Sample records for immune system simulation

  1. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo


    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  2. Immune System (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  3. The Immune System Game (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.


    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  4. Computational Immunology Meets Bioinformatics: The Use of Prediction Tools for Molecular Binding in the Simulation of the Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, N.; Lund, Ole; Bernaschi, M.


    We present a new approach to the study of the immune system that combines techniques of systems biology with information provided by data-driven prediction methods. To this end, we have extended an agent-based simulator of the immune response, C-IMMSIM, such that it represents pathogens, as well......-protein potential measurements, for assessing molecular binding in the context of immune complexes. We benchmark the resulting model by simulating a classical immunization experiment that reproduces the development of immune memory. We also investigate the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype...... proliferate more than any other. These results show that the simulator produces dynamics that are stable and consistent with basic immunological knowledge. We believe that the combination of genomic information and simulation of the dynamics of the immune system, in one single tool, can offer new perspectives...

  5. Immune System Quiz (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! Partner Message ...

  6. Immune System (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immune System KidsHealth / For Parents / Immune System What's in this ... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ...

  7. Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effenhauser Rainer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive immune assessment on field team members participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of mission-associated stressors on the human immune system. To perform the study, the development of techniques for processing immune samples in remote field locations was required. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, whole-blood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles, plasma cortisol and EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were 30 days prior to mission start, mid-mission and 60 days after mission completion. Results The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed on Devon Island, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in astronauts

  8. Immune System (United States)

    ... jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... that invades the body is called an antigen (pronounced: AN-tih-jun). ...

  9. Our Immune System (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  10. Immune System and Disorders (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  11. Pneumonia - weakened immune system (United States)

    ... Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... fighting off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  12. [Immune system and tumors]. (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne


    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Multiscale Immune System Simulator for the Onset of Type-2 Diabetes for use in online decision support and coaching tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert De Graaf


    Full Text Available Background: To empower patients to optimize lifestyle factors and compliance in intervention strategies, predictive personalised simulation models such as developed in the framework of the Virtual Physiological Human initiative ( are a potential important asset. Aim:The FP7 EU project MISSION-T2D aims to develop and validate a computer model incorporating genetic, metabolic, and nutritional data for the simulation and prediction of the onset and progression of T2D. The model should include immunological/inflammatory processes contributing to insulin resistance and beta cell function loss, functionally interacting with energy intake/expenditure-associated metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Methods: The overall architecture of the model interconnects and integrates an already established immune system simulator with newly developed and/or adapted discrete and continuous mathematical simulation models for relevant processes as detailed below. The model is programmed in ANSI/C. Results: Model sections are as follows: 1 GUT MICROBIOTA: predicts how different dietary components affect the relative abundance of important gut bacteria, thus influencing butyrate production, and thereby modulating TNF, IL-6 and IL-1β; 2 PANCREATIC BETA CELL employs mTOR signaling as a central mechanism and predicts the beta cell survival and –functionality as a function of concentration of macrophages, acivated macrophages, and beta cell antigenic proteins; 3 WHOLE BODY METABOLISM describes seven tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, by dynamic mass balances for major cellular metabolic reactions involving glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, free fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerol and ATP as driven by macronutrient meal intake and hormonal control by insulin, glucagon and epinphrine; 4 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY predicts epinephrine concentration and IL-6 as a function of exercise

  14. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system. (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin


    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  15. ImmunoGrid: towards agent-based simulations of the human immune system at a natural scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Brown, M.; Pappalardo, F.; Rapin, Nicolas


    The ultimate aim of the EU-funded ImmunoGrid project is to develop a natural-scale model of the human immune system-that is, one that reflects both the diversity and the relative proportions of the molecules and cells that comprise it-together with the grid infrastructure necessary to apply...... this model to specific applications in the field of immunology. These objectives present the ImmunoGrid Consortium with formidable challenges in terms of complexity of the immune system, our partial understanding about how the immune system works, the lack of reliable data and the scale of computational...

  16. ImmunoGrid, an integrative environment for large-scale simulation of the immune system for vaccine discovery, design and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappalardo, F.; Halling-Brown, M. D.; Rapin, Nicolas


    Vaccine research is a combinatorial science requiring computational analysis of vaccine components, formulations and optimization. We have developed a framework that combines computational tools for the study of immune function and vaccine development. This framework, named ImmunoGrid combines...... conceptual models of the immune system, models of antigen processing and presentation, system-level models of the immune system, Grid computing, and database technology to facilitate discovery, formulation and optimization of vaccines. ImmunoGrid modules share common conceptual models and ontologies....... The ImmunoGrid portal offers access to educational simulators where previously defined cases can be displayed, and to research simulators that allow the development of new, or tuning of existing, computational models. The portal is accessible at

  17. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man


    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  18. Play the Immune System Defender Game (United States)

    ... the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/Electrocardiogram Immune System Immune Responses Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split ... Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game ...

  19. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  20. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron


    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  1. Diversity in the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de


    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity

  2. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System (United States)

    ... balance. It can also lead to paralysis. Current treatments for autoimmune disorders involve the use of immunosuppressant drugs. These work by tamping down immune system activity. However, they can also leave patients susceptible to infections and increase their risk of ...

  3. Overview of the Immune System (United States)

    ... at NIAID Visitor Information Contact Us Research > NIAID's Role in Research > Immune System Research share with facebook share with twitter share ... such as allergic reactions and autoimmune disease. The ... a unique role, with different ways of recognizing problems, communicating with ...

  4. Cystatins in Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Magister, Janko Kos


    Full Text Available Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins, family II (cystatins and family III (kininogens. Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.

  5. Cystatins in immune system. (United States)

    Magister, Spela; Kos, Janko


    Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family III (kininogens). Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.

  6. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero


    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  7. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.


    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  8. The Immune System in Hypertension (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.


    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  9. Immune engineering: from systems immunology to engineering immunity. (United States)

    Jiang, Ning


    The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system. This review focuses on recent progressed made in systems biology and the engineering of adaptive immunity.

  10. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity. (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F


    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  11. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ho Won [University of Chicago; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wang, Lin [University of Minnesota; Glazebrook, Jane [University of Minnesota; Greenberg, Jean T. [University of Chicago


    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  12. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Generate a Truly Infinite Repertoire Capability? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 8-13 ...

  13. Developing a Novel Parameter Estimation Method for Agent-Based Model in Immune System Simulation under the Framework of History Matching: A Case Study on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li


    Full Text Available Since they can provide a natural and flexible description of nonlinear dynamic behavior of complex system, Agent-based models (ABM have been commonly used for immune system simulation. However, it is crucial for ABM to obtain an appropriate estimation for the key parameters of the model by incorporating experimental data. In this paper, a systematic procedure for immune system simulation by integrating the ABM and regression method under the framework of history matching is developed. A novel parameter estimation method by incorporating the experiment data for the simulator ABM during the procedure is proposed. First, we employ ABM as simulator to simulate the immune system. Then, the dimension-reduced type generalized additive model (GAM is employed to train a statistical regression model by using the input and output data of ABM and play a role as an emulator during history matching. Next, we reduce the input space of parameters by introducing an implausible measure to discard the implausible input values. At last, the estimation of model parameters is obtained using the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO by fitting the experiment data among the non-implausible input values. The real Influeza A Virus (IAV data set is employed to demonstrate the performance of our proposed method, and the results show that the proposed method not only has good fitting and predicting accuracy, but it also owns favorable computational efficiency.

  14. [Obesity and the immune system]. (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M


    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article.

  15. Tachykinins in the immune system. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Berger, Alexandra; Milne, Craig D; Paige, Christopher J


    Until recently, the mammalian tachykinins included substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B. Following the discovery of the fourth member of this family, hemokinin 1, a diverse group of novel tachykinins and tachykinin gene-related peptides have been identified in mammals. These newly identified members are preferentially expressed in peripheral tissues. Currently, the impact of these new tachykinin peptides on the immune system remains unclear. Some data imply an important role for hemokinin 1 in the generation of lymphocytes. Tachykinins are traditionally viewed as neuropeptides with well-defined functions as neurotransmitters. Many studies however, indicate that they may also be produced by non-neuronal cells, and exert profound influence on inflammatory responses by affecting multiple aspects of immune cell function. It is of great importance to determine whether the new tachykinin peptides have similar effects. A more detailed understanding of the interactions between tachykinins and immune cells may provide the basis for the development of new therapies for inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.

  16. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination (United States)

    ... Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  17. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  18. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Immune System and Bodily Defence. 3. How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect. Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal and Satyajit Rath. How is the immune system designed to choose between making antibodies against some targets, killer cells against viral infections and ...

  19. Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Faivre


    Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  20. A mathematical model of radiation effect on the immunity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O.A.


    A mathematical model, simulating the effect of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of humoral immune reaction is suggested. It represents the system of nonlinear differential equations and is realized in the form of program in Fortran computer language. The model describes the primary immune reaction of nonirradiated organism on T-independent antigen, reflects the postradiation lymphopoiesis dynamics in nonimmunized mammals, simulates the processes of injury and recovery of the humoral immunity system under the combined effect of ionizing radiation and antigenic stimulation. The model can be used for forecasting imminity state in irradiated mammals

  1. Dynamics of Immune Checkpoints, Immune System, and BCG in the Treatment of Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Tijjani Saad


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the dynamics of immune suppressors/checkpoints, immune system, and BCG in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β are some of the examples of immune suppressors/checkpoints. They are responsible for deactivating the immune system and enhancing immunological tolerance. Moreover, they categorically downregulate and suppress the immune system by preventing and blocking the activation of T-cells, which in turn decreases autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance. In cancer immunotherapy, the immune checkpoints/suppressors prevent and block the immune cells from attacking, spreading, and killing the cancer cells, which leads to cancer growth and development. We formulate a mathematical model that studies three possible dynamics of the treatment and establish the effects of the immune checkpoints on the immune system and the treatment at large. Although the effect cannot be seen explicitly in the analysis of the model, we show it by numerical simulations.

  2. Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly. (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván


    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

  3. Immune System and Its Link to Rheumatic Diseases (United States)

    ... Immune System & Its Link to Rheumatic Disease The Immune System and Its Link to Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts ... of a vessel of the body). What’s the immune system? The immune system allows us to identify and ...

  4. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard


    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  5. [Viral interactions with the host's immune system]. (United States)

    Humlová, Z


    Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, which differ in their structure and strategy of replication. The establishment of an antiviral state in uninfected cells and the elimination of virally infected cells are critical tasks in the host defence. Against the extensive array of immune modalities, viruses have successfully learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanisms. The study of viral strategies of immune evasion can provide insights into host-virus interactions and also illuminates essential functions of the immune system.

  6. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  7. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System (United States)

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan


    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  8. Memorizing innate instructions requires a sufficiently specific adaptive immune system. (United States)

    Borghans, José A M; De Boer, Rob J


    During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype, e.g. secrete a particular profile of cytokines. Once stimulated, lymphocytes store the appropriate type of response by differentiating from a naive to a memory phenotype. This allows the appropriate type of immune reaction to be regenerated upon re-stimulation of those memory clones. We developed a computer simulation model in which cross-reacting effector/memory clones contribute to the immunological context of pathogens. If a pathogen is recognized by both naive clones and pre-existing effector/memory clones, the naive lymphocytes adopt the effector mechanism of the memory clone. The adaptive immune system thereby stores immunological decisions and somatically learns to induce the right type of immune response to pathogens sharing epitopes. The influence of effector/memory lymphocytes may be detrimental when they cross-react to new pathogens that require a different kind of immune response. Here, we show that the immune system needs to be sufficiently specific to avoid such mistakes and to profit from the information that is stored in effector/memory lymphocytes. Repertoire diversity is required to reconcile this specificity with reactivity against many pathogens.

  9. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System. (United States)

    Fierz, Walter


    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy.

  10. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? ... Author Affiliations. Vineeta Bal1 Satyajit Rath1. National Institute of Immunology Aruna Asaf Ali Road New Delhi 110 067, India ...

  11. Nutritional support for the infant's immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.; Stasse-Wolthuis, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.


    Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific

  12. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  13. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  14. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 6-10 ...

  15. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Immune System and Bodily Defence. 4.How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? ... A major exception to this is, of course, the fairly recent innovation in biology called Homo sapiens that ... To do all this, first it is necessary to break the receptor down to its basic functional elements, so that the ...

  16. [Immune proteasomes in the development of rat immune system]. (United States)

    Karpova, Ia D; Lyupina, Iu V; Astakhova, T M; Stepanova, A A; Erokhov, P A; Abramova, E B; Sharova, N P


    their plunge by P5 may be related to the loss of liver function of a primary lymphoid organ of the immune system by this stage and disappearance of B-lymphocytes enriched by immune proteasomes in it. In the spleen and liver, MHC class I molecules were revealed at the periods of the raise of proteasome immune subunits level. On E21 , the liver was enriched by neuronal NO-synthase, its level decreased after birth and enhanced to P18. This fact indicates the possibility of the induction of the immune subunits LMP7 [character: see text] LMP2 expression in hepatocytes in signal way with neuronal NO-synthase participation. The results obtained prove that T-cell immune response with spleen participation as regards rat liver cells is possible starting with P19-P21 stage. First, at this period, white pulp T-area is formed in the spleen. Second, enhanced immune proteasomes and MHC class I molecules levels in hepatocytes can procure antigenic epitopes formation from foreign proteins and their delivery to cell surface for their subsequent presentation for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

  17. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Wolowczuk


    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  18. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje


    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  19. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System. (United States)

    Hu, Piao-Ping


    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  20. Physical Theory of the Immune System (United States)

    Deem, Michael


    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology, New Delhi, and have been working there on various aspects of cellular and molecular immunology for the past six years or so. ..... can maintain immune memory and make vaccines possible. Of course, the complications of the clonally diverse system of immune target recognition leads to a variety of practical ...

  2. Innate immunity in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, V.; Baas, F.


    The complement (C) system plays a central role in innate immunity and bridges innate and adaptive immune responses. A fine balance of C activation and regulation mediates the elimination of invading pathogens and the protection of the host from excessive C deposition on healthy tissues. If this

  3. The Lymphatic System: Integral Roles in Immunity. (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Ivanov, Stoyan; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Scallan, Joshua P


    The lymphatic vasculature is not considered a formal part of the immune system, but it is critical to immunity. One of its major roles is in the coordination of the trafficking of antigen and immune cells. However, other roles in immunity are emerging. Lymphatic endothelial cells, for example, directly present antigen or express factors that greatly influence the local environment. We cover these topics herein and discuss how other properties of the lymphatic vasculature, such as mechanisms of lymphatic contraction (which immunologists traditionally do not take into account), are nonetheless integral in the immune system. Much is yet unknown, and this nascent subject is ripe for exploration. We argue that to consider the impact of lymphatic biology in any given immunological interaction is a key step toward integrating immunology with organ physiology and ultimately many complex pathologies.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of an ENteric Immunity SImulator (ENISI)-Based Model of Immune Responses to Helicobacter pylori Infection. (United States)

    Alam, Maksudul; Deng, Xinwei; Philipson, Casandra; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bisset, Keith; Carbo, Adria; Eubank, Stephen; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Marathe, Madhav


    Agent-based models (ABM) are widely used to study immune systems, providing a procedural and interactive view of the underlying system. The interaction of components and the behavior of individual objects is described procedurally as a function of the internal states and the local interactions, which are often stochastic in nature. Such models typically have complex structures and consist of a large number of modeling parameters. Determining the key modeling parameters which govern the outcomes of the system is very challenging. Sensitivity analysis plays a vital role in quantifying the impact of modeling parameters in massively interacting systems, including large complex ABM. The high computational cost of executing simulations impedes running experiments with exhaustive parameter settings. Existing techniques of analyzing such a complex system typically focus on local sensitivity analysis, i.e. one parameter at a time, or a close "neighborhood" of particular parameter settings. However, such methods are not adequate to measure the uncertainty and sensitivity of parameters accurately because they overlook the global impacts of parameters on the system. In this article, we develop novel experimental design and analysis techniques to perform both global and local sensitivity analysis of large-scale ABMs. The proposed method can efficiently identify the most significant parameters and quantify their contributions to outcomes of the system. We demonstrate the proposed methodology for ENteric Immune SImulator (ENISI), a large-scale ABM environment, using a computational model of immune responses to Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa.

  5. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , we have simply referred to 'cells of the immune system', as though they were a homogeneous population. But clearly, given the number of functions they are expected to carry out, ..... easily susceptible to such digestion themselves (Figure 3).

  6. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston


    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  7. Stochastic responses of tumor–immune system with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong-Xi; Li Ying


    We investigate the stochastic responses of a tumor–immune system competition model with environmental noise and periodic treatment. Firstly, a mathematical model describing the interaction between tumor cells and immune system under external fluctuations and periodic treatment is established based on the stochastic differential equation. Then, sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence of the tumor cells are derived by constructing Lyapunov functions and Ito’s formula. Finally, numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate and verify the results. The results of this work provide the theoretical basis for designing more effective and precise therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells, especially for combining the immunotherapy and the traditional tools. (paper)

  8. Hopf bifurcation for tumor-immune competition systems with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Bi


    Full Text Available In this article, a immune response system with delay is considered, which consists of two-dimensional nonlinear differential equations. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the Hopf bifurcation of a immune response system with delay. The general formula of the direction, the estimation formula of period and stability of bifurcated periodic solution are also given. Especially, the conditions of the global existence of periodic solutions bifurcating from Hopf bifurcations are given. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the the theoretical analysis and the obtained results.

  9. Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. (United States)

    Baeke, Femke; Takiishi, Tatiana; Korf, Hannelie; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal


    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the active form of vitamin D, is known to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism, thus being a key-player in bone-formation. However 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also has a physiological role beyond its well-known role in skeletal homeostasis. Here, we describe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immunomodulator targeting various immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), as well as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, hence modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides being targets, immune cells express vitamin D-activating enzymes, allowing local conversion of inactive vitamin D into 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) within the immune system. Taken together, these data indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays a role in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Several epidemiological studies have linked inadequate vitamin D levels to a higher susceptibility of immune-mediated disorders, including chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.


    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  11. Simulator configuration management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulent, J.; Brooks, J.G.


    The proposed revisions to ANS 3.5-1985 (Section 5) require Utilities to establish a simulator Configuration Management System (CMS). The proposed CMS must be capable of: Establishing and maintaining a simulator design database. Identifying and documenting differences between the simulator and its reference plant. Tracking the resolution of identified differences. Recording data to support simulator certification, testing and maintenance. This paper discusses a CMS capable of meeting the proposed requirements contained in ANS 3.5. The system will utilize a personal computer and a relational database management software to construct a simulator design database. The database will contain records to all reference nuclear plant data used in designing the simulator, as well as records identifying all the software, hardware and documentation making up the simulator. Using the relational powers of the database management software, reports will be generated identifying the impact of reference plant changes on the operation of the simulator. These reports can then be evaluated in terms of training needs to determine if changes are required for the simulator. If a change is authorized, the CMS will track the change through to its resolution and then incorporate the change into the simulator design database

  12. Modulating the immune system through nanotechnology. (United States)

    Dacoba, Tamara G; Olivera, Ana; Torres, Dolores; Crecente-Campo, José; Alonso, María José


    Nowadays, nanotechnology-based modulation of the immune system is presented as a cutting-edge strategy, which may lead to significant improvements in the treatment of severe diseases. In particular, efforts have been focused on the development of nanotechnology-based vaccines, which could be used for immunization or generation of tolerance. In this review, we highlight how different immune responses can be elicited by tuning nanosystems properties. In addition, we discuss specific formulation approaches designed for the development of anti-infectious and anti-autoimmune vaccines, as well as those intended to prevent the formation of antibodies against biologicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Viral subversion of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, A.


    The continuous interactions between host and viruses during their co-evolution have shaped not only the immune system but also the countermeasures used by viruses. Studies in the last decade have described the diverse arrays of pathways and molecular targets that are used by viruses to elude immune detection or destruction, or both. These include targeting of pathways for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen presentation, natural killer cell recognition, apoptosis, cytokine signalling, and complement activation. This paper provides an overview of the viral immune-evasion mechanisms described to date. It highlights the contribution of this field to our understanding of the immune system, and the importance of understanding this aspect of the biology of viral infection to develop efficacious and safe vaccines. (author)

  14. The influence of pregnancy on systemic immunity. (United States)

    Pazos, Michael; Sperling, Rhoda S; Moran, Thomas M; Kraus, Thomas A


    Adaptations in maternal systemic immunity are presumed to be responsible for observed alterations in disease susceptibility and severity as pregnancy progresses. Epidemiological evidence as well as animal studies have shown that influenza infections are more severe during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, resulting in greater morbidity and mortality, although the reason for this is still unclear. Our laboratory has taken advantage of 20 years of experience studying the murine immune response to respiratory viruses to address questions of altered immunity during pregnancy. With clinical studies and unique animal model systems, we are working to define the mechanisms responsible for altered immune responses to influenza infection during pregnancy and what roles hormones such as estrogen or progesterone play in these alterations.

  15. The Gaia System Simulator (United States)

    Masana, E.; Luri, X.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Llimona, P.


    The Gaia System Simulator (GASS) is part of the Gaia Simulator. It shares a common structure with the Gaia Instrument and Basic Image Simulator (GIBIS). GASS is designed to simulate the telemetry stream of the Gaia mission according to the GDAAS (Gaia Data Access and Analysis Study) specifications, modelling the astronomical objects and instruments. This telemetry stream provides realistic data for several purposes, such as filling the test data base of GDAAS, test of algorithms (e.g., crossmatching, telemetry compression, ...) and reduction software, or evaluation of the mission performances. GASS is developed in Java.

  16. The ontogeny of the porcine immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.


    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  17. The immune system vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the Nobel price in 1908. Since then, numerous studies have unraveled a multitude of mechanistically different immune responses to intruding microorganisms. However, in the vast majority of these studies, the underlying infectious agents have appeared...... the present review on the immune system vs. biofilm bacteria is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mainly because this is the most thoroughly studied), many of the same mechanisms are also seen with biofilm infections generated by other microorganisms....

  18. Physical Activities, Exercises, and Their Effects to the Immune System


    Nurmasitoh, Titis


    Every systems in human body correlate to maintain homeostasis. One of those systems which contribute to maintain homeostasis is the immune system. The immune system defends physiological functions against foreign substances and cancer cells through a complex and multilayered mechanism. The ability to defend against foreign substances and abnormal cells is done by two types of immune system, which are Innate immune system and adaptive/acquired immune system. There are also certain factors that...

  19. Immune regulation in gut and cord : opportunities for directing the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roock, S.


    The gut is an important organ for the immune system. Microbes and immune cells interact directly or via epithelial cells. Both TH17 and Treg cells mature in this environment. The composition of the microbiota has an important influence on the immune homeostasis. Influencing the immune system via the

  20. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo


    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  1. Innovative simulation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrasiak, Karol


    This monograph provides comprehensive guidelines on the current and future trends of innovative simulation systems. In particular, their important components, such as augmented reality and unmanned vehicles are presented. The book consists of three parts. Each part presents good practices, new methods, concepts of systems and new algorithms. Presented challenges and solutions are the results of research and conducted by the contributing authors. The book describes and evaluates the current state of knowledge in the field of innovative simulation systems. Throughout the chapters there are presented current issues and concepts of systems, technology, equipment, tools, research challenges and current, past and future applications of simulation systems. The book is addressed to a wide audience: academic staff, representatives of research institutions, employees of companies and government agencies as well as students and graduates of technical universities in the country and abroad. The book can be a valuable sou...

  2. The Immune System: Basis of so much Health and Disease: 3. Adaptive Immunity. (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Hassona, Yazan


    The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system; this article covers adaptive immunity. Clinical relevance: Dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease.

  3. Neural Control of the Immune System (United States)

    Sundman, Eva; Olofsson, Peder S.


    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have…

  4. Effects of microgravity on the immune system (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Taylor, Gerald R.


    Changes in resistance to bacterial and viral infections in Apollo crew members has stimulated interest in the study of immunity and space flight. Results of studies from several laboratories in both humans and rodents have indicated alterations after space flight that include the following immunological parameters: thymus size, lymphocyte blastogenesis, interferon and interleukin production, natural killer cell activity, cytotoxic T-cell activity, leukocyte subset population distribution, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, and delayed hypersensitivity skin test reactivity. The interactions of the immune system with other physiological systems, including muscle, bone, and the nervous system, may play a major role in the development of these immunological parameters during and after flight. There may also be direct effects of space flight on immune responses.

  5. Artificial immune system applications in computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ying


    This book provides state-of-the-art information on the use, design, and development of the Artificial Immune System (AIS) and AIS-based solutions to computer security issues. Artificial Immune System: Applications in Computer Security focuses on the technologies and applications of AIS in malware detection proposed in recent years by the Computational Intelligence Laboratory of Peking University (CIL@PKU). It offers a theoretical perspective as well as practical solutions for readers interested in AIS, machine learning, pattern recognition and computer security. The book begins by introducing the basic concepts, typical algorithms, important features, and some applications of AIS. The second chapter introduces malware and its detection methods, especially for immune-based malware detection approaches. Successive chapters present a variety of advanced detection approaches for malware, including Virus Detection System, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), RBF networ s, and Support Vector Machines (SVM), Danger theory, ...

  6. Simulator testing system (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, V.N.


    In recent years there has been a greater demand placed on the capabilities and time usage of real-time nuclear plant simulators due to NRC, INPO and utilities requirements. The requirements applied to certification, new simulators, upgrades, modifications, and maintenance of the simulators vary; however, they all require the capabilities of the simulator to be tested whether it is for NRC 10CFR55.45b requirements, ATP testing of new simulators, ATP testing of upgrades with or without panels, adding software/hardware due to plant modifications, or analyzing software/hardware problems on the simulator. This paper describes the Simulator Testing System (STS) which addresses each one of these requirements placed on simulators. Special attention will be given to ATP testing of upgrades without the use of control room panels. The capabilities and applications of the four parts of STS which are the Display Control Software (DCS), Procedure Control Software (PCS), Display Generator Software (DGS) and the Procedure Generator Software (PGS) will be reviewed

  7. Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, Granino A


    Showing you how to use personal computers for modeling and simulation, Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation, Second Edition provides a practical tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation. It discusses how to effectively simulate dynamical systems, such as aerospace vehicles, power plants, chemical processes, control systems, and physiological systems. Written by a pioneer in simulation, the book introduces dynamic-system models and explains how software for solving differential equations works. After demonstrating real simulation programs with simple examples, the author

  8. Role of Osmolytes in Regulating Immune System. (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar


    The immune system has evolved to protect the host organism from diverse range of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. It is a complex network of cells, humoral factors, chemokines and cytokines. Dysregulation of immune system results in various kinds of immunological disorders. There are several external agents which govern the regulation of immune system. Recent studies have indicated the role of osmolytes in regulation of various immunological processes such as Ag-Ab interaction, Ig assembly, Ag presentation etc. In this present review, we have systematically discussed the role of osmolytes involved in regulation of several key immunological processes. Osmolytes are involved in the regulation of several key immunological processes such as immunoglobulin assembly and folding, immune cells proliferation, regulation of immune cells function, Ag-Ab interaction, antigen presentation, inflammatory response and protection against photo-immunosuppression. Hence, osmolytes and their transporters might be used as potential drug and drug targets respectively. This review is therefore designed to help clinicians in development of osmolyte based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various immunological disorders. Appropriate future perspectives have also been included.

  9. Role of the Immune System in Hypertension. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Hector; Johnson, Richard J


    High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition of individual cytokines prevent or ameliorate experimental hypertension, and studies in genetically-modified mouse strains have demonstrated that lymphocytes are necessary participants in the development of hypertension and in hypertensive organ injury. Furthermore, immune reactivity may be the driving force of hypertension in autoimmune diseases. Infiltration of immune cells, oxidative stress, and stimulation of the intrarenal angiotensin system are induced by activation of the innate and adaptive immunity. High blood pressure results from the combined effects of inflammation-induced impairment in the pressure natriuresis relationship, dysfunctional vascular relaxation, and overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Imbalances between proinflammatory effector responses and anti-inflammatory responses of regulatory T cells to a large extent determine the severity of inflammation. Experimental and human studies have uncovered autoantigens (isoketal-modified proteins and heat shock protein 70) of potential clinical relevance. Further investigations on the immune reactivity in hypertension may result in the identification of new strategies for the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Aging and the skin immune system. (United States)

    Sunderkötter, C; Kalden, H; Luger, T A


    To give a brief summary of age-related alterations that occur in the immune system (immunosenescence), with special regard to the skin immune system. MEDLINE and institutional libraries were searched for relevant articles on immunosenescence and corresponding key words. The immune system of aged animals and humans undergoes alterations that may account for an increased susceptibility to certain infections, autoimmune diseases, or malignancies. However, some data on the parameters of immunosenescence are controversial. This appears to be caused by variations in study designs or by the many external influences that superimpose on intrinsic alterations of the immune system. Well characterized are age-related changes of T cells and cell-mediated immunity. With advancing age, human and murine T cells undergo a shift from the naive to the memory phenotype, associated with a change in cytokine profile. The cells also reveal reductions in the proliferative response to activation, in diversity of the T-cell receptor antigen repertoire, and in cytolytic activity. B cells of aging individuals show a restricted diversity of their antibody repertoire due to a decline in somatic mutations, resulting in a reduced response to certain viral infections or vaccinations. The number of Langerhans cells appears to decline with age, contributing to a reduced rate of sensitizations. Macrophages and keratinocytes also undergo age-related changes, although these are less well characterized. They entail alterations in cytokine production, which could play a role in increased susceptibility to endotoxins in elderly individuals. With aging, the skin immune system shows a decline in its adaptive capability, one of its outstanding qualities. Manipulations to revert age-related dysfunctions are being tested and may help to extend a healthy life.

  11. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development. (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun


    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Immune System Model Calibration by Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Presbitero, A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.; Mancini, E.; Brands, R.; Sloot, P.


    We aim to develop a mathematical model of the human immune system for advanced individualized healthcare where medication plan is fine-tuned to fit a patient's conditions through monitored biochemical processes. One of the challenges is calibrating model parameters to satisfy existing experimental

  13. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  14. Hibernation : the immune system at rest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Carey, Hannah V.; Kroese, Frans G. M.


    Mammalian hibernation consists of torpor phases when metabolism is severely depressed, and T can reach as low as approximately -2 degrees C, interrupted by euthermic arousal phases. Hibernation affects the function of the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Torpor drastically reduces numbers of

  15. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    receptor, making them potential levers for immunological con- fusion, especially if one of the two receptors recognises some target shape that is normal and intrinsic to the body itself! However, this is a problem that we must think about in the context of the larger issue of how the immune system weeds out such potentially ...

  16. [The liver and the immune system]. (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos


    The liver is known to be the metabolic centre of the organism and is under the control of the central nervous system. It has a peculiar tissue structure and its anatomic localisation defines it as part of the immune system having an individual role in the defence of the organism. The determinant of its particular tissue build-up is the sinusoid system. In addition to hepatocytes, one cell row "endothelium", stellate cells close to the external surface, Kupffer cells tightly to its inner surface, as well as dendritic cells and other cell types (T and B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T-cells, mast cells, granulocytes) are present. The multitudes and variety of cells make it possible to carry out the tasks according to the assignment of the organism. The liver is a member of the immune system having immune cells largely in an activated state. Its principal tasks are the assurance of the peripheral immune tolerance of the organism with the help of the haemopoetic cells and transforming growth factor-β. The liver takes part in the determination of the manner of the non-specific immune response of the organism. In addition to acute phase reaction of the organism, the liver has a role in the adaptive/specific immune response. These functions include retardation of the T and B lymphocytes and the defence against harmful pathogens. With the collaboration of transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulins and their subclasses are inhibited just as the response of the T lymphocytes. The only exception is the undisturbed immunoglobulin A production. Particularly important is the intensive participation of the liver in the acute phase reaction of the organism, which is organised and guided by the coordinated functions of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Beside cellular elements, hormones, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines are also involved in the cooperation with the organs. Acute phase reactants play a central role in these processes

  17. Security Information System Digital Simulation


    Tao Kuang; Shanhong Zhu


    The study built a simulation model for the study of food security information system relay protection. MATLAB-based simulation technology can support the analysis and design of food security information systems. As an example, the food security information system fault simulation, zero-sequence current protection simulation and transformer differential protection simulation are presented in this study. The case studies show that the simulation of food security information system relay protect...

  18. Immune system investigations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreja, Doina; Tulbure, Rodica; Marinescu, Irina


    During the last decade a great deal of attention has been paid to the research in the field of the immune system. Some important steps forward have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of action and control of the immunologic responses. At the same time the concern for the possible health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation has considerably increased. On the purpose of the evaluation of the modifications induced by the ionizing radiation for radiation workers, we have applied the method of lymphocytic subpopulations, a method that evinces the proportions for the various subtypes of lymphocytes having different roles within the immune system. A number of 62 persons, employees of the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering at Bucharest - Magurele were involved in this study. All radiation workers from 2 departments characterized by a high exposure to ionizing radiation were included, as follows: Group no. 1, consisting of 20 persons working at RWTS (Radioactive Waste Treating Station), thus presenting both external and internal irradiation; Group no. 2, consisting of 18 persons working at RPC (Radioactive Isotopes Preparing Center), a place where besides the radioactive contamination, the chemical risk was also present. The control group (consisting of 24 persons) was formed of employees from the same institute, with the difference that they were not radiation workers. For the statistical processing of the results the programs EPI INFO 6 and CIA were used. Significantly, when analyzing globally the lymphocytic modifications for TT and/or B lymphocytes (either increments or decrements when compared to the normal values), a noticeable statistical difference among the groups in terms of the frequency of the immune system modifications (Hi square test p=0.001) occurs. The results are in accordance to those in special literature mentioning age as a factor having a role in the appearance of the immune modifications. The obtained results indicate a

  19. Effects of triterpenes on the immune system. (United States)

    Ríos, José-Luis


    Triterpenes, which comprise a broad chemical group of active principles, are implicated in the mechanisms of action and pharmacological effects of many medicinal plants used in folk medicine against diseases in which the immune system is implicated. They have been described as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumoral agents, as well as being immunomodulator compounds. Several of them are implicated in the resolution of immune diseases, although their effects have not always been clearly correlated. The aim of this review is to compile relevant data on the mechanisms of action of triterpenes isolated from active ethnomedicinal plants and their role in the resolution of diseases in which the immune system is implicated to examine the mechanism by which they are useful as ethnopharmacological medicines. The selection of papers was made using the most relevant databases for the biomedical sciences on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. We principally chose those studies that examined the resolution of allergic responses in vivo and those that studied the effects of the more relevant mediators implicated in the immune response in vitro. The number of compounds actually studied is limited compared with the high number of principles that have been isolated and identified. Many studies focus on specific pathologies such cancer or inflammation, but in many cases they are clearly correlated with the immune response. Lanostanes, cucurbitanes, and oleananes are probably the most interesting groups; however, other compounds are also of potential importance. Studies of specific mechanisms against mediators or transcription factors could be the objective for future research on ethnomedicinal plants used to combat immune diseases since the results obtained with cucurbitacins or derivatives of oleanolic acid support the use of different medicinal plants, thereby opening up a new frontier for future studies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  20. Regulation of vitamin D homeostasis: implications for the immune system. (United States)

    van Etten, Evelyne; Stoffels, Katinka; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal; Overbergh, Lut


    Vitamin D homeostasis in the immune system is the focus of this review. The production of both the activating (25- and 1alpha-hydroxylase) and the metabolizing (24-hydroxylase) enzymes by cells of the immune system itself, indicates that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can be produced locally in immune reaction sites. Moreover, the strict regulation of these enzymes by immune signals is highly suggestive for an autocrine/paracrine role in the immune system, and opens new treatment possibilities.

