T cell model has also provided the unique opportunity to analyze telomere dynamics in a cell type that has the ability to upregulate telomerase yet nevertheless undergoes senescence. The intimate involvement of the immune system in the control of pathogens and cancer as well as in modulation of bone homeostasis suggests that more extensive analysis of the full range of characteristics of senescent T cells may help elucidate a broad spectrum of age-associated physiological changes.

  16. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Gregory A. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in the

  17. Immunological considerations regarding parental concerns on pediatric immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Francesco; Appay, Victor

    2017-05-25

    Despite the fundamental role of vaccines in the decline of infant mortality, parents may decide to decline vaccination for their own children. Many factors may influence this decision, such as the belief that the infant immune system is weakened by vaccines, and concerns have been raised about the number of vaccines and the early age at which they are administered. Studies focused on the infant immune system and its reaction to immunizations, summarized in this review, show that vaccines can overcome those suboptimal features of infant immune system that render them more at risk of infections and of their severe manifestations. In addition, many vaccines have been shown to improve heterologous innate and adaptive immunity resulting in lower mortality rates for fully vaccinated children. Thus, multiple vaccinations are necessary and not dangerous, as infants can respond to several antigens as well as when responding to single stimuli. Current immunization schedules have been developed and tested to avoid vaccine interference, improve benefits and reduce side effects compared to single administrations. The infant immune system is therefore capable, early after birth, of managing several antigenic challenges and exploits them to prompt its development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Stress and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  20. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496