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Sample records for immune status carotenoid

  1. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  2. Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Evaluation of Skin Carotenoids as a Biomarker of Carotenoid Status for Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Susan T.; Cartmel, Brenda; Scarmo, Stephanie; Jahns, Lisa; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method that has been developed to assess carotenoid status in human tissues including human skin in vivo. Skin carotenoid status has been suggested as a promising biomarker for human studies. This manuscript describes research done relevant to the development of this biomarker, including its reproducibility, validity, feasibility for use in field settings, and factors that affect the biomarker such as diet, smoking, and adiposity. Recent studies have evaluated the response of the biomarker to controlled carotenoid interventions, both supplement-based and dietary [e.g., provision of a high-carotenoid fruit and vegetable (F/V)-enriched diet], demonstrating consistent response to intervention. The totality of evidence supports the use of skin carotenoid status as an objective biomarker of F/V intake, although in the cross-sectional setting, diet explains only some of the variation in this biomarker. However, this limitation is also a strength in that skin carotenoids may effectively serve as an integrated biomarker of health, with higher status reflecting greater F/V intake, lack of smoking, and lack of adiposity. Thus, this biomarker holds promise as both a health biomarker and an objective indicator of F/V intake, supporting its further development and utilization for medical and public health purposes. PMID:23823930

  3. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds.

  4. Is there a role for antioxidant carotenoids in limiting self-harming immune response in invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Stéphane; Biard, Clotilde; Moret, Yannick

    2007-06-22

    Innate immunity relies on effectors, which produce cytotoxic molecules that have not only the advantage of killing pathogens but also the disadvantage of harming host tissues and organs. Although the role of dietary antioxidants in invertebrate immunity is still unknown, it has been shown in vertebrates that carotenoids scavenge cytotoxic radicals generated during the immune response. Carotenoids may consequently decrease the self-harming cost of immunity. A positive relationship between the levels of innate immune defence and circulating carotenoid might therefore be expected. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that the maintenance and use of the prophenoloxidase system strongly correlate with carotenoid concentration in haemolymph within and among natural populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex.

  5. Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This short article indicated that greater understanding of the biological functions of carotenoids mediated via their oxidative metabolites through their effects on these important cellular pathways and molecular targets, as well as their significance to cancer prevention, is needed. In considering ...

  6. A noninvasive assessment of skin carotenoid status through reflection spectroscopy is a feasible and reliable measure of dietary carotenoid consumption in a diverse community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Skin carotenoid status, as assessed by reflection spectroscopy (RS), is a promising means of approximating fruit and vegetable consumption. This study’s purpose was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of RS to assess skin carotenoids in a racially diverse community sampl...

  7. Effects of organic and conventional growth systems on the content of carotenoids in carrot roots, and on intake and plasma status of carotenoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Bysted, Anette; Madsen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for organic food products has increased during the last decades due to their probable health effects, among others. A higher content of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids in organic food products has been claimed, though not documented, to contribute to increased...... health effects of organic foods. The aim was to study the impact of organic and conventional agricultural systems on the content of carotenoids in carrots and human diets. In addition, a human cross-over study was performed, measuring the plasma status of carotenoids in humans consuming diets made from...... crops from these agricultural systems. RESULTS: The content of carotenoids in carrot roots and human diets was not significantly affected by the agricultural production system or year, despite differences in fertilisation strategy and levels. The plasma status of carotenoids increased significantly...

  8. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  9. Overcoming Challenges to Childhood Immunizations Status.

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    Sabnis, Svapna S; Conway, James H

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, preventing both mortality and morbidity. However, overall immunization rates are still below the 90% target for Healthy People 2020. There remain significant disparities in immunization rates between children of different racial/ethnic groups, as well as among economically disadvantaged populations. There are systemic issues and challenges in providing access to immunization opportunities. In addition, vaccine hesitancy contributes to underimmunization. Multiple strategies are needed to improve immunization rates, including improving access to vaccines and minimizing financial barriers to families. Vaccine status should be assessed and vaccines given at all possible opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    strongly affected by urban stressors and depleted their stores of dietary carotenoids for health-related functions rather than coloration. In addition, skin yellowness intensified with age and was stronger pronounced in earlier nests. Since the immune system of nestlings is still developing, younger chicks might need more antioxidants to combat environmental stress. Additionally, parasite infection intensity was highest in nestlings with less intense skin yellowness (paler or less yellow pigmented integuments) and in earlier nests of the season. In combination with results from previous studies, our findings provide further support for the low quality of the inner-city habitat, both in terms of productivity and individual health.