  1. Artificial immune system algorithm in VLSI circuit configuration (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd


    In artificial intelligence, the artificial immune system is a robust bio-inspired heuristic method, extensively used in solving many constraint optimization problems, anomaly detection, and pattern recognition. This paper discusses the implementation and performance of artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm integrated with Hopfield neural networks for VLSI circuit configuration based on 3-Satisfiability problems. Specifically, we emphasized on the clonal selection technique in our binary artificial immune system algorithm. We restrict our logic construction to 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) clauses in order to outfit with the transistor configuration in VLSI circuit. The core impetus of this research is to find an ideal hybrid model to assist in the VLSI circuit configuration. In this paper, we compared the artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm (HNN-3SATAIS) with the brute force algorithm incorporated with Hopfield neural network (HNN-3SATBF). Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 was used as a platform for training, simulating and validating the performances of the proposed network. The results depict that the HNN-3SATAIS outperformed HNN-3SATBF in terms of circuit accuracy and CPU time. Thus, HNN-3SATAIS can be used to detect an early error in the VLSI circuit design.

  2. The twilight of immunity: emerging concepts in aging of the immune system. (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, Janko


    Immunosenescence is a series of age-related changes that affect the immune system and, with time, lead to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This Review addresses recent developments in the understanding of age-related changes that affect key components of immunity, including the effect of aging on cells of the (mostly adaptive) immune system, on soluble molecules that guide the maintenance and function of the immune system and on lymphoid organs that coordinate both the maintenance of lymphocytes and the initiation of immune responses. I further address the effect of the metagenome and exposome as key modifiers of immune-system aging and discuss a conceptual framework in which age-related changes in immunity might also affect the basic rules by which the immune system operates.

  3. The Immune System: the ultimate fractionated cyber-physical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Talcott


    Full Text Available In this little vision paper we analyze the human immune system from a computer science point of view with the aim of understanding the architecture and features that allow robust, effective behavior to emerge from local sensing and actions. We then recall the notion of fractionated cyber-physical systems, and compare and contrast this to the immune system. We conclude with some challenges.

  4. Sport, immune system and respiratory infections. (United States)

    Gani, F; Passalacqua, G; Senna, G; Mosca Frezet, M


    In the recent years, the importance of sports in everyday life has rapidly increased. Asthma and respiratory allergy are among the most common problems to be afforded in those individuals practising sports and therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of allergy in athletes have received in recent times a great interest. The experimental studies performed on allergy and sport have lead to take in consideration a more general aspect, that is the effects of exercise on the immune system. In fact, it has been observed that exercise can induce significant and measurable immunological changes, involving a transient immune suppression (changes in number and activity of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and secretion of cytokines). This is probably the reason why athletes seem to be more prone to upper respiratory viral infections. These infections usually appear after exercise discontinuation (within 3 days) particularly in those athletes practising sports which require a long term effort and resistance. The problem is further complicated by the effect of nutrition, since nutrition regimen itself and dietary supplementation were demonstrated able to interfere with the immune response. In the present article we will review the present knowledge and experimental data concerning the effects of sport on immune system and some of the most important clinical implications.

  5. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Salinas


    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT, the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT. Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture.

  6. Archaeal CRISPR-based immune systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger A; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Shah, Shiraz Ali


    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based immune systems are essentially modular with three primary functions: the excision and integration of new spacers, the processing of CRISPR transcripts to yield mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), and the targeting and cleavage...... of foreign nucleic acid. The primary target appears to be the DNA of foreign genetic elements, but the CRISPR/Cmr system that is widespread amongst archaea also specifically targets and cleaves RNA in vitro. The archaeal CRISPR systems tend to be both diverse and complex. Here we examine evidence...... of CRISPR loci and the evidence for intergenomic exchange of CRISPR systems....

  7. In immune defense: redefining the role of the immune system in chronic disease. (United States)

    Rubinow, Katya B; Rubinow, David R


    The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights. In this perspective article, we propose alternative paradigms for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease. By invoking allostasis or systems biology rather than inflammation, we can ascribe greater functional significance to immune mediators, gain newfound appreciation of the adaptive facets of altered immune activity, and better avoid the potentially disastrous effects of translating erroneous assumptions into novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. [The interface between the immune system and autonomic nervous system]. (United States)

    Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Ando, Yukio


      The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation. And the mechanism for controlling lymphocyte trafficking becomes clear, and molecular basis of immune regulation by the nervous system was reported. On the other hand, the nervous system is protected from the invasion of harmful agents by the barrier. However, there are neuroimmunological disorders, which is associated with autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and infection immunity. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to widespread autonomic manifestations, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role. Previously, we elucidated the prevalence of extra-autonomic manifestations in patients with AAG. It is necessary to establish the new systems for the detection of autoantibodies to other subunits of acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system. (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe


    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distributed Computation Environment Protection Based on Artificial Immune System Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Andreevich Krasnopevtsev


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a new approach to Grid-network protection against malware, based on artificial immune system usage. In the article possible Grid-network attacks, immune system coordinator architecture, immune system modules architecture, Grid-network system protection architecture are described.

  11. Mathematical Model of Innate and Adaptive Immunity of Sepsis: A Modeling and Simulation Study of Infectious Disease


    Shi, Zhenzhen; Wu, Chih-Hang J.; Ben-Arieh, David; Simpson, Steven Q.


    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) to infection. In this work, a system dynamics mathematical model (SDMM) is examined to describe the basic components of SIR and sepsis progression. Both innate and adaptive immunities are included, and simulated results in silico have shown that adaptive immunity has significant impacts on the outcomes of sepsis progression. Further investigation has found that the intervention timing, intensity of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and initial patho...

  12. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... They are most common among people with weak immune systems. People with certain health conditions may need to ...

  13. Recovery of the immune system after exercise. (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver; Walsh, Neil P; Simpson, Richard J


    The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an "open window" of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions [e.g., natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and CD8 + T cells]. These lymphocytes most likely translocate to peripheral sites of potential antigen encounter (e.g., lungs and gut). This redeployment of effector lymphocytes is an integral part of the physiological stress response to exercise. Current knowledge about changes in immune function during recovery from exercise is derived from assessment at the cell population level of isolated cells ex vivo or in blood. This assessment can be biased by large changes in the distribution of immune cells between blood and peripheral tissues during and after exercise. Some evidence suggests that reduced immune cell function in vitro may coincide with changes in vivo and rates of illness after exercise, but more work is required to substantiate this notion. Among the various nutritional strategies and physical therapies that athletes use to recover from exercise, carbohydrate supplementation is the most effective for minimizing immune disturbances during exercise recovery. Sleep is an important aspect of recovery, but more research is needed to determine how sleep disruption influences the immune system of athletes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System. (United States)

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins


    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

  15. Integration of the immune system: a complex adaptive supersystem (United States)

    Crisman, Mark V.


    Immunity to pathogenic organisms is a complex process involving interacting factors within the immune system including circulating cells, tissues and soluble chemical mediators. Both the efficiency and adaptive responses of the immune system in a dynamic, often hostile, environment are essential for maintaining our health and homeostasis. This paper will present a brief review of one of nature's most elegant, complex adaptive systems.

  16. The deconvolution of complex spectra by artificial immune system (United States)

    Galiakhmetova, D. I.; Sibgatullin, M. E.; Galimullin, D. Z.; Kamalova, D. I.


    An application of the artificial immune system method for decomposition of complex spectra is presented. The results of decomposition of the model contour consisting of three components, Gaussian contours, are demonstrated. The method of artificial immune system is an optimization method, which is based on the behaviour of the immune system and refers to modern methods of search for the engine optimization.

  17. Systemic activation of the immune system in HIV infection: The role of the immune complexes (hypothesis). (United States)

    Korolevskaya, Larisa B; Shmagel, Konstantin V; Shmagel, Nadezhda G; Saidakova, Evgeniya V


    Currently, immune activation is proven to be the basis for the HIV infection pathogenesis and a strong predictor of the disease progression. Among the causes of systemic immune activation the virus and its products, related infectious agents, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory CD4+ T cells' decrease are considered. Recently microbial translocation (bacterial products yield into the bloodstream as a result of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal barrier integrity damage) became the most popular hypothesis. Previously, we have found an association between immune complexes present in the bloodstream of HIV infected patients and the T cell activation. On this basis, we propose a significantly modified hypothesis of immune activation in HIV infection. It is based on the immune complexes' participation in the immunocompetent cells' activation. Immune complexes are continuously formed in the chronic phase of the infection. Together with TLR-ligands (viral antigens, bacterial products coming from the damaged gut) present in the bloodstream they interact with macrophages. As a result macrophages are transformed into the type II activated forms. These macrophages block IL-12 production and start synthesizing IL-10. High level of this cytokine slows down the development of the full-scale Th1-response. The anti-viral reactions are shifted towards the serogenesis. Newly synthesized antibodies' binding to viral antigens leads to continuous formation of the immune complexes capable of interacting with antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development


    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko


    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interc...

  19. Immune system and melanoma biology: a balance between immunosurveillance and immune escape. (United States)

    Passarelli, Anna; Mannavola, Francesco; Stucci, Luigia Stefania; Tucci, Marco; Silvestris, Francesco


    Melanoma is one of the most immunogenic tumors and its relationship with host immune system is currently under investigation. Many immunomodulatory mechanisms, favoring melanomagenesis and progression, have been described to interfere with the disablement of melanoma recognition and attack by immune cells resulting in immune resistance and immunosuppression. This knowledge produced therapeutic advantages, such as immunotherapy, aiming to overcome the immune evasion. Here, we review the current advances in cancer immunoediting and focus on melanoma immunology, which involves a dynamic interplay between melanoma and immune system, as well as on effects of "targeted therapies" on tumor microenvironment for combination strategies.

  20. Effects of delayed immune-response in tumor immune-system interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto d'Onofrio


    Full Text Available Tumors constitute a wide family of diseases kinetically characterized by the co-presence of multiple spatio-temporal scales. So, tumor cells ecologically interplay with other kind of cells, e.g. endothelial cells or immune system effectors, producing and exchanging various chemical signals. As such, tumor growth is an ideal object of hybrid modeling where discrete stochastic processes model agents at low concentrations, and mean-field equations model chemical signals. In previous works we proposed a hybrid version of the well-known Panetta-Kirschner mean-field model of tumor cells, effector cells and Interleukin-2. Our hybrid model suggested -at variance of the inferences from its original formulation- that immune surveillance, i.e. tumor elimination by the immune system, may occur through a sort of side-effect of large stochastic oscillations. However, that model did not account that, due to both chemical transportation and cellular differentiation/division, the tumor-induced recruitment of immune effectors is not instantaneous but, instead, it exhibits a lag period. To capture this, we here integrate a mean-field equation for Interleukins-2 with a bi-dimensional delayed stochastic process describing such delayed interplay. An algorithm to realize trajectories of the underlying stochastic process is obtained by coupling the Piecewise Deterministic Markov process (for the hybrid part with a Generalized Semi-Markovian clock structure (to account for delays. We (i relate tumor mass growth with delays via simulations and via parametric sensitivity analysis techniques, (ii we quantitatively determine probabilistic eradication times, and (iii we prove, in the oscillatory regime, the existence of a heuristic stochastic bifurcation resulting in delay-induced tumor eradication, which is neither predicted by the mean-field nor by the hybrid non-delayed models.

  1. Threshold for extinction and survival in stochastic tumor immune system (United States)

    Li, Dongxi; Cheng, Fangjuan


    This paper mainly investigates the stochastic character of tumor growth and extinction in the presence of immune response of a host organism. Firstly, the mathematical model describing the interaction and competition between the tumor cells and immune system is established based on the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Then, the threshold conditions for extinction, weak persistence and stochastic persistence of tumor cells are derived by the rigorous theoretical proofs. Finally, stochastic simulation are taken to substantiate and illustrate the conclusion we have derived. The modeling results will be beneficial to understand to concept of immunoediting, and develop the cancer immunotherapy. Besides, our simple theoretical model can help to obtain new insight into the complexity of tumor growth.

  2. Immunoediting: evidence of the multifaceted role of the immune system in self-metastatic tumor growth. (United States)

    Enderling, Heiko; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip


    The role of the immune system in tumor progression has been a subject for discussion for many decades. Numerous studies suggest that a low immune response might be beneficial, if not necessary, for tumor growth, and only a strong immune response can counter tumor growth and thus inhibit progression. We implement a cellular automaton model previously described that captures the dynamical interactions between the cancer stem and non-stem cell populations of a tumor through a process of self-metastasis. By overlaying on this model the diffusion of immune reactants into the tumor from a peripheral source to target cells, we simulate the process of immune-system-induced cell kill on tumor progression. A low cytotoxic immune reaction continuously kills cancer cells and, although at a low rate, thereby causes the liberation of space-constrained cancer stem cells to drive self-metastatic progression and continued tumor growth. With increasing immune system strength, however, tumor growth peaks, and then eventually falls below the intrinsic tumor sizes observed without an immune response. With this increasing immune response the number and proportion of cancer stem cells monotonically increases, implicating an additional unexpected consequence, that of cancer stem cell selection, to the immune response. Cancer stem cells and immune cytotoxicity alone are sufficient to explain the three-step "immunoediting" concept - the modulation of tumor growth through inhibition, selection and promotion.

  3. Network intrusion detection by the coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection (United States)

    Salamatova, T.; Zhukov, V.


    The paper presents the application of the artificial immune systems apparatus as a heuristic method of network intrusion detection for algorithmic provision of intrusion detection systems. The coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection was elaborated. In testing different datasets the empirical results of evaluation of the algorithm effectiveness were achieved. To identify the degree of efficiency the algorithm was compared with analogs. The fundamental rules based of solutions generated by this algorithm are described in the article.

  4. Memorizing innate instructions requires a sufficiently specific adaptive immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de


    During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype,

  5. Functional aspects of the adaptive immune system in arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.T.S.L.


    The adaptive immune system is the part of the immune system that is highly specific and generates memory resulting in a fast and specific immune response upon a second infection with the same pathogen. However, when this response is specific for a part of the body itself instead of a pathogen,


    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  7. Scaling of Adaptive Immune System Repertoires (United States)

    Sethna, Zachary; Elhanati, Yuval; Callan, Curtis

    The adaptive immune system has evolved a stochastic method called VDJ recombination for the purpose of generating the necessary receptor diversity to identify all foreign pathogens. Recent work characterizing the probability distributions of this VDJ recombination process in mouse and human T-cell repertoires shows a massive difference in the corresponding diversities. The increased diversity of the human repertoire is wholly driven by an increase in the average number of nucleotide insertions in VDJ recombination. In this talk the impact of different insertion profiles is quantified and a model for the scaling of such repertoires with respect to the size of the repertoire is laid out.

  8. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.


    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  9. Immuno-epidemiology of a population structured by immune status: a mathematical study of waning immunity and immune system boosting. (United States)

    Barbarossa, M V; Röst, G


    When the body gets infected by a pathogen the immune system develops pathogen-specific immunity. Induced immunity decays in time and years after recovery the host might become susceptible again. Exposure to the pathogen in the environment boosts the immune system thus prolonging the time in which a recovered individual is immune. Such an interplay of within host processes and population dynamics poses significant challenges in rigorous mathematical modeling of immuno-epidemiology. We propose a framework to model SIRS dynamics, monitoring the immune status of individuals and including both waning immunity and immune system boosting. Our model is formulated as a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) coupled with a PDE. After showing existence and uniqueness of a classical solution, we investigate the local and the global asymptotic stability of the unique disease-free stationary solution. Under particular assumptions on the general model, we can recover known examples such as large systems of ODEs for SIRWS dynamics, as well as SIRS with constant delay.

  10. Measuring the immune system: a comprehensive approach for the analysis of immune functions in humans. (United States)

    Claus, Maren; Dychus, Nicole; Ebel, Melanie; Damaschke, Jürgen; Maydych, Viktoriya; Wolf, Oliver T; Kleinsorge, Thomas; Watzl, Carsten


    The immune system is essential to provide protection from infections and cancer. Disturbances in immune function can therefore directly affect the health of the affected individual. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as exposure to chemicals, stress, nutrition and age have been reported to influence the immune system. These influences can affect various components of the immune system, and we are just beginning to understand the causalities of these changes. To investigate such disturbances, it is therefore essential to analyze the different components of the immune system in a comprehensive fashion. Here, we demonstrate such an approach which provides information about total number of leukocytes, detailed quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine levels in serum and functional properties of T cells, NK cells and monocytes. Using samples from a cohort of 24 healthy volunteers, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to detect changes in immune functions.

  11. Approaches Mediating Oxytocin Regulation of the Immune System. (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ping; Wang, Stephani C; Wang, Yu-Feng


    The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is mainly composed of the neural structures regulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and has been considered as the higher regulatory center of the immune system. Recently, the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) emerged as an important component of neuroendocrine-immune network, wherein the oxytocin (OT)-secreting system (OSS) plays an essential role. The OSS, consisting of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, their several accessory nuclei and associated structures, can integrate neural, endocrine, metabolic, and immune information and plays a pivotal role in the development and functions of the immune system. The OSS can promote the development of thymus and bone marrow, perform immune surveillance, strengthen immune defense, and maintain immune homeostasis. Correspondingly, OT can inhibit inflammation, exert antibiotic-like effect, promote wound healing and regeneration, and suppress stress-associated immune disorders. In this process, the OSS can release OT to act on immune system directly by activating OT receptors or through modulating activities of other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and autonomic nervous system indirectly. However, our understandings of the role of the OSS in neuroendocrine regulation of immune system are largely incomplete, particularly its relationship with other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and the vasopressin-secreting system that coexists with the OSS in the HNS. In addition, it remains unclear about the relationship between the OSS and peripherally produced OT in immune regulation, particularly intrathymic OT that is known to elicit central immunological self-tolerance of T-cells to hypophysial hormones. In this work, we provide a brief review of current knowledge of the features of OSS regulation of the immune system and of potential approaches that mediate OSS coordination of the activities of entire neuroendocrine-immune network.

  12. The role of the immune system in kidney disease. (United States)

    Tecklenborg, J; Clayton, D; Siebert, S; Coley, S M


    The immune system and the kidneys are closely linked. In health the kidneys contribute to immune homeostasis, while components of the immune system mediate many acute forms of renal disease and play a central role in progression of chronic kidney disease. A dysregulated immune system can have either direct or indirect renal effects. Direct immune-mediated kidney diseases are usually a consequence of autoantibodies directed against a constituent renal antigen, such as collagen IV in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. Indirect immune-mediated renal disease often follows systemic autoimmunity with immune complex formation, but can also be due to uncontrolled activation of the complement pathways. Although the range of mechanisms of immune dysregulation leading to renal disease is broad, the pathways leading to injury are similar. Loss of immune homeostasis in renal disease results in perpetual immune cell recruitment and worsening damage to the kidney. Uncoordinated attempts at tissue repair, after immune-mediated disease or non-immune mediated injury, result in fibrosis of structures important for renal function, leading eventually to kidney failure. As renal disease often manifests clinically only when substantial damage has already occurred, new diagnostic methods and indeed treatments must be identified to inhibit further progression and promote appropriate tissue repair. Studying cases in which immune homeostasis is re-established may reveal new treatment possibilities. © 2018 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Simulation of UAV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaňovský


    Full Text Available The study described in this paper deals with the issue of a design tool for the autopilot of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and the selection of the airdata and inertial system sensors. This project was processed in cooperation with VTUL a PVO o.z. [1]. The feature that distinguishes the autopilot requirements of a UAV (Figs. 1, 7, 8 from the flight systems of conventional manned aircraft is the paradox of controlling a high bandwidth dynamical system using sensors that are in harmony with the low cost low weight objectives that UAV designs are often expected to achieve. The principal function of the autopilot is flight stability, which establishes the UAV as a stable airborne platform that can operate at a precisely defined height. The main sensor for providing this height information is a barometric altimeter. The solution to the UAV autopilot design was realised with simulations using the facilities of Matlab® and in particular Simulink®[2]. 

  14. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis]. (United States)

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T


    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  15. Multithreshold Segmentation Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas


    Full Text Available Bio-inspired computing has lately demonstrated its usefulness with remarkable contributions to shape detection, optimization, and classification in pattern recognition. Similarly, multithreshold selection has become a critical step for image analysis and computer vision sparking considerable efforts to design an optimal multi-threshold estimator. This paper presents an algorithm for multi-threshold segmentation which is based on the artificial immune systems(AIS technique, also known as theclonal selection algorithm (CSA. It follows the clonal selection principle (CSP from the human immune system which basically generates a response according to the relationship between antigens (Ag, that is, patterns to be recognized and antibodies (Ab, that is, possible solutions. In our approach, the 1D histogram of one image is approximated through a Gaussian mixture model whose parameters are calculated through CSA. Each Gaussian function represents a pixel class and therefore a thresholding point. Unlike the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, the CSA-based method shows a fast convergence and a low sensitivity to initial conditions. Remarkably, it also improves complex time-consuming computations commonly required by gradient-based methods. Experimental evidence demonstrates a successful automatic multi-threshold selection based on CSA, comparing its performance to the aforementioned well-known algorithms.

  16. Defensin carriers for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system. (United States)

    Froy, Oren; Chapnik, Nava; Nussinovitch, Amos


    The innate immunity utilizes a battery of broad-spectrum antibacterial cationic polypeptides named defensins. In humans, defensins are the first line of defense against pathogens, and their expression has been implicated in several diseases. In addition to exerting direct antimicrobial effects, defensins facilitate and amplify innate and adaptive immune responses. HD-5 is a polypeptide that plays a pivotal role in combating bacteria in the digestive system. Our results show that HD-5 can be entrapped within alginate carriers and strengthen their structure without changing their brittleness. In addition, carrier-entrapped HD-5 is released when incubated in buffer and/or stomach-simulating solution and still retains its activity after the release. This incubation also led to a decrease in carrier strength as well as an increase in their brittleness. Nevertheless the carriers did not disintegrate and remained intact throughout the diffusion process. The release of the defensin exhibited a bimodal behavior, suggesting that it was found both in a cross-linked and non-cross-linked form within the carrier. These results indicate that defensins encapsulated within alginate carriers could possibly be used for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reciprocal Interactions of the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System (United States)

    Maynard, Craig L.; Elson, Charles O.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.


    Preface Emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether to promote mutualism or host defense. These same attributes carry risk for immune-mediated diseases that are increasingly linked to the intestinal microbiota. Understanding how the adaptive immune system copes with the remarkable number and diversity of microbes that colonize the digestive tract, and how it integrates with more primitive innate immune mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis, holds considerable promise for new approaches to modulate immune networks in order to treat and prevent disease. PMID:22972296

  18. The Immune System and Bodily Defence-How Does the Immune ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence - How Does the Immune System Live With a Randomly Generated Repertoire? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 15-20 ...

  19. Interactions of lactobacilli with the host immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, M.


    The aim of this thesis was to better understand the molecular mechanism of host res-ponses to probiotics. Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate immune responses in epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial effects on the immune system. Carefully

  20. Systemic immune dysfunction in pancreatic cancer patients. (United States)

    Poch, Bertram; Lotspeich, Errki; Ramadani, Marco; Gansauge, Susanne; Beger, Hans G; Gansauge, Frank


    We investigated the immune status in 32 pancreatic cancer patients (PC) in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were characterized by the expression of surface markers for T helper cells (CD4), T suppressor cells (CD8), B cells (CD19) and NK cells (CD56). The blastogenic response of PBL was analyzed after stimulation with concavalin A (ConA), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and anti-CD3 antibodies. The serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1RA, sIL-2R and TGF-beta were determined by ELISA. No differences in the distribution of peripheral immunocytes in PC were found, whereas the blastogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) after stimulation with PHA or anti-CD3 antibodies was significantly decreased in PC. In PC, we found reduced serum levels of IL-2 and significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-10, IL-2R, IL-1beta and IL-1RA. These data provide evidence for a systemic immune dysfunction in pancreatic cancer patients characterized by a shift towards a T helper cell type 2 cytokine profile, a significant elevation of substances related to T cell suppression and a reduced blastogenic response to PHA and anti-CD3 antibodies of PBL.

  1. Immunizing digital systems against electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.


    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Second, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced

  2. Reciprocal Interactions of the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System


    Maynard, Craig L.; Elson, Charles O.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.


    Emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether to promote mutualism or host defense. These same attributes carry risk for immune-mediated diseases that are increasingly linked to the intest...

  3. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new? (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego


    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The Effect of Sound on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Shaygan


    Full Text Available The immune system protects body against disturbing factors such as pathogens and tumor cells by means of its special cell and biological structures. It has been divided based on its components and soluble factors into two groups of specific and non-specific immune system. Since sound is considered as a stressor it can affect dramatically on the immune system. Stress caused by noise can reduce the immune system response to chemical stimulators have decreased. In Stead, deep relaxation has consistently been proven to be very effective at increasing T-Cells and strengthening the immune system. In the current article, we want to have a look on the adverse effects of sound on the immune system.

  5. Trauma equals danger—damage control by the immune system (United States)

    Stoecklein, Veit M.; Osuka, Akinori; Lederer, James A.


    Traumatic injuries induce a complex host response that disrupts immune system homeostasis and predisposes patients to opportunistic infections and inflammatory complications. The response to injuries varies considerably by type and severity, as well as by individual variables, such as age, sex, and genetics. These variables make studying the impact of trauma on the immune system challenging. Nevertheless, advances have been made in understanding how injuries influence immune system function as well as the immune cells and pathways involved in regulating the response to injuries. This review provides an overview of current knowledge about how traumatic injuries affect immune system phenotype and function. We discuss the current ideas that traumatic injuries induce a unique type of a response that may be triggered by a combination of endogenous danger signals, including alarmins, DAMPs, self-antigens, and cytokines. Additionally, we review and propose strategies for redirecting injury responses to help restore immune system homeostasis. PMID:22654121

  6. Distributed Computations Environment Protection Using Artificial Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Moiseev


    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe possibility of artificial immune systems applying for distributed computations environment protection from definite types of malicious impacts.

  7. Microbial-immune cross-talk and regulation of the immune system. (United States)

    Cahenzli, Julia; Balmer, Maria L; McCoy, Kathy D


    We are all born germ-free. Following birth we enter into a lifelong relationship with microbes residing on our body's surfaces. The lower intestine is home to the highest microbial density in our body, which is also the highest microbial density known on Earth (up to 10(12) /g of luminal contents). With our indigenous microbial cells outnumbering our human cells by an order of magnitude our body is more microbial than human. Numerous immune adaptations confine these microbes within the mucosa, enabling most of us to live in peaceful homeostasis with our intestinal symbionts. Intestinal epithelial cells not only form a physical barrier between the bacteria-laden lumen and the rest of the body but also function as multi-tasking immune cells that sense the prevailing microbial (apical) and immune (basolateral) milieus, instruct the underlying immune cells, and adapt functionally. In the constant effort to ensure intestinal homeostasis, the immune system becomes educated to respond appropriately and in turn immune status can shape the microbial consortia. Here we review how the dynamic immune-microbial dialogue underlies maturation and regulation of the immune system and discuss recent findings on the impact of diet on both microbial ecology and immune function. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Immune genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes in Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McTaggart Seanna J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which parts of the genome have been most influenced by adaptive evolution remains an unsolved puzzle. Some evidence suggests that selection has the greatest impact on regions of the genome that interact with other evolving genomes, including loci that are involved in host-parasite co-evolutionary processes. In this study, we used a population genetic approach to test this hypothesis by comparing DNA sequences of 30 putative immune system genes in the crustacean Daphnia pulex with 24 non-immune system genes. Results In support of the hypothesis, results from a multilocus extension of the McDonald-Kreitman (MK test indicate that immune system genes as a class have experienced more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes. However, not all immune system genes show evidence of adaptive evolution. Additionally, we apply single locus MK tests and calculate population genetic parameters at all loci in order to characterize the mode of selection (directional versus balancing in the genes that show the greatest deviation from neutral evolution. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that immune system genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes, possibly as a result of host-parasite arms races. The results of these analyses highlight several candidate loci undergoing adaptive evolution that could be targeted in future studies.

  9. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent

  10. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on the innate immune system. (United States)

    Liu, Yuanchang; Hardie, Joseph; Zhang, Xianzhi; Rotello, Vincent M


    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have broad applications in industry and nanomedicine. When NPs enter the body, interactions with the immune system are unavoidable. The innate immune system, a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host, immediately interacts with introduced NPs and generates complicated immune responses. Depending on their physicochemical properties, NPs can interact with cells and proteins to stimulate or suppress the innate immune response, and similarly activate or avoid the complement system. NPs size, shape, hydrophobicity and surface modification are the main factors that influence the interactions between NPs and the innate immune system. In this review, we will focus on recent reports about the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs and their innate immune response, and their applications in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Causes, consequences, and reversal of immune system aging. (United States)

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Dorshkind, Kenneth


    The effects of aging on the immune system are manifest at multiple levels that include reduced production of B and T cells in bone marrow and thymus and diminished function of mature lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues. As a result, elderly individuals do not respond to immune challenge as robustly as the young. An important goal of aging research is to define the cellular changes that occur in the immune system and the molecular events that underlie them. Considerable progress has been made in this regard, and this information has provided the rationale for clinical trials to rejuvenate the aging immune system.

  12. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia


    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  13. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system. (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D


    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Invited essay: Cognitive influences on the psychological immune system. (United States)

    Rachman, S J


    The construct of the psychological immune system is described and analysed. The direct and indirect cognitive influences on the system are discussed, and the implications of adding a cognitive construal to the influential model of a behavioural immune system are considered. The psychological immune system has two main properties: defensive and healing. It encompasses a good amount of health-related phenomena that is outside the scope of the behavioural model or the biological immune system. Evidence pertaining to the psychological immune system includes meta-analyses of the associations between psychological variables such as positive affect/wellbeing and diseases and mortality, and associations between wellbeing and positive health. The results of long-term prospective studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the meta-analyses. Laboratory investigations of the effects of psychological variables on the biological immune system show that negative affect can slow wound-healing, and positive affect can enhance resistance to infections, for example in experiments involving the introduction of the rhinovirus and the influenza A virus. A number of problems concerning the assessment of the functioning of the psychological immune system are considered, and the need to develop techniques for determining when the system is active or not, is emphasized. This problem is particularly challenging when trying to assess the effects of the psychological immune system during a prolonged psychological intervention, such as a course of resilience training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. how to evade the immune system?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HCV usually induces robust immune responses, but it frequently escapes the immune defense to establish persistent infection. The fact that HCV exists as an evolving quasispecies plays an important role in the selection of escape mutants. Furthermore, several viral proteins interfere with cellular functions, in particular, ...

  16. Role of the immune system in pancreatic cancer progression and immune modulating treatment strategies. (United States)

    Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M


    Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatostatin receptors in the immune system and immune-mediated disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. ten Bokum (Annemieke)


    textabstractThe veitebrate body has at its disposal three different systems, which together help it to maintain homeostasis and to respond to environmental signals: the nervous system. the endocrine system and the immune system. Traditionally, these systems have been studied as separate entities.

  18. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.


    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  19. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system. (United States)

    Purchiaroni, F; Tortora, A; Gabrielli, M; Bertucci, F; Gigante, G; Ianiro, G; Ojetti, V; Scarpellini, E; Gasbarrini, A


    The human gut is an ecosystem consisting of a great number of commensal bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Several data confirm that gut microbiota is engaged in a dynamic interaction with the intestinal innate and adaptive immune system, affecting different aspects of its development and function. To review the immunological functions of gut microbiota and improve knowledge of its therapeutic implications for several intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases associated to dysregulation of the immune system. Significant articles were identified by literature search and selected based on content, including atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment of these conditions with probiotics. Accumulating evidence indicates that intestinal microflora has protective, metabolic, trophic and immunological functions and is able to establish a "cross-talk" with the immune component of mucosal immunity, comprising cellular and soluble elements. When one or more steps in this fine interaction fail, autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases may occur. Furthermore, it results from the data that probiotics, used for the treatment of the diseases caused by the dysregulation of the immune system, can have a beneficial effect by different mechanisms. Gut microbiota interacts with both innate and adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in maintenance and disruption of gut immune quiescence. A cross talk between the mucosal immune system and endogenous microflora favours a mutual growth, survival and inflammatory control of the intestinal ecosystem. Based on these evidences, probiotics can be used as an ecological therapy in the treatment of immune diseases.  

  20. Overview of fish immune system and infectious diseases (United States)

    A brief overview of the fish immune system and the emerging or re-emerging bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases considered to currently have a negative impact on aquaculture is presented. The fish immune system has evolved with both innate (natural resistance) and adaptive (acquired) immu...

  1. The reaction of the immune system of fish to vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, C.H.J.


    The studies presented in this thesis deal with the effect of bacterial antigens of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonashydrophila on the immune system of carp. The antigens were administered by injection or by bath treatment. The effect on the immune system was studied by

  2. Breakdown of the innate immune system by bacterial proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, A.J.


    Bacteria have developed many strategies to circumvent our immune system to survive and colonize human tissues. One of these strategies is by secreting proteases that specifically target the innate immune system. Aureolysin is a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus which target the main

  3. The University Immune System: Overcoming Resistance to Change (United States)

    Gilley, Ann; Godek, Marisha; Gilley, Jerry W.


    A university, similar to any other organization, has an immune system that erects a powerful barrier against change. This article discusses the university immune system and what can be done to counteract its negative effects and thereby allow change to occur.

  4. Healthcare system simulation using Witness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakdaman, Masoud; Zeinahvazi, Milad; Zohoori, Bahareh; Nasiri, Fardokht; Wong, Kuan Yew


    Simulation techniques have a proven track record in manufacturing industry as well as other areas such as healthcare system improvement. In this study, simulation model of a health center in Malaysia is developed through the application of WITNESS simulation software which has shown its flexibility and capability in manufacturing industry. Modelling procedure is started through process mapping and data collection and continued with model development, verification, validation and experimentation. At the end, final results and possible future improvements are demonstrated.

  5. Role of Cortistatin in the Stressed Immune System. (United States)

    Delgado, Mario; Gonzalez-Rey, Elena


    The immune system is faced with the daunting job of defending the organism against invading pathogens, while at the same time preserving the body integrity and maintaining tolerance to its own tissues. Loss of self-tolerance compromises immune homeostasis and leads to the onset of autoimmune disorders. The identification of endogenous factors that control immune tolerance and inflammation is a key goal for immunologists. Evidences from the last decade indicate that the neuropeptide cortistatin is one of the endogenous factors. Cortistatin is produced by immune cells and through its binding to various receptors, it exerts potent anti-inflammatory actions and participates in the maintenance of immune tolerance at multiple levels, especially in immunological disorders. Cortistatin emerges as a key element in the bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems aimed at regulating body homeostasis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of microbes on the immune system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujinami, Robert S; Cunningham, Madeleine W


    .... The book synthesizes recent discoveries on the various mechanisms by which microbes subvert the immune response and on the role of these immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases...

  7. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging. (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R


    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  8. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G


    in the liver and the spleen are avoided by sequestration of the mature parasites to the vascular endothelium. The interplay between the human defence system and the malaria parasite governs the symptomatology, the pathology and the development of immunity to the disease. These interactions are extremely......Immunity to P. falciparum malaria is developed as a result of long term exposure to the parasite and depends on immunological memory. The key directors in immune recognition and regulation of the immunological responses are the T-cells. It seems reasonable to propose that immunity is acquired when...... a critical mass of T-cells, recognizing relevant malaria antigens, has been developed. These T-cells mediate immunity by regulating macrophage and B-cell activity, but they may also act directly as cytotoxic cells on infected hepatocytes and through production of parasite-toxic cytokines. The potential...

  9. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults. (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng


    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  10. Using Simulation to Improve Systems. (United States)

    Lundberg, Peter W; Korndorffer, James R


    Simulation technology provides an important opportunity to prospectively identify systemic problems with minimal risk to patient safety and quality. Health care systems are implementing simulation-based exercises on a more regular basis, especially in high-risk settings such as the emergency department and operating room. The adoption of simulation-based and other system-oriented improvement strategies by the health care industry, especially regarding quality and safety, was preceded by its development in the manufacturing and aviation sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D and the Immune System


    Aranow, Cynthia


    It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles in addition to its classic effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. As the vitamin D receptor is expressed on immune cells (B cells, T cells and antigen presenting cells) and these immunologic cells are all are capable of synthesizing the active vitamin D metabolite, vitamin D has the capability of acting in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu. Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiency in vitami...

  12. Viral Evasion and Subversion Mechanisms of the Host Immune System


    Mehran Ghaemi-Bafghi; Alireza Haghparast


    Viruses are the most abundant and versatile pathogens which challenge the immune system and cause major threats to human health. Viruses employ differ¬ent mechanisms to evade host immune responses that we describe them under the following headings: Inhibition of humoral responses, Interference with interferons, Inhibition and modulation of cytokines and chemokines, Inhibitors of apoptosis, Evading CTLs and NKs, and modulating MHC function.Viruses inhibit humoral immunity in different ways whi...

  13. Autopolyreactivity Confers a Holistic Role in the Immune System. (United States)

    Avrameas, S


    In this review, we summarize and discuss some key findings from the study of naturally occurring autoantibodies. The B-cell compartment of the immune system appears to recognize almost all endogenous and environmental antigens. This ability is accomplished principally through autopolyreactive humoral and cellular immune receptors. This extended autopolyreactivity (1) along immunoglobulin gene recombination contributes to the immune system's ability to recognize a very large number of self and non-self constituents; and (2) generates a vast immune network that creates communication channels between the organism's interior and exterior. Thus, the immune system continuously evolves depending on the internal and external stimuli it encounters. Furthermore, this far-reaching network's existence implies activities resembling those of classical biological factors or activities that modulate the function of other classical biological factors. A few such antibodies have already been found. Another important concept is that natural autoantibodies are highly dependent on the presence or absence of commensal microbes in the organism. These results are in line with past and recent findings showing the fundamental influence of the microbiota on proper immune system development, and necessitate the existence of a host-microbe homeostasis. This homeostasis requires that the participating humoral and cellular receptors are able to recognize self-antigens and commensal microbes without damaging them. Autopolyreactive immune receptors expressing low affinity for both types of antigens fulfil this role. The immune system appears to play a holistic role similar to that of the nervous system. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  14. Microcanonical simulation of Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Neuberger, H.


    Numerical simulations of the microcanonical ensemble for Ising systems are described. We explain how to write very fast algorithms for such simulations, relate correlations measured in the microcanonical ensemble to those in the canonical ensemble and discuss criteria for convergence and ergodicity. (orig.)

  15. Perinatal Environmental Effects on the Neonatal Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich


    are thought to be programmed in utero supporting a role of the early environment. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to study if known risk factors are imprinted in the immune system of newborns. The hypotheses were that cesarean section and season of birth would influence the immune signature in early...... that the seasonal-related maternal exposome is reflected in the newborn immune system. These data supports the notion that environmental factors imprints immunological variation already in the perinatal life. In conclusion, studies on early immunological priming may be critical in order to understanding early...... disease programming and subsequent to be able to direct future research on disease preventative strategies. We identified mode of delivery and birth season as important risk factors acting on the perinatal immune system. Collectively, our results suggest that the neonatal immune system may be imprinted...

  16. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user’s command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  17. An immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents. (United States)

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru


    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  18. A Multiprocessor Operating System Simulator (United States)

    Johnston, Gary M.; Campbell, Roy H.


    This paper describes a multiprocessor operating system simulator that was developed by the authors in the Fall semester of 1987. The simulator was built in response to the need to provide students with an environment in which to build and test operating system concepts as part of the coursework of a third-year undergraduate operating systems course. Written in C++, the simulator uses the co-routine style task package that is distributed with the AT&T C++ Translator to provide a hierarchy of classes that represents a broad range of operating system software and hardware components. The class hierarchy closely follows that of the 'Choices' family of operating systems for loosely- and tightly-coupled multiprocessors. During an operating system course, these classes are refined and specialized by students in homework assignments to facilitate experimentation with different aspects of operating system design and policy decisions. The current implementation runs on the IBM RT PC under 4.3bsd UNIX.

  19. Simulation bounds for system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietjen, G.L.; Waller, R.A.


    System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed

  20. Simulation systems: design and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Burtseva


    Full Text Available In this paper the history of Simulation System Group investigations is presented. Some important achievements in past and present time are marked. The directions of future investigations are discussed in the fourth section of the paper.

  1. GPS system simulation methodology (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.


    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  2. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia


    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...... and/or demyelinating pathology. This article will review the molecular and cellular dynamics of immune responses in the CNS, with particular emphasis on autoimmune inflammation, as has been studied in the authors' laboratory....

  3. Nociception and role of immune system in pain. (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Ahad S


    Both pain and inflammation are protective responses. However, these self-limiting conditions (with well-established negative feedback loops) become pathological if left uncontrolled. Both pain and inflammation can interact with each other in a multi-dimensional manner. These interactions are known to create an array of 'difficult to manage' pathologies. This review explains in detail the role of immune system and the related cells in peripheral sensitization and neurogenic inflammation. Various neuro-immune interactions are analyzed at peripheral, sensory and central nervous system levels. Innate immunity plays a critical role in central sensitization and in establishing acute pain as chronic condition. Moreover, inflammatory mediators also exhibit psychological effects, thus contributing towards the emotional elements associated with pain. However, there is also a considerable anti-inflammatory and analgesic role of immune system. This review also attempts to enlist various novel pharmacological approaches that exhibit their actions through modification of neuro-immune interface.

  4. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  5. Impact of aging immune system on neurodegeneration and potential immunotherapies. (United States)

    Liang, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Yang; Ruan, Linhui; Zhu, Linnan; Jin, Kunlin; Zhuge, Qichuan; Su, Dong-Ming; Zhao, Yong


    The interaction between the nervous and immune systems during aging is an area of avid interest, but many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to the complexity of the aging process, but also to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between both the nervous and immune systems. Aging of the brain drives whole body systemic aging, including aging-related changes of the immune system. In turn, the immune system aging, particularly immunosenescence and T cell aging initiated by thymic involution that are sources of chronic inflammation in the elderly (termed inflammaging), potentially induces brain aging and memory loss in a reciprocal manner. Therefore, immunotherapeutics including modulation of inflammation, vaccination, cellular immune therapies and "protective autoimmunity" provide promising approaches to rejuvenate neuroinflammatory disorders and repair brain injury. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries linking the aging immune system with the development of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we discuss potential rejuvenation strategies, focusing aimed at targeting the aging immune system in an effort to prevent acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Focusing on Ciona intestinalis (Tunicata) innate immune system. Evolutionary implications


    N Parrinello


    Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data provide compelling evidence that ascidians are of critical importance for studying chordate immune system evolution. The Ciona intestinalis draft genome sequence allows searches for phylogenetic relationships, gene cloning and expression of immunorelevant molecules. Acidians lack of the pivotal components of the vertebrate recombinatory adaptive immunity, i.e., MHC, TCRs and dimeric immunoglobulins. However, bioinformatic sequence analyses recogni...

  7. Immune system dysregulation in first-onset postpartum psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, V.; Burgerhout, K.M.; Weigelt, K.; Pop, V.J.M.; de Wit, H.; Drexhage, R.C.; Kushner, S.A.; Drexhage, H.A.


    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of the immune system represents an important vulnerability factor for mood disorders. Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe mood disorder occurring within 4 weeks after delivery, a period of heightened immune responsiveness and an altered

  8. Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Immune System. (United States)

    Oppong, Emmanuel; Cato, Andrew C B


    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones with widespread effects. They control intermediate metabolism by stimulating gluconeogenesis in the liver, mobilize amino acids from extra hepatic tissues, inhibit glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue, and stimulate fat breakdown in adipose tissue. They also mediate stress response. They exert potent immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects particularly when administered pharmacologically. Understanding these diverse effects of glucocorticoids requires a detailed knowledge of their mode of action. Research over the years has uncovered several details on the molecular action of this hormone, especially in immune cells. In this chapter, we have summarized the latest findings on the action of glucocorticoids in immune cells with a view of identifying important control points that may be relevant in glucocorticoid therapy.

  9. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk. (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna


    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  10. Promoting tissue regeneration by modulating the immune system. (United States)

    Julier, Ziad; Park, Anthony J; Briquez, Priscilla S; Martino, Mikaël M


    The immune system plays a central role in tissue repair and regeneration. Indeed, the immune response to tissue injury is crucial in determining the speed and the outcome of the healing process, including the extent of scarring and the restoration of organ function. Therefore, controlling immune components via biomaterials and drug delivery systems is becoming an attractive approach in regenerative medicine, since therapies based on stem cells and growth factors have not yet proven to be broadly effective in the clinic. To integrate the immune system into regenerative strategies, one of the first challenges is to understand the precise functions of the different immune components during the tissue healing process. While remarkable progress has been made, the immune mechanisms involved are still elusive, and there is indication for both negative and positive roles depending on the tissue type or organ and life stage. It is well recognized that the innate immune response comprising danger signals, neutrophils and macrophages modulates tissue healing. In addition, it is becoming evident that the adaptive immune response, in particular T cell subset activities, plays a critical role. In this review, we first present an overview of the basic immune mechanisms involved in tissue repair and regeneration. Then, we highlight various approaches based on biomaterials and drug delivery systems that aim at modulating these mechanisms to limit fibrosis and promote regeneration. We propose that the next generation of regenerative therapies may evolve from typical biomaterial-, stem cell-, or growth factor-centric approaches to an immune-centric approach. Most regenerative strategies have not yet proven to be safe or reasonably efficient in the clinic. In addition to stem cells and growth factors, the immune system plays a crucial role in the tissue healing process. Here, we propose that controlling the immune-mediated mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration may support

  11. Biological Immune System Applications on Mobile Robot for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmin Jia


    Full Text Available To improve the service quality of service robots for the disabled, immune system is applied on robot for its advantages such as diversity, dynamic, parallel management, self-organization, and self-adaptation. According to the immune system theory, local environment condition sensed by robot is considered an antigen while robot is regarded as B-cell and possible node as antibody, respectively. Antibody-antigen affinity is employed to choose the optimal possible node to ensure the service robot can pass through the optimal path. The paper details the immune system applications on service robot and gives experimental results.

  12. Immunization (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  13. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzi, M.


    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Used bySalmonellato Evade the Immune System. (United States)

    Bernal-Bayard, Joaquín; Ramos-Morales, Francisco


    Human and animal pathogens are able to circumvent, at least temporarily, the sophisticated immune defenses of their hosts. Several serovars of the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica have been used as models for the study of pathogen-host interactions. In this review we discuss the strategies used by Salmonella to evade or manipulate three levels of host immune defenses: physical barriers, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. During its passage through the digestive system, Salmonella has to face the acidic pH of the stomach, bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestine, as well as the competition with resident microbiota. After host cell invasion, Salmonella manipulates inflammatory pathways and the autophagy process. Finally, Salmonella evades the adaptive immune system by interacting with dendritic cells, and T and B lymphocytes. Mechanisms allowing the establishment of persistent infections are also discussed.

  15. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system. (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh


    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry


    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  17. Crosstalk between cancer and the neuro-immune system. (United States)

    Kuol, Nyanbol; Stojanovska, Lily; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Nurgali, Kulmira


    In the last decade, understanding of cancer initiation and progression has been given much attention with studies mainly focusing on genetic abnormalities. Importantly, cancer cells can influence their microenvironment and bi-directionally communicate with other systems such as the immune system. The nervous system plays a fundamental role in regulating immune responses to a range of disease states including cancer. Its dysfunction influences the progression of cancer. The role of the immune system in tumor progression is of relevance to the nervous system since they can bi-directionally communicate via neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, common receptors, and, cytokines. However, cross-talk between these cells is highly complex in nature, and numerous variations are possible according to the type of cancer involved. The neuro-immune interaction is essential in influencing cancer development and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The echinoderm immune system. Characters shared with vertebrate immune systems and characters arising later in deuterostome phylogeny. (United States)

    Smith, L C; Davidson, E H


    In summary, the characters of the echinoderm immune system that we review here can be considered to illuminate the baseline nonadaptive immune systems that were our original deuterostome heritage. We still retain--and greatly rely upon--similarly functioning, nonadaptive cellular defense systems. It is worth stressing that sea urchins are long lived, normally healthy animals that display remarkable abilities to heal wounds and combat major infections. From an external point of view, their immune systems obviously work very well. Thus, their cellular defense systems are extremely sensitive, and they respond rapidly to minor perturbations, all without any specific adaptive capabilities. These systems probably function through the transduction of signals conveying information on injury and infection, just as do the equivalent systems that underlie and back up our own adaptive immune systems, and that provide the initial series of defenses against pathogenic invasions. Many extremely interesting questions remain regarding the evolution of the deuterostome immune response. Are the echinoderm and tunicate systems the same, or have the protochordates augmented the basic phagocyte system with an as yet unidentified chordate-like character? Do the jawless fishes produce Igs that would make them similar to the sharks, or are they vertebrates without an Ig system that essentially rely on an invertebrate-like, nonspecific, activated phagocyte type of immune system? How do sharks regulate their immune system without T cells and MHC class I? How do they avoid producing autoantibodies? Future research will not only answer these questions, but those answers will also be enlightening with regard to the origins of the mammalian immune system in which ancient functions and subsystems remain.

  19. Pulmonary contusion primes systemic innate immunity responses. (United States)

    Hoth, J Jason; Martin, R S; Yoza, Barbara K; Wells, Jonathan D; Meredith, J W; McCall, Charles E


    Traumatic injury may result in an exaggerated response to subsequent immune stimuli such as nosocomial infection. This "second hit" phenomenon and molecular mechanism(s) of immune priming by traumatic lung injury, specifically, pulmonary contusion, remain unknown. We used an animal model of pulmonary contusion to determine whether the injury resulted in priming of the innate immune response and to test the hypothesis that resuscitation fluids could attenuate the primed response to a second hit. Male, 8 to 9 weeks, C57/BL6 mice with a pulmonary contusion were challenged by a second hit of intratracheal administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg) 24 hours after injury (injury + LPS). Other experimental groups were injury + vehicle or LPS alone. A separate group was injured and resuscitated by 4 cc/kg of hypertonic saline (HTS) or Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation before LPS challenge. Mice were killed 4 hours after LPS challenge and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue were isolated and analyzed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparison posttest for significant differences (*p < or = 0.05). Injury + LPS showed immune priming observed by lung injury histology and increased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase and serum IL-6, CXCL1, and MIP-2 levels when compared with injury + vehicle or LPS alone. After injury, resuscitation with HTS, but not Lactated Ringer's was more effective in attenuating the primed response to a second hit. Pulmonary contusion primes innate immunity for an exaggerated response to a second hit with the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, LPS. We observed synergistic increases in inflammatory mediator expression in the blood and a more severe lung injury in injured animals challenged with LPS. This priming effect was reduced when HTS was used to resuscitate the animal after lung contusion.

  20. Country Immunization Information System Assessments - Kenya, 2015 and Ghana, 2016. (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Clarke, Kristie E N; Grevendonk, Jan; Dolan, Samantha B; Ahmed, Hussein Osman; Kamau, Peter; Ademba, Peter Aswani; Osadebe, Lynda; Bonsu, George; Opare, Joseph; Diamenu, Stanley; Amenuvegbe, Gregory; Quaye, Pamela; Osei-Sarpong, Fred; Abotsi, Francis; Ankrah, Joseph Dwomor; MacNeil, Adam


    The collection, analysis, and use of data to measure and improve immunization program performance are priorities for the World Health Organization (WHO), global partners, and national immunization programs (NIPs). High quality data are essential for evidence-based decision-making to support successful NIPs. Consistent recording and reporting practices, optimal access to and use of health information systems, and rigorous interpretation and use of data for decision-making are characteristics of high-quality immunization information systems. In 2015 and 2016, immunization information system assessments (IISAs) were conducted in Kenya and Ghana using a new WHO and CDC assessment methodology designed to identify root causes of immunization data quality problems and facilitate development of plans for improvement. Data quality challenges common to both countries included low confidence in facility-level target population data (Kenya = 50%, Ghana = 53%) and poor data concordance between child registers and facility tally sheets (Kenya = 0%, Ghana = 3%). In Kenya, systemic challenges included limited supportive supervision and lack of resources to access electronic reporting systems; in Ghana, challenges included a poorly defined subdistrict administrative level. Data quality improvement plans (DQIPs) based on assessment findings are being implemented in both countries. IISAs can help countries identify and address root causes of poor immunization data to provide a stronger evidence base for future investments in immunization programs.

  1. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages. (United States)

    Linehan, E; Fitzgerald, D C


    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population.

  2. Smart systems integration and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Poncino, Massimo; Pravadelli, Graziano


    This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...

  3. Fast simulation of lattice systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Kaznelson, E.; Hansen, Frank


    A new computer system with an entirely new processor design is described and demonstrated on a very small trial lattice. The new computer simulates systems of differential equations of the order of 104 times faster than present day computers and we describe how the machine can be applied to lattice...

  4. The Immune System in Obesity: Developing Paradigms Amidst Inconvenient Truths. (United States)

    Agrawal, Madhur; Kern, Philip A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S


    Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically. However, new evidence also suggests that the immune system is equally vital for adipocyte differentiation and protection from ectopic lipid deposition. Furthermore, roles of anti-inflammatory immune cells such as regulatory T cells, "M2-like" macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells are being explored, primarily due to promise of immunotherapeutic applications. Both immune responses and AT distribution are strongly influenced by factors like sex and race, which have been largely underappreciated in the field of metabolically-associated inflammation, or meta-flammation. More studies are required to recognize factors that switch inflammation from controlled to uncontrolled in obesity-associated pathogenesis and to integrate the combined effects of meta-flammation and immunometabolism. It is critical to recognize that the AT-associated immune system can be alternately beneficial and destructive; therefore, simply blocking immune responses early in obesity may not be the best clinical approach. The dearth of information on gender and race-associated disparities in metabolism, AT distribution, and the immune system suggest that a greater understanding of such differences will be critical to develop personalized treatments for obesity and the associated metabolic dysfunction.

  5. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development. (United States)

    Kiyono, Hiroshi; Azegami, Tatsuhiko


    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases.


    Rationale: The predisposition towards atopic disease begins early in life, and that the risk of developing asthma is heightened following prenatal exposure to some compounds. Nonetheless, the effect of gestational aeroallergen exposure on the developing immune system is unclear....

  7. The Immune System, Cytokines, and Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Masi, Anne; Glozier, Nicholas; Dale, Russell; Guastella, Adam J


    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations. The roles and identification of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine profiles in ASD.

  8. Graphene and the Immune System: A Romance of Many Dimensions. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sourav P; Bottini, Massimo; Fadeel, Bengt


    Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are emerging as attractive materials for biomedical applications. Understanding how these materials are perceived by and interact with the immune system is of fundamental importance. Phagocytosis is a major mechanism deployed by the immune system to remove pathogens, particles, and cellular debris. Here, we discuss recent studies on the interactions of GBMs with different phagocytic cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. The importance of assessing GBMs for endotoxin contamination is discussed as this may skew results. We also explore the role of the bio-corona for interactions of GBMs with immune cells. Finally, we highlight recent evidence for direct plasma membrane interactions of GBMs.

  9. HIV and Malnutrition: Effects on Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Duggal


    Full Text Available HIV or human immunodeficiency virus infection has assumed worldwide proportions and importance in just a span of 25 years. Continuous research is being done in many parts of the world regarding its treatment and vaccine development, and a lot of money has flown into this. However, fully understanding the mechanisms of immune depletion has still not been possible. The focus has also been on improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS through education, counselling, and nutritional support. Malnutrition further reduces the capacity of the body to fight this infection by compromising various immune parameters. Knowledge of essential components of nutrition and incorporating them in the management goes a long way in improving quality of life and better survival in HIV-infected patients.

  10. Systems biology of neutrophil differentiation and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Porse, Bo T; Borregaard, Niels


    Systems biology has emerged as a new scientific field, which aims at investigating biological processes at the genomic and proteomic levels. Recent studies have unravelled aspects of neutrophil differentiation and immune responses at the systems level using high-throughput technologies....... These studies have identified a plethora of novel effector proteins stored in the granules of neutrophils. In addition, these studies provide evidence that neutrophil differentiation and immune response are governed by a highly coordinated transcriptional programme that regulates cellular fate and function...

  11. How the Interval between Prime and Boost Injection Affects the Immune Response in a Computational Model of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Castiglione


    Full Text Available The immune system is able to respond more vigorously to the second contact with a given antigen than to the first contact. Vaccination protocols generally include at least two doses, in order to obtain high antibody titers. We want to analyze the relation between the time elapsed from the first dose (priming and the second dose (boost on the antibody titers. In this paper, we couple in vivo experiments with computer simulations to assess the effect of delaying the second injection. We observe that an interval of several weeks between the prime and the boost is necessary to obtain optimal antibody responses.

  12. Roles of Zinc Signaling in the Immune System. (United States)

    Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki


    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for basic cell activities such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Zn deficiency depresses both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the precise physiological mechanisms of the Zn-mediated regulation of the immune system have been largely unclear. Zn homeostasis is tightly controlled by the coordinated activity of Zn transporters and metallothioneins, which regulate the transport, distribution, and storage of Zn. There is growing evidence that Zn behaves like a signaling molecule, facilitating the transduction of a variety of signaling cascades in response to extracellular stimuli. In this review, we highlight the emerging functional roles of Zn and Zn transporters in immunity, focusing on how crosstalk between Zn and immune-related signaling guides the normal development and function of immune cells.

  13. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo


    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  14. [The role of protein glycosylation in immune system]. (United States)

    Ząbczyńska, Marta; Pocheć, Ewa


    Glycosylation is one of the most frequent post-translational modifications of proteins. The majority of cell surface and secreted proteins involved in immune response is glycosylated. The structural diversity of glycans depends on monosaccharide composition, type of glycosidic linkage and branching. These structural modifications determine a great variability of glycoproteins. The oligosaccharide components of proteins are regulated mostly by expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases and many environmental factors. Glycosylation influences the function of all immune cells. Glycans play a crucial role in intercellular contacts and leukocytes migration. These interactions are important in activation and proliferation of leukocytes and during immune response. The key immune proteins, such as TCR, MHC, TLR and antibodies are glycosylated. Sugars on the surface of pathogens and self-surface glycoproteins are recognized by special carbohydrate binding proteins called lectins. Changes of glycan structure are common in many pathological processes occurring in immune system, therefore they are used as molecular markers of different diseases.

  15. Evasion of the human innate immune system by dengue virus. (United States)

    Pagni, Sarah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana


    Dengue virus is a worldwide health problem, with billions of people at risk annually. Dengue virus causes a spectrum of diseases, namely dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome with the latter two being linked to death. Understanding how dengue is able to evade the immune system and cause enhanced severity of disease is the main topics of interest in the Fernandez-Sesma laboratory at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Using primary human immune cells, our group investigates the contribution of dengue virus-specific proteins to the evasion of innate immunity by this virus and the host factors that the virus interacts with in order to evade immune recognition and to establish infection in humans. Here, we review recent findings from our group as well as published data from other groups regarding immune modulation by dengue virus.

  16. Viral Evasion and Subversion Mechanisms of the Host Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Ghaemi-Bafghi


    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and versatile pathogens which challenge the immune system and cause major threats to human health. Viruses employ differ¬ent mechanisms to evade host immune responses that we describe them under the following headings: Inhibition of humoral responses, Interference with interferons, Inhibition and modulation of cytokines and chemokines, Inhibitors of apoptosis, Evading CTLs and NKs, and modulating MHC function.Viruses inhibit humoral immunity in different ways which contains change of viral antigens, production of regulatory proteins of complement system and receptors of the Fc part of antibodies. Viruses block interferon production and function via interruption of cell signaling JAK/STAT pathway, Inhibition of eIF-2α phosphorylation and translational arrest and 2'5'OS/RNAse L system. Also, Poxviruses produce soluble versions of receptors for interferons. One of the most important ways of viral evasion is inhibition and manipulation of cytokines; for example, Herpsviruses and Poxviruses produce viral cytokines (virokines and cytokine receptors (viroceptors. In addition, viruses change maturation and expression of MHC I and MHC II molecules to interrupt viral antigens presentation and hide them from immune system recognition. Also, they inhibit NK cell functions.In this review, we provide an overview of the viral evasion mechanisms of immune system. Since most viruses have developed strategies for evasion of immune system, if we know these mechanisms in detail we can fight them more successfully.

  17. Characterization of the opossum immune genome provides insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system. (United States)

    Belov, Katherine; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Wong, Emily S W; Assange, Daniel; McColl, Kaighin A; Gout, Alex; de Bono, Bernard; Barrow, Alexander D; Speed, Terence P; Trowsdale, John; Papenfuss, Anthony T


    The availability of the first marsupial genome sequence has allowed us to characterize the immunome of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Here we report the identification of key immune genes, including the highly divergent chemokines, defensins, cathelicidins, and Natural Killer cell receptors. It appears that the increase in complexity of the mammalian immune system occurred prior to the divergence of the marsupial and eutherian lineages approximately 180 million years ago. Genomes of ancestral mammals most likely contained all of the key mammalian immune gene families, with evolution on different continents, in the presence of different pathogens leading to lineage specific expansions and contractions, resulting in some minor differences in gene number and composition between different mammalian lineages. Gene expansion and extensive heterogeneity in opossum antimicrobial peptide genes may have evolved as a consequence of the newborn young needing to survive without an adaptive immune system in a pathogen laden environment. Given the similarities in the genomic architecture of the marsupial and eutherian immune systems, we propose that marsupials are ideal model organisms for the study of developmental immunology.

  18. Metabolites: messengers between the microbiota and the immune system. (United States)

    Levy, Maayan; Thaiss, Christoph A; Elinav, Eran


    The mammalian intestine harbors one of the largest microbial densities on Earth, necessitating the implementation of control mechanisms by which the host evaluates the state of microbial colonization and reacts to deviations from homeostasis. While microbial recognition by the innate immune system has been firmly established as an efficient means by which the host evaluates microbial presence, recent work has uncovered a central role for bacterial metabolites in the orchestration of the host immune response. In this review, we highlight examples of how microbiota-modulated metabolites control the development, differentiation, and activity of the immune system and classify them into functional categories that illustrate the spectrum of ways by which microbial metabolites influence host physiology. A comprehensive understanding of how microbiota-derived metabolites shape the human immune system is critical for the rational design of therapies for microbiota-driven diseases. © 2016 Levy et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system. (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A


    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure-activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle-immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systemic immune response to Acanthamoeba keratitis in the Chinese hamster. (United States)

    Van Klink, F; Leher, H; Jager, M J; Alizadeh, H; Taylor, W; Niederkorn, J Y


    Recrudescence is a common and troubling feature of Acanthamoeba keratitis and suggests that corneal infection with this organism fails to stimulate the systemic immune apparatus. The present study examined the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to Acanthamoeba keratitis in the Chinese hamster. Corneal infection with A. castellanii failed to induce either delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) or serum IgG antibody against parasite antigens. The failure to induce cell-mediated and humoral immunity did not result in anergy or tolerance since subsequent intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with parasite antigens elicited robust DTH and IgG antibody responses. The inability of corneal infections to induce primary cell-mediated immune responses was due to the absence of resident antigen-presenting cells in the central cornea because induction of Langerhans cell (LC) migration into the central cornea prior to infection with Acanthamoeba promoted the development of parasite-specific DTH. Although the presence of resident LC did not promote the development of a primary humoral immune response, subsequent i.m. immunization elicited heightened parasite-specific IgG antibody production which was indicative of an anamnestic response. Collectively, the results indicate that in the absence of resident antigen-presenting cells, corneal infection with Acanthamoeba fails to stimulate primary cell-mediated or humoral immunity. Induction of peripheral LC into the central corneal epithelium promotes the development of parasite-specific DTH, but does not exacerbate corneal disease.

  1. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy. (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J


    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  2. Interactive Simulations of Biohybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Albrecht von Mammen


    Full Text Available In this article, we present approaches to interactive simulations of biohybrid systems. These simulations are comprised of two major computational components: (1 agent-based developmental models that retrace organismal growth and unfolding of technical scaffoldings and (2 interfaces to explore these models interactively. Simulations of biohybrid systems allow us to fast forward and experience their evolution over time based on our design decisions involving the choice, configuration and initial states of the deployed biological and robotic actors as well as their interplay with the environment. We briefly introduce the concept of swarm grammars, an agent-based extension of L-systems for retracing growth processes and structural artifacts. Next, we review an early augmented reality prototype for designing and projecting biohybrid system simulations into real space. In addition to models that retrace plant behaviors, we specify swarm grammar agents to braid structures in a self-organizing manner. Based on this model, both robotic and plant-driven braiding processes can be experienced and explored in virtual worlds. We present an according user interface for use in virtual reality. As we present interactive models concerning rather diverse description levels, we only ensured their principal capacity for interaction but did not consider efficiency analyzes beyond prototypic operation. We conclude this article with an outlook on future works on melding reality and virtuality to drive the design and deployment of biohybrid systems.

  3. Trauma: the role of the innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijkers GT


    Full Text Available Abstract Immune dysfunction can provoke (multiple organ failure in severely injured patients. This dysfunction manifests in two forms, which follow a biphasic pattern. During the first phase, in addition to the injury by trauma, organ damage is caused by the immune system during a systemic inflammatory response. During the second phase the patient is more susceptible for sepsis due to host defence failure (immune paralysis. The pathophysiological model outlined in this review encompasses etiological factors and the contribution of the innate immune system in the end organ damage. The etiological factors can be divided into intrinsic (genetic predisposition and physiological status and extrinsic components (type of injury or "traumaload" and surgery or "intervention load". Of all the factors, the intervention load is the only one which, can be altered by the attending emergency physician. Adjustment of the therapeutic approach and choice of the most appropriate treatment strategy can minimize the damage caused by the immune response and prevent the development of immunological paralysis. This review provides a pathophysiological basis for the damage control concept, in which a staged approach of surgery and post-traumatic immunomonitoring have become important aspects of the treatment protocol. The innate immune system is the main objective of immunomonitoring as it has the most prominent role in organ failure after trauma. Polymorphonuclear phagocytes and monocytes are the main effector-cells of the innate immune system in the processes that lead to organ failure. These cells are controlled by cytokines, chemokines, complement factors and specific tissue signals. The contribution of tissue barrier integrity and its interaction with the innate immune system is further evaluated.

  4. Aging of the Immune System. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets. (United States)

    Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J


    Beginning with the sixth decade of life, the human immune system undergoes dramatic aging-related changes, which continuously progress to a state of immunosenescence. The aging immune system loses the ability to protect against infections and cancer and fails to support appropriate wound healing. Vaccine responses are typically impaired in older individuals. Conversely, inflammatory responses mediated by the innate immune system gain in intensity and duration, rendering older individuals susceptible to tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease. Immune system aging functions as an accelerator for other age-related pathologies. It occurs prematurely in some clinical conditions, most prominently in patients with the autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and such patients serve as an informative model system to study molecular mechanisms of immune aging. T cells from patients with RA are prone to differentiate into proinflammatory effector cells, sustaining chronic-persistent inflammatory lesions in the joints and many other organ systems. RA T cells have several hallmarks of cellular aging; most importantly, they accumulate damaged DNA. Because of deficiency of the DNA repair kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated, RA T cells carry a higher burden of DNA double-strand breaks, triggering cell-indigenous stress signals that shift the cell's survival potential and differentiation pattern. Immune aging in RA T cells is also associated with metabolic reprogramming; specifically, with reduced glycolytic flux and diminished ATP production. Chronic energy stress affects the longevity and the functional differentiation of older T cells. Altered metabolic patterns provide opportunities to therapeutically target the immune aging process through metabolic interference.

  5. Mathematical Model of Innate and Adaptive Immunity of Sepsis: A Modeling and Simulation Study of Infectious Disease. (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Wu, Chih-Hang J; Ben-Arieh, David; Simpson, Steven Q


    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) to infection. In this work, a system dynamics mathematical model (SDMM) is examined to describe the basic components of SIR and sepsis progression. Both innate and adaptive immunities are included, and simulated results in silico have shown that adaptive immunity has significant impacts on the outcomes of sepsis progression. Further investigation has found that the intervention timing, intensity of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and initial pathogen load are highly predictive of outcomes of a sepsis episode. Sensitivity and stability analysis were carried out using bifurcation analysis to explore system stability with various initial and boundary conditions. The stability analysis suggested that the system could diverge at an unstable equilibrium after perturbations if r t2max (maximum release rate of Tumor Necrosis Factor- (TNF-) α by neutrophil) falls below a certain level. This finding conforms to clinical findings and existing literature regarding the lack of efficacy of anti-TNF antibody therapy.

  6. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system. (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin


    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students.

  7. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system. (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio; Rosell, Rafael


    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.


    After reviewing the different lymphoid organs and the essential phases of the immune response, we studied the morphological and functional effects of ionizing radiation on the immunological system. Histologic changes in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and different lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in relation with the radiation dose and irradiated volume (whole body irradiation, localized irradiation). Functional changes in the immune system induced by ionizing radiation were also investigated by a study of humoral-mediated immunity (antibody formation) and cell-mediated immunity (behavior of macrophages, B-cells, T suppressor cells, T helper cells, T effector cells, and natural killer cells). A study into the mechanisms of action of ionizing radiation and the immune processes it interferes with suggests several likely hypotheses (direct action on the immune cells, on their precursors, on seric mediators or on cell mediators). The effects on cancer patients' immune reactions of low radiation doses delivered to the various lymphoid organs are discussed, as well as the relationships between the host and the evolution of the tumor [fr

  9. Introduction to the role of the immune system in melanoma. (United States)

    Margolin, Kim


    The concept of immunosurveillance of cancer has been widely accepted for many years, but only recently have the precise mechanisms of tumor-host immune interactions been revealed. Inflammatory and immune reactions play a role in melanomagenesis, and may contribute to the eradication of tumor as well as potentiating its growth and proliferation. Studies of the role of tumor-immune system interactions are providing insights into the pathogenesis and opportunities for highly effective therapeutic strategies. Some patients, even with advanced disease, are now cured with immunotherapy, and increasing numbers of such cures are likely in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perinatal Environmental Effects on the Neonatal Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich


    that the seasonal-related maternal exposome is reflected in the newborn immune system. These data supports the notion that environmental factors imprints immunological variation already in the perinatal life. In conclusion, studies on early immunological priming may be critical in order to understanding early...... are thought to be programmed in utero supporting a role of the early environment. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to study if known risk factors are imprinted in the immune system of newborns. The hypotheses were that cesarean section and season of birth would influence the immune signature in early...... life. Both are known to be associated with disease. We analyzed the distribution of circulating immune cells from cord blood in the children part of the ongoing unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort by multi-color flow cytometry. Moreover, airway mucosal cytokines and chemokines of 1-month-old children...