  11. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sumasgutner

    -city nestlings are strongly affected by urban stressors and depleted their stores of dietary carotenoids for health-related functions rather than coloration. In addition, skin yellowness intensified with age and was stronger pronounced in earlier nests. Since the immune system of nestlings is still developing, younger chicks might need more antioxidants to combat environmental stress. Additionally, parasite infection intensity was highest in nestlings with less intense skin yellowness (paler or less yellow pigmented integuments and in earlier nests of the season. In combination with results from previous studies, our findings provide further support for the low quality of the inner-city habitat, both in terms of productivity and individual health.

  12. Perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status result in differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Heum; Jung, Sunyo

    2018-02-12

    We examined differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses in rice plants treated with norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), which are inhibitors of carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthesis, respectively. Plants treated with OF markedly increased levels of cellular leakage and malondialdehyde, compared with NF-treated plants, showing that OF plants suffered greater oxidative damage with respect to membrane integrity. The enhanced production of H 2 O 2 in response to OF, but not NF, indicates the important role of H 2 O 2 in activation of photooxidative stress signaling in OF plants. In response to NF and OF, the increased levels of free salicylic acid as well as maintenance of the redox ratio of ascorbate and glutathione pools to a certain level are considered to be crucial factors in the protection against photooxidation. Plants treated with OF greatly up-regulated catalase (CAT) activity and Cat transcript levels, compared with NF-treated plants. Interestingly, NF plants showed no noticeable increase in oxidative metabolism, although they did show considerable increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase activities and transcript levels of APX, as in OF plants. Our results suggest that perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status by NF and OF can be sensed by differential photooxidative stress signaling, such as that involving H 2 O 2 , redox state of ascorbate and glutathione, and salicylic acid, which may be responsible for at least part of the induction of ROS-scavenging enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-03-22

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution.

  14. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  15. Immune status investigations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreja, D.; Tulbure, R.; Marinescu, I.

    2002-01-01

    In Romania, the enhanced development of nuclear energy leads to an increase of number of occupational exposed persons to ionizing radiation. Hence, a good knowledge of effects of ionizing radiation exposure on human body is necessary. Beginning with this decade, the opinion regarding medical surveillance of occupational exposed persons to ionizing radiation has changed - the surveillance system has to insure firstly the prevention of professional diseases. It is important to select some biological tests as helpful indicators both in immediate assessment and in health status prognosis for occupational exposed people in the future. The fact that ionizing radiation leads to immune system modifications is well known. In the last 20 years, the effect of ionizing radiation upon immune system was extensively studied, as a result of an intense research activity and of an improvement of knowledge in the field of immunology. Researches have made important steps in understanding the mechanisms of action and control for immune responses

  16. Do smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between socio-economic status and plasma carotenoids?

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    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Totland, Torunn H; Bastani, Nasser; Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Tell, Grethe S; Andersen, Lene F

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to study whether the association between educational attainment and antioxidant status is mediated by smoking and fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional analyses of the Oslo Youth Study 2006 wave were carried out. Information about education, smoking habits and diet was collected by questionnaire for 261 subjects (142 women and 119 men aged 38-42 years). Blood samples, height and weight measurements were taken by the participants' General Practitioner. Blood were analysed for plasma carotenoids. Linear regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between education and plasma carotenoids. Educational level was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not with total carotenoids, β-carotene or lycopene. Education was negatively associated with smoking and positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Smoking was negatively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, and fruit and vegetable intake was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin (adjusted for educational level). Moreover, cigarette consumption mediated the association between education and β-cryptoxanthin by 37%, while fruit and vegetable intake mediated this association by 18%. The total mediation effect was 55%. Smoking seemed to be more important as a mediator between education and plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin than the intake of fruit and vegetables, but more studies are needed to establish the relative importance of smoking and diet as mediators of the association between education and antioxidant status. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary Immunization Status In Rural Block Of Kanpur District