  11. CRISPR-Cas systems: prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A.


    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing, and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. PMID:24766887

  12. Role of neuropilin-2 in the immune system. (United States)

    Schellenburg, S; Schulz, A; Poitz, D M; Muders, M H


    Neuropilins (NRPs) are single transmembrane receptors with short cytoplasmic tails and are dependent on receptors like VEGF receptors or Plexins for signal transduction. NRPs are known to be important in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and axon guidance. The Neuropilin-family consists of two members, Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and Neuropilin-2 (NRP2). They are up to 44 % homologous and conserved in all vertebrates. High levels of NRP2 are found on immune cells. Current research is very limited regarding the functions of NRP2 on these cells. Recent evidence suggests that NRP2 is important for migration, antigen presentation, phagocytosis and cell-cell contact within the immune system. Additionally, posttranslational NRP2 modifications like polysialylation are crucial for the function of some immune cells. This review is an overview about expression and functions of NRP2 in the immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections. (United States)

    Klein, Robyn S; Hunter, Christopher A


    The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection. Advances in these areas have broadened our comprehension of how the immune system functions in the brain and can readily overcome immune privilege. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Maintenance of systemic immune functions prevents accelerated presbycusis. (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Baba, Susumu; Omae, Mariko; Lee, Shinryu; Yamashita, Toshio; Ikehara, Susumu


    There is no effective therapy for progressive hearing loss such as presbycusis, the causes of which remain poorly understood because of the difficulty of separating genetic and environmental contributions. In the present study, we show that the age-related dysfunctions of the systemic immune system in an animal model of accelerated presbycusis (SAMP1, senescence-accelerated mouse P1) can be corrected by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We also demonstrate that this presbycusis can be prevented; BMT protects the recipients from age-related hearing impairment and the degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) as well as the dysfunctions of T lymphocytes, which have a close relation to immune senescence. No donor cells are infiltrated to the spiral ganglia, confirming that this experimental system using BMT is connected to the systemic immune system and does not contribute to transdifferentiation or fusion by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), or to the direct maintenance of ganglion cells by locally infiltrated donor immunocompetent cells. Therefore, another procedure which attempts to prevent the age-related dysfunctions of the recipient immune system is the inoculation of syngeneic splenocytes from young donors. These mice show no development of hearing loss, compared with the recipient mice with inoculation of saline or splenocytes from old donors. Our studies on the relationship between age-related systemic immune dysfunctions and neurodegeneration mechanisms open up new avenues of treatment for presbycusis, for which there is no effective therapy.

  15. Cyclic Dinucleotides in the Scope of the Mammalian Immune System. (United States)

    Mankan, Arun K; Müller, Martina; Witte, Gregor; Hornung, Veit


    First discovered in prokaryotes and more recently in eukaryotes, cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) constitute a unique branch of second messenger signaling systems. Within prokaryotes CDNs regulate a wide array of different biological processes, whereas in the vertebrate system CDN signaling is largely dedicated to activation of the innate immune system. In this book chapter we summarize the occurrence and signaling pathways of these small-molecule second messengers, most importantly in the scope of the mammalian immune system. In this regard, our main focus is the role of the cGAS-STING axis in the context of microbial infection and sterile inflammation and its implications for therapeutic applications.

  16. Small and long regulatory RNAs in the immune system and immune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stachurska, Anna; Zorro, Maria M.; van der Sijde, Marijke R.; Withoff, Sebo


    Cellular differentiation is regulated on the level of gene expression, and it is known that dysregulation of gene expression can lead to deficiencies in differentiation that contribute to a variety of diseases, particularly of the immune system. Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation

  17. Evasion of the human innate immune system by dengue virus


    Pagni, Sarah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana


    Dengue virus is a worldwide health problem, with billions of people at risk annually. Dengue virus causes a spectrum of diseases, namely dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome with the latter two being linked to death. Understanding how dengue is able to evade the immune system and cause enhanced severity of disease is the main topics of interest in the Fernandez-Sesma laboratory at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Using primary human immune cells, our group investiga...

  18. Retroviruses as tools to study the immune system. (United States)

    Lois, C; Refaeli, Y; Qin, X F; Van Parijs, L


    Retrovirus-based vectors provide an efficient means to introduce and express genes in cells of the immune system and have become a popular tool to study immune function. They are easy to manipulate and provide stable, long-term gene expression because they integrate into the genome. Current retroviral vectors do have limitations that affect their usefulness in certain applications. However, recent advances suggest a number of ways in which these vectors might be improved to extend their utility in immunological research.

  19. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  20. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants. (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M


    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  1. The immune system and overtraining in athletes: clinical implications. (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Koltun, Kristen J


    The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview of how overtraining and the overtraining syndrome (OTS) affect the immune system of athletes. A secondary objective is to provide sports medicine clinicians with guidance as to how best to prevent and/or treat some of the health consequences of overtraining and the OTS as related to the development of a compromised immune system associated with exercise training. The OTS is a physically debilitating condition that results in athletes being totally compromised in their capacity to perform and compete. Many physiological systems are affected by the process of overtraining and the OTS; but one system in particular, the immune, is highly susceptible to degradation resulting in a reduction in overall health and performance. Monitoring of an athlete's exercise training load and other life stresses is critical to the determination of when their training regimen may be excessive, thereby increasing the risk of OTS developing. Taking steps to mitigate prolonged exposure to extreme stress (training + life or otherwise) in athletes as well as promoting a healthy immune system can significantly aid in the advancement of an athlete's training regimen progression and ultimate physical performance and overall health. In this light, this review provides approaches to aid sports medicine clinicians in promoting a healthy immune system in athletes.

  2. Role of the Immune System in Diabetic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Hickey, Fionnuala B; Martin, Finian


    The purpose of this review is to examine the proposed role of immune modulation in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Diabetic kidney disease has not historically been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, increasing evidence is emerging in support of an immune role in its pathophysiology. Both systemic and local renal inflammation have been associated with DKD. Infiltration of immune cells, predominantly macrophages, into the kidney has been reported in a number of both experimental and clinical studies. In addition, increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been linked to disease progression. Consequently, a variety of therapeutic strategies involving modulation of the immune response are currently being investigated in diabetic kidney disease. Although no current therapies for DKD are directly based on immune modulation many of the therapies in clinical use have anti-inflammatory effects along with their primary actions. Macrophages emerge as the most likely beneficial immune cell target and compounds which reduce macrophage infiltration to the kidney have shown potential in both animal models and clinical trials.

  3. Immunity to transplantable nitrosourea-induced neurogenic tumors. III. Systemic adoptive transfer of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, N.; Hochgeschwender, U.; Kida, Y.; Hochwald, G.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.; Cravioto, H.


    The effect of intravenously injected tumor immune spleen cells on growth of 3 X 10 5 gliosarcoma T 9 cells injected intradermally (ID) or intracerebrally (IC) into sublethally irradiated CDF rats was evaluated. Spleen cells from donor rats with sufficient immunity to reject 5 X 10 5 T 9 cells inhibited the growth of T 9 cells mixed with spleen cells in a ratio of 1:25 and injected ID, but could not act after intravenous transfer. However, donor rats which had rejected increasing T 9 challenge doses up to 1 X 10 7 cells produced immune spleen cells which, upon IV transfer, could inhibit growth of ID T 9 challenge but not of EB-679, an unrelated glioma, in recipient rats. Rejection of IC T 9 challenge was also obtained after IV transfer, in recipients of such ''hyperimmune'' spleen cells, but was less (60% maximum) than that noted after ID T 9 challenge (100% maximum). The removal of B cells from the transferred spleen cells did not affect the results, suggesting that the specific immunity was mediated by T cells. The authors conclude that the special immunological circumstances of tumors growing in the brain renders them less accessible to rejection by systemically transferred immune cells, but it is nevertheless possible to effect a significant incidence of rejection of syngeneic tumor growth in the brain by the intravenous transfer of hyperimmune spleen cells

  4. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.


    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted. PMID:25023483

  5. Peripheral education of the immune system by the colonic microbiota. (United States)

    Kuhn, Kristine A; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S


    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of host-microbial interactions on host physiologic processes. Much of the work in this arena is logically focused on the interaction at mucosal surfaces as this is a primary site of interaction. However, there is ample evidence to suggest that the effects of the microbiota have a much farther reach including the systemic immune system. While there are some similarities to effects at mucosal surfaces (i.e. reduced numbers of adaptive immune cells, diminished innate responses), there are some important differences that we highlight such as the response to immunogens and bacterial antigens. We propose that understanding the details of how specific components of the microbiota influence the systemic immune system likely will have significant impact on our understanding the pathophysiology of a variety of autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Book Review: Rediscovering the Immune System as an Integrated Organ. (United States)

    Corthay, A


    The immune system may seem incredibly complex. Researchers in immunology are amassing enormous amounts of detailed information without gaining proportional insights. Why might this be? So asks Peter Bretscher near the start of his book Rediscovering the Immune System as an Integrated Organ. He argues that contemporary immunology fails to provide understanding at the level of the system because it is dominated by molecular and cellular considerations. He reminds us of a famous quotation: Not everything that counts can be counted and not everything that can be counted counts, before stating the ambitious aim of his book: to make plausible an integrated and readily accessible view of how the immune system functions. By Peter Bretscher. FriesenPress, 2016. 288 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4602-7406-4. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  7. Thermodynamics as the driving principle behind the immune system. (United States)

    Finger, Eduardo


    Over the last 120 years, few things contributed more to our understanding of immune system than the study of its behavior in the host/parasite relationship. Despite the advances though, a few questions remain, such as what drives the immune system? What are its guiding principles? If we ask these questions randomly, most will immediately answer "defend the body from external threats," but what exactly do we defend ourselves from? How do these threats harm us? What criteria define what constitutes a threat? On the other hand, if the immune system evolved to defend us against external threats, how does its action against "internal" processes, such as neoplasms, qualify? Why do we die from cancer? Or from infection? Or even, why do we die at all? These apparently obvious questions are nor simple neither trivial, and the difficulty answering them reveals the complex reality that the immune system handles. The objective of this article is to articulate for the reader something that he instinctively already knows: that the decisions of the immune system are thermodynamically driven. Additionally, we will discuss how this apparent change in paradigm alters concepts such as health, disease, and therapeutics.

  8. "Health system approach" for improving immunization program performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya


    Full Text Available Immunization programs are one of the most well-recognized and successful public health programs across the world. The immunization programs have achieved significant successes in a number of countries; however, the coverage with available vaccines remains sub-optimal in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. This article, based upon extensive review of literature and using universal immunization program (UIP in India as a case study, summarizes the latest developments and initiatives in the area of vaccination and immunization in the last few years. The article analyzes initiatives under UIP in India from the "health system approach" and argues that it is possible to increase coverage with available vaccines and overall program performance by focused attention on various functions of health systems. It also discusses the emerging evidence that health systems could be strengthened prior to the introduction of new interventions (vaccines included and the introduction of new interventions (including vaccines could be planned in a way to strengthen the health systems. It concludes that immunization programs could be one of the entry points for strengthening health systems in the countries and lessons from vaccine introduction could pave pathway for scaling up other health interventions and therefore, could contribute to advancing Universal Health Coverage (UHC.

  9. Modulation of systemic immune responses through commensal gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Schachtschneider

    Full Text Available Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is initiated during birth and continually seeded from the individual's environment. Gastrointestinal microorganisms play a central role in developing and modulating host immune responses and have been the subject of investigation over the last decades. Animal studies have demonstrated the impact of GI tract microbiota on local gastrointestinal immune responses; however, the full spectrum of action of early gastrointestinal tract stimulation and subsequent modulation of systemic immune responses is poorly understood. This study explored the utility of an oral microbial inoculum as a therapeutic tool to affect porcine systemic immune responses. For this study a litter of 12 pigs was split into two groups. One group of pigs was inoculated with a non-pathogenic oral inoculum (modulated, while another group (control was not. DNA extracted from nasal swabs and fecal samples collected throughout the study was sequenced to determine the effects of the oral inoculation on GI and respiratory microbial communities. The effects of GI microbial modulation on systemic immune responses were evaluated by experimentally infecting with the pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Coughing levels, pathology, toll-like receptors 2 and 6, and cytokine production were measured throughout the study. Sequencing results show a successful modulation of the GI and respiratory microbiomes through oral inoculation. Delayed type hypersensitivity responses were stronger (p = 0.07, and the average coughing levels and respiratory TNF-α variance were significantly lower in the modulated group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0153, respectively. The M. hyopneumoniae infection study showed beneficial effects of the oral inoculum on systemic immune responses including antibody production, severity of infection and cytokine levels. These results suggest that an oral microbial inoculation can be used to modulate microbial communities, as well as

  10. Dynamic simulation of LMFBR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.


    This review article focuses on the dynamic analysis of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor systems in the context of protected transients. Following a brief discussion on various design and simulation approaches, a critical review of various models for in-reactor components, intermediate heat exchangers, heat transport systems and the steam generating system is presented. A brief discussion on choice of fuels as well as core and blanket system designs is also included. Numerical considerations for obtaining system-wide steady-state and transient solutions are discussed, and examples of various system transients are presented. Another area of major interest is verification of phenomenological models. Various steps involved in the code and model verification are briefly outlined. The review concludes by posing some further areas of interest in fast reactor dynamics and safety. (author)

  11. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system. (United States)

    Geuking, Markus B; Köller, Yasmin; Rupp, Sandra; McCoy, Kathy D


    The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the microbiota composition might impact on the susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders such as autoimmunity and allergy. Understanding how the microbiota modulates susceptibility to these diseases is an important step toward better prevention or treatment options for such diseases.

  12. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system. (United States)

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L


    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  13. The Role of the Immune System in Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Meltzer, Amory; Van de Water, Judy


    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication and social skills as well as repetitive and stereotypical behaviors. While much effort has focused on the identification of genes associated with autism, research emerging within the past two decades suggests that immune dysfunction is a viable risk factor contributing to the neurodevelopmental deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further, it is the heterogeneity within this disorder that has brought to light much of the current thinking regarding the subphenotypes within ASD and how the immune system is associated with these distinctions. This review will focus on the two main axes of immune involvement in ASD, namely dysfunction in the prenatal and postnatal periods. During gestation, prenatal insults including maternal infection and subsequent immunological activation may increase the risk of autism in the child. Similarly, the presence of maternally derived anti-brain autoantibodies found in ~20% of mothers whose children are at risk for developing autism has defined an additional subphenotype of ASD. The postnatal environment, on the other hand, is characterized by related but distinct profiles of immune dysregulation, inflammation, and endogenous autoantibodies that all persist within the affected individual. Further definition of the role of immune dysregulation in ASD thus necessitates a deeper understanding of the interaction between both maternal and child immune systems, and the role they have in diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Immune system: a possible nexus between cannabinoids and psychosis. (United States)

    Suárez-Pinilla, Paula; López-Gil, José; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto


    Endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of the brain-immune axis. Cannabis consumption is related with the development, course, and severity of psychosis. The epidemiological evidence for increased occurrence of immunological alterations in patients with psychosis has not been sufficiently addressed. The aim of this review is to establish whether there is any scientific evidence of the influence of cannabinoids on aspects of immunity that affect susceptibility to psychotic disorder induction. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge was performed using combinations of key terms distributed into three blocks: "immune", "cannabinoid", and "endocannabinoid receptor". Studies were considered to be eligible for the review if they were original articles, they reported a quantitative or qualitative relation between cannabinoid ligands, their receptors, and immune system, and they were carried out in vitro or in mammals, included humans. All the information was systematically extracted and evaluated. We identified 122 articles from 446 references. Overall, endocannabinoids enhanced immune response, whereas exogenous cannabinoids had immunosuppressant effects. A general change in the immune response from Th1 to Th2 was also demonstrated for cannabinoid action. Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids also modulated microglia function and neurotransmitter secretion. The actions of cannabinoids through the immune system are quite regular and predictable in the peripheral but remain fuzzy in the central nervous system. Despite this uncertainty, it may be hypothesized that exposure to exocannabinoids, in particular during adolescence might prompt immunological dysfunctions that potentially cause a latent vulnerability to psychosis. Further investigations are warranted to clarify the relationship between the immunological effects of cannabis and psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Commentary on Special Issue : CNS Diseases and the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F.

    In an increasing number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases a pathogenic contribution of the immune system is proposed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. The collection of articles in this special issue presents a state-of-the-art review of adaptive and

  16. Tuberculosis disease diagnosis using artificial immune recognition system. (United States)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Hessam, Somayeh; Javidnia, Hossein; Amiribesheli, Mohsen; Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Petković, Dalibor; Gani, Abdullah; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat


    There is a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis among conventional methods. This study is aimed at diagnosing TB using hybrid machine learning approaches. Patient epicrisis reports obtained from the Pasteur Laboratory in the north of Iran were used. All 175 samples have twenty features. The features are classified based on incorporating a fuzzy logic controller and artificial immune recognition system. The features are normalized through a fuzzy rule based on a labeling system. The labeled features are categorized into normal and tuberculosis classes using the Artificial Immune Recognition Algorithm. Overall, the highest classification accuracy reached was for the 0.8 learning rate (α) values. The artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) classification approaches using fuzzy logic also yielded better diagnosis results in terms of detection accuracy compared to other empirical methods. Classification accuracy was 99.14%, sensitivity 87.00%, and specificity 86.12%.

  17. Physical activity influences the immune system of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schmidt


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that physical activity in breast cancer patients can not only improve quality of life. Influences on physical and psychological levels have been evaluated, but effects on the immune system of breast cancer patients are hardly known. A PubMed search identified relevant trials and meta-analyses from 1970 to 2013. This review summarizes the results of international studies and the current discussion of effects of physical activity on the immune system of breast cancer patients. Highlighted are effects of physical activity on the immune system. Seven original articles and 14 reviews included in this review. Two original and the review articles includes other tumor entities besides breast cancer.Evaluated methods such as dose-response relationships for exercise in oncology, hardly exist. Increased immunological anti-cancer activity due to physical activity is probably mediated via an increase in number and cytotoxicity of monocytes and natural killer cells and cytokines.

  18. Keeping the immune system in check: a role for mitophagy. (United States)

    Lazarou, Michael


    Mitochondria play a central role in many facets of cellular function including energy production, control of cell death and immune signaling. Breakdown of any of these pathways because of mitochondrial deficits or excessive reactive oxygen species production has detrimental consequences for immune system function and cell viability. Maintaining the functional integrity of mitochondria is therefore a critical challenge for the cell. Surveillance systems that monitor mitochondrial status enable the cell to identify and either repair or eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy that eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria from the population to maintain overall mitochondrial health. This review covers the major players involved in mitophagy and explores the role mitophagy plays to support the immune system.

  19. Schizophrenia and the immune system: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. (United States)

    Richard, Michelle D; Brahm, Nancy C


    Published evidence on established and theoretical connections between immune system dysfunction and schizophrenia is reviewed, with a discussion of developments in the search for immunologically-targeted treatments. A growing body of evidence indicates that immunologic influences may play an important role in the etiology and course of schizophrenia. A literature search identified more than 100 articles pertaining to suspected immunologic influences on schizophrenia published over the past 15 years. Schizophrenia researchers have explored a wide range of potential immune system-related causal or contributory factors, including neurobiological and neuroanatomical disorders, genetic abnormalities, and environmental influences such as maternal perinatal infection. Efforts to establish an immunologic basis for schizophrenia and identify reliable immune markers continue to be hindered by sampling challenges and methodological problems. In aggregate, the available evidence indicates that at least some cases of schizophrenia have an immunologic component, suggesting that immune-focused prevention strategies (e.g., counseling of pregnant women to avoid immune stressors) and close monitoring of at-risk children are appropriate. While antipsychotics remain the standard treatments for schizophrenia, a variety of drugs with immunologic effects have been investigated as adjunctive therapies, with variable and sometimes conflicting results; these include the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, immune-modulating agents (e.g., azathioprine and various anticytokine agents such as atlizumab, anakinra, and tumor necrosis factor-α blockers), and an investigational anti-interferon-γ agent. The published evidence indicates that immune system dysfunction related to genetic, environmental, and neurobiological influences may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia in a subset of patients.

  20. Interaction of entomopathogenic fungi with the host immune system. (United States)

    Qu, Shuang; Wang, Sibao


    Entomopathogenic fungi can invade wide range of insect hosts in the natural world and have been used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for pest control. Studies of host-pathogen interactions provide valuable insights into the coevolutionay arms race between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Entomopathogenic fungi have evolved a series of sophisticated strategies to counter insect immune defenses. In response to fungal infection, insect hosts rely on behavior avoidance, physical barrier and innate immune defenses in the fight against invading pathogens. The insect cuticle acts as the first physical barrier against pathogens. It is an inhospitable physiological environment that contains chemicals (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species), which inhibit fungal growth. In addition, innate immune responses, including cellular immunity and humoral immunity, play critical roles in preventing fungal infection. In this review, we outline the current state of our knowledge of insect defenses to fungal infection and discuss the strategies by which entomopathogenic fungi counter the host immune system. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and the insect host could provide new strategies for pest management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of ionizing radiation on immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuleva, I.


    Delayed radiation effects of irradiation at relatively high doses - 0.52- 2 Gy in result of severe accidents are discussed. The immune response of lymphocyte populations manifested in formation of different kind of mutant cells at Hiroshima-A-bombing and Chernobyl accident are presented. It is of great interest the hypothesis presented launched by RERF (Japanese Foundation for Radiation Effect Research, Hiroshima) for radiation induced predominant of T H2 -lymphocytes in comparison to T H1 as delayed immune response at the Hiroshima-A-bomb survivors. The aspect of immune status is quite different at low doses irradiation (0.02 - 0.2 Gy). There is some stimulation in immune response known as hormesis effect. It is suggested that T-cell activation has key role in immune system stimulation at doses under 0.2 Gy. There is also activation of DNA-reparation mechanisms. Suppression of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-suprarenal axis brings to enhancing of immune potential. Chinese people living in a region with three-times higher background radiation, X-ray examined patients as well as occupationally exposed personnel have been investigated. Radioprotective effect of some cytokines and their influence on the individual radiosensitivity are also discussed.The investigations have to be continued because of some inconsistent results

  2. [Environmental pollutants as adjuvant factors of immune system derived diseases]. (United States)

    Lehmann, Irina


    The main task of the immune system is to protect the body against invading pathogens. To be able to do so, immune cells must be able to recognize and combat exogenous challenges and at the same time tolerate body-borne structures. A complex regulatory network controls the sensitive balance between defense and tolerance. Perturbation of this network ultimately leads to the development of chronic inflammation, such as allergies, autoimmune reactions, and infections, because the immune system is no longer able to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Environmental pollutants can cause such perturbations by affecting the function of immune cells in such a way that they would react hypersensitively against allergens and the body's own structures, respectively, or that they would be no longer able to adequately combat pathogens. This indirect effect is also known as adjuvant effect. For pesticides, heavy metals, wood preservatives, or volatile organic compounds such adjuvant effects are well known. Examples of the mechanism by which environmental toxins contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases are manifold and will be discussed along asthma and allergies.While the immune system of healthy adults is typically well able to distinguish between foreign and endogenous substances even under adverse environmental conditions, that of children would react much more sensible upon comparable environmental challenges. To prevent priming for diseases by environmental cues during that highly sensitive period of early childhood children are to be particularly protected.

  3. A role of the adaptive immune system in glucose homeostasis. (United States)

    Bronsart, Laura L; Contag, Christopher H


    The immune system, including the adaptive immune response, has recently been recognized as having a significant role in diet-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to determine if the adaptive immune system also functions in maintaining physiological glucose homeostasis in the absence of diet-induced disease. SCID mice and immunocompetent control animals were phenotypically assessed for variations in metabolic parameters and cytokine profiles. Additionally, the glucose tolerance of SCID and immunocompetent control animals was assessed following introduction of a high-fat diet. SCID mice on a normal chow diet were significantly insulin resistant relative to control animals despite having less fat mass. This was associated with a significant increase in the innate immunity-stimulating cytokines granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), and MCP3. Additionally, the SCID mouse phenotype was exacerbated in response to a high-fat diet as evidenced by the further significant progression of glucose intolerance. These results support the notion that the adaptive immune system plays a fundamental biological role in glucose homeostasis, and that the absence of functional B and T cells results in disruption in the concentrations of various cytokines associated with macrophage proliferation and recruitment. Additionally, the absence of functional B and T cells is not protective against diet-induced pathology.

  4. Linking the microbiota, chronic disease and the immune system (United States)

    Hand, Timothy W.; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Ridaura, Vanessa K.; Belkaid, Yasmine


    Chronic inflammatory diseases are the most important causes of mortality in the world today and are on the rise. We now know that immune-driven inflammation is critical in the etiology of these diseases, though the environmental triggers and cellular mechanisms that lead to their development are still mysterious. Many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with significant shifts in the microbiota towards inflammatory configurations, which can affect the host both by inducing local and systemic inflammation and by alterations in microbiota-derived metabolites. This review discusses recent findings suggesting that shifts in the microbiota may contribute to chronic disease via effects on the immune system. PMID:27623245

  5. Cells of the immune system in atherosclerosis – chosen data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej


    Full Text Available Development of artherosclerosis is associated with participation of various cell types of the immune system such as: granulocytes, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells and progenitor cells. Cytokines and growth factors have a great impact on activation of the atheromatous plaque. This pathological process results in increase of artery’s tunic intima thickness, leading to coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction or stroke. It is suggested that a closer look at participation of the immune system cells in artherosclerosis may contribute to a change in the profile of therapy of this disease.

  6. FPGA-accelerated simulation of computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Angepat, Hari; Chung, Eric S; Hoe, James C; Chung, Eric S


    To date, the most common form of simulators of computer systems are software-based running on standard computers. One promising approach to improve simulation performance is to apply hardware, specifically reconfigurable hardware in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This manuscript describes various approaches of using FPGAs to accelerate software-implemented simulation of computer systems and selected simulators that incorporate those techniques. More precisely, we describe a simulation architecture taxonomy that incorporates a simulation architecture specifically designed f

  7. The Adaptive Immune System of Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Katharina Maier


    Full Text Available To fight off invading genetic elements, prokaryotes have developed an elaborate defence system that is both adaptable and heritable—the CRISPR-Cas system (CRISPR is short for: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas: CRISPR associated. Comprised of proteins and multiple small RNAs, this prokaryotic defence system is present in 90% of archaeal and 40% of bacterial species, and enables foreign intruders to be eliminated in a sequence-specific manner. There are three major types (I–III and at least 14 subtypes of this system, with only some of the subtypes having been analysed in detail, and many aspects of the defence reaction remaining to be elucidated. Few archaeal examples have so far been analysed. Here we summarize the characteristics of the CRISPR-Cas system of Haloferax volcanii, an extremely halophilic archaeon originally isolated from the Dead Sea. It carries a single CRISPR-Cas system of type I-B, with a Cascade like complex composed of Cas proteins Cas5, Cas6b and Cas7. Cas6b is essential for CRISPR RNA (crRNA maturation but is otherwise not required for the defence reaction. A systematic search revealed that six protospacer adjacent motif (PAM sequences are recognised by the Haloferax defence system. For successful invader recognition, a non-contiguous seed sequence of 10 base-pairs between the crRNA and the invader is required.

  8. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litian Duan


    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  9. Immune system handling time may alter the outcome of competition between pathogens and the immune system. (United States)

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Banton, Sydney; Mideo, Nicole


    Predators may be limited in their ability to kill prey (i.e., have type II or III functional responses), an insight that has had far-reaching consequences in the ecological literature. With few exceptions, however, this possibility has not been extended to the behaviour of immune cells, which kill pathogens much as predators kill their prey. Rather, models of the within-host environment have tended to tacitly assume that immune cells have an unlimited ability to target and kill pathogens (i.e., a type I functional response). Here we explore the effects of changing this assumption on infection outcomes (i.e., pathogen loads). We incorporate immune cell handling time into an ecological model of the within-host environment that considers both the predatory nature of the pathogen-immune cell interaction as well as competition between immune cells and pathogens for host resources. Unless pathogens can preempt immune cells for host resources, adding an immune cell handling time increases equilibrium pathogen load. We find that the shape of the relationship between energy intake and pathogen load can change: with a type I functional response, pathogen load is maximised at intermediate inputs, while for a type II or III functional response, pathogen load is solely increasing. With a type II functional response, pathogen load can fluctuate rather than settling to an equilibrium, a phenomenon unobserved with type I or III functional responses. Our work adds to a growing literature highlighting the role of resource availability in host-parasite interactions. Implications of our results for adaptive anorexia are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D


    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

  11. Gene regulation in the immune system by long noncoding RNAs. (United States)

    Chen, Y Grace; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y


    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of gene expression in the immune system. Studies have shown that lncRNAs are expressed in a highly lineage-specific manner and control the differentiation and function of innate and adaptive cell types. In this Review, we focus on mechanisms used by lncRNAs to regulate genes encoding products involved in the immune response, including direct interactions with chromatin, RNA and proteins. In addition, we address new areas of lncRNA biology, such as the functions of enhancer RNAs, circular RNAs and chemical modifications to RNA in cellular processes. We emphasize critical gaps in knowledge and future prospects for the roles of lncRNAs in the immune system and autoimmune disease.

  12. Why the Immune System Should Be Concerned by Nanomaterials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Pallardy


    Full Text Available Particles possess huge specific surface area and therefore nanomaterials exhibit unique characteristics, such as special physical properties and chemical hyper-reactivity, which make them particularly attractive but also raise numerous questions concerning their safety. Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system can potentially lead to immunosuppression, hypersensitivity (allergy, immunogenicity and autoimmunity, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inherent physical and chemical NP characteristics may influence their immunotoxicity, i.e., the adverse effects that can result from exposure. This review will focus on the possible interaction of nanomaterials including protein aggregates with the innate immune system with specific emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, i.e., dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  13. Graphene and the Immune System: A Romance of Many Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav P. Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials (GBMs are emerging as attractive materials for biomedical applications. Understanding how these materials are perceived by and interact with the immune system is of fundamental importance. Phagocytosis is a major mechanism deployed by the immune system to remove pathogens, particles, and cellular debris. Here, we discuss recent studies on the interactions of GBMs with different phagocytic cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. The importance of assessing GBMs for endotoxin contamination is discussed as this may skew results. We also explore the role of the bio-corona for interactions of GBMs with immune cells. Finally, we highlight recent evidence for direct plasma membrane interactions of GBMs.

  14. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Obbard


    Full Text Available It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  15. Small and Long Regulatory RNAs in the Immune System and Immune Diseases


    Stachurska, Anna; Zorro, Maria M.; van der Sijde, Marijke R.; Withoff, Sebo


    Cellular differentiation is regulated on the level of gene expression, and it is known that dysregulation of gene expression can lead to deficiencies in differentiation that contribute to a variety of diseases, particularly of the immune system. Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors. However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs...

  16. Simulation-based design for infrastructure system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumarola, M.; Huang, Y.; Tekinay, C.; Seck, M.D.


    Simulation models are often used to analyze the behavior and performance of infrastructure systems. The use of simulation models in multi-actor design processes is restricted to the analysis phase after conceptual designs have been completed. To use simulation models throughout the design process,

  17. The contribution of the immune system to parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De Jongh


    Full Text Available The immune system plays a central role before and during parturition, including the main physiological processes of parturition: uterine contractions and cervical ripening. The immune system comprises white blood cells and their secretions. Polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages invade the cervical tissue and release compounds, such as oxygen radicals and enzymes, which break down the cervical matrix to allow softening and dilatation. During this inflammatory process, white blood cells undergo chemotaxis, adherence to endothelial cells, diapedesis, migration and activation. Factors that regulate white blood cell invasion and secretion include cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor and interleukins. Glucocorticoids, sex hormones and prostaglandins, affect cytokine synthesis. They also modulate the target cells, resulting in altered responses to cytokines. On the other hand, the immune system has profound effects on the hormonal system and prostaglandin synthesis. In animals, nitric oxide has marked effects on uterine quiescence during gestation. At the same time, it plays an important role in regulating the vascular tone of uterine arteries and has anti-adhesive effects on leukocytes. Cytokines are found in amniotic fluid, and in maternal and foetal serum at term and preterm. Several intrauterine cells have been shown to produce these cytoldnes. Since neither white blood cells, cytokines nor nitric oxide seem to be the ultimate intermediate for human parturition, the immune system is an additional but obligatory and underestimated component in the physiology of delivery. Scientists, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists must thus be aware of these processes.

  18. The unresponsiveness of the immune system of the rat to hypergravity (United States)

    Scibetta, S. M.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.


    The immune response in rats exposed to simulated hypergravity (2.1 G and 3.1 G) by chronic centrifugation was assessed. Rats were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), either on the day of initial exposure to hypergravity (hyper-G), or after being centrifuged for 28 d and remaining on the centrifuge thereafter. Pair-fed and ad libitum fed noncentrifuged controls were used. Although there were some alterations in leukocyte counts, hyper-G did not systematically affect the primary or secondary anti-SRBC response, hematocrits, or the sizes of the liver, spleen, kidneys, thymus, or adrenal glands. The immune system is thus remarkably homeostatic under hypergravity conditions which do affect other physiologic parameters.

  19. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti


    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  20. Periodontitis: from microbial immune subversion to systemic inflammation (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George


    Periodontitis is a dysbiotic inflammatory disease with an adverse impact on systemic health. Recent studies have provided insights into the emergence and persistence of dysbiotic oral microbial communities, which can mediate inflammatory pathology at local as well as distant sites. This Review discusses mechanisms of microbial immune subversion that tip the balance from homeostasis to disease in oral or extraoral sites. PMID:25534621

  1. Antioxidant status, immune system, blood metabolites and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary turmeric rhizome powder (TP) on performance, blood metabolite, immune system, antioxidant status, and relative weight of organs in pre and post heat stressed broilers. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) day-old male Arian broiler chicks were randomly ...

  2. The interplay between the innate immune system and the microbiota. (United States)

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Levy, Maayan; Suez, Jotham; Elinav, Eran


    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors one of the highest densities of microorganisms on earth, called the microbiota. In fact, the number of microbial cells in the intestine outnumbers the amount of human cells of the entire organism by a factor of 10. As such, a human being is more and more perceived as a super-organism consisting of a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic part. The compartment mediating the communication between both parts is the innate immune system and its various microbe-sensing pattern-recognition receptors. Co-evolution of the microbiota with the innate immune system has resulted in elaborate interdependency and feedback mechanisms by which both systems control mutual homeostasis. Here, we review the most important innate immune-microbiota interdependencies known to date. While microbial sensing by pattern-recognition receptors is required for stable microbial composition, the presence of the microbiota, in turn, is necessary for proper development and function of the immune system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fungal plant pathogens and the plant immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.


    Fungi are notorious plant pathogens and continuously threat global food production. In the last decades we have obtained a better understanding of infection strategies of fungi and the plant immune system. This has facilitated more efficient introduction of disease resistance genes in crop plants by

  4. Immune system as a vital partner in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel


    Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 37 ISSN 1875-2292. [7th International Conference on Tumor Microenvironment. 11.10.2015-15.10.2015, Tel Aviv] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Immune system * cancer treatment * nanomedicines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology

  5. BRAF inhibition improves tumor recognition by the immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Fagone, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando


    to be poorly efficient. By characterizing the immunological interactions between T cells and cancer cells in clinical material as well as the influence of the FDA-approved BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib on the immune system, we aimed at unraveling new strategies to expand the efficacy of adoptive T-cell transfer...

  6. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno


    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  7. Periodontitis: from microbial immune subversion to systemic inflammation. (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George


    Periodontitis is a dysbiotic inflammatory disease with an adverse impact on systemic health. Recent studies have provided insights into the emergence and persistence of dysbiotic oral microbial communities that can mediate inflammatory pathology at local as well as distant sites. This Review discusses the mechanisms of microbial immune subversion that tip the balance from homeostasis to disease in oral or extra-oral sites.

  8. The immune system as a target for antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grondel, J.L.


    Studies on antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OxyTC) in particular, are presented in this thesis with respect to the influence of these drugs on the immune system of carp and chickens. Special attention was paid to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of

  9. For better or worse: Immune system involvement in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Walton


    Full Text Available In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the key role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We also learn more about the link between two disorders related to metabolic imbalances, with findings that could help to inform future screening programs. Finally, we would like to highlight some big news for our journal: the Biomedical Journal will be indexed in the Science Citation Index and receive its first official impact factor from this year. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Tau, Immune responses, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Metabolic disease

  10. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System (United States)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.


    We conducted a series of experiments using mouse immune-precursor cells, and observed that bioreactor culturing results in the loss of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. The reason for the abrogation of CTL function is microgravity conditions in the bioreactor, but not the antigen per se or its MHC restriction. Similarly, we observed that allostimulation of human PBMC in the bioreactor, but not in the T flask, resulted in the blunting of both allo-CTL function and the NK activity, indicating that the microgravity-associated functional defects are not unique to the mouse system. These results provide further confirmation to the microgravity-associated immune dysfunction, and constitute ground-based confirmatory data for those related to space-travel.

  11. Endocannabinoids and the Immune System in Health and Disease. (United States)

    Cabral, Guy A; Ferreira, Gabriela A; Jamerson, Melissa J


    Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that have the potential to signal through cannabinoid receptors to modulate the functional activities of a variety of immune cells. Their activation of these seven-transmembranal, G protein-coupled receptors sets in motion a series of signal transductional events that converge at the transcriptional level to regulate cell migration and the production of cytokines and chemokines. There is a large body of data that supports a functional relevance for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as acting through the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) to inhibit migratory activities for a diverse array of immune cell types. However, unequivocal data that supports a functional linkage of anandamide (AEA) to a cannabinoid receptor in immune modulation remains to be obtained. Endocannabinoids, as typical bioactive lipids, have a short half-life and appear to act in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Their immediate effective action on immune function may be at localized sites in the periphery and within the central nervous system. It is speculated that endocannabinoids play an important role in maintaining the overall "fine-tuning" of the immune homeostatic balance within the host.

  12. Effects of chalcone derivatives on players of the immune system (United States)

    Lee, Jian Sian; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd


    The immune system is the defense mechanism in living organisms that protects against the invasion of foreign materials, microorganisms, and pathogens. It involves multiple organs and tissues in human body, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. However, the execution of immune activities depends on a number of specific cell types, such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, which provide various immune responses against pathogens. In addition to normal physiological functions, abnormal proliferation, migration, and differentiation of these cells (in response to various chemical stimuli produced by invading pathogens) have been associated with several pathological disorders. The unwanted conditions related to these cells have made them prominent targets in the development of new therapeutic interventions against various pathological implications, such as atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. Chalcone derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, as well as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. Many studies have been conducted to determine their inhibitory or stimulatory activities in immune cells, and the findings are of significance to provide a new direction for subsequent research. This review highlights the effects of chalcone derivatives in different types of immune cells. PMID:26316713

  13. The Role of Innate Immune System Receptors in Epilepsy Research. (United States)

    Cordero-Arreola, Jessica; West, Rachel M; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta; Mendez-Hernandez, Edna; Salas-Pacheco, Jose; Menendez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Freire, Rafael C; Machado, Sergio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar


    Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders and its study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis. An important factor in epilepsy that is not regulated directly by neurons is inflammation and the immune response of the brain. Recent evidence obtained in rodent epilepsy models supports the role of immune responses in the initiation and maintenance of epilepsy. Recognition of exogenous pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by some pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors leading to cell activation and cytokine production. Currently, these receptors have been the focus of epilepsy studies looking to determine whether the innate immune activation is neuroprotective or neurotoxic for the brain. Here, we present the evidence in the literature of the involvement of key innate immune receptors in the development of epilepsy. We address some of the contradictory findings in these studies and also mention possible avenues for research into epilepsy treatments that target these receptors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  14. Cogeneration system simulation/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppa, B.A.; Chandrashekar, M.


    Companies are increasingly turning to computer software programs to improve and streamline the analysis o cogeneration systems. This paper introduces a computer program which originated with research at the University of Waterloo. The program can simulate and optimize any type of layout of cogeneration plant. An application of the program to a cogeneration feasibility study for a university campus is described. The Steam and Power Plant Optimization System (SAPPOS) is a PC software package which allows users to model any type of steam/power plant on a component-by-component basis. Individual energy/steam balances can be done quickly to model any scenario. A typical days per month cogeneration simulation can also be carried out to provide a detailed monthly cash flow and energy forecast. This paper reports that SAPPOS can be used for scoping, feasibility, and preliminary design work, along with financial studies, gas contract studies, and optimizing the operation of completed plants. In the feasibility study presented, SAPPOS is used to evaluate both diesel engine and gas turbine combined cycle options

  15. The Immune System: Basis of so much Health and Disease: 4. Immunocytes. (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Hassona, Yazan


    The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system, this article covers cells of the immune system (immunocytes). Clinical relevance: Modern dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease.

  16. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Victoria Garcia


    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  17. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Kathrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration.

  18. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.


    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  19. Roles of the Immune System in Skin Cancer (United States)

    Rangwala, S.; Tsai, K.Y.


    Over the past several decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding the roles of the immune system in the development and progression of cancer. The importance of the immune system in human skin cancer has been long recognised based primarily upon the increased incidence of skin cancers in organ transplant recipients and mechanisms of ultraviolet light-mediated immunomodulation. In this review, we integrate multiple lines of evidence highlighting the roles of the immune system in skin cancer. First, we discuss the concepts of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting as they might relate to human skin cancers. We then describe the clinical and molecular mechanisms of skin cancer development and progression in the contexts of therapeutic immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients, viral oncogenesis, and ultraviolet light-induced immunomodulation with a primary focus on basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical evidence supporting expanding roles for immunotherapy is also described. Finally, we discuss recent research examining the functions of particular immune cell subsets in skin cancer and how they might contribute to both anti-tumour and pro-tumour effects. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms of cancer immunosurveillance holds the promise of enabling better therapies. PMID:21729024

  20. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A.


    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure–activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle–immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15 years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: API — active pharmaceutical ingredient; NP — nanoparticles; PCP — physicochemical properties, CARPA — complement activation-related pseudoallergy, ICH — International Conference on Harmonization. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Achievements, disappointments and lessons learned over past decade are reviewed. • Areas in focus include characterization, immunotoxicity and utility in drug delivery. • Future direction focusing on mechanistic immunotoxicity studies is proposed.

  1. Simulation and sequential dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.


    Computer simulations have a generic structure. Motivated by this the authors present a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {yields} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper), which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes.

  2. Regulation of TGFβ in the immune system: An emerging role for integrins and dendritic cells


    Worthington, John J.; Fenton, Thomas M.; Czajkowska, Beata I.; Klementowicz, Joanna E.; Travis, Mark A.


    Regulation of an immune response requires complex crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, via both cell?cell contact and secretion of cytokines. An important cytokine with a broad regulatory role in the immune system is transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). TGF-? is produced by and has effects on many different cells of the immune system, and plays fundamental roles in the regulation of immune responses during homeostasis, infection and disease. Although many cells ...

  3. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  4. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Does the immune system matter? (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Silva; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio


    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis involves proliferation, survival, differentiation and integration of newborn neurons into pre-existing neuronal networks. Although its functional significance in the central nervous system (CNS) has not comprehensively elucidated, adult neurogenesis has been attributed a role in cognition, learning and memory. There is a growing body of evidence that CNS resident as well as peripheral immune cells participate in regulating hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Microglial cells are closely associated with neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) in the neurogenic niche engaged in a bidirectional communication with neurons, which may be important for adult neurogenesis. Microglial and neuronal crosstalk is mediated in part by CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling and a disruption in this pathway has been associated with impaired neurogenesis. It has been also reported that microglial neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in adult neurogenesis occur in a context-dependent manner. Apart from microglia other brain resident and peripheral immune cells including pericytes, perivascular macrophages, mast cells and T-cells also modulate this phenomenon. It is worth mentioning that under some physiological circumstances such as normal aging there is a significant decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. A role for innate and adaptive immune system in adult neurogenesis has been also reported during aging. Here, we review the current evidence regarding neuro-immune interactions in the regulation of neurogenesis under distinct conditions, including aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroendocrine mechanisms for immune system regulation during stress in fish. (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Navarro, Cristina; Cortés, Paula P; Imarai, Mónica; Montoya, Margarita; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Jara, Pablo; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Fernández, Ricardo


    In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years. While acute stress can have beneficial effects, chronic stress inhibits the immune response in mammals and teleost fish. In response to stress, a signaling cascade is triggered by the activation of neural circuits in the central nervous system because the hypothalamus is the central modulator of stress. This leads to the production of catecholamines, corticosteroid-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids, which are the essential neuroendocrine mediators for this activation. Because stress situations are energetically demanding, the neuroendocrine signals are involved in metabolic support and will suppress the "less important" immune function. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of immunity in fish will allow the development of new pharmaceutical strategies and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of diseases triggered by stress at all stages of fish cultures for commercial production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome and Central Nervous System Paracoccidioidomycosis. (United States)

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Roza, Thiago Henrique


    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML. et al. (Mycopathologia 177:137-141, 6). An AIDS patient who was not receiving medical care developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. The patient developed central nervous system PCM (NPCM) after starting the ARV therapy with recovery of immunity and control of HIV viral load, although it was not interpreted as IRIS by the authors, it fulfills the criteria for CNS IRIS. This could be the first case of NPCM associated with IRIS described. Although not frequent, IRIS must be considered in PCM patients and HIV, from endemic areas or patients that traveled to endemic areas, receiving ARV treatment and with worsening symptoms.

  7. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity. (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A


    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strengthening routine immunization systems to improve global vaccination coverage. (United States)

    Sodha, S V; Dietz, V


    Global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine among children under 1 year of age stagnated at ∼ 83-84% during 2008-13. Annual World Health Organization and UNICEF-derived national vaccination coverage estimates. Incomplete vaccination is associated with poor socioeconomic status, lower education, non-use of maternal-child health services, living in conflict-affected areas, missed immunization opportunities and cancelled vaccination sessions. Vaccination platforms must expand to include older ages including the second year of life. Immunization programmes, including eradication and elimination initiatives such as those for polio and measles, must integrate within the broader health system. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) 2011-20 is a framework for strengthening immunization systems, emphasizing country ownership, shared responsibility, equity, integration, sustainability and innovation. Immunization programmes should identify, monitor and evaluate gaps and interventions within the GVAP framework. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. The Microbiota, the Immune System and the Allograft (United States)

    Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Mannon, Peter J.


    The microbiota represents the complex collections of microbial communities that colonize a host. In health, the microbiota is essential for metabolism, protection against pathogens and maturation of the immune system. In return, the immune system determines the composition of the microbiota. Altered microbial composition (dysbiosis) has been correlated with a number of diseases in humans. The tight reciprocal immune/microbial interactions complicate determining whether dysbiosis is a cause and/or a consequence of immune dysregulation and disease initiation or progression. However, a number of studies in germ-free and antibiotic-treated animal models support causal roles for intestinal bacteria in disease susceptibility. The role of the microbiota in transplant recipients is only starting to be investigated and its study is further complicated by putative contributions of both recipient and donor microbiota. Moreover, both flora may be affected directly or indirectly by immunosuppressive drugs and anti-microbial prophylaxis taken by transplant patients, as well as by inflammatory processes secondary to ischemia/reperfusion and allorecognition, and the underlying cause of end-organ failure. Whether the ensuing dysbiosis affects alloresponses and whether therapies aimed at correcting dysbiosis should be considered in transplant patients constitutes an exciting new field of research. PMID:24840316

  10. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hanley


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically.

  11. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Bollard, Catherine M.


    Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically. PMID:24872114

  12. Bifurcations of Tumor-Immune Competition Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Bi


    Full Text Available A tumor-immune competition model with delay is considered, which consists of two-dimensional nonlinear differential equation. The conditions for the linear stability of the equilibria are obtained by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues. General formulas for the direction, period, and stability of the bifurcated periodic solutions are given for codimension one and codimension two bifurcations, including Hopf bifurcation, steady-state bifurcation, and B-T bifurcation. Numerical examples and simulations are given to illustrate the bifurcations analysis and obtained results.

  13. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection (United States)

    Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli


    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST) to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. Conclusions/Significance We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to develop a model of

  14. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota. (United States)

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia


    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Role of immune system in type 1 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. (United States)

    Szablewski, Leszek


    The immune system is the body's natural defense system against invading pathogens. It protects the body from infection and works to communicate an individual's well-being through a complex network of interconnected cells and cytokines. This system is an associated host defense. An uncontrolled immune system has the potential to trigger negative complications in the host. Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic β-cells by a β-cell-specific autoimmune process. Examples of β-cell autoantigens are insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase, and insulinoma antigen. There are many autoimmune diseases, but type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the well-characterized autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms involved in the β-cell destruction are still not clear; it is generally believed that β-cell autoantigens, macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and T lymphocytes are involved in the β-cell-specific autoimmune process. It is necessary to determine what exact factors are causing the immune system to become unregulated in such a manner as to promote an autoimmune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of an immunization information system to establish baseline childhood immunization rates and measure contract objectives. (United States)

    Schauer, Stephanie L; Maerz, Thomas R; Hurie, Marjorie B; Gabor, Gerald W; Flynn, John M; Davis, Jeffrey P


    Measuring progress toward national immunization objectives at the local level, although difficult, is becoming more feasible owing to statewide immunization information systems. This article describes how a state immunization program expanded the scope of immunization service contracts with local health departments (LHDs) to address the immunization rates among children living within their jurisdictions using the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) to measure achievement of population-based objectives. By contract year (CY) 2008, 99 percent of Wisconsin LHDs selected population-based contract objectives. In late 2008, the Wisconsin Immunization Program assessed all children at 24 months of age for completeness of the 4:3:1:3:3:1 (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/poliovirus/measles-containing vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b/hepatitis B/varicella) series by county for each of four CYs, using the WIR. From CY 2005 to CY 2008, LHDs in 61 (86%) of the 71 counties demonstrated increased series completeness rates for the series, and the overall statewide series completeness increased from 58 percent to 64 percent. However, the increases we observed cannot be attributed solely to LHDs' acceptance of population-based objectives because controlling for other factors known to influence immunization coverage levels was outside the scope of this case study. We found the WIR to be a powerful tool that can measure immunization coverage among local populations independent of the immunization provider, assess improvement toward contract objectives, and target resources toward pockets of need.

  17. Parallel and Distributed System Simulation (United States)

    Dongarra, Jack


    This exploratory study initiated our research into the software infrastructure necessary to support the modeling and simulation techniques that are most appropriate for the Information Power Grid. Such computational power grids will use high-performance networking to connect hardware, software, instruments, databases, and people into a seamless web that supports a new generation of computation-rich problem solving environments for scientists and engineers. In this context we looked at evaluating the NetSolve software environment for network computing that leverages the potential of such systems while addressing their complexities. NetSolve's main purpose is to enable the creation of complex applications that harness the immense power of the grid, yet are simple to use and easy to deploy. NetSolve uses a modular, client-agent-server architecture to create a system that is very easy to use. Moreover, it is designed to be highly composable in that it readily permits new resources to be added by anyone willing to do so. In these respects NetSolve is to the Grid what the World Wide Web is to the Internet. But like the Web, the design that makes these wonderful features possible can also impose significant limitations on the performance and robustness of a NetSolve system. This project explored the design innovations that push the performance and robustness of the NetSolve paradigm as far as possible without sacrificing the Web-like ease of use and composability that make it so powerful.

  18. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli


    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  19. How photons modulate wound healing via the immune system (United States)

    Dyson, Mary


    The immune system is a diverse group of cells that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also produces inflammation, an essential component of the wound healing process and, following the resolution of inflammation, plays a crucial role in the control of granulation tissue formation. Granulation tissue is the precursor of scar tissue. Injured skin and mucous membranes generally heal rapidly. However, some wounds are either slow to heal or fail to heal while in others overgrowth of scar tissue occurs, resulting in the production of either hypertophic or keloid scars. The modulation of wound healing in such conditions is clinically important and may even be vital. Evidence will be presented that phototherapy can modulate wound healing, and that changes induced in the immune system, in particular the secretion of soluble protein mediators including cytokines, may be involved in this modulation. The immune system has peripheral and deep components. The former, being located mainly in the skin and mucous membranes, are readily accessible to photons, which can affect them directly. The components of the immune system are linked by lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, which include many capillaries located in the sub-epithelial connective tissues of the skin and mucous membranes. The superficial location of these capillaries provides the immune cells and molecules in transit through them with ready access to photons. When these cells and molecules, some modified by exposure to photons, reach susceptible cells such as lymphocytes in the deeper parts of the immune system and cells of injured tissues, they can modify their activity. In addition to having direct effects on peripheral cells, photons can thus also produce indirect effects on cells too distant for the photons to reach them. For example, cytokines released from peripheral macrophages in response to the direct action of photons can be transported to and affect other

  20. A stochastic spatial model of HIV dynamics with an asymmetric battle between the virus and the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Hai; Shuai, J W


    A stochastic spatial model based on the Monte Carlo approach is developed to study the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aim to propose a more detailed and realistic simulation frame by incorporating many important features of HIV dynamics, which include infections, replications and mutations of viruses, antigen recognitions, activations and proliferations of lymphocytes, and diffusions, encounters and interactions of virions and lymphocytes. Our model successfully reproduces the three-phase pattern observed in HIV infection, and the simulation results for the time distribution from infection to AIDS onset are also in good agreement with the clinical data. The interactions of viruses and the immune system in all the three phases are investigated. We assess the relative importance of various immune system components in the acute phase. The dynamics of how the two important factors, namely the viral diversity and the asymmetric battle between HIV and the immune system, result in AIDS are investigated in detail with the model.

  1. Gut Microbiota-Immune System Crosstalk and Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagliari


    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is key to the development and modulation of the mucosal immune system. It plays a central role in several physiological functions, in the modulation of inflammatory signaling and in the protection against infections. In healthy states, there is a perfect balance between commensal and pathogens, and microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain gut homeostasis. The alteration of such balance, called dysbiosis, determines an intestinal bacterial overgrowth which leads to the disruption of the intestinal barrier with systemic translocation of pathogens. The pancreas does not possess its own microbiota, and it is believed that inflammatory and neoplastic processes affecting the gland may be linked to intestinal dysbiosis. Increasing research evidence testifies a correlation between intestinal dysbiosis and various pancreatic disorders, but it remains unclear whether dysbiosis is the cause or an effect. The analysis of specific alterations in the microbiome profile may permit to develop novel tools for the early detection of several pancreatic disorders, utilizing samples, such as blood, saliva, and stools. Future studies will have to elucidate the mechanisms by which gut microbiota is modulated and how it tunes the immune system, in order to be able to develop innovative treatment strategies for pancreatic disorders.

  2. Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Regini Silveira


    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide health problem and the increase in its incidence, risks and consequences are a matter of growing concern. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the body. Many studies are currently investigating obesity and associated comorbidities in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms involved. Fat tissue is a dynamic organ that secretes several factors, including adipokines. Adipokines are bioactive peptides secreted by fat cells, which are important for energy regulation and inflammatory and immune responses. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are the most studied adipokines. The aim of this review was to gather information about these adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin and their relationship with the immune response in obese individuals, as well as the susceptibility of these patients to infections. The results of the literature review permit some observations. The circulating levels of these adipokines are directly involved in the degree of obesity of the patient. High or low circulating concentrations of these adipokines may have beneficial or negative effects on immune competence, with obese patients being more susceptible to infection and inflammation than eutrophic individuals.Key words: Obesity; Adipokines; Leptin; Adiponectin; Resistin; Immune system.

  3. Polio Endgame: Lessons Learned From the Immunization Systems Management Group. (United States)

    Zipursky, Simona; Vandelaer, Jos; Brooks, Alan; Dietz, Vance; Kachra, Tasleem; Farrell, Margaret; Ottosen, Ann; Sever, John L; Zaffran, Michel J


    The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in all 126 countries using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) only as of 2012, (2) full withdrawal of OPV, starting with the withdrawal of its type 2 component, and (3) using polio assets to strengthen immunization systems in 10 priority countries. The IMG's inclusive, transparent, and partnership-focused approach proved an effective means of leveraging the comparative and complementary strengths of each IMG member agency. This article outlines 10 key factors behind the IMG's success, providing a potential set of guiding principles for the establishment and implementation of other interagency collaborations and initiatives beyond the polio sphere. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. High-Density Lipoproteins and the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidesuke Kaji


    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL plays a major role in vasodilation and in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis, and infection; however, HDL is now less functional in these roles under certain conditions. This paper focuses on HDL, its anti-inflammation behavior, and the mechanisms by which HDL interacts with components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and proteomic studies have elucidated important molecules involved in the interaction between HDL and the immune system. An understanding of these mechanisms is expected to be useful for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation due to metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, or various autoimmune diseases.

  5. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura


    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  6. Persisting injuries in immune system and their effects on health in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kyoizumi, Seishi


    This review describes findings concerning persisting effects of A-bomb radiation on immune cells and their relation to diseases. Injuries in immune system are mainly the depression of cellular immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes, especially CD4 T-cells, and the elevation of humoral immunity by B-cells. These are conceivably the imbalance results in immune system of incomplete recovery of those T-cells after exposure and thymus retraction by aging and of consequently affecting the functional differentiation of CD4 T-cells to lower the cellular immunity and to elevate the humoral immunity. Lowered cellular immunity in the survivors can be related to their liver and cardiovascular diseases caused by infection and cancer caused by tumor antigens and oncoviruses. Thus immunological investigations of the survivors are revealing not only the effect of radiation on the immune system but also the correlation between immunity and diseases. (K.H.)

  7. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis


    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno


    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell transplantation. This thesis evaluates the clinical benefit of these strategies as well as the immunological changes that coincide with clinical improvement. By combining clinical outcome with immu...

  8. No compensatory relationship between the innate and adaptive immune system in wild-living European badgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Newman, Chris; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Buesching, Christina; Mannarelli, Maria Elena; Annavi, Geetha; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W.


    The innate immune system provides the primary vertebrate defence system against pathogen invasion, but it is energetically costly and can have immune pathological effects. A previous study in sticklebacks found that intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity correlated with a

  9. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation. (United States)

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos


    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M


    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  11. Using systems biology to simplify complex disease: immune cartography. (United States)

    Polpitiya, Ashoka D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Burykin, Anton; Ghosh, Bijoy K; Cobb, J Perren


    What if there was a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate blood diagnostic that could determine which patients were infected, identify the organism(s) responsible, and identify patients who were not responding to therapy? We hypothesized that systems analysis of the transcriptional activity of circulating immune effector cells could be used to identify conserved elements in the host response to systemic inflammation, and furthermore, to discriminate between sterile and infectious etiologies. We review herein a validated, systems biology approach demonstrating that 1) abdominal and pulmonary sepsis diagnoses can be made in mouse models using microarray (RNA) data from circulating blood, 2) blood microarray data can be used to differentiate between the host response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive pneumonia, 3) the endotoxin response of normal human volunteers can be mapped at the level of gene expression, and 4) a similar strategy can be used in the critically ill to follow septic patients and quantitatively determine immune recovery. These findings provide the foundation of immune cartography and demonstrate the potential of this approach for rapidly diagnosing sepsis and identifying pathogens. Further, our data suggest a new approach to determine how specific pathogens perturb the physiology of circulating leukocytes in a cell-specific manner. Large, prospective clinical trails are needed to validate the clinical utility of leukocyte RNA diagnostics (e.g., the riboleukogram).

  12. Targeting the immune system to treat hypertension: where are we? (United States)

    Gooch, Jennifer L; Sharma, Avadhesh C


    Research over the past decade has significantly deepened our understanding of mechanisms that drive the development of hypertension. In particular, a novel paradigm of inflammation as a common mediator of cardiovascular and kidney disease has emerged. This review will summarize the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease, explore some of the most promising new therapeutic directions and consider their potential as new treatments for hypertension. Recent data continue to demonstrate that targeting the immune system can prevent hypertension in a variety of experimental models. Tempering the enthusiasm for a long-awaited new approach to treating hypertension is decades of clinical data, showing that classic immunosuppression regimens are associated with significant side-effects - including cardiovascular disease - that effectively preclude their use in the setting of chronic hypertension. New, more specific therapies are being developed that target cytokines including IL-17, IL-6 and TNFα. Preclinical data convincingly demonstrate a key role for the immune system and specific cytokine mediators. Several biotherapeutics targeting these pathways are on the market and more are in development. Side-effects, however, continue to resemble those of classic immunosuppressants, highlighting the challenge of translating these research advances into new therapies for hypertension.

  13. Physiological and pathophysiological bone turnover - role of the immune system. (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha


    Osteoporosis develops when the rate of osteoclastic bone breakdown (resorption) exceeds that of osteoblastic bone formation, which leads to loss of BMD and deterioration of bone structure and strength. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fragility fractures, a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. This imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is brought about by natural ageing processes, but is frequently exacerbated by a number of pathological conditions. Of importance to the aetiology of osteoporosis are findings over the past two decades attesting to a deep integration of the skeletal system with the immune system (the immuno-skeletal interface (ISI)). Although protective of the skeleton under physiological conditions, the ISI might contribute to bone destruction in a growing number of pathophysiological states. Although numerous research groups have investigated how the immune system affects basal and pathological osteoclastic bone resorption, recent findings suggest that the reach of the adaptive immune response extends to the regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This Review examines the evolution of the field of osteoimmunology and how advances in our understanding of the ISI might lead to novel approaches to prevent and treat bone loss, and avert fractures.

  14. Effects of Helminth Eradication on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Weisman


    Full Text Available Introduction: Helminth infection has a profound effect on the immune system. However, the precise nature of the immune changes that are elicited by helminth infection have not been sufficiently characterized. Furthermore, the reversibility of these changes after treatment has not been documented sufficiently. We studied the immune profiles of Ethiopian immigrants to Israel at baseline, that is on arrival and at one-year follow-up and compared individuals who received antihelminthic treatment during the study period with those who missed the treatment. Methods: A longitudinal follow up study involving different groups of subjects was conducted. Baseline data was recorded from the newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants for a series of peripheral blood tests, including: IgE and Eosinophil levels, T-cell populations, T-cell receptor phenotypes, and cytokine measurement. These tests were all repeated after a 1-year interval. Results were compared between the newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants (NEW-Eth-Il, long term Ethiopian immigrants (LT-Eth-Il, and non Ethiopian Israeli controls (NON-Imm-Il. Results: Of the 184 individuals, 111 were NEW-Eth-Il, who had a high prevalence of helminth infection, the immunological changes were elevated IgE levels and eosinophil counts, decreased CD4/CD8 ratio, increased proportion of HLA-DR+CD3+, HLA-DR+CD4+ and HLA-DR+CD8+ cells, decreased proportion of CD45RA+CD4+ (naive and CD28+CD8+ cells, increased proportion of CD45RO+CD4+ (memory cells, and increased secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 (Th2 type cytokines. In the 42 LT-Eth-Il participants, who all had negative tests for helminth infection, we did not observe these immune changes and their immune profile did not differ markedly from that of the NON-Imm-Il controls. The follow-up immune profiles of 33 NEW-Eth-Il who received succesful antihelminth treatment, showed a significant normalization in the above-mentioned variables that was not observed in the 19 NEW-Eth-Il who

  15. Immune System Activation and Depression: Roles of Serotonin in the Central Nervous System and Periphery. (United States)

    Robson, Matthew J; Quinlan, Meagan A; Blakely, Randy D


    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been recognized as a key contributor to the regulation of mood and anxiety and is strongly associated with the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although more known for its roles within the central nervous system (CNS), 5-HT is recognized to modulate several key aspects of immune system function that may contribute to the development of MDD. Copious amounts of research have outlined a connection between alterations in immune system function, inflammation status, and MDD. Supporting this connection, peripheral immune activation results in changes in the function and/or expression of many components of 5-HT signaling that are associated with depressive-like phenotypes. How 5-HT is utilized by the immune system to effect CNS function and ultimately behaviors related to depression is still not well understood. This Review summarizes the evidence that immune system alterations related to depression affect CNS 5-HT signaling that can alter MDD-relevant behaviors and that 5-HT regulates immune system signaling within the CNS and periphery. We suggest that targeting the interrelationships between immune and 5-HT signaling may provide more effective treatments for subsets of those suffering from inflammation-associated MDD.

  16. Building a National Immunization System: A Guide to Immunization Services and Resources. (United States)

    Franklin, Paula; And Others

    Over the past several years, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have drawn greater attention to the problem of low immunization rates in the U.S. In response to this problem, the federal government created the Vaccines for Children program as a foundation for a new national immunization policy to ensure proper and timely immunizations for…

  17. Joint replacement surgery and the innate immune system. (United States)

    Goodman, Stuart B; Konttinen, Yrjo T; Takagi, Michiaki


    Total joint replacement is a highly successful, cost-effective surgical procedure that relieves pain and improves function for patients with end-stage arthritis. The most commonly used materials for modern joint replacements include metal alloys such as cobalt chrome and titanium alloys, polymers including polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene, and ceramics. Implantation of a joint prosthesis incites an acute inflammatory reaction that is regulated by the innate immune system, a preprogrammed non-antigen specific biological response composed of cells, proteins, and other factors. This "frontline" immune mechanism was originally designed to combat invading microorganisms, but now responds to both pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPS (by-products from microorganisms), and damage associated molecular patterns or DAMPS (molecular by-products from cells), via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this way, potentially injurious stimuli that might disrupt the normal homeostatic regulatory mechanisms of the organism are efficiently dealt with, ensuring the survival of the host. Initial surgical implantation of the joint replacement, as well as ongoing generation of wear debris and byproducts during usage of the joint, activates the innate immune system. Understanding and potentially modulating these events may lead to improved function and increased longevity of joint replacements in the future.

  18. Impacts of Low Temperature on the Teleost Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn H. Abram


    Full Text Available As poikilothermic vertebrates, fish can experience changes in water temperature, and hence body temperature, as a result of seasonal changes, migration, or efflux of large quantities of effluent into a body of water. Temperature shifts outside of the optimal temperature range for an individual fish species can have negative impacts on the physiology of the animal, including the immune system. As a result, acute or chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures can impair an organisms’ ability to defend against pathogens and thus compromise the overall health of the animal. This review focuses on the advances made towards understanding the impacts of suboptimal temperature on the soluble and cellular mediators of the innate and adaptive immune systems of fishes. Although cold stress can result in varying effects in different fish species, acute and chronic suboptimal temperature exposure generally yield suppressive effects, particularly on adaptive immunity. Knowledge of the effects of environmental temperature on fish species is critical for both the optimal management of wild species and the best management practices for aquaculture species.

  19. Suppression of systemic autoimmunity by the innate immune adaptor STING (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Campbell, Allison M.; Chan, Jennie; Schattgen, Stefan A.; Orlowski, Gregory M.; Nayar, Ribhu; Huyler, Annie H.; Nündel, Kerstin; Mohan, Chandra; Berg, Leslie J.; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.


    Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways that signal via Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediate immunity to pathogens and also promote autoimmune pathology in DNaseII- and DNaseIII-deficient mice. In contrast, we report here that STING potently suppresses inflammation in a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lymphoid hypertrophy, autoantibody production, serum cytokine levels, and other indicators of immune activation were markedly increased in STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice compared with STING-sufficient littermates. As a result, STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice had significantly shorter lifespans than controls. Importantly, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent systemic inflammation during 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD)-mediated peritonitis was similarly aggravated in STING-deficient mice. Mechanistically, STING-deficient macrophages failed to express negative regulators of immune activation and thus were hyperresponsive to TLR ligands, producing abnormally high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This hyperreactivity corresponds to dramatically elevated numbers of inflammatory macrophages and granulocytes in vivo. Collectively these findings reveal an unexpected negative regulatory role for STING, having important implications for STING-directed therapies. PMID:25646421

  20. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek


    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  1. Immune system modulation in the central nervous system: A possible role for endocannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Allah, Adel R.A.


    The immune system is designed to protect the body from infection and tumor formation. To perform this function, cells of the immune system can be dangerous for the survival and function of the neuronal network in the brain under the influence of infection or immune imbalance. An attack of immune cells inside the brain includes the potential for severe neuronal damage or cell death and therefore impairment of the CNS function. To avoid such undesirable action of the immune system, the CNS performs a cascade of cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling strict control of immune reactions i mmune privilege . Under inflammatory and patholological conditions, uncontrolled immune system results in the activation of neuronal damage that is frequently associated with neurological diseases. On the other hand, processes of neuroprotection and neurorepair after neuronal damage depend on a steady and tightly controlled immunesurvelliance. Many immunoprotectants play a role to imbalance the immune reactions in the CNS and other organs which presents an important therapeutic target. It has been reported recently that endocannabinoids are secreted in abundance in the CNS following neuronal insult, probably for its protection. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Both are coupled to G proteins. CB1 receptors exist primarily on central and peripheral neurons. CB2 receptors are present mainly on immune cells. Endogenous agonists for cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids), have been discovered, the most important being arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG), and 2-archidonyl glyceryl ether. Following their release, endocannabinoids are removed from the extracellular space and then degraded by intracellular enzymic hydrolysis. Therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists include the management of many disease conditions. They are also involved in immune system suppression and in cell to cell communication

  2. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design


    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole; Havn, Erling C.


    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system ...