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    S K Kaushal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the status of primary immunization of children in the age group of 12-23 month Objective: To assess the status of Primary immunization in age group of 12 to 23 month Children, To compare the primary immunization in intensive and twilight villages, To study the influence of socialfactors affecting immunization & Tofind out reasons for immunization default Study design: cross sectional study Setting and participants: rural block of.Kanpur District and mothers ofchildren in age group of 12-23 months. Study period: July to December 2005 Sample size: 280 mothers of study group children. Study variable: Immunization status, socialfactors, vaccine, reasons for immunization default Results : 32.85% of children were fully immunized. Highest (92.85% covered antigen were found as OPV-1 and lowest (41.78% covered antigen as DPT-3.Literacy and joint family had positive impact on immunization status. The main reasons were observed for immunization default as ignorance (about need/place/person/time and distance factor. Conclusion : Quantity1 wise coverage was quite satisfactory. High dropout rate due to ignorance and distance factors should be taken into

  18. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body’s response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. PMID:28298266

  19. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body's response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Gastrointestinal tolerance and plasma status of carotenoids, EPA and DHA with a fiber-enriched tube feed in hospitalized patients initiated on tube nutrition: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, L H; Wirth, R; Smoliner, C; Klebach, M; Hofman, Z; Kondrup, J

    2017-04-01

    During the first days of tube feeding (TF) gastrointestinal (GI) complications are common and administration of sufficient nutrition is a challenge. Not all standard nutritionally complete formulas contain dietary fiber, fish oil or carotenoids, key dietary nutrients for health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a fiber, fish oil and carotenoid enriched TF formula on diarrhea, constipation and nutrient bioavailability. A multi-center randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel trial compared the effects of a dietary fiber, fish oil and carotenoid-enriched TF formula (test) with an isocaloric non-enriched formula (control) in 51 patients requiring initiation of TF. Incidence of diarrhea and constipation (based on stool frequency and consistency) was recorded daily. Plasma status of EPA, DHA and carotenoids was measured after 7 days. The incidence of diarrhea was lower in patients receiving the test formula compared with the control group (19% vs. 48%, p = 0.034). EPA and DHA status (% of total plasma phospholipids) was higher after 7 days in test compared with control group (EPA: p = 0.002, DHA: p = 0.082). Plasma carotenoid levels were higher after 7 days in the test group compared with control group (lutein: p = 0.024, α-carotene: p = 0.005, lycopene: p = 0.020, β-carotene: p = 0.054). This study suggests that the nutrient-enriched TF formula tested might have a positive effect on GI tolerance with less diarrhea incidence and significantly improved EPA, DHA and carotenoid plasma levels during the initiation of TF in hospitalized patients who are at risk of diarrhea and low nutrient status. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl; registration number 2924. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in broilers fed Bacillus subtilis -supplemented diet. ... In conclusion, B. subtilis-type probiotics contributed positively to better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. Keywords: ...

  2. Perceived Immune Status and Sleep: A Survey among Dutch Students

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    Anouk A. M. T. Donners

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced immune functioning may have a negative impact on sleep and health, and vice versa. A survey among Dutch young adults (18–35 years old was administered to collect information on perception of reduced immunity and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep duration, and quality. Sleep disorders were assessed with the SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales of sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder, and daily functioning. Dutch young adults (N = 574 completed the survey. Among them, subjects (N = 209; 36.4% reported perceived reduced immunity. Relative to those with a normal immune status, subjects reporting reduced immunity had significantly higher scores (p=0.0001 on sleep apnea (2.6 versus 3.6, insomnia (5.1 versus 6.8, and circadian rhythm disorder (2.1 versus 2.7. Subjects reporting reduced immunity also had significantly poorer daily functioning scores (5.4 versus 7.6, p=0.0001. No differences were observed in total sleep time, but those reporting reduced immunity had significantly poorer ratings of sleep quality (6.8 versus 7.2, p=0.0001. Our findings suggest that perceived reduced immunity is associated with sleep disturbances, impaired daily functioning, and a poorer sleep quality. Experimental studies including the assessment of immune biomarkers and objective measures of sleep (polysomnography should confirm the current observations.

  3. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, B.; Kačer, P.; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, J.; Syslová, K.; Vinkler, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 23546 (2016), s. 23546 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472; GA ČR GA15-11782S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : finch Taenopygia guttata * plumage coloration * in-vivo * information content * immune activation * zebra finches * life span * stress * expression * capacity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Antioxidant status, immune system, blood metabolites and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary turmeric rhizome powder (TP) on performance, blood metabolite, immune system, antioxidant status, and relative weight of organs in pre and post heat stressed broilers. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) day-old male Arian broiler chicks were randomly ...