  3. Inference of selection in the adaptive immune system (United States)

    Elhanati, Yuval; Callan, Curtis; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Alexandra

    The adaptive immune system can recognize many threats by maintaining a large diversity of immune cells with different membrane receptors. This receptor diversity is based on initial random sequence generation, using a recombination mechanism, followed by functional selection stages via interactions with self and foreign peptides. These selection processes shape the initially random receptor ensemble into a functional repertoire that can bind many foreign pathogens. We analyzed high throughput data of human receptor sequences to infer the selection pressures on particular elements of the receptors using maximum likelihood methods. We can quantify the global and site-specific selection pressures and disentangle selection on amino acids from biases in the generated repertoire. We find correlations between generation and initial selection of receptors, and a significant reduction of diversity during selection, suggesting natural evolution of the generating mechanisms.

  4. The behavioural immune system and the psychology of human sociality (United States)

    Schaller, Mark


    Because immunological defence against pathogens is costly and merely reactive, human anti-pathogen defence is also characterized by proactive behavioural mechanisms that inhibit contact with pathogens in the first place. This behavioural immune system comprises psychological processes that infer infection risk from perceptual cues, and that respond to these perceptual cues through the activation of aversive emotions, cognitions and behavioural impulses. These processes are engaged flexibly, producing context–contingent variation in the nature and magnitude of aversive responses. These processes have important implications for human social cognition and social behaviour—including implications for social gregariousness, person perception, intergroup prejudice, mate preferences, sexual behaviour and conformity. Empirical evidence bearing on these many implications is reviewed and discussed. This review also identifies important directions for future research on the human behavioural immune system—including the need for enquiry into underlying mechanisms, additional behavioural consequences and implications for human health and well-being. PMID:22042918

  5. Improvements to information management systems simulator (United States)

    Bilek, R. W.


    The performance of personnel in the augmentation and improvement of the interactive IMSIM information management simulation model is summarized. With this augmented model, NASA now has even greater capabilities for the simulation of computer system configurations, data processing loads imposed on these configurations, and executive software to control system operations. Through these simulations, NASA has an extremely cost effective capability for the design and analysis of computer-based data management systems.

  6. Multiphysics simulation electromechanical system applications and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Dede, Ercan M; Nomura, Tsuyoshi


    This book highlights a unique combination of numerical tools and strategies for handling the challenges of multiphysics simulation, with a specific focus on electromechanical systems as the target application. Features: introduces the concept of design via simulation, along with the role of multiphysics simulation in today's engineering environment; discusses the importance of structural optimization techniques in the design and development of electromechanical systems; provides an overview of the physics commonly involved with electromechanical systems for applications such as electronics, ma

  7. Human IgG repertoire of malaria antigen-immunized human immune system (HIS) mice. (United States)

    Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Sahi, Vincent; Huang, Jing; Tsuji, Moriya


    Humanized mouse models present an important tool for preclinical evaluation of new vaccines and therapeutics. Here we show the human variable repertoire of antibody sequences cloned from a previously described human immune system (HIS) mouse model that possesses functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, namely HIS-CD4/B mice. We sequenced variable IgG genes from single memory B-cell and plasma-cell sorted from splenocytes or whole blood lymphocytes of HIS-CD4/B mice that were vaccinated with a human plasmodial antigen, a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP). We demonstrate that rPfCSP immunization triggers a diverse B-cell IgG repertoire composed of various human VH family genes and distinct V(D)J recombinations that constitute diverse CDR3 sequences similar to humans, although low hypermutated sequences were generated. These results demonstrate the substantial genetic diversity of responding human B cells of HIS-CD4/B mice and their capacity to mount human IgG class-switched antibody response upon vaccination. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Snopov


    Full Text Available Besides the well-known effects upon bone metabolism, vitamin D (VD plays important roles in many other processes in the body, including immune regulation. VD action is carried out through its cellular membrane receptor, which is expressed in a variety of human organs and tissues, e.g., most cells of immune system, as well as epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes. The cell-membrane bound VD receptor is transferred to the cytoplasm, to form a functional complex with vitamin A and its receptor. This complex provides either inhibiting, or enhancing effect upon transcription of hundreds genes in the nuclear DNA, including those that regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, thus preventing malignancy and angiogenesis. The following effects of VD are supposed with respect to immune system: VD inhibits antigen presentation by dendritic cells, supresses Th1-cell differentiation and the production of Th1-cytokines, shifts the balance of Th1/Th2 cell responses towards the Th2 response, exerts inhibitory effect upon Th17 cells, promotes Treg cell development, and increases their activity. In addition, VD boosts production of «endogenous antibiotics» that may provide powerful effects upon Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses. Therefore, VD seems quite important for prevention of autoimmune and atopic diseases: multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, development of asthma in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. VD protects from a wide range of infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy and respiratory infections, and prevents the development of several tumors. Almost half the population of different countries has a VD hypovitaminosis, often hidden and undiagnosed, and this can be a leading cause of weakened immunity and increased morbidity. The diagnostics of VD hypovitaminosis, prevention and treatment of hypovitaminosis should be among the

  9. Simulation-Based System Design Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research objective is to develop, test, and implement effective and efficient simulation techniques for modeling, evaluating, and optimizing systems in order to...

  10. Classification of inflammatory skin diseases: a proposal based on the disorders of the three-layered defense systems, barrier, innate immunity and acquired immunity. (United States)

    Dainichi, Teruki; Hanakawa, Sho; Kabashima, Kenji


    The host defense system of the skin is composed of (1) a barrier, (2) innate immunity, and (3) acquired immunity. Inflammatory skin diseases can be classified into one of the disorders of these layers of the defense system, unless there is an ordinary response to specific infectious agents or internal/external injury. Any inflammatory skin disease partly simulates the response to real infections or dangers. Disorders of acquired immunity can be classified into (1) immunodeficiency, (2) immunohyperactivity (allergy), and (3) qualitative disorder (autoimmunity). Disorders of innate immunity can be classified into (1) innate immunodeficiency, (2) innate immunohyperactivity (general or local autoinflammation), and (3) qualitative disorder (general or local innate autoimmunity). The barrier of the skin is composed of (1) the physical barrier and (2) the chemical barrier. Several diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, are attributed to the disorder of these components of the barrier. Here, we propose an algorithm to classify the pathology of inflammatory skin diseases by means of what disorder in the specific layer of the host defense system is truly responsible. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease


    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli; NLPI Dharmayanti


    Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius) and cellular (thymus and spleen) lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa), phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer), protei...

  12. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo


    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  13. Methamphetamine: Effects on the brain, gut and immune system. (United States)

    Prakash, Monica D; Tangalakis, Kathy; Antonipillai, Juliana; Stojanovska, Lily; Nurgali, Kulmira; Apostolopoulos, Vasso


    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system. Here we present how these effects might be linked and their potential contribution to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the long term, this pathway could be targeted therapeutically to protect people from the ill effects of METH use. This model of METH use may also provide insight into how gut, nervous and immune systems might break down in other conditions that may also benefit from therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Plasticity of neuroendocrine and immune systems in early development]. (United States)

    Zakharova, L A


    This article provides an analysis of our own and published data on the reciprocal morphogenetic influence of the neiuroendocriie and imnimune systems on their formation and function in mammals. It is substantiated that, in early ontogeny, neurohormones regulate the growth and differentiation of various tissues in the body, including the lymphoid tissue. Thymicpeptides, in turn, affect the development of the hypothalamic-pitiitary-adrenal and gonadal-systems. Various adverse factors and changes in the physiological concentrations of hormones in the critical periods of development of these systems change their functions, and the plasticity of physiological systems in early ontogeny allows the body to adapt to new conditions. Disturbances in the interaction of the neuroendocrineand immune systems in the perinatal period induce apredisposition to various diseases in progeny.

  15. Just-in-time training of dental responders in a simulated pandemic immunization response exercise. (United States)

    Colvard, Michael D; Hirst, Jeremy L; Vesper, Benjamin J; DeTella, George E; Tsagalis, Mila P; Roberg, Mary J; Peters, David E; Wallace, Jimmy D; James, James J


    The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act in 2013 incorporated the dental profession and dental professionals into the federal legislation governing public health response to pandemics and all-hazard situations. Work is now necessary to expand the processes needed to incorporate and train oral health care professionals into pandemic and all-hazard response events. A just-in-time (JIT) training exercise and immunization drill using an ex vivo porcine model system was conducted to demonstrate the rapidity to which dental professionals can respond to a pandemic influenza scenario. Medical history documentation, vaccination procedures, and patient throughput and error rates of 15 dental responders were evaluated by trained nursing staff and emergency response personnel. The average throughput (22.33/hr) and medical error rates (7 of 335; 2.08%) of the dental responders were similar to those found in analogous influenza mass vaccination clinics previously conducted using certified public health nurses. The dental responder immunization drill validated the capacity and capability of dental professionals to function as a valuable immunization resource. The ex vivo porcine model system used for JIT training can serve as a simple and inexpensive training tool to update pandemic responders' immunization techniques and procedures supporting inoculation protocols.

  16. Simulation research on three-dimensional immune GA used to solve TP (United States)

    Jin, Liang-Ping; Zhong, Jun-Hua


    Timetabling Problem (TP) in colleges and universities has become more important and complicated with the further reform in teaching and growing expansion of recruitment scale. In this paper, an optimized mathematical model of TP was established .The framework structure to solve TP was found. According to characteristics of TP, GA was introduced, a variety of improved schemes were designed, include: three-dimensional coding scheme, fitness function design scheme, immunization strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed GA can satisfy multiple constraint conditions and resolve TP more effectively.

  17. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints. (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael


    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system-with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology-immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer.

  18. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, N.


    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  19. Effects of hyperthermia on the hamster immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangavalli, R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.F.


    In previous studies, the authors have shown that hyperthermia can enhance antibody-complement chytotoxicity of hamster and human tumor cells. Moreover, whole body microwave exposure of hamsters resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages to a viricidal state and transient suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity. In this study, the authors compare the effects of whole body heating by microwaves or by an environmental chamber (hot air) on the hamster immune system. Microwave exposure (25mW/cm/sup 2/; 1 hr) caused viricidal activation of peritoneal macrophages which resulted in restriction of vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virs (VSV) growth. However, heating in an environmental chamber (41 0 C; 1 hr) did not activate macrophages to a viricidal state. Both microwave and hot air hyperthermia caused significant augmentation of antibody producing spleen cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), using the Jerne hymolytic plaque assay, four days post exposure and immunization with SRBC. Natural killer spleen cell cytotoxicity was suppressed by microwave and hot air hyperthermia showing that NK lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. These alterations in cellular immune response due to hyperthermia could be of significance in treatment of tumors and viral infections

  20. Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Ping; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan


    In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations

  1. Mathematical modeling of the circadian rhythm of key neuroendocrine-immune system players in rheumatoid arthritis: a systems biology approach. (United States)

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Figge, Marc Thilo; Straub, Rainer H


    Healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit circadian rhythms of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Understanding circadian dynamics is complex due to the nonlinear behavior of the neuroendocrine-immune network. This study was undertaken to seek and test a mathematical model for studying this network. We established a quantitative computational model to simulate nonlinear interactions between key factors in the neuroendocrine-immune system, such as plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF), plasma cortisol (and adrenal cholesterol store), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) (and presynaptic NA store). The model was nicely fitted with measured reference data on healthy subjects and RA patients. Although the individual circadian pacemakers of cortisol, NA, and TNF were installed without a phase shift, the relative phase shift between these factors evolved as a consequence of the modeled network interactions. Combined long-term and short-term TNF increase (the "RA model") increased cortisol plasma levels for only a few days, and cholesterol stores started to become markedly depleted. This nicely demonstrated the phenomenon of inadequate cortisol secretion relative to plasma TNF levels, as a consequence of adrenal deficiency. Using the RA model, treatment with glucocorticoids between midnight and 2:00 AM was found to have the strongest inhibitory effect on TNF secretion, which supports recent studies on RA therapy. Long-term reduction of TNF levels by simulation of anti-TNF therapy normalized cholesterol stores under "RA" conditions. These first in silico studies of the neuroendocrine-immune system in rheumatology demonstrate that computational biology in medicine, making use of large collections of experimental data, supports understanding of the pathophysiology of complex nonlinear systems.

  2. Echinoderm immunity and the evolution of the complement system. (United States)

    Gross, P S; Al-Sharif, W Z; Clow, L A; Smith, L C


    Our understanding of inflammatory responses in humans has its roots in the comparative approach to immunology. In the late 1900s, research on echinoderms provided the initial evidence for the importance of phagocytic cells in reactions to foreign material. Studies of allograft rejection kinetics have shown that echinoderms have a non-adaptive, activation type of immune response. Coelomocytes mediate the cellular responses to immune challenges through phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and the production of antimicrobial agents. In addition, a variety of humoral factors found in the coelomic fluid, including lectins, agglutinins, and lysins, are important in host defense against pathogens and other foreign substances. Recently, a simple complement system has been identified in the purple sea urchin that is homologous to the alternative pathway in vertebrates. The sea urchin [corrected] homologue of C3, is inducible by challenge with lipopolysaccharide, which is known to activate coelomocytes. Complement components have been identified in all vertebrate classes, and now have been characterized in protochordates and echinoderms indicating the primordial nature of the complement system. Because it is thought that the complement system evolved from a few primordial genes by gene duplication and divergence, the origin of this system appears to have occurred within the common ancestor of the deuterostomes.

  3. Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system (United States)

    Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira


    This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

  4. Linking autoimmunity to the origin of the adaptive immune system. (United States)

    Bayersdorf, Robert; Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Catania, Francesco


    In jawed vertebrates, the adaptive immune system (AIS) cooperates with the innate immune system (IIS) to protect hosts from infections. Although targeting non-self-components, the AIS also generates self-reactive antibodies which, when inadequately counter-selected, can give rise to autoimmune diseases (ADs). ADs are on the rise in western countries. Why haven't ADs been eliminated during the evolution of a ∼500 million-year old system? And why have they become more frequent in recent decades? Self-recognition is an attribute of the phylogenetically more ancient IIS and empirical data compellingly show that some self-reactive antibodies, which are classifiable as elements of the IIS rather then the AIS, may protect from (rather than cause) ADs. Here, we propose that the IIS's self-recognition system originally fathered the AIS and, as a consequence of this relationship, its activity is dampened in hygienic environments. Rather than a mere breakdown or failure of the mechanisms of self-tolerance, ADs might thus arise from architectural constraints.

  5. Challenge models to study the effect of immune system activation on amino acid metabolism in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van de E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Beers, van H.; Jansman, A.J.M.


    In response to (non-)pathogenic challenges, the immune system of pigs can be activated. During immune system activation, there is a competition for amino acids (AA) between body protein deposition (growth) and immune function (Sandberg et al., 2007). As a consequence, feed intake and growth are

  6. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  7. The role of the immune system in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated nervous system tumors. (United States)

    Karmakar, Souvik; Reilly, Karlyne M


    With the recent development of new anticancer therapies targeting the immune system, it is important to understand which immune cell types and cytokines play critical roles in suppressing or promoting tumorigenesis. The role of mast cells in promoting neurofibroma growth in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients was hypothesized decades ago. More recent experiments in mouse models have demonstrated the causal role of mast cells in neurofibroma development and of microglia in optic pathway glioma development. We review here what is known about the role of NF1 mutation in immune cell function and the role of immune cells in promoting tumorigenesis in NF1. We also review the therapies targeting immune cell pathways and their promise in NF1 tumors.

  8. The effect of head injury upon the immune system. (United States)

    Smrcka, M; Mrlian, A; Karlsson-Valik, J; Klabusay, M


    Severe head injuries are characterized by high mortality and morbidity. In spite of guidelines based therapy the treatment is frequently unsuccessful. Extracranial infectious complications are considered to be an important problem during the course of recovery, and possibly immunological changes could explain their occurrence. Head injuries cause an imbalance within the helper cell community, resulting in a T(H)2 dominance. This development is influenced by the soluable agents of the sympathic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The crucial research of damaged cellular immunity concluded Quattrocchi in 1991. Both the activation of microglial cells and the accumulation of T-cells after crossing the BBB indicate production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the CNS after injury. The leaking of pro-inflammatory mediators to the circulation develops to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). On the contrary, an overwhelming of anti-inflammatory substances leads to an anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). It is suggested that an imbalance between these two immune responses is responsible for organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to infections in polytrauma victims. Concerning mediators, IL-6 draws attention because of its high marker ability. Finally, post-traumatic infections have also been correlated with an altered function of antigenpresenting cells (APC). Concerning the quantity, the humoral part of immune system seems to be stimulated, but its function and phagocyte activity shows several defects. Finally, T(H)2 dominance induces IgE levels accumulation. All these changes are strongly under effect of stress based release of endogenous glucocorticoids and catecholamine, which influence the complex network of cytokines and cell mediators (Fig. 3, Ref 18).

  9. Origins of immunity: transcription factors and homologues of effector genes of the vertebrate immune system expressed in sea urchin coelomocytes. (United States)

    Pancer, Z; Rast, J P; Davidson, E H


    Echinoderms share common ancestry with the chordates within the deuterostome clade. Molecular features that are shared between their immune systems and that of mammals thus illuminate the basal genetic framework on which these immune systems have been constructed during evolution. The immune effector cells of sea urchins are the coelomocytes, whose primary function is protection against invasive marine pathogens; here we identify six genes expressed in coelomocytes, homologues of which are also expressed in cells of the mammalian immune system. Three coelomocyte genes reported here encode transcription factors. These are an NFKB homologue (SpNFKB); a GATA-2/3 homologue (SpGATAc); and a runt domain factor (SpRunt-1). All three of these coelomocyte genes respond sharply to bacterial challenge: SpNFKB and SpRunt-1 genes are rapidly up-regulated, while transcripts of SpGATAc factor disappear within hours of injection of bacteria. Sham injection also activates SpNFKB and SpRunt, though with slower kinetics, but does not affect SpGATAc levels. Another gene, SpHS, encodes a protein related to the signal transduction intermediate HS1 of lymphoid cells. Two other newly discovered genes, SpSRCR1 and SpSRCR5, encode proteins featuring SRCR repeats. These genes are members of a complex family of SRCR genes all expressed specifically in coelomocytes. The SRCR repeats most closely resemble those of mammalian macrophage scavenger receptors. Remarkably, each individual sea urchin expresses a specific pattern of SRCR genes. Our results imply some shared immune functions and more generally, a shared regulatory architecture which underlies immune system gene expression in all deuterostomes. We conclude that the vertebrate immune system has evolved by inserting new genes into old gene regulatory networks dedicated to immunity.

  10. Integrating Existing Simulation Components into a Cohesive Simulation System (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.


    A tradition of leveraging the re-use of components to help manage costs has evolved in the development of complex system. This tradition continues on in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program with the cloning of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite for the JPSS-1 mission, including the instrument complement. One benefit of re-use on a mission is the availability of existing simulation assets from the systems that were previously built. An issue arises in the continual shift of technology over a long mission, or multi-mission, lifecycle. As the missions mature, the requirements for the observatory simulations evolve. The challenge in this environment becomes re-using the existing components in that ever-changing landscape. To meet this challenge, the system must: establish an operational architecture that minimizes impacts on the implementation of individual components, consolidate the satisfaction of new high-impact requirements into system-level infrastructure, and build in a long-term view of system adaptation that spans the full lifecycle of the simulation system. The Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) within the JPSS Program is defining and executing this approach to ensure a robust simulation capability for the JPSS multi-mission environment

  11. Proposed Sandia frequency shift for anti-islanding detection method based on artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Hatata


    Full Text Available Sandia frequency shift (SFS is one of the active anti-islanding detection methods that depend on frequency drift to detect an islanding condition for inverter-based distributed generation. The non-detection zone (NDZ of the SFS method depends to a great extent on its parameters. Improper adjusting of these parameters may result in failure of the method. This paper presents a proposed artificial immune system (AIS-based technique to obtain optimal parameters of SFS anti-islanding detection method. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, and self-organizing in nature, maintains a memory of past encounters, and has the ability to continually learn about new encounters. The proposed method generates less total harmonic distortion (THD than the conventional SFS, which results in faster island detection and better non-detection zone. The performance of the proposed method is derived analytically and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Two case studies are used to verify the proposed method. The first case includes a photovoltaic (PV connected to grid and the second includes a wind turbine connected to grid. The deduced optimized parameter setting helps to achieve the “non-islanding inverter” as well as least potential adverse impact on power quality. Keywords: Anti-islanding detection, Sandia frequency shift (SFS, Non-detection zone (NDZ, Total harmonic distortion (THD, Artificial immune system (AIS, Clonal selection algorithm

  12. Artificial immune system for effective properties optimization of magnetoelectric composites (United States)

    Poteralski, Arkadiusz; Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz


    The optimization problem of the effective properties for magnetoelectric composites is considered. The effective properties are determined by the semi-analytical Mori-Tanaka approach. The generalized Eshelby tensor components are calculated numerically by using the Gauss quadrature method for the integral representation of the inclusion problem. The linear magnetoelectric constitutive equation is used. The effect of orientation of the electromagnetic materials components is taken into account. The optimization problem of the design is formulated and the artificial immune system is applied to solve it.

  13. DNA - A Thermal Energy System Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    DNA is a general energy system simulator for both steady-state and dynamic simulation. The program includes a * component model library * thermodynamic state models for fluids and solid fuels and * standard numerical solvers for differential and algebraic equation systems and is free and portable...

  14. Testing cooperative systems with the MARS simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.


    The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on

  15. Mechanisms for eco-immunity in a changing enviroment: how does the coral innate immune system contend with climate change? (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, N. G.


    Innate immunity plays a central role in maintaining homeostasis, and within the context of impending climate change scenarios, understanding how this system works is critical. However, the actual mechanisms involved in the evolution of the innate immune system are largely unknown. Cnidaria (including corals, sea anemones and jellyfish) are well suited for studying the fundamental functions of innate immunity because they share a common ancestor with bilaterians. This study will highlight the transcriptomic changes during a heat shock in the coral Acropora hyacinthus of American Samoa, examining the temporal changes, every half an hour for 5 hours. We hypothesize that genes involved in innate immunity, and extracellular matrix maintenance will be key components to the heat stress response. This presentation will highlight the novel role of the tumor necrosis factor receptor gene family as a responder to heat stress and present future directions for this developing field in coral reef research.

  16. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael


    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system—with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology—immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer

  17. The effects of cocoa on the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano


    Full Text Available Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T-cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of Th2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  18. Stability and bifurcation for Marchuk's model of an immune system (United States)

    Marzuki, Ira Syazwani Mohamad; Roslan, Ummu'Atiqah Mohd


    The investigation of an immune system has long been and will continue to be one of dominant themes in both ecology and biology due to its importance. In this paper, we consider Marchuk's model of an immune system where this model is governed by a system of three differential equations with time. This model has two equilibrium states which are healthy state and chronic state. It is healthy state when the antigen reproduction is small while chronic state is when antigen reproduction rate is large. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the stability of this model, to summarize this stability using bifurcation diagram and to discuss interaction between the healthy and chronic states at stationary solution. The methods involved are stability theory and bifurcation theory. Our results show that healthy states are saddle and only one chronic state is asymptotically stable for a region of parameter considered. For the bifurcation's case, as we increase the value of a parameter in this model, the chronic state shows that there are increment in the number of antigen, plasma cell and the antibody production.

  19. The role of the immune system in Alzheimer disease: Etiology and treatment. (United States)

    Jevtic, Stefan; Sengar, Ameet S; Salter, Michael W; McLaurin, JoAnne


    The immune system is now considered a major factor in Alzheimer Disease (AD). This review seeks to demonstrate how various aspects of the immune system, both in the brain and peripherally, interact to contribute to AD. We highlight classical nervous system immune components, such as complement and microglia, as well as novel aspects of the peripheral immune system that can influence disease, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. By detailing the roles of various immune cells in AD, we summarize an emerging perspective for disease etiology and future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukach


    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system were examined, and 131 (66.16% of them were found to be infected with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma. The mean age of female patients was 42,7±1,35 years. Different infectious agents (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Mycoplasma hominis were identified in cervical canal of uterine cervix and surgical specimens (biopsy samples of excised myoma, adenomyosis or endometrial hyperplasia. The infected patients were found to have decreased monocytes and neutrophils in blood counts, lower phagocytic activity of monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Other findings included lower CD20+, CD8+ and rFAS CD 95 lymphocytes. Assessment of cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes showed a decrease in both spontaneous and stimulated response (р < 0,001. A weakest spontaneous and stimulated response was found in CD3+/IL-4+ lymphocytes. Analysis of results obtained shows systemic immune disorders and impaired cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes correlating with infection factors in the women with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 223-228.

  1. Role of immune system in tumor progression and carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Shishir; Sharma, Nidhi; Gupta, Kunj Bihari; Dhiman, Monisha


    Tumor micro-environment has potential to customize the behavior of the immune cell according to their need. In immune-eliminating phase, immune cells eliminate transformed cells but after tumor establishment innate and adaptive immune cells synergistically provide shelter as well as fulfill their requirement that helps in progression. In between eliminating and establishment phase, equilibrium and escaping phase regulate the immune cells response. During immune-escaping, (1) the antigenic response generated is either inadequate, or focused entirely on tolerance, and (2) immune response generated is specific and effective, but the tumor skips immune recognition. In this review, we are discussing the critical role of immune cells and their cytokines before and after the establishment of tumor which might play a critical role during immunotherapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Innate immune system and tissue regeneration in planarians: an area ripe for exploration. (United States)

    Peiris, T Harshani; Hoyer, Katrina K; Oviedo, Néstor J


    The immune system has been implicated as an important modulator of tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms driving injury-induced immune response and tissue repair remain poorly understood. For over 200 years, planarians have been a classical model for studies on tissue regeneration, but the planarian immune system and its potential role in repair is largely unknown. We found through comparative genomic analysis and data mining that planarians contain many potential homologs of the innate immune system that are activated during injury and repair of adult tissues. These findings support the notion that the relationship between adult tissue repair and the immune system is an ancient feature of basal Bilateria. Further analysis of the planarian immune system during regeneration could potentially add to our understanding of how the innate immune system and inflammatory responses interplay with regenerative signals to induce scar-less tissue repair in the context of the adult organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of the immune system for the treatment of glaucoma. (United States)

    Bell, Katharina; Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Nadine von Thun; Teister, Julia; Grus, Franz H


    At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia. Animal studies show that antibodies (e.g. anti- heat shock protein 60 and anti-myelin basic protein) elevated in glaucoma patients provoke autoaggressive RGC loss and are associated with IgG depositions and increased microglial cells. We demonstrate that intermittent IOP elevation in a rat model is sufficient to provoke glaucoma-like neurodegeneration and elicits correlating changes of IgG autoantibody reactivities. On the other hand, antibodies (e.g. anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-gamma-Synuclein) found decreased in glaucoma patients hold neuroprotective potential on immortalised neuroretinal cells and RGC in an adolescent porcine retina organ culture. We believe that our work not only demonstrates an autoimmune component in glaucoma, but also opens up new options for glaucoma diagnostics and treatment. Nevertheless the immune system also consists of other cells involved not only in the adaptive, but also innate immune system. Studies addressing changes in T lymphocytes, macrophages but also local immune responses in the retina have been performed and also hold promising results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  4. Computer Systems/Database Simulation. (United States)


    simulater, he runs the risk of running a simulation he does not understand. Technical documentation of CASE internals is virutally non- i-xi!;taiit; the...few users outside3 the domain of the team of researchers who worked to make the IPSS design methodology a reality . It was demonstrated effectively in

  5. Exercise and the immune system Ejercicio y sistema inmune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Caraballo Gracia


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that physical exercise, carried out at diverse intensities, modulates the function of different human body systems, and that it plays a major role in the immune response. Therefore, it is necessary to find out if these changes have benefic or harmful effects on the host adaptation against several pathogenic agents. The study of these physical-stress-induced changes might have a great impact on the comprehension and prevention of some diseases that involve activation of the immune system such as allergies, infections, immunodeficiencies and cancer. This article presents a review of current information concerning this area, with the purpose of providing concepts to help readers understand this biological phenomena and their implications in human health. Several immune response parameters have been studied during physical exercise, including their relationship with the stress-induced hormonal response and the profile of different hormones according to the intensity of physical activity. Also, changes in blood cell populations (lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils and the behavior of cytokines and the synthesis of specific immune globulins have been assessed. This knowledge has allowed to establish a relationship between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, which might explain the various changes in the immune response and the adaptation seen in physical activity, as well as the differences found at diverse exercise intensity and frequency levels. Se ha demostrado que el ejercicio hecho a diferentes intensidades cumple una función moduladora sobre diversos sistemas, y que su acción sobre la respuesta inmune es de gran importancia. Por lo tanto, es necesario esclarecer si estos cambios constituyen efectos benéficos o perjudiciales en cuanto a las adaptaciones del hospedero frente a diversos agentes patógenos. El estudio de estos cambios inducidos por el estrés físico puede tener un impacto grande en la comprensi

  6. Building a parallel file system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Estolano, E; Maltzahn, C; Brandt, S A; Bent, J


    Parallel file systems are gaining in popularity in high-end computing centers as well as commercial data centers. High-end computing systems are expected to scale exponentially and to pose new challenges to their storage scalability in terms of cost and power. To address these challenges scientists and file system designers will need a thorough understanding of the design space of parallel file systems. Yet there exist few systematic studies of parallel file system behavior at petabyte- and exabyte scale. An important reason is the significant cost of getting access to large-scale hardware to test parallel file systems. To contribute to this understanding we are building a parallel file system simulator that can simulate parallel file systems at very large scale. Our goal is to simulate petabyte-scale parallel file systems on a small cluster or even a single machine in reasonable time and fidelity. With this simulator, file system experts will be able to tune existing file systems for specific workloads, scientists and file system deployment engineers will be able to better communicate workload requirements, file system designers and researchers will be able to try out design alternatives and innovations at scale, and instructors will be able to study very large-scale parallel file system behavior in the class room. In this paper we describe our approach and provide preliminary results that are encouraging both in terms of fidelity and simulation scalability.

  7. The Innate Immune System in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allal Boutajangout


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the leading cause for dementia in the world. It is characterized by two biochemically distinct types of protein aggregates: amyloid β (Aβ peptide in the forms of parenchymal amyloid plaques and congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA and aggregated tau protein in the form of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. Several risk factors have been discovered that are associated with AD. The most well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4 (Potter and Wisniewski (2012, and Verghese et al. (2011. Recently, it has been reported by two groups independently that a rare functional variant (R47H of TREM2 is associated with the late-onset risk of AD. TREM2 is expressed on myeloid cells including microglia, macrophages, and dendritic cells, as well as osteoclasts. Microglia are a major part of the innate immune system in the CNS and are also involved in stimulating adaptive immunity. Microglia express several Toll-like receptors (TLRs and are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS. In this review, we will focus on the recent advances regarding the role of TREM2, as well as the effects of TLRs 4 and 9 on AD.

  8. Nipah and hendra virus interactions with the innate immune system. (United States)

    Basler, Christopher F


    Nipah virus and Hendra virus are related, highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses with unusually broad host ranges. Henipaviruses encode several proteins that block innate immune responses, and these are likely to serve as virulence factors. Specfically, four virus-encoded proteins, the phosphoprotein (P), the V protein, the W protein, and the C protein have each been demonstrated to counteract aspects of the interferon (IFN)-α/β response, a key component of the innate immune response to virus infection. The available data indicate that V and W can inhibit the production of IFNα/β in response to various stimuli, while the P, V, and W proteins also block the ability of IFNs to signal and induce an antiviral state in cells. The C protein also inhibits the antiviral effects of IFNα/β by a poorly characterized mechanism. Reverse genetics systems, which allow the generation of recombinant viruses bearing specific mutations, have demonstrated the importance of the viral IFN-antagonists for replication. With these systems in hand, the field is now poised to define how specific viral IFN-antagonist functions influence viral pathogenesis.

  9. Can the Immune System Perform a t-Test? (United States)

    Faria, Bruno Filipe; Mostardinha, Patricia


    The self-nonself discrimination hypothesis remains a landmark concept in immunology. It proposes that tolerance breaks down in the presence of nonself antigens. In strike contrast, in statistics, occurrence of nonself elements in a sample (i.e., outliers) is not obligatory to violate the null hypothesis. Very often, what is crucial is the combination of (self) elements in a sample. The two views on how to detect a change seem challengingly different and it could seem difficult to conceive how immunological cellular interactions could trigger responses with a precision comparable to some statistical tests. Here it is shown that frustrated cellular interactions reconcile the two views within a plausible immunological setting. It is proposed that the adaptive immune system can be promptly activated either when nonself ligands are detected or self-ligands occur in abnormal combinations. In particular we show that cellular populations behaving in this way could perform location statistical tests, with performances comparable to t or KS tests, or even more general data mining tests such as support vector machines or random forests. In more general terms, this work claims that plausible immunological models should provide accurate detection mechanisms for host protection and, furthermore, that investigation on mechanisms leading to improved detection in “in silico” models can help unveil how the real immune system works. PMID:28046042

  10. Description of the grout system dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.


    The grout system dynamic computer simulation was created to allow investigation of the ability of the grouting system to meet established milestones, for various assumed system configurations and parameters. The simulation simulates the movement of tank waste through the system versus time, from initial storage tanks, through feed tanks and the grout plant, then finally to a grout vault. The simulation properly accounts for the following (1) time required to perform various actions or processes, (2) delays involved in gaining regulatory approval, (3) random system component failures, (4) limitations on equipment capacities, (5) available parallel components, and (6) different possible strategies for vault filling. The user is allowed to set a variety of system parameters for each simulation run. Currently, the output of a run primarily consists of a plot of projected grouting campaigns completed versus time, for comparison with milestones. Other outputs involving any model component can also be quickly created or deleted as desired. In particular, sensitivity runs where the effect of varying a model parameter (flow rates, delay times, number of feed tanks available, etc.) on the ability of the system to meet milestones can be made easily. The grout system simulation was implemented using the ITHINK* simulation language for Macintosh** computers

  11. Conducted Interference Immunity Characteristics to High-speed Power Line Communication System (United States)

    Tokuda, Masamitsu; Hosoya, Satoshi; Yamagata, Toru; Matsuo, Takashi

    In this paper, we measured the immunity characteristics to the conducted interference wave, from the aspect of PHY rate (physical layer data rate) of PLC (Power Line Communication) system, and compared with simulation results by MATLAB/ Simulink. When the interference signal is impressed to the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal, the PHY rate decrease rapidly below C/I (Carrier / Interference) = 25dB and become nearly zero around C/I = -35dB, and so it turns out that the PLC System with OFDM signal has a good narrowband interference immunity characteristic. In addition, it is revealed that the PHY rate of PLC modem can be calculated by MATLAB/Simulink even when the narrowband interference signal is impressed through the power line. Furthermore, we examined the improving effect of the notch band for the immunity characteristics to the conducted interference wave. As a result, it is revealed that the PHY rate normalized by the maximum value increases by 15∼25% by inserting the notch when impressing the interference signal in the notch band and C/I is improved by 10∼15dB by inserting the notch.

  12. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  13. Physical Model of the Immune Response of Bacteria Against Bacteriophage Through the Adaptive CRISPR-Cas Immune System


    Han, Pu; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Deem, Michael W.


    Bacteria and archaea have evolved an adaptive, heritable immune system that recognizes and protects against viruses or plasmids. This system, known as the CRISPR-Cas system, allows the host to recognize and incorporate short foreign DNA or RNA sequences, called ‘spacers’ into its CRISPR system. Spacers in the CRISPR system provide a record of the history of bacteria and phage coevolution. We use a physical model to study the dynamics of this coevolution as it evolves stochastically over time....

  14. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 on mouse systemic immunity and the immune response in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuanbo


    Full Text Available A probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei L9,which was isolated from human intestine, was investigated for its immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Results showed that L9 improved systemic immunity by enhancing the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages, the proliferation ratio of splenocytes, the IgG level in the serum and the level of IgA in the mucosa. Further, L9induced theTh1-polarized immune response by elevating the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in the mucosa. This effect was confirmed by the enhanced IL-12-inducing activity of macrophages after in vitro stimulation of L9. Also detected was increased expression of TLR-2mRNA in the mucosa. We predict that L9 could enhance innate immunity by activating TLR-2 in the mucosa, and enhance acquired immunity by promoting Th1 polarization through induced production of IL-12 by macrophages.

  15. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca


    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to "danger" or "non-danger" signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation.

  16. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang


    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  17. A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection. (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang


    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  18. Assessment of Immunization Coverage Using a Computerized System


    KABASAWA, Reiko; TANABE, Naohito; SEKI, Nao; KATAGIRI, Mikio; MATSUI, Kazumitsu; SUZUKI, Hiroshi


    The major concerns with immunization programs for disease control continue to be improving and sustaining immunization coverage, which can be monitored via the direct or indirect measurement of vaccination levels. We have developed a computerized program to monitor immunization coverage with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccines using registration books of immunization in 7 villages and towns in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and analyzed 838 children who were born in the calend...

  19. A Simulated Heat Wave Has Diverse Effects on Immune Function and Oxidative Physiology in the Corn Snake (Pantherophis guttatus). (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z R; French, S S; Ahn, A; Webb, A; Butler, M W

    Animals will continue to encounter increasingly warm environments, including more frequent and intense heat waves. Yet the physiological consequences of heat waves remain equivocal, potentially because of variation in adaptive plasticity (reversible acclimation) and/or aspects of experimental design. Thus, we measured a suite of physiological variables in the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) after exposure to field-parameterized, fluctuating temperature regimes (moderate temperature and heat wave treatments) to address two hypotheses: (1) a heat wave causes physiological stress, and (2) thermal performance of immune function exhibits adaptive plasticity in response to a heat wave. We found little support for our first hypothesis because a simulated heat wave had a negative effect on body mass, but it also reduced oxidative damage and did not affect peak performance of three immune metrics. Likewise, we found only partial support for our second hypothesis. After exposure to a simulated heat wave, P. guttatus exhibited greater performance breadth and reduced temperature specialization (the standardized difference between peak performance and performance breadth) for only one of three immune metrics and did so in a sex-dependent manner. Further, a simulated heat wave did not elicit greater performance of any immune metric at higher temperatures. Yet a heat wave likely reduced innate immune function in P. guttatus because each metric of innate immune performance in this species (as in most vertebrates) was lower at elevated temperatures. Together with previous research, our study indicates that a heat wave may have complex, modest, and even positive physiological effects in some taxa.

  20. Modeling and simulation of discrete event systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Byoung Kyu


    Computer modeling and simulation (M&S) allows engineers to study and analyze complex systems. Discrete-event system (DES)-M&S is used in modern management, industrial engineering, computer science, and the military. As computer speeds and memory capacity increase, so DES-M&S tools become more powerful and more widely used in solving real-life problems. Based on over 20 years of evolution within a classroom environment, as well as on decades-long experience in developing simulation-based solutions for high-tech industries, Modeling and Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems is the only book on

  1. Systematic modelling and simulation of refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne


    The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose of the s......The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose...... of the simulation, to select appropriate component models and to set up the equations in a well-arranged way. In this paper the outline of such a method is proposed and examples showing the use of this method for simulation of refrigeration systems are given....

  2. Interactions between glia, the immune system and pain processes during early development. (United States)

    Barr, Gordon A; Hunter, Deirtra A


    Pain is a serious problem for infants and children and treatment options are limited. Moreover, infants born prematurely or hospitalized for illness likely have concurrent infection that activates the immune system. It is now recognized that the immune system in general and glia in particular influence neurotransmission and that the neural bases of pain are intimately connected to immune function. We know that injuries that induce pain activate immune function and suppressing the immune system alleviates pain. Despite this advance in our understanding, virtually nothing is known of the role that the immune system plays in pain processing in infants and children, even though pain is a serious clinical issue in pediatric medicine. This brief review summarizes the existing data on immune-neural interactions in infants, providing evidence for the immaturity of these interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The role of the immune system in the generation of neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Calvo, Margarita; Dawes, John M; Bennett, David L H


    Persistent pain is a sequela of several neurological conditions with a primary immune basis, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, diverse forms of injury to the peripheral or the central nervous systems--whether traumatic, metabolic, or toxic--result in substantial recruitment and activation of immune cells. This response involves the innate immune system, but evidence also exists of T-lymphocyte recruitment, and in some patient cohorts antibodies to neuronal antigens have been reported. Mediators released by immune cells, such as cytokines, sensitise nociceptive signalling in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Preclinical data suggest an immune pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but clinical evidence of a central role of the immune system is less clear. An important challenge for the future is to establish to what extent this immune response initiates or maintains neuropathic pain in patients and thus whether it is amenable to therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Massage-like stroking boosts the immune system in mice (United States)

    Major, Benjamin; Rattazzi, Lorenza; Brod, Samuel; Pilipović, Ivan; Leposavić, Gordana; D’Acquisto, Fulvio


    Recent clinical evidence suggests that the therapeutic effect of massage involves the immune system and that this can be exploited as an adjunct therapy together with standard drug-based approaches. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms behind these effects exploring the immunomodulatory function of stroking as a surrogate of massage-like therapy in mice. C57/BL6 mice were stroked daily for 8 days either with a soft brush or directly with a gloved hand and then analysed for differences in their immune repertoire compared to control non-stroked mice. Our results show that hand- but not brush-stroked mice demonstrated a significant increase in thymic and splenic T cell number (p massage-like therapy were associated with a decreased noradrenergic innervation of lymphoid organs and counteracted the immunosuppressive effect of hydrocortisone in vivo. Together our results in mice support the hypothesis that massage-like therapies might be of therapeutic value in the treatment of immunodeficiencies and related disorders and suggest a reduction of the inhibitory noradrenergic tone in lymphoid organs as one of the possible explanations for their immunomodulatory function. PMID:26046935

  5. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: dissectors of the immune system. (United States)

    Buckley, Rebecca H


    The past 50 years have seen enormous progress in this field. An unknown concept until 1952, there are now more than 100 different primary immunodeficiency syndromes in the world's literature. Each novel syndrome has shed new insight into the workings of the immune system, dissecting its multiple parts into unique functioning components. This has been especially true over the past decade, as the molecular bases of approximately 40 of these diseases have been identified in rapid succession. Advances in the treatment of these diseases have also been impressive. Antibody replacement has been improved greatly by the development of human immunoglobulin preparations that can be safely administered by the intravenous route, and cytokine and humanized anticytokine therapies are now possible through recombinant technologies. The ability to achieve life-saving immune reconstitution of patients with lethal severe combined immunodeficiency by administering rigorously T-cell-depleted allogeneic related haploidentical bone marrow stem cells has extended this option to virtually all such infants, if diagnosed before untreatable infections develop. Finally, the past 3 years have witnessed the first truly successful gene therapy. The impressive results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency offer hope that this approach can be extended to many more diseases in the future.

  6. Systemic immune activation in HIV and potential therapeutic options. (United States)

    Sinha, Bhaswati; Rubens, Muni


    Advancement in HIV treatment has evolved over the last two decades with the discovery of new drugs and approaches. Studies have demonstrated that HIV-infected individuals have elevated immune activation even during effective antiretroviral therapy. Persistently elevated immune activation has been one of the main obstacles against developing an effective approach for curing HIV. This review examines the mechanism of microbial translocation in HIV-infected individuals and currently investigated potential therapeutic approaches. We searched PubMed and Medline for peer-reviwed articles and recent HIV/AIDS conference abstracts and papers. Narrative review method was used since the objectives of the study were mechanism of microbial translocation and mechanism of action of multiple drugs against it. Microbial translocation occurs as a result of the disruption of epithelial barrier and immunological dysfunction within the intestinal tract due to defective tight junctions, loss of TH17 type CD4(+) T cells, impaired liver architecture, and depletion of intestinal myelomonocytic cells. Potent and effective way to intervene microbial translocation is to target the mechanism of actions involved in microbial translocation by restoration of beneficial microbiata with supplemental probiotics/prebiotics, increased clearance of microbial products from systemic circulation with targeted antibodies and restoration of intestinal integrity with antibiotics. Number of promising drug molecules against microbial translocation are currently under various stages of trials and the results of these trials will hopefully contribute significantly toward effective therapeutic intervention. However, studies also need to explore the effect of combination drugs to abrogate microbial translocation.

  7. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R


    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed.

  8. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations. (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood


    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  9. Visual software system for memory interleaving simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Katarina


    Full Text Available This paper describes the visual software system for memory interleaving simulation (VSMIS, implemented for the purpose of the course Computer Architecture and Organization 1, at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade. The simulator enables students to expand their knowledge through practical work in the laboratory, as well as through independent work at home. VSMIS gives users the possibility to initialize parts of the system and to control simulation steps. The user has the ability to monitor simulation through graphical representation. It is possible to navigate through the entire hierarchy of the system using simple navigation. During the simulation the user can observe and set the values of the memory location. At any time, the user can reset the simulation of the system and observe it for different memory states; in addition, it is possible to save the current state of the simulation and continue with the execution of the simulation later. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44009

  10. The validation of an infrared simulation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A


    Full Text Available A commonly-used term in the simulation domain is ‘validation, verification and accreditation’ (VVA). When analysing simulation predictions for the purpose of system solution development and decision-making, one key question persist: “What confidence...

  11. Diversity, evolution, and therapeutic applications of small RNAs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic immune systems (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Overstreet, Nicola


    Recent evidence supports that prokaryotes exhibit adaptive immunity in the form of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) and Cas (CRISPR associated proteins). The CRISPR-Cas system confers resistance to exogenous genetic elements such as phages and plasmids by allowing for the recognition and silencing of these genetic elements. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas serves as a memory of past exposures. This suggests that the evolution of the immune system has counterparts among the prokaryotes, not exclusively among eukaryotes. Mathematical models have been proposed which simulate the evolutionary patterns of CRISPR, however large gaps in our understanding of CRISPR-Cas function and evolution still exist. The CRISPR-Cas system is analogous to small RNAs involved in resistance mechanisms throughout the tree of life, and a deeper understanding of the evolution of small RNA pathways is necessary before the relationship between these convergent systems is to be determined. Presented in this review are novel RNAi therapies based on CRISPR-Cas analogs and the potential for future therapies based on CRISPR-Cas system components.

  12. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.


    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  13. The role of the immune system in central nervous system plasticity after acute injury. (United States)

    Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Donegá, Matteo; Giusto, Elena; Mallucci, Giulia; Marchetti, Bianca; Pluchino, Stefano


    Acute brain injuries cause rapid cell death that activates bidirectional crosstalk between the injured brain and the immune system. In the acute phase, the damaged CNS activates resident and circulating immune cells via the local and systemic release of soluble mediators. This early immune activation is necessary to confine the injured tissue and foster the clearance of cellular debris, thus bringing the inflammatory reaction to a close. In the chronic phase, a sustained immune activation has been described in many CNS disorders, and the degree of this prolonged response has variable effects on spontaneous brain regenerative processes. The challenge for treating acute CNS damage is to understand how to optimally engage and modify these immune responses, thus providing new strategies that will compensate for tissue lost to injury. Herein we have reviewed the available information regarding the role and function of the innate and adaptive immune responses in influencing CNS plasticity during the acute and chronic phases of after injury. We have examined how CNS damage evolves along the activation of main cellular and molecular pathways that are associated with intrinsic repair, neuronal functional plasticity and facilitation of tissue reorganization. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Approaches to Energy System Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Jakobsen, Arne


    Considerations on selecting the appropriate modeling level when modeling energy systems are presented in this paper. A general three-level model leveling consisting of: "Overall efficiency", "Process" and "System" is suggested. As thermodynamic cycle models are central for modeling of the process...... of many energy systems, identification of so-called cycle specification variables, their physical meaning and their numerical implications are discussed specifically. The example chosen is a Rankine power or cooling cycle. Similarities between modeling of power cycles and cooling cycles are finally summed...... up....

  15. Effects of Probiotics on the Immune System and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Shimojo


    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance and adaptation. Perturbations in microbiota composition are strongly associated with allergies and asthma in westernized countries. There has been accumulating evidence that the administration of probiotics, “live microbial supplements that exert a beneficial effect on human health,” may be effective in the treatment and/or prevention of allergic diseases. Although it has been shown that part of the effect of probiotics arises from its interaction with the host immune system, the precise mechanisms remain to be determined. In addition, future studies are necessary to define appropriate species and strains, optimum dose, frequency, and duration for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  16. System immune response to vaccination on FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingos, Mark; Howard, Stephanie; Giaclone, Micholas; Kozono, David; Jacene, Heather [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (United States)


    A patient with newly diagnosed right lung cancer had transient 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid left axillary lymph nodes and intense splenic FDG uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). History revealed that the patient received a left-sided influenza vaccine 2-3 days before the examination. Although inflammatory FDG uptake in ipsilateral axillary nodes is reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of visualization of the systemic immune response in the spleen related to the influenza vaccination on FDG-PET/CT. The history, splenic uptake and time course on serial FDG-PET/CT helped to avoid a false-positive interpretation for progressing lung cancer and alteration of the radiation therapy plan.

  17. An artificial immune system algorithm approach for reconfiguring distribution network (United States)

    Syahputra, Ramadoni; Soesanti, Indah


    This paper proposes an artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm approach for reconfiguring distribution network with the presence distributed generators (DG). The distribution network with high-performance is a network that has a low power loss, better voltage profile, and loading balance among feeders. The task for improving the performance of the distribution network is optimization of network configuration. The optimization has become a necessary study with the presence of DG in entire networks. In this work, optimization of network configuration is based on an AIS algorithm. The methodology has been tested in a model of 33 bus IEEE radial distribution networks with and without DG integration. The results have been showed that the optimal configuration of the distribution network is able to reduce power loss and to improve the voltage profile of the distribution network significantly.

  18. Construction of the real patient simulator system. (United States)

    Chan, Richard; Sun, C T


    Simulation for perfusion education has been used for at least the past 25 years. The earlier models were either electronic (computer games) or fluid dynamic models and provided invaluable adjuncts to perfusion training and education. In 2009, the *North Shore-LIJ Health System at Great Neck, New York, opened an innovative "Bioskill Center" dedicated to simulated virtual reality advanced hands-on surgical training as well as perfusion simulation. Professional cardiac surgical organizations now show great interest in using simulation for training and recertification. Simulation will continue to be the direction for future perfusion training and education. This manuscript introduces a cost-effective system developed from discarded perfusion products and it is not intended to detail the actual lengthy process of its construction.

  19. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.


    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem. (auth)

  20. Simulating 60 Co gamma irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R.


    The use of Cadgamma, a software dedicated to simulate 60 Co gamma irradiation systems, can lead to an optimized process and simulating, in a few hours, many configurations setups for the irradiation elements. The software can also simulate changes in the path of the product and the influence of any steady body like the support of the product support and source shoulders. These simulations minimize the number of dose mapping tests in industrial applications and allow the study of unusual setups. Cadgamma was developed at IPEN to simulate it is multipurpose 60 Co irradiation system, under construction and planned to be operating by the second half of 2001. The software was used on project stage and will help to optimize the irradiation process for each product to be treated. (author)

  1. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.


    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem

  2. Conditioned effects of ethanol on the immune system. (United States)

    Gano, Anny; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Deak, Terrence


    Several studies indicate that the immune system can be subjected to classical conditioning. Acute ethanol intoxication significantly modulates several pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins-1 and 6 [IL-1β and IL-6, respectively] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα])) in several brain areas, including amygdala (AMG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and hippocampus (HPC). It is unknown, however, whether cues associated with ethanol can elicit conditioned alterations in cytokine expression. The present study analyzed, in male Sprague-Dawley rats, whether ethanol-induced changes in the central cytokine response may be amenable to conditioning. In Experiments 1 and 2, the rats were given one or two pairings between a distinctive odor (conditional stimulus, CS) and the post-absorptive effects of a high (3.0 or 4.0 g/kg, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) ethanol dose. Neither of these experiments revealed conditioning of IL-6, IL-1β, or TNFα, as measured via mRNA levels. Yet, re-exposure to the lemon-odor CS in Experiment 1 significantly increased C-Fos levels in the PVN. In Experiment 3, the rats were given four pairings between an odor CS and a moderate ethanol dose (2.0 g/kg), delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intragastrically (i.g.). Re-exposure to the odor CS significantly increased IL-6 levels in HPC and AMG, an effect only evident in paired rats administered ethanol i.p. Overall, this study suggests that ethanol exposure can regulate the levels of IL-6 at HPC and AMG via classical conditioning mechanisms. These ethanol-induced, conditioned alterations in cytokine levels may ultimately affect the intake and motivational effects of ethanol. Impact statement This study examines, across three experiments, whether odor cues associated with ethanol exposure can condition changes in cytokine expression. The analysis of ethanol-induced conditioning of immune responses is a novel niche that can help understand the transition from social drinking to

  3. Another Program Simulates A Modular Manufacturing System (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Wang, Jian


    SSE5 computer program provides simulation environment for modeling manufacturing systems containing relatively small numbers of stations and operators. Designed to simulate manufacturing of apparel, also used in other manufacturing domains. Valuable for small or medium-size firms, including those lacking expertise to develop detailed mathematical models or have only minimal knowledge in describing manufacturing systems and in analyzing results of simulations on mathematical models. Two other programs available bundled together as SSE (MFS-26245). Each program models slightly different manufacturing scenario. Written in Turbo C v2.0 for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS and successfully compiled using Turbo C++ v3.0.

  4. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)


    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  5. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole


    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full......-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups’ high fidelity of room layout and affordance...

  6. Role of the immune system in regeneration and its dynamic interplay with adult stem cells. (United States)

    Abnave, Prasad; Ghigo, Eric


    The immune system plays an indispensable role in the process of tissue regeneration following damage as well as during homeostasis. Inflammation and immune cell recruitment are signs of early onset injury. At the wound site, immune cells not only help to clear debris but also secrete numerous signalling molecules that induce appropriate cell proliferation and differentiation programmes essential for successful regeneration. However, the immune system does not always perform a complementary role in regeneration and several reports have suggested that increased inflammation can inhibit the regeneration process. Successful regeneration requires a balanced immune cell response, with the recruitment of accurately polarised immune cells in an appropriate quantity. The regulatory interactions of the immune system with regeneration are not unidirectional. Stem cells, as key players in regeneration, can also modulate the immune system in several ways to facilitate regeneration. In this review, we will focus on recent research demonstrating the key role of immune system in the regeneration process as well as the immunomodulatory effects of stem cells. Finally, we propose that research investigating the interplay between the immune system and stem cells within highly regenerating animals can benefit the identification of the key interactions and molecules required for successful regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromechanical motion systems design and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, Frederick G


    An introductory reference covering the devices, simulations and limitations in the control of servo systems Linking theoretical material with real-world applications, this book provides a valuable introduction to motion system design. The book begins with an overview of classic theory, its advantages and limitations, before showing how classic limitations can be overcome with complete system simulation. The ability to efficiently vary system parameters (such as inertia, friction, dead-band, damping), and quickly determine their effect on performance, stability, efficiency, is also described. T

  8. Simulating mass public-transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Ortíz Triviño


    Full Text Available A simulation model for evaluating the performance of a mass public-transport system (MPTS is presented in this report. The final prototype was flexible both for constructing an STPM “skeleton“ and modelling random events characteristic of this type of system. The final model was a queuing network with other elements such as origin- destination matrices and graphs allowing typical MPTS phenomena to be considered. The simulation model reacted as expected to changes in the parameters and allowed defining and evaluating typical performance measurement for queues (e.g. mean time spent in the system and queue, expected queue length as well as others representative of these systems.

  9. Neural Network Enhanced Structure Determination of Osteoporosis, Immune System, and Radiation Repair Proteins, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize self learning neural network technology to determine the structure of osteoporosis, immune system disease, and excess radiation...

  10. Lung Homeostasis: Influence of Age, Microbes, and the Immune System. (United States)

    Lloyd, Clare M; Marsland, Benjamin J


    Pulmonary immune homeostasis is maintained by a network of tissue-resident cells that continually monitor the external environment, and in health, instruct tolerance to innocuous inhaled particles while ensuring that efficient and rapid immune responses can be mounted against invading pathogens. Here we review the multiple pathways that underlie effective lung immunity in health, and discuss how these may be affected by external environmental factors and contribute to chronic inflammation during disease. In this context, we examine the current understanding of the impact of the microbiota in immune development and function and in the setting of the threshold for immune responses that maintains the balance between tolerance and chronic inflammation in the lung. We propose that host interactions with microbes are critical for establishing the immune landscape of the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng


    Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae. Six immune-related molecules, including four PRRs (CgCTL-1, CgCTL-2, CgCTL-4, CgNatterin-3) and two immune effectors (CgTNF-1 and CgEcSOD) were detected in the early developmental stages of trochophore, D-hinged and umbo larvae of oyster. After incubated with [Met(5)]-enkephalin, the mRNA expression level of all the PRRs changed significantly (p immune effectors were up-regulated significantly at 3 h and 6 h in trochophore larvae (p system of oyster was firstly appeared in D-hinged larvae, while the primitive immune defense system existed in the region of prototroch in trochophore larvae and developed maturely after D-hinged larvae. The developing immune system could be regulated by the neurotransmitter [Met(5)]-enkephalin released by the neuroendocrine system in oyster C. gigas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimmune Interactions: From the Brain to the Immune System and Vice Versa. (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert


    Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system. These associations are present at different levels of organization. At the local level, there is clear evidence for the production and use of immune factors by the central nervous system and for the production and use of neuroendocrine mediators by the immune system. Short-range interactions between immune cells and peripheral nerve endings innervating immune organs allow the immune system to recruit local neuronal elements for fine tuning of the immune response. Reciprocally, immune cells and mediators play a regulatory role in the nervous system and participate in the elimination and plasticity of synapses during development as well as in synaptic plasticity at adulthood. At the whole organism level, long-range interactions between immune cells and the central nervous system allow the immune system to engage the rest of the body in the fight against infection from pathogenic microorganisms and permit the nervous system to regulate immune functioning. Alterations in communication pathways between the immune system and the nervous system can account for many pathological conditions that were initially attributed to strict organ dysfunction. This applies in particular to psychiatric disorders and several immune-mediated diseases. This review will show how our understanding of this balance between long-range and short-range interactions between the immune system and the central nervous

  13. The placenta in toxicology. Part II : Systemic and local immune adaptations in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Ernerudh, Jan; Buse, Eberhard; Cline, J Mark; Haeger, Jan-Dirk; Dixon, Darlene; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; De Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M

    During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the semiallogeneic fetus, which must be tolerated without compromising fetal or maternal health. This review updates the systemic and local immune changes taking place during human pregnancy, including some examples in rodents. Systemic

  14. The Role of the Immune System Beyond the Fight Against Infection. (United States)

    Sattler, Susanne


    The immune system was identified as a protective factor during infectious diseases over a century ago. Current definitions and textbook information are still largely influenced by these early observations, and the immune system is commonly presented as a defence machinery. However, host defence is only one manifestation of the immune system's overall function in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and system integrity. In fact, the immune system is integral part of fundamental physiological processes such as development, reproduction and wound healing, and a close crosstalk between the immune system and other body systems such as metabolism, the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system is evident. Research and medical professionals in an expanding range of areas start to recognise the implications of the immune system in their respective fields.This chapter provides a brief historical perspective on how our understanding of the immune system has evolved from a defence system to an overarching surveillance machinery to maintain tissue integrity. Current perspectives on the non-defence functions of classical immune cells and factors will also be discussed.

  15. From immunotoxicity to carcinogenicity: the effects of carbamate pesticides on the immune system. (United States)

    Dhouib, Ines; Jallouli, Manel; Annabi, Alya; Marzouki, Soumaya; Gharbi, Najoua; Elfazaa, Saloua; Lasram, Mohamed Montassar


    The immune system can be the target of many chemicals, with potentially severe adverse effects on the host's health. In the literature, carbamate (CM) pesticides have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of diseases associated with alterations of the immune response, such as hypersensitivity reactions, some autoimmune diseases and cancers. CMs may initiate, facilitate, or exacerbate pathological immune processes, resulting in immunotoxicity by induction of mutations in genes coding for immunoregulatory factors and modifying immune tolerance. In the present study, direct immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption and inhibition of esterases activities have been introduced as the main mechanisms of CMs-induced immune dysregulation. Moreover, the evidence on the relationship between CM pesticide exposure, dysregulation of the immune system and predisposition to different types of cancers, allergies, autoimmune and infectious diseases is criticized. In addition, in this review, we will discuss the relationship between immunotoxicity and cancer, and the advances made toward understanding the basis of cancer immune evasion.

  16. A Service Oriented Architecture Approach to Achieve Interoperability between Immunization Information Systems in Iran. (United States)

    Hosseini, Masoud; Ahmadi, Maryam; Dixon, Brian E


    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can support vaccine forecasting and immunization reminders; however, immunization decision-making requires data from fragmented, independent systems. Interoperability and accurate data exchange between immunization information systems (IIS) is an essential factor to utilize Immunization CDS systems. Service oriented architecture (SOA) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are dominant standards for web-based exchange of clinical information. We implemented a system based on SOA and HL7 v3 to support immunization CDS in Iran. We evaluated system performance by exchanging 1500 immunization records for roughly 400 infants between two IISs. System turnaround time is less than a minute for synchronous operation calls and the retrieved immunization history of infants were always identical in different systems. CDS generated reports were accordant to immunization guidelines and the calculations for next visit times were accurate. Interoperability is rare or nonexistent between IIS. Since inter-state data exchange is rare in United States, this approach could be a good prototype to achieve interoperability of immunization information.

  17. Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat (United States)

    Evans, Sharon S.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Daniel T.


    Fever is a cardinal response to infection that has been conserved in warm and cold-blooded vertebrates for over 600 million years of evolution. The fever response is executed by integrated physiological and neuronal circuitry and confers a survival benefit during infection. Here, we review our current understanding of how the inflammatory cues delivered by the thermal element of fever stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. We further highlight the unexpected multiplicity of roles of the pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), both during fever induction as well as during the mobilization of lymphocytes to the lymphoid organs that are the staging ground for immune defence. Finally, we discuss the emerging evidence that suggests the adrenergic signalling pathways associated with thermogenesis shape immune cell function. PMID:25976513

  18. Epigenetic regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system. (United States)

    Lim, Pek Siew; Li, Jasmine; Holloway, Adele F; Rao, Sudha


    T cells are exquisitely poised to respond rapidly to pathogens and have proved an instructive model for exploring the regulation of inducible genes. Individual genes respond to antigenic stimulation in different ways, and it has become clear that the interplay between transcription factors and the chromatin platform of individual genes governs these responses. Our understanding of the complexity of the chromatin platform and the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to transcriptional control has expanded dramatically in recent years. These mechanisms include the presence/absence of histone modification marks, which form an epigenetic signature to mark active or inactive genes. These signatures are dynamically added or removed by epigenetic enzymes, comprising an array of histone-modifying enzymes, including the more recently recognized chromatin-associated signalling kinases. In addition, chromatin-remodelling complexes physically alter the chromatin structure to regulate chromatin accessibility to transcriptional regulatory factors. The advent of genome-wide technologies has enabled characterization of the chromatin landscape of T cells in terms of histone occupancy, histone modification patterns and transcription factor association with specific genomic regulatory regions, generating a picture of the T-cell epigenome. Here, we discuss the multi-layered regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system, focusing on the interplay between transcription factors, and the T-cell epigenome, including the role played by chromatin remodellers and epigenetic enzymes. We will also use IL2, a key inducible cytokine gene in T cells, as an example of how the different layers of epigenetic mechanisms regulate immune responsive genes during T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Immune System Out of Shape? : Shaping of adaptive immunity by persistent viral infections in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van den Heuvel (Diana)


    markdownabstractDuring pregnancy, a fetus is protected from a large part of the pathogens of the environment. As a result, a newborn’s immune system is immature and unexperienced, and mainly composed of innate leukocytes and naive lymphocytes. Immunological memory, and concomitant functional

  20. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.


    This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.

  1. Tumour-cell killing by X-rays and immunity quantitated in a mouse model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, D.D.; Porteous, K.M.; Hughes, M.J.


    As part of an investigation of the interaction of X-rays and immune cytotoxicity in tumour control, an experimental mouse model system has been used in which quantitative anti-tumour immunity was raised in prospective recipients of tumour-cell suspensions exposed to varying doses of X-rays in vitro before injection. Findings reported here indicate that, whilst X-rays kill a proportion of cells, induced immunity deals with a fixed number dependent upon the immune status of the host, and that X-rays and anti-tumour immunity do not act synergistically in tumour-cell killing. The tumour used was the ascites sarcoma BP8. (author)

  2. Using system dynamics simulation for assessment of hydropower system safety (United States)

    King, L. M.; Simonovic, S. P.; Hartford, D. N. D.


    Hydropower infrastructure systems are complex, high consequence structures which must be operated safely to avoid catastrophic impacts to human life, the environment, and the economy. Dam safety practitioners must have an in-depth understanding of how these systems function under various operating conditions in order to ensure the appropriate measures are taken to reduce system vulnerability. Simulation of system operating conditions allows modelers to investigate system performance from the beginning of an undesirable event to full system recovery. System dynamics simulation facilitates the modeling of dynamic interactions among complex arrangements of system components, providing outputs of system performance that can be used to quantify safety. This paper presents the framework for a modeling approach that can be used to simulate a range of potential operating conditions for a hydropower infrastructure system. Details of the generic hydropower infrastructure system simulation model are provided. A case study is used to evaluate system outcomes in response to a particular earthquake scenario, with two system safety performance measures shown. Results indicate that the simulation model is able to estimate potential measures of system safety which relate to flow conveyance and flow retention. A comparison of operational and upgrade strategies is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model for comparing various operational response strategies, capital upgrade alternatives, and maintenance regimes. Results show that seismic upgrades to the spillway gates provide the largest improvement in system performance for the system and scenario of interest.

  3. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G


    antigens, which probably is precipitated by defects in the early events of T-cell activation and inhibition of IL-2 function elucidated, but soluble factors secreted either by the parasites, or by host cells as a result of exposure to the parasite, seem to be involved. 4) Immune effector mechanisms...... in the liver and the spleen are avoided by sequestration of the mature parasites to the vascular endothelium. The interplay between the human defence system and the malaria parasite governs the symptomatology, the pathology and the development of immunity to the disease. These interactions are extremely...

  4. Influence of distributed delays on the dynamics of a generalized immune system cancerous cells interactions model (United States)

    Piotrowska, M. J.; Bodnar, M.


    We present a generalisation of the mathematical models describing the interactions between the immune system and tumour cells which takes into account distributed time delays. For the analytical study we do not assume any particular form of the stimulus function describing the immune system reaction to presence of tumour cells but we only postulate its general properties. We analyse basic mathematical properties of the considered model such as existence and uniqueness of the solutions. Next, we discuss the existence of the stationary solutions and analytically investigate their stability depending on the forms of considered probability densities that is: Erlang, triangular and uniform probability densities separated or not from zero. Particular instability results are obtained for a general type of probability densities. Our results are compared with those for the model with discrete delays know from the literature. In addition, for each considered type of probability density, the model is fitted to the experimental data for the mice B-cell lymphoma showing mean square errors at the same comparable level. For estimated sets of parameters we discuss possibility of stabilisation of the tumour dormant steady state. Instability of this steady state results in uncontrolled tumour growth. In order to perform numerical simulation, following the idea of linear chain trick, we derive numerical procedures that allow us to solve systems with considered probability densities using standard algorithm for ordinary differential equations or differential equations with discrete delays.

  5. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R


    nucleoprotein have previously been found to induce short-term protection in mice. In this study we confirm that systemic (subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization rapidly induced heterosubtypic protection predominantly mediated by CD8 T cells, but within three months clinical protection completely disappeared. Local...... (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months...... positioned in the lungs prior to challenge, but at the same time underscores an important back-up role for circulating antigen-specific cells with the capacity to expand and infiltrate the infected lungs....

  6. Dynamic system simulation of small satellite projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raif, M.; Walter, U.; Bouwmeester, R.


    A prerequisite to accomplish a system simulation is to have a system model holding all necessary project information in a centralized repository that can be accessed and edited by all parties involved. At the Institute of Astronautics of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen a modular approach for

  7. Simulation analysis of a wildfire suppression system (United States)

    Abílio Pereira Pacheco; João Claro; Tiago. Oliveira


    Rekindles and false alarms are unusually high in the Portuguese wildfire management system, representing a high burden on suppression resources in particular, and fire management resources in general. In 20,049 occurrences that the suppression system handled in the summer of 2010, 12.5% were false alarms and 15.0% were rekindles. We present a discreteevent simulation...

  8. Program Simulates A Modular Manufacturing System (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Wang, Jian


    SSE computer program provides simulation environment for modeling manufacturing systems containing relatively small numbers of stations and operators. Designed to simulate manufacturing of apparel, also used in other manufacturing domains. Excellent for small or medium-size firms including those lacking expertise to develop detailed models or have only minimal knowledge in describing manufacturing systems and in analyzing results of simulations on mathematical models. User does not need to know simulation language to use SSE. Used to design new modules and to evaluate existing modules. Originally written in Turbo C v2.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers running MS-DOS and successfully implemented by use of Turbo C++ v3.0.

  9. Use of Multiple GPUs to Speedup the Execution of a Three-Dimensional Computational Model of the Innate Immune System (United States)

    Xavier, M. P.; do Nascimento, T. M.; dos Santos, R. W.; Lobosco, M.


    The development of computational systems that mimics the physiological response of organs or even the entire body is a complex task. One of the issues that makes this task extremely complex is the huge computational resources needed to execute the simulations. For this reason, the use of parallel computing is mandatory. In this work, we focus on the simulation of temporal and spatial behaviour of some human innate immune system cells and molecules in a small three-dimensional section of a tissue. To perform this simulation, we use multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in a shared-memory environment. Despite of high initialization and communication costs imposed by the use of GPUs, the techniques used to implement the HIS simulator have shown to be very effective to achieve this purpose.

  10. Field: A Program for Simulating Ultrasound Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A program for the simulation of ultrasound systems is presented.It is based on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method, and is fastbecause of the use of a far-field approximation. Any kind oftransducer geometry and excitation can be simulated, and bothpulse-echo and continuous wave fields can be calculated...... for bothtransmit and pulse-echo. Dynamic apodization and focusing arehandled through time lines, and different focusingschemes can be simulated. The versatility of the program isensured by interfacing it to Matlab. All routines are calleddirectly from Matlab, and all Matlab features can be used. Thismakes...

  11. Decision process simulation in training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, K.S.; Serov, A.A.; Ajnutdinov, V.A.


    One of the approaches to arrangement of training process an automated trainning systems (ATS) based on actjve use of knowledge of experienced operators is presented. Problems of mathematical model simulatjon of decision process by people not having special knowledge in mathematics are considered. A language of solution tables based on indistinct tables is suggested to the used as a simulation language. The problem of automation of decision process simulation in ATS is solued

  12. Model Validation for Simulations of Vehicle Systems (United States)


    jackknife”, Annals of Statistics, 7:1-26, 1979. [45] B. Efron and G. Gong, “A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife, and cross-validation”, The...battery model developed in the Automotive Research Center, a US Army Center of Excellence for modeling and simulation of ground vehicle systems...Sandia National Laboratories and a battery model developed in the Automotive Research Center, a US Army Center of Excellence for modeling and simulation

  13. Primary immune system responders to nucleus pulposus cells: evidence for immune response in disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Murai


    Full Text Available Although intervertebral disc herniation and associated sciatica is a common disease, its molecular pathogenesis is not well understood. Immune responses are thought to be involved. This study provides direct evidence that even non-degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP cells elicit immune responses. An in vitro colony forming inhibition assay demonstrated the suppressive effects of autologous spleen cells on NP cells and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed the positive cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK cells and macrophages on NP cells. Non-degenerated rat NP tissues transplanted into wild type rats and immune-deficient mice demonstrated a significantly higher NP cell survival rate in immune-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of macrophages and NK cells in the transplanted NP tissues. These results suggest that even non-degenerated autologous NP cells are recognized by macrophages and NK cells, which may have an immunological function in the early phase of disc herniation. These findings contribute to understanding resorption and the inflammatory reaction to disc herniation.

  14. The immune system strikes back: cellular immune responses against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Berge-Hansen, Linda; Junker, Niels


    of the major immune suppressive cell populations. CONCLUSION: IDO may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Furthermore, as emerging evidence suggests that IDO constitutes a significant counter-regulatory mechanism induced by pro-inflammatory signals...

  15. The immune system in children with malnutrition - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André


    BACKGROUND: Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To review...... the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. The inclusion criteria were studies investigating immune parameters...... are reduced in severely malnourished children, but intact in moderate malnutrition. Cytokine patterns are skewed towards a Th2-response. Other immune parameters seem intact or elevated: leukocyte and lymphocyte counts are unaffected, and levels of immunoglobulins, particularly immunoglobulin A, are high...

  16. Dermatology in the Darwin anniversary. Part 2: Evolution of the skin-associated immune system. (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Martin, Stefan; Emde, Matthias; Schempp, Christoph


    The present review highlights the evolution of the skin-associated immune system from the invertebrates to the vertebrates and man. In the invertebrates a non-specific humoral immune response dominates. It includes antimicrobial peptides, oxidases, lysozyme, agglutinins, coagulins and melanin. The cellular immune system initially consists of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Later migrating phagocytes and natural killer cells occur. From the fishes on, dendritic cells are present, linking innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition to this unspecific but highly effective immune system, the specific immune response, based on genetic recombination, is present in the vertebrates starting with the chondral fishes. The adaptive immune system possesses unlimited numbers of highly specific antibodies and T-cell receptors, increasingly tissue specific MHC restriction, and cellular memory. Elements of the skin-associated adaptive immune system are first detectable in the teleost fishes in the form of intraepithelial IgM positive lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Moving up to mammals and man, the skin-associated immune system became more and more complex and effective.

  17. No Compensatory Relationship between the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Wild-Living European Badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Wa Sin

    Full Text Available The innate immune system provides the primary vertebrate defence system against pathogen invasion, but it is energetically costly and can have immune pathological effects. A previous study in sticklebacks found that intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC diversity correlated with a lower leukocyte coping capacity (LCC, compared to individuals with fewer, or many, MHC alleles. The organization of the MHC genes in mammals, however, differs to the highly duplicated MHC genes in sticklebacks by having far fewer loci. Using European badgers (Meles meles, we therefore investigated whether innate immune activity, estimated functionally as the ability of an individual's leukocytes to produce a respiratory burst, was influenced by MHC diversity. We also investigated whether LCC was influenced by factors such as age-class, sex, body condition, season, year, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and intensity of infection with five different pathogens. We found that LCC was not associated with specific MHC haplotypes, MHC alleles, or MHC diversity, indicating that the innate immune system did not compensate for the adaptive immune system even when there were susceptible MHC alleles/haplotypes, or when the MHC diversity was low. We also identified a seasonal and annual variation of LCC. This temporal variation of innate immunity was potentially due to physiological trade-offs or temporal variation in pathogen infections. The innate immunity, estimated as LCC, does not compensate for MHC diversity suggests that the immune system may function differently between vertebrates with different MHC organizations, with implications for the evolution of immune systems in different taxa.

  18. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System (United States)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.


    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  19. Sublingual immunization with a subunit influenza vaccine elicits comparable systemic immune response as intramuscular immunization, but also induces local IgA and TH17 responses. (United States)

    Gallorini, Simona; Taccone, Marianna; Bonci, Alessandra; Nardelli, Filomena; Casini, Daniele; Bonificio, Amanda; Kommareddy, Sushma; Bertholet, Sylvie; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C


    Influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that remains a major health problem world-wide. Needle and syringe are still the primary delivery devices, and injection of liquid vaccine into the muscle is still the primary route of immunization. Vaccines could be more convenient and effective if they were delivered by the mucosal route. Elicitation of systemic and mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses, such as pathogen neutralizing antibodies (including mucosal IgA at the site of pathogen entry) and CD4(+) T-helper cells (especially the Th17 subset), have a critical role in vaccine-mediated protection. In the current study, a sublingual subunit influenza vaccine formulated with or without mucosal adjuvant was evaluated for systemic and mucosal immunogenicity and compared to intranasal and intramuscular vaccination. Sublingual administration of adjuvanted influenza vaccine elicited comparable antibody titers to those elicited by intramuscular immunization with conventional influenza vaccine. Furthermore, influenza-specific Th17 cells or neutralizing mucosal IgA were detected exclusively after mucosal immunization. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems. (United States)

    Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E


    Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.

  1. Depletion of complement system immunity in patients with myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Yan, Wenwen; Che, Lin; Jiang, Jinfa; Yang, Fan; Duan, Qianglin; Song, Haoming; Liu, Xiaohong; Shen, Yuqin; Wang, Lemin


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the expression of complement system genes, and serum levels of CH50, C3 and C4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with myocardial infarction (AMI), stable angina pectoris (SA) and controls. A total of 100 patients with AMI, 100 with SA and 100 clinical controls were recruited in the present study. In each group, 20 randomly selected individuals were examined using whole human genome microarray analysis to detect the expression of genes of the complement system. The serum levels of CH50, C3 and C4 were measured in all 300 subjects. In the patients with AMI, the expression levels of genes encoding C1qα, C1qβ, C1qγ, C1r, Factor P, C5a (complement component), CR1, integrin αM, integrin αX, integrin β2, C5aR, CRIg (complement receptors) and CD46, CD55 and CD59 (complement regulators) were significantly higher, compared with the respective genes in the SA patients and controls (Pcomplement components or regulators between the SA and control groups. The serum levels of CH50, C3 and C4 were significantly increased in the AMI and SA groups, compared with the controls. In the AMI and SA groups, the complement system was activated. However, the differential mRNA expression of complement components, receptors and regulators in the AMI group suggested the dysfunction of the C5b-9 complex. The depression of complement system immunity in the patients with AMI may be associated with the pathogenesis of AMI.

  2. The immune system in menopause: pros and cons of hormone therapy. (United States)

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R


    With aging, a general decline in immune function is observed leading to immune-senescence. Several of these changes are gender specific affecting postmenopausal women. Menopause is a normal part of a woman's lifecycle and consists of a series of body changes that can last from one to ten years. It is known that loss of sex hormones due to aging results in a reduction of immune functions. However, there remains a major gap in our understanding regarding the loss of immune functions particularly in the female reproductive tract (FRT) following menopause and the role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in protecting against immune senescence. The current review presents an overview of changes in the immune system due to aging, focusing on genital tract immunity in menopausal women and the risks and benefits of using MHT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Armijo C., J.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Q. e Ing. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Condorhuamán C., C.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Q. e Ing. Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú


    This paper develops a mathematical model to simulate dynamically a reverse osmosis system. The model is formed from materials balances macroscopic unsteady state combined with the model membrane transport: diffusion-solution. In this first part, we solve the system of differential equations assuming a completely mixed flow pattern in the reverse osmosis module (module polarization = 1). The system of equations is solved simultaneously by the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The results indicate t...

  4. Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Perkov, Thomas; Heller, Alfred


    Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2......) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage....

  5. Improving vaccine registries through mobile technologies: a vision for mobile enhanced Immunization information systems. (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine M; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S


    Immunization registries or information systems are critical to improving the quality and evaluating the ongoing success of immunization programs. However, the completeness of these systems is challenged by a myriad of factors including the fragmentation of vaccine administration, increasing mobility of individuals, new vaccine development, use of multiple products, and increasingly frequent changes in recommendations. Mobile technologies could offer a solution, which mitigates some of these challenges. Engaging individuals to have more control of their own immunization information using their mobile devices could improve the timeliness and accuracy of data in central immunization information systems. Other opportunities presented by mobile technologies that could be exploited to improve immunization information systems include mobile reporting of adverse events following immunization, the capacity to scan 2D barcodes, and enabling bidirectional communication between individuals and public health officials. Challenges to utilizing mobile solutions include ensuring privacy of data, access, and equity concerns, obtaining consent and ensuring adoption of technology at sufficiently high rates. By empowering individuals with their own health information, mobile technologies can also serve as a mechanism to transfer immunization information as individuals cross local, regional, and national borders. Ultimately, mobile enhanced immunization information systems can help realize the goal of the individual, the healthcare provider, and public health officials always having access to the same immunization information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Nutritional modulation of age-related changes in the immune system and risk of infection (United States)

    The immune system undergoes some adverse alterations during aging, many of which have been implicated in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with infection in the elderly. In addition to intrinsic changes to the immune system with aging, the elderly are more likely to have poor nutritio...

  7. Senescence of the adaptive immune system in health and aging-associated autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis Stephan Mario


    Aging of the immune system may contribute to the development of aging-associated autoimmune diseases, such as giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this thesis was to identify aging-dependent changes of the adaptive immune system that promote autoimmunity


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov AV


    Full Text Available As a result of years’ research of the many research groups around the world able to understand the reason why it will be impossible to create really effective vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis infection in the near future. The main reason for the impossibility creating such vaccine is an intracellular nature of tuberculosis. In fact, TB is a pathology of the immune system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis persist within macrophages and thereby inhibit the process of phagocytosis completion and digesting the contents of phagosome. The destruction of the lysosomal membrane inside macrophages is blocked by changing the pH in lysosomes. For the presence of lytic activity for most lysosomal enzymes require need acidic environment. Mycobacteria are also getting into the lysosomes of macrophages start to rapidly hydrolysis for urea by urease to form ammonia. Wherein pH in the medium changes to alkaline, this inactivates enzymes and stabilizes lysosomal membrane. Thus mycobacterium prevent lysosome collapse at inactivated lysosomal enzymes and do not allow them to complete macrophage digestion phase by transition lysosomal to phagosomal stage. Stop phagocytolysis process leads to imbalance of the host immune system. Increasing the number of infected macrophages sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, leading to constant hyperfunction of cellular immunity, particularly enhanced immune response to cell wall components of mycobacteria, induction high titers of interferon-gamma in response to a stimulus, a sharp jump IL-2 titers and TNF-α , IFN-γ specific activation CD8 + CTL. Need also focus attention on the main differences from the MBT and human BCG, that is well growth in the human body, persists along host life, but does not cause active TB (except in patients with HIV/AIDS. After MBT cell destruction in the environment gets some additional high allergenic antigens, such as 85B, ESAT6, Rv2660c, HyVaC 4 (Ag85B and TB10.4.. These

  9. Simulation of the CMS GEM System

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archie


    The new GE1/1 system of Gas Electron Multipiers (GEM) is going to be installed in the CMS detector in the forward region with $\\eta$ between 1.6 and 2.2 after the second long LHC shutdown. 36 super-chambers are planned to be installed in order to ensure the redundancy and robustness of the muon system in high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. A further extension to the GEM system is also considered. The simulation of the entire GEM system integrated in the common CMS reconstruction chain is a necessary part of the performed Monte Carlo studies. A dedicated parametric model based on the exhaustive standalone MC studies and experimental test beam results has been developed in order to simulate the response of the GEM system. The simulated digital readout signals are used to build the reconstructed hits in the detector planes. They have been included in the common CMS muon reconstruction algorithms. This contribution will present the developed simulation model and the importance of the gem system for the improve...

  10. Comprehensive immune profiling reveals substantial immune system alterations in a subset of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Gustafson

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a median lifespan of 2-3 years after diagnosis. There are few meaningful treatments that alter progression in this disease. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation may play a key role in the progression rate of ALS. Despite this, there are no validated biomarkers of neuroinflammation for use in clinical practice or clinical trials. Biomarkers of neuroinflammation could improve patient management, provide new therapeutic targets, and possibly help stratify clinical trial selection and monitoring. However, attempts to identify a singular cause of neuroinflammation have not been successful. Here, we performed multi-parameter flow cytometry to comprehensively assess 116 leukocyte populations and phenotypes from lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in a cohort of 80 ALS patients. We identified 32 leukocyte phenotypes that were altered in ALS patients compared to age and gender matched healthy volunteers (HV that included phenotypes of both inflammation and immune suppression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and principle component analysis of ALS and HV immunophenotypes revealed two distinct immune profiles of ALS patients. ALS patients were clustered into a profile distinct from HVs primarily due to differences in a multiple T cell phenotypes, CD3+CD56+ T cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. Patients clustered into an abnormal immune profile were younger, more likely to have a familial form of the disease, and survived longer than those patients who clustered similarly with healthy volunteers (344 weeks versus 184 weeks; p = 0.012. The data set generated from this study establishes an extensive accounting of immunophenotypic changes readily suitable for biomarker validation studies. The extensive immune system changes measured in this study indicate that normal immune homeostatic mechanisms are disrupted in ALS patients, and that

  11. ''NEPTUNIX'': a continuous system simulation language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhle, Michel; Roux, Pierre.


    From the mathematical description of a physical system, NEPTUNIX builds the corresponding simulator. Algebraic and ordinary differential equations describing a physical system may be ''stiff'', nonlinear, implicit and even dynamically variable. The non procedural language describing the mathematical model is independent from the integration algorithm. The NEPTUNIX built simulator, transportable on many computers, may be controlled by a userfriendly operating language, independent from host computer and integration method. Last years results about numerical and non-numerical algorithms were used for the package implementation. NEPTUNIX appears as a powerful modeling tool, specially in the field of nuclear reactors design [fr

  12. Podoplanin: emerging functions in development, the immune system, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Leigh Astarita


    Full Text Available Podoplanin (PDPN is a well-conserved, mucin-type transmembrane protein expressed in multiple tissues during ontogeny and in adult animals, including the brain, heart, kidney, lungs, osteoblasts, and lymphoid organs. Studies of PDPN-deficient mice have demonstrated that this molecule plays a critical role in development of the heart, lungs, and lymphatic system. PDPN is widely used as a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells and fibroblastic reticular cells of lymphoid organs and for lymphatics in the skin and tumor microenvironment. Much of the mechanistic insight into PDPN biology has been gleaned from studies of tumor cells; tumor cells often upregulate PDPN as they undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and this upregulation is correlated with increased motility and metastasis. The physiological role of PDPN that has been most studied is its ability to aggregate and activate CLEC-2-expressing platelets, as PDPN is the only known endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. However, more recent studies have revealed that PDPN also plays crucial roles in the biology of immune cells, including T cells and dendritic cells. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the diverse roles of PDPN in development, immunology, and cancer.

  13. Probiotics and the Gut Immune System: Indirect Regulation. (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan


    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host. Among others, probiotics have immunomodulatory properties that usually act directly by (a) increasing the activity of macrophages or natural killer cells, (b) modulating the secretion of immunoglobulins or cytokines, or indirectly by (c) enhancing the gut epithelial barrier, (d) altering the mucus secretion, and (e) competitive exclusion of other (pathogenic) bacteria. This review focuses on specific bacteria strains with indirect immunomodulatory properties. Particularly, we describe here the mechanisms through which specific probiotics enhance the gut epithelial barrier and modulate mucus production. Moreover, we describe the antimicrobial properties of specific bacteria strains. Recent data suggest that multiple pathologies are associated with an unbalanced gut microflora (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between pathology and gut microflora is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health.

  14. Combining radiation plus immunotherapy to improve systemic immune response. (United States)

    Cushman, Taylor R; Gomez, Daniel; Kumar, Rachit; Likacheva, Anna; Chang, Joe Y; Cadena, Alex P; Paris, Sebastien; Welsh, James W


    Over the past decade, the fields of oncology have made great strides in therapies. The development of new therapeutics and increased understanding of the role of the immune system in the development and treatment of cancer has led to increased collaboration between oncologic fields. Recent technologic advancements in radiation therapy (RT), including stereotactic beam radiation therapy (SBRT), have improved local control and offer an alternative to surgery for the control of oligometastatic disease. Immunotherapy has proven a promising therapeutic in the treatment of metastatic disease but treatment resistance remains a significant obstacle in the majority of patients. Together, radiation and immunotherapy offer potential to eliminate metastatic disease, reduce time to recurrence and improve overall survival. Major obstacles to these positive outcomes include high tumor burden, intratumoral heterogeneity, and the negative effects of tumor stroma, to name a few. Multimodality treatments are under heavy investigation. Promising data from clinical trials is emerging to highlight the value of RT in combination with immunotherapy. However, the mechanisms behind their synergistic effects remain to be fully elucidated. This review aims to highlight the existing literature and offers hypotheses to explain mechanisms behind the synergy of RT and immunotherapy.

  15. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosio, C.; Birindelli, S.; Corsini, E.; Galli, C.L.; Maroni, M.


    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies

  16. [The role of immune system in the control of cancer development and growth]. (United States)

    Sütő, Gábor


    The role of immune system is the maintenace of the integritiy of the living organism. The elements of the immune system are connected by several ways forming a complex biological network. This network senses the changes of the inner and outer environment and works out the most effective response against infections and tumors. Dysfunction of the immune system leads to the development of cancer development and chronic inflammatory diseases. Modulation of the checkpoints of the immune system opened new perspecitves in the treatment of rheumatological and oncological diseases as well. Beside the potent antiinflammatory activity, new therapies are able to stimulate anticancer activity of the immune system. The result of these recent developments is a better outcome of malignant diseases, which had an unfavorable outcome in the past. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 2), 3-8.

  17. Under Pressure: Interactions between Commensal Microbiota and the Teleost Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecelia Kelly


    Full Text Available Commensal microorganisms inhabit every mucosal surface of teleost fish. At these surfaces, microorganisms directly and indirectly shape the teleost immune system. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how the microbiota and microbiota-derived products influence both the mucosal and systemic immune system of fish. The cross talk between the microbiota and the teleost immune system shifts significantly under stress or disease scenarios rendering commensals into opportunists or pathogens. Lessons learnt from germ-free fish models as well as from oral administration of live probiotics to fish highlight the vast impact that microbiota have on immune development, antibody production, mucosal homeostasis, and resistance to stress. Future studies should dissect the specific mechanisms by which different members of the fish microbiota and the metabolites they produce interact with pathogens, with other commensals, and with the teleost immune system.

  18. Modeling and simulation of blood collection systems. (United States)

    Alfonso, Edgar; Xie, Xiaolan; Augusto, Vincent; Garraud, Olivier


    This paper addresses the modeling and simulation of blood collection systems in France for both fixed site and mobile blood collection with walk in whole blood donors and scheduled plasma and platelet donors. Petri net models are first proposed to precisely describe different blood collection processes, donor behaviors, their material/human resource requirements and relevant regulations. Petri net models are then enriched with quantitative modeling of donor arrivals, donor behaviors, activity times and resource capacity. Relevant performance indicators are defined. The resulting simulation models can be straightforwardly implemented with any simulation language. Numerical experiments are performed to show how the simulation models can be used to select, for different walk in donor arrival patterns, appropriate human resource planning and donor appointment strategies.

  19. Simulation and Analysis of Chain Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard

    The subject of this thesis is simulation and analysis of large roller chain drive systems, such as e.g. used in marine diesel engines. The aim of developing a chain drive simulation program is to analyse dynamic phenomena of chain drive systems and investigate different design changes...... to the systems, in order to remove unwanted phenomena. Such a computer program can, when properly validated, be used as an alternative to or in combination with physical experiments. Prior investigations in this area have been done with a focus on smaller chains in high speed chain drives. For large low speed...... systems other phenomena occur and therefore, a specific model of the marine engine chain drive is of interest. The research objective of the work presented in this thesis is to contribute with a novel theoretical basis for the analysis of chain drive systems, by posing and validating different...

  20. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.


    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  1. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.


    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  2. The immune system strikes back: cellular immune responses against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Baek Sørensen


    Full Text Available The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO exerts an well established immunosuppressive function in cancer. IDO is expressed within the tumor itself as well as in antigen-presenting cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes, where it promotes the establishment of peripheral immune tolerance to tumor antigens. In the present study, we tested the notion whether IDO itself may be subject to immune responses.The presence of naturally occurring IDO-specific CD8 T cells in cancer patients was determined by MHC/peptide stainings as well as ELISPOT. Antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL from the peripheral blood of cancer patients were cloned and expanded. The functional capacity of the established CTL clones was examined by chrome release assays. The study unveiled spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell reactivity against IDO in peripheral blood as well as in the tumor microenvironment of different cancer patients. We demonstrate that these IDO reactive T cells are indeed peptide specific, cytotoxic effector cells. Hence, IDO reactive T cells are able to recognize and kill tumor cells including directly isolated AML blasts as well as IDO-expressing dendritic cells, i.e. one of the major immune suppressive cell populations.IDO may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Furthermore, as emerging evidence suggests that IDO constitutes a significant counter-regulatory mechanism induced by pro-inflammatory signals, IDO-based immunotherapy holds the promise to boost anti-cancer immunotherapy in general.

  3. Argonne simulation framework for intelligent transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.; Doss, E.; Hanebutte, U.; Canfield, T.; Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Tentner, A.


    A simulation framework has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The simulator is designed to run on parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems; however, a version for a stand alone workstation is also available. The ITS simulator includes an Expert Driver Model (EDM) of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units. The EDM is capable of performing optimal route planning and communicating with Traffic Management Centers (TMC). A dynamic road map data base is sued for optimum route planning, where the data is updated periodically to reflect any changes in road or weather conditions. The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces that includes human-factors studies to support safety and operational research. Realistic modeling of variations of the posted driving speed are based on human factor studies that take into consideration weather, road conditions, driver`s personality and behavior and vehicle type. The simulator has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers, but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of the developed simulator is that vehicles will be represented by autonomous computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. Vehicle processes interact with each other and with ITS components by exchanging messages. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  4. Interaction Between Familial Transmission and a Constitutively Active Immune System Shapes Gut Microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

    Mistry, Rupal; Kounatidis, Ilias; Ligoxygakis, Petros


    Resident gut bacteria are constantly influencing the immune system, yet the role of the immune system in shaping microbiota composition during an organism’s life span has remained unclear. Experiments in mice have been inconclusive due to differences in husbandry schemes that led to conflicting results. We used Drosophila as a genetically tractable system with a simpler gut bacterial population structure streamlined genetic backgrounds and established cross schemes to address this issue. We found that, depending on their genetic background, young flies had microbiota of different diversities that converged with age to the same Acetobacteraceae-dominated pattern in healthy flies. This pattern was accelerated in immune-compromised flies with higher bacterial load and gut cell death. Nevertheless, immune-compromised flies resembled their genetic background, indicating that familial transmission was the main force regulating gut microbiota. In contrast, flies with a constitutively active immune system had microbiota readily distinguishable from their genetic background with the introduction and establishment of previously undetectable bacterial families. This indicated the influence of immunity over familial transmission. Moreover, hyperactive immunity and increased enterocyte death resulted in the highest bacterial load observed starting from early adulthood. Cohousing experiments showed that the microenvironment also played an important role in the structure of the microbiota where flies with constitutive immunity defined the gut microbiota of their cohabitants. Our data show that, in Drosophila, constitutively active immunity shapes the structure and density of gut microbiota. PMID:28413160

  5. Interactions between intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura; Aloi, Marina


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the result of an altered immune homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa against the gut microbiota, leading to chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Under normal conditions, the immune system defends against pathogens and prevents the passage of excessive intestinal bacteria; regulatory pathways must maintain a low-grade, controlled inflammation in a healthy gut, but also induce a protective response against pathogens. The innate immune system is the first-line defense from microbes; dendritic cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells produce an initial, immediate response. The immune system constantly controls commensal bacteria and utilizes constitutive antimicrobial mechanisms to sustain immune homeostasis. The discovery that several genes linked to IBD modulate microbial recognition and innate immune pathways, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), and genes that mediate autophagy (ie, ATG16L1, IRGM), has highlighted the critical role of host-microbe interactions in controlling intestinal immune homeostasis. Commensal microorganisms actively interact with the intestinal mucosa and influence the activity of the immune system as well as the amplitude of the immune response. In contrast, host factors can influence microbes, which in turn modulate disease susceptibility. In this paper, we focus on the mechanisms that mediate host-microbe interactions and how the disruption of this balance leads to chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD.

  6. Simulation of Wireless Digital Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed


    Full Text Available Due to the explosive demands for high speed wireless services, suchas wireless Internet, email and cellular video conferencing, digitalwireless communications has become one of the most exciting researchtopics in electrical and electronic engineering field. The never-endingdemand for such personal and multimedia services, however, demandstechnologies operating at higher data rates and broader bandwidths. Inaddition, the complexity of wireless communication and signalprocessing systems has grown considerably during the past decade.Therefore, powerful computer­aided techniques are required for theprocess of modeling, designing, analyzing and evaluating theperformance of digital wireless communication systems. In this paper wediscuss the basic propagation mechanisms affecting the performance ofwireless communication systems, and present a simple, powerful andefficient way to simulate digital wireless communication systems usingMatlab. The simulated results are compared with the theoreticalanalysis to validate the simulator. The simulator is useful inevaluating the performance of wireless multimedia services and theassociated signal processing structures and algorithms for current andnext generation wireless mobile communication systems.

  7. A systems model for immune cell interactions unravels the mechanism of inflammation in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najl V Valeyev


    Full Text Available Inflammation is characterized by altered cytokine levels produced by cell populations in a highly interdependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of an inflammatory reaction, we have developed a mathematical model for immune cell interactions via the specific, dose-dependent cytokine production rates of cell populations. The model describes the criteria required for normal and pathological immune system responses and suggests that alterations in the cytokine production rates can lead to various stable levels which manifest themselves in different disease phenotypes. The model predicts that pairs of interacting immune cell populations can maintain homeostatic and elevated extracellular cytokine concentration levels, enabling them to operate as an immune system switch. The concept described here is developed in the context of psoriasis, an immune-mediated disease, but it can also offer mechanistic insights into other inflammatory pathologies as it explains how interactions between immune cell populations can lead to disease phenotypes.

  8. Crosstalk between bone niche and immune system: osteoimmunology signaling as a potential target for cancer treatment. (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Viale, Giulia; Gelao, Lucia; Esposito, Angela; De Laurentiis, Michele; De Placido, Sabino; Santangelo, Michele; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe


    There is a well recognized link between the bone and the immune system and in recent years there has been a major effort to elucidate the multiple functions of the molecules expressed in both bone and immune cells. Several molecules that were initially identified and studied in the immune system have been shown to have essential functions also in the bone. An interdisciplinary field embracing immune and bone biology has been brought together and called "osteoimmunology". The co-regulation of the skeletal and immune systems strikingly exemplifies the extreme complexity of such an interaction. Their interdependency must be considered in designing therapeutic approaches for either of the two systems. In other words, it is necessary to think of the osteoimmune system as a complex physiological unit. Denosumab was originally introduced to specifically target bone resorption, but it is now under evaluation for its effect on the long term immune response. Similarly, our current and still growing knowledge of the intimate link between the immune system and bone will be beneficial for the safety of drugs targeting either of these integrated systems. Given the large number of molecules exerting functions on both the skeletal and immune systems, osteoimmunological understanding is becoming increasingly important. Both bone and immune systems are frequently disrupted in cancer; and they may be crucial in regulating tumor growth and progression. Some therapies - such as bisphosphonates and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) targeted drugs - that aim at reducing pathologic osteolysis in cancer may interact with the immune system, thus providing potential favorable effects on survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence


    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  10. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the immune system in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.


    In experimental animals, exposure to UV-B radiation produces selective alterations of immune function which are mainly in the form of suppression of normal immune responses. This immune suppression is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer, may influence the development and course of infectious disease and possibly protects against autoimmune reactions. The evidence that this form of immune suppression occurs in humans is less compelling and very incomplete. The wavelengths of radiation most affected by a depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer are those known to be most immunosuppressive in animals and it is likely that such depletion will increase any suppressive effect of sunlight on immunity in humans. In addition to establishing whether or not UV-B radiation can cause suppression of immune function in humans, studies are required to determine if melanin can provide protection against such suppression, the role of this suppression in the pathogenesis of skin cancer, the development of infectious disease and vaccine effectiveness, and the capacity for humans to develop adaptive, protective mechanisms which may limit damage from continued exposure to UV-B radiation. (author)

  11. The subversion of the immune system by francisella tularensis. (United States)

    Bosio, Catharine M


    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Perhaps the most impressive feature of this bacterium is its ability to cause lethal disease following inoculation of as few as 15 organisms. This remarkable virulence is, in part, attributed to the ability of this microorganism to evade, disrupt, and modulate host immune responses. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanisms utilized by F. tularensis to evade and inhibit innate and adaptive immune responses. The capability of F. tularensis to interfere with developing immunity in the host was appreciated decades ago. Early studies in humans were the first to demonstrate the ability of F. tularensis to suppress innate immunity. This work noted that humans suffering from tularemia failed to respond to a secondary challenge of endotoxin isolated from unrelated bacteria. Further, anecdotal observations of individuals becoming repeatedly infected with virulent strains of F. tularensis suggests that this bacterium also interferes with the generation of adequate adaptive immunity. Recent advances utilizing the mouse model for in vivo studies and human cells for in vitro work have identified specific bacterial and host compounds that play a role in mediating ubiquitous suppression of the host immune response. Compilation of this work will undoubtedly aid in enhancing our understanding of the myriad of mechanisms utilized by virulent F. tularensis for successful infection, colonization, and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  12. The subversion of the immune system by Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine eBosio


    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Perhaps the most impressive feature of this bacterium is its ability to cause lethal disease following inoculation of as few as 15 organisms. This remarkable virulence is, in part, attributed to the ability of this microorganism to evade, disrupt and modulate host immune responses. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanisms utilized by F. tularensis to evade and inhibit innate and adaptive immune responses. The capability of F. tularensis to interfere with developing immunity in the host was appreciated decades ago. Early studies in humans were the first to demonstrate the ability of F. tularensis to suppress innate immunity. This work noted that humans suffering from tularemia failed to respond to a secondary challenge of endotoxin isolated from unrelated bacteria. Further, anecdotal observations of individuals becoming repeatedly infected with virulent strains of F. tularensis suggests that this bacterium also interferes with the generation of adequate adaptive immunity. Recent advances utilizing the mouse model for in vivo studies and human cells for in vitro work have identified specific bacterial and host compounds that play a role in mediating ubiquitous suppression of the host immune response. Compilation of this work will undoubtedly aid in enhancing our understanding of the myriad of mechanisms utilized by virulent F. tularensis for successful infection, colonization and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  13. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.


    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  14. Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage


    Mora, J. Rodrigo; Iwata, Makoto; von Andrian, Ulrich H.


    Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-spec...

  15. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immunity System CRISPR-Cas in an Explicit Ecological Context


    Iranzo, Jaime; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.


    A stochastic, agent-based mathematical model of the coevolution of the archaeal and bacterial adaptive immunity system, CRISPR-Cas, and lytic viruses shows that CRISPR-Cas immunity can stabilize the virus-host coexistence rather than leading to the extinction of the virus. In the model, CRISPR-Cas immunity does not specifically promote viral diversity, presumably because the selection pressure on each single proto-spacer is too weak. However, the overall virus diversity in the presence of CRI...

  16. Electrotechnical systems simulation with Simulink and SimPowerSystems

    CERN Document Server

    Perelmuter, Viktor


    Filling a gap in the literature, Electrotechnical Systems: Simulation with Simulink® and SimPowerSystems™ explains how to simulate complicated electrical systems more easily using SimPowerSystems™ blocks. It gives a comprehensive overview of the powerful SimPowerSystems toolbox and demonstrates how it can be used to create and investigate models of both classic and modern electrotechnical systems.Build from Circuit Elements and Blocks to System ModelsBuilding from simple to more complex topics, the book helps readers better understand the principles, features, and detailed functions of various

  17. Modulating the function of the immune system by thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. (United States)

    Jara, Evelyn L; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Llanos, Carolina; Fardella, Carlos; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A


    Accumulating evidence suggests a close bidirectional communication and regulation between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Thyroid hormones (THs) can exert responses in various immune cells, e.g., monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, affecting several inflammation-related processes (such as, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species generation, and cytokines production). The interactions between the endocrine and immune systems have been shown to contribute to pathophysiological conditions, including sepsis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and viral infections. Under these conditions, TH therapy could contribute to restoring normal physiological functions. Here we discuss the effects of THs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on the immune system and the contribution to inflammation and pathogen clearance, as well as the consequences of thyroid pathologies over the function of the immune system. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune System and Genetics: A Different Approach to the Diversity of Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta Camacho, Nubia Estela


    It is common to find in immunology or genetic books a chapter entitled immune system and genetics; this association focuses on how the generation of antibodies broke the paradigm one gene, one protein, since in this case one gene generates millions of proteins. However, the immune system has many more links to genetics and heredity. For example, any substance or compound that an organism produces is a potential antigen, when it is recognized as foreign by the immune system of another organism from the same or different species. The proteins that are potentially antigenic are encoded by the individual's genotype. The ability of the immune system to respond to antigenic proteins, as well as the type and intensity of that response, are also correlated with the organism's genotype. In addition, deficiencies in the immune response may be associated with mutations or genetic polymorphisms, which result in susceptibility to infection diseases.

  19. Glycan recognition at the interface of the intestinal immune system: target for immune modulation via dietary components. (United States)

    de Kivit, Sander; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M


    The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to the luminal content, which includes micro-organisms and dietary components. Prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides may be supplemented to the diet to exert modulation of immune responses in the intestine. Short chain galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS), functionally mimicking oligosaccharides present in human milk, have been reported to reduce the development of allergy through modulation of the intestinal microbiota and immune system. Nonetheless, the underlying working mechanisms of scGOS/lcFOS are unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells lining the mucosa are known to express carbohydrate (glycan)-binding receptors that may be involved in modulation of the mucosal immune response. This review aims to provide an overview of glycan-binding receptors, in particular galectins, which are expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. In addition, their involvement in health and disease will be addressed, especially in food allergy and inflammatory bowel disease, diseases originating from the gastro-intestinal tract. Insight in the recognition of glycans in the intestinal tract may open new avenues for the treatment of intestinal inflammatory diseases by either nutritional concepts or pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system (United States)

    Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang


    Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.