  5. Legume carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, S; Erdman, J W

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the results of research studies have suggested a positive beneficial relationship between a vegetarian-based diet and low incidence of diseases, including coronary heart disease, cancer, obesity, dental caries, and osteoporosis. beta-Carotene has specifically been suggested as a nutrient with antitumorigenic properties. In this regard there is a need to evaluate the carotenoid content of foods. Legumes are one of the staple components of a vegetarian diet. This review specifically surveys the prevalence of carotenoids in food and forage legumes. In addition, the methods available for carotenoid analysis are discussed; factors affecting the determination of carotenoid content during maturation, germination, processing and storage are identified; research areas which have been inadequately explored are identified; and suggestions are made for future lines of investigation.

  6. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Alireza; Basirnejad, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells, effector T-cell function and the production of cytokines. Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. It is thought that carotenoids act in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Application of pattern recognition methods for evaluating the immune status in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitsky, R.B.; Guslistyj, I.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Karklinskaya, O.N.; Ryabinina, I.D.; Kosova, I.P.; Stolpnikova, V.N.; Malaeva, N.S.; Latypova, I.I.; Lebedev, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of mathematical tools for pattern recognition as applied to numerical assessments of the immune status of patients exposed to ecological hazards is evaluated by experimentation. The immune status is estimated according to a two-class scheme (norm/abnormality) based on blood indicators of immunity for the patients examined. The task of categorizing patients by immunological parameters of blood is shown to be resolved with high effectiveness for determining the immune status [ru

  8. Perturbations in the Photosynthetic Pigment Status Result in Photooxidation-Induced Crosstalk between Carotenoid and Porphyrin Biosynthetic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Heum Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Possible crosstalk between the carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthetic pathways under photooxidative conditions was investigated by using their biosynthetic inhibitors, norflurazon (NF and oxyfluorfen (OF. High levels of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX accumulated in rice plants treated with OF, whereas Proto IX decreased in plants treated with NF. Both NF and OF treatments resulted in greater decreases in MgProto IX, MgProto IX methyl ester, and protochlorophyllide. Activities and transcript levels of most porphyrin biosynthetic enzymes, particularly in the Mg-porphyrin branch, were greatly down-regulated in NF and OF plants. In contrast, the transcript levels of GSA, PPO1, and CHLD as well as FC2 and HO2 were up-regulated in NF-treated plants, while only moderate increases in FC2 and HO2 were observed in the early stage of OF treatment. Phytoene, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin showed high accumulation in NF-treated plants, whereas other carotenoid intermediates greatly decreased. Transcript levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes, PSY1 and PDS, decreased in response to NF and OF, whereas plants in the later stage of NF treatment exhibited up-regulation of BCH and VDE as well as recovery of PDS. However, perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis by OF did not noticeably influence levels of carotenoid metabolites, regardless of the strong down-regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Both NF and OF plants appeared to provide enhanced protection against photooxidative damage, not only by scavenging of Mg-porphyrins, but also by up-regulating FC2, HO2, and Fe-chelatase, particularly with increased levels of zeaxanthin via up-regulation of BCH and VDE in NF plants. On the other hand, the up-regulation of GSA, PPO1, and CHLD under inhibition of carotenogenic flux may be derived from the necessity to recover impaired chloroplast biogenesis during photooxidative stress. Our study demonstrates that perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthesis coordinate

  9. Perturbations in the Photosynthetic Pigment Status Result in Photooxidation-Induced Crosstalk between Carotenoid and Porphyrin Biosynthetic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Heum; Tran, Lien H; Jung, Sunyo

    2017-01-01

    Possible crosstalk between the carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthetic pathways under photooxidative conditions was investigated by using their biosynthetic inhibitors, norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF). High levels of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) accumulated in rice plants treated with OF, whereas Proto IX decreased in plants treated with NF. Both NF and OF treatments resulted in greater decreases in MgProto IX, MgProto IX methyl ester, and protochlorophyllide. Activities and transcript levels of most porphyrin biosynthetic enzymes, particularly in the Mg-porphyrin branch, were greatly down-regulated in NF and OF plants. In contrast, the transcript levels of GSA, PPO1 , and CHLD as well as FC2 and HO2 were up-regulated in NF-treated plants, while only moderate increases in FC2 and HO2 were observed in the early stage of OF treatment. Phytoene, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin showed high accumulation in NF-treated plants, whereas other carotenoid intermediates greatly decreased. Transcript levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes, PSY1 and PDS , decreased in response to NF and OF, whereas plants in the later stage of NF treatment exhibited up-regulation of BCH and VDE as well as recovery of PDS . However, perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis by OF did not noticeably influence levels of carotenoid metabolites, regardless of the strong down-regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Both NF and OF plants appeared to provide enhanced protection against photooxidative damage, not only by scavenging of Mg - porphyrins, but also by up-regulating FC2, HO2 , and Fe-chelatase, particularly with increased levels of zeaxanthin via up-regulation of BCH and VDE in NF plants. On the other hand, the up-regulation of GSA, PPO1 , and CHLD under inhibition of carotenogenic flux may be derived from the necessity to recover impaired chloroplast biogenesis during photooxidative stress. Our study demonstrates that perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthesis coordinate the

  10. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  11. Key to Xenobiotic Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Richard Sliwka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C,H,X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon carotenoids (C,H and xanthophylls (C,H,O has become obsolete.

  12. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Thomas, Philip-Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70–300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p < 0.05) in vitro. Although astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity. PMID:26729100

  13. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  14. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  15. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a HoBi-...

  16. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a H...

  17. Skin Carotenoid Response to a High-Carotenoid Juice in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sheryl S; Wengreen, Heidi J; Dew, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown an increase in serum carotenoid status among children when fed carotenoids. This study looked at the effect and dose-response of a known amount of carotenoid consumption on change in skin carotenoid status among children. Participants were children aged 5 to 17 years from Cache County, UT (n=58). Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high (n=18) or low (n=18) dose of a carotenoid-rich juice (2.75 mg carotenoids/30 mL juice), or placebo juice (n=22). Children were asked to drink an assigned dose of the juice (30 to 120 mL/day) based on the weight of the child and group assignment, every day for 8 weeks. Skin carotenoids were measured every 2 weeks by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Participants were asked to maintain their usual diet throughout the study. Usual diet was assessed using three averaged 24-hour recalls; diet constancy was measured using food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline, Week 4, and Week 8. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the group differences in skin carotenoid status over time. The high-dose and low-dose groups had mean±standard deviation increases in skin carotenoid status of 11,515±1,134 and 10,009±1,439 Raman intensity counts, respectively (both P values juice significantly increased skin carotenoid status over an 8-week period among children aged 5 to 17 years. The amount of carotenoids found in this amount of juice is equal to the amount found in approximately 23 to 92 g cooked carrots per day. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Key to Xenobiotic Carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Richard Sliwka; Vassilia Partali

    2012-01-01

    A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe) directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C,H,X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon carotenoids (C,H) and xanthophylls (C,H,O) has become obsolete. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in...

  19. Statistical analysis of immune status at healthy people and patients with brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochmashev V.F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Immunograms of 50 healthy people and 117 neurooncologic patients were analysed as comparison of their status of health and pathology in their immunity. Differences in immune parameters in test groups interpreted as reorganization of immune homeostasis with functional immunodefciency were determined by mathematic methods.

     

     

  20. AB115. Preliminary study on the immune status of patients with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingliang; He, Leye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To preliminarily assess the immune status of patients with prostate cancer through detecting various immune indexs and then analyse the relationship between immune status and clinical factors such as clinical stage, pathological classification and endocrine therapy. Methods Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of CD4, CD8and NK cells in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) of 28 patients with PCa, 16 BPH patients and ten healthy men (HM). The expression of perforin and gran...

  1. Interaction Between 2 Nutraceutical Treatments and Host Immune Status in the Pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression Comparative Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcillo, Joseph A; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Burr, Jeri; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Bell, Michael J; Berg, Robert A; Shanley, Thomas P; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Dalton, Heidi; Jenkins, Tammara L; Doctor, Allan; Webster, Angie; Tamburro, Robert F

    2017-11-01

    The pediatric Critical Illness Stress-induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) trial compared the effectiveness of 2 nutraceutical supplementation strategies and found no difference in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis in the overall population. We performed an exploratory post hoc analysis of interaction between nutraceutical treatments and host immune status related to the development of nosocomial infection/sepsis. Children from the CRISIS trial were analyzed according to 3 admission immune status categories marked by decreasing immune competence: immune competent without lymphopenia, immune competent with lymphopenia, and previously immunocompromised. The comparative effectiveness of the 2 treatments was analyzed for interaction with immune status category. There were 134 immune-competent children without lymphopenia, 79 previously immune-competent children with lymphopenia, and 27 immunocompromised children who received 1 of the 2 treatments. A significant interaction was found between treatment arms and immune status on the time to development of nosocomial infection and sepsis ( P patient characteristic.

  2. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  3. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  4. Carotenoid absorption, chylomicron response curves, the influence of β-carotene supplementation on immune function and the measurement of natural killer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Absorption of β-carotene from raw, uncooked vegetables can be very low. Particle size of uncooked foods is particularly important; β-carotene absorption from pureed or finely chopped vegetables is considerably higher than from whole or sliced raw vegetables. Cooking procedures (boiling/steaming) improves the chemical extractability of carotenoids from foods and also appears to improve absorption. Dietary fat stimulates bile flow from the gall bladder which facilitates the emulsification of fat and fat soluble dietary components into lipid micelles within the small intestine. Without micelle formation carotenoids are very poorly absorbed. Several studies have shown that the absence of dietary fat or very low fat diets substantially reduces β-carotene absorption in human volunteers. Carotenoid absorption is thought to be a passive process. The assumption is that carotenoids within lipid micelles come into contact with the intestinal epithelial cell membranes and that transport from micelles to the plasma membrane and cytosol of the cell occur together with the transport of fatty acids. β-carotene appears simultaneously in lymph with newly absorbed fat from a meal and thus it is assumed that they move together across the plasma membrane and within the mucosal cell

  5. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  6. Perceived Immune Status and Sleep : A Survey among Dutch Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donners, Anouk A M T; Tromp, Marilou D P; Garssen, Johan; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C

    2015-01-01

    Reduced immune functioning may have a negative impact on sleep and health, and vice versa. A survey among Dutch young adults (18-35 years old) was administered to collect information on perception of reduced immunity and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep duration, and quality. Sleep

  7. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeva, T.; Ruuskanen, S.; Salminen, J.P.; Belskii, E.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Moreno, J.; Morosinotto, C.; Mänd, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnström, A.; Siitari, H.; Slater, F.M.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Laaksonen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female’s diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal

  8. Assessment of hepatitis B immunization status after antineoplastic therapy in children with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman, Serap; Vural, Sema; Yildirmak, Yildiz; Urganci, Nafiye; Usta, Merve

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B is a disease that is preventable with vaccination. Antibody levels after vaccination may be affected by suppression of the immune system due to cancer therapy. Children with cancer have a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We aimed to assess the pretreatment immunization status against HBV infection and the rate of continuity of immunization after therapy in children with cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective case review of patients trea...

  9. Strategies to Make Immunization Status Visible During Patient Encounters at Naval Medical Center San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-29

    Appendix E: NAVMED SDIEGO INST 6230.4A ......................... 84 Appendix F: TOC Chula Vista Project Brief ...................... 86 4 Making Immunization...Immunization Status Visible compromised and underimmunized population through reduced transmission (World Health Organization, 2006). Sexually transmitted HPV...are planned that will look at alternative schedules and possibly lowering the age of vaccination. Because HPV is spread by sexual 23 Making

  10. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  11. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  12. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MyUserName

    2017-04-28

    Apr 28, 2017 ... morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. ... mucosae, the dendritic cells present these fragments to T and B lymphocytes in the ...... Probiotics in valorization of innate immunity across various animal models.

  13. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Testing the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the polychromatic Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan M; Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments derived from their diet for coloration and immunity. The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis predicts that, under conditions of carotenoid scarcity, individuals may be forced to allocate limited carotenoids to either coloration or immunity. In polychromatic species, the pattern of allocation may differ among individuals. We tested the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, a species with two ontogenetic color morphs, barred and gold, the latter of which is the result of carotenoid expression. We performed a diet-supplementation experiment in which cichlids of both color morphs were assigned to one of two diet treatments that differed only in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). We measured integument color using spectrometry, quantified carotenoid concentrations in tissue and plasma, and assessed innate immunity using lysozyme activity and alternative complement pathway assays. In both color morphs, dietary carotenoid supplementation elevated plasma carotenoid circulation but failed to affect skin coloration. Consistent with observable differences in integument coloration, we found that gold fish sequestered more carotenoids in skin tissue than barred fish, but barred fish had higher concentrations of carotenoids in plasma than gold fish. Neither measure of innate immunity differed between gold and barred fish, or as a function of dietary carotenoid supplementation. Lysozyme activity, but not complement activity, was strongly affected by body condition. Our data show that a diet low in carotenoids is sufficient to maintain both coloration and innate immunity in Midas cichlids. Our data also suggest that the developmental transition from the barred to gold morph is not accompanied by a decrease in innate immunity in this species.

  16. Immunization status of children upto 3 years in rural block, Muzaffarnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The year 2012-2013 was declared as ‘Year of intensification of Routine Immunization (IRI in India. As per CES, DLHS and AHS, Full Immunization for the children of age group of 12-23 months of Uttar Pradesh is 30.2 (DLHS 2007, 40.9 (CES 2009 and 45.3 (AHS 2010-2011. Studies have been done to assess the primary immunization status i.e. BCG, OPV3, DTP3 and Measles. Data on the Booster doses and the additional vaccine is insufficient. Objectives: To assess the status of full Immunization, Complete Immunization and the status of Immunization with regard to different vaccine and reasons for partial and No Immunization. Design & Methodology: A community based cross sectional study was done (Aug to December 31th 2014 in the field practice area of rural health and training centre (RHTC of Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar. 50% of the villages i.e. 3 villages (Bilaspur, Shernagar and Dhandhera selected by simple random sampling technique and the age group selected were up to three years of age. The data was analyzed using MS excel sheet and the software used was software Epi-info version 7.1.3. Results and Conclusion: The Full Immunization in the age group of children between 12-23 months was 65% with antigen coverage maximum for BCG (93% and lowest for Measles (68%. Reason for partial and unimmunized children were majority due to non-availability of vaccine at the centre followed by fear of AEFI. Complete Immunization in the age group between 24-36 months was 46% with MCV 2 coverage being the lowest (34%. Full Immunization in the age group of 24-36 months is significantly more than 12-23 months age group. Tendency is to have less and less immunization as the age of the child grows (P<0.05.

  17. The taktivine immune correction influence on the immune status of an irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhetpisbaev, B.A.; Mynzhanov, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The taktivin immune correction action on irradiated organism immune system is studied. There were two series of experiments with 50 animals in each serial. The intacted and irradiated animals served as control ones. Irradiated animals have got the taktivin course 1,5-2,0 μg each 1 kg of mass intraperitoneally, during 3 days. Under tactivin action the immunity's T-sells quality and quantitative ability has been increased, and the lymphoid cells in the bone morrow and thymus have been normalized, and its quantity in spleen and small intestine's lymph nodes have been rise. The activation of energetic exchange within spleen has being carried out

  18. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described.

  19. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  20. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Agócs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  1. Exploring the Causes of Low Immunization Status in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a definitive immunization program has been advocated for children in our country, the immunization coverage is far from satisfactory. There is paucity of survey studies related to immunization pattern. Objective: This study has been undertaken to explore the social and attitudinal factors with parents resulting into adverse immunization. Material and Methods: The study was school based cross-sectional study conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling from three groups. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested questionnaire. Result: Association of parent’s literacy and socioeconomic status with successful immunization could be established. Overall coverage rate with vaccines was poor in school going girls as compared to the boys; proving thereby that gender discrimination exists putting girls in disadvantageous position. Conclusion: It can be expected that the immunization status of school children will improve if identified risk factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status, awareness status are improved and attitudinal gender discrimination is curbed.

  2. Effect of hemoglobin and immunization status on energy metabolism of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, J L; Swinkels, J W; Lindemann, M D; Schrama, J W

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the effect of (Hb) and immunization status on energy metabolism of newly weaned pigs. An additional focus of the study was to determine the development of circadian rhythms as evidenced by heat production patterns. Twenty-four 4-wk-old crossbred weanling barrows were placed into groups of three based on weight and litter origin, and the groups were allotted to one of four treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. The factors included 1) Hb status (low vs high) and 2) immunization status (antigen vs placebo). Hemoglobin status was obtained by injecting 3-d-old barrows with 100 (low) or 200 mg (high) of Fe. At 4 wk, initial blood Hb concentrations were 6.0 mM for the low group and 7.8 mM for the high group. Energy metabolism was measured using two weekly total energy and nitrogen balance collections. Energy intake and retention were higher (P Energy metabolism was not affected (P > .10) by immunization status, and heat production was not affected (P > .10) by either Hb or immunization status. Total heat production (HTOT) increased (P light period compared with the dark period over the total experimental period but a decrease (P dark period was approximately half of that measured during the light period. In conclusion, Hb status affected energy metabolism; pigs having a high Hb status had a higher energy retention. Immunization status had minimal effects on energy metabolism and heat production. Additionally, the diurnal circadian rhythm seen in older pigs had not been established by 2 wk after weaning.

  3. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A. Zielińska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother’s diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity. Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm

  4. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika A; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Pawlus, Beata; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    2017-08-04

    Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother's diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity). Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm infants, who are

  5. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  6. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  7. Gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children: some evidence from South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Singh

    2015-01-01

    Using households with a pair of male-female siblings from DHS surveys, this paper estimates gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children (aged 1-5 years) from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. I find substantial level of gender based within-household inequality in immunization status (with large inter-country variations) in the countries studied. Further, I estimate household fixed-effects models for immunization status and find significant difference betwe...

  8. Differences in carotenoid accumulation among three feeder-cricket species: implications for carotenoid delivery to captive insectivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, Victoria; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    There are a limited number of feeder-invertebrates available to feed captive insectivores, and many are deficient in certain nutrients. Gut-loading is used to increase the diversity of nutrients present in the captive insectivore diet; however, little is known about delivery of carotenoids via gut-loading. Carotenoids may influence health and reproduction due to their roles in immune and antioxidant systems. We assessed interspecific variation in carotenoid accumulation and retention in three feeder-cricket species (Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllodes sigillatus and Acheta domesticus) fed one of three diets (wheat-bran, fish-food based formulated diet, and fresh fruit and vegetables). Out of the three species of feeder-cricket in the fish-food-based dietary treatment group, G. bimaculatus had the greatest total carotenoid concentration. All cricket species fed the wheat-bran diet had very low carotenoid concentrations. Species on the fish-food-based diet had intermediate carotenoid concentrations, and those on the fruit and vegetable diet had the highest concentrations. Carotenoid retention was poor across all species. Overall, this study shows that, by providing captive insectivores with G. bimaculatus crickets recently fed a carotenoid-rich diet, the quantity of carotenoids in the diet can be increased. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  10. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  11. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel : A multi-factorial study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, S.; Dell'Omo, G.; Costantini, D.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T.; Omo, G. Dell'

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in

  12. Carotenoids in Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Vitalia; Escobar, Carolina; Galarza, Janeth; Gimpel, Javier

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms as well as by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi with broad applications in food, feed and cosmetics, and also in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae represent an important source of high-value products, which include carotenoids, among others. Carotenoids play key roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. Carotenoids are generally divided into carotenes and xanthophyls, but accumulation in microalgae can also be classified as primary (essential for survival) and secondary (by exposure to specific stimuli).In this chapter, we outline the high value carotenoids produced by commercially important microalgae, their production pathways, the improved production rates that can be achieved by genetic engineering as well as their biotechnological applications.

  13. Effect of Dietary Antimicrobials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX or monensin (COBN as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  14. Peculiarities of immune status in uterine cervix carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekster, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of investigating the peripheral blood lymphocytes the immunologic state in 81 patients with uterine cervix carcinoma is estimated. It is established that there is a considerable decrease of indices in the T-immune system in patients with uterine cervix carcinoma. The detection of reductions in the immunogram indices in the initial stage plays a definte diagnostic role in the detection of metastases, permits to forecast the process generalization, and consequently, to determine the treatment tactics. It is established that under the effect of combined radiation treatment the T-system is mostly injured. Consequently, pronounced postradiation depression is prognostically unfavourable. The examination of another group of patients has shown that the probability of development of lymphogenic metastases in uterine cervix carcinoma is mainly determined by immuno-morphological peculiarities of regional lymph nodes [ru

  15. Effect of carotenoid supplementation on plasma carotenoids, inflammation and visual development in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, L P; Chan, G M; Barrett-Reis, B M; Fulton, A B; Hansen, R M; Ashmeade, T L; Oliver, J S; Mackey, A D; Dimmit, R A; Hartmann, E E; Adamkin, D H

    2012-06-01

    Dietary carotenoids (lutein, lycopene and β-carotene) may be important in preventing or ameliorating prematurity complications. Little is known about carotenoid status or effects of supplementation. This randomized controlled multicenter trial compared plasma carotenoid levels among preterm infants (n=203, lutein, lycopene and β-carotene with human milk (HM)-fed term infants. We assessed safety and health. Plasma carotenoid levels were higher in the supplemented group at all time points (Plutein levels correlated with the full field electroretinogram-saturated response amplitude in rod photoreceptors (r=0.361, P=0.05). The supplemented group also showed greater rod photoreceptor sensitivity (least squares means 6.1 vs 4.1; Plutein on preterm retina health and maturation.

  16. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  17. The effect of milk source on body weight and immune status of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Moreno-Indias, I.; Morales-delaNuez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Milk source is one of the several factors that can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status before weaning. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of milk source (natural rearing method, named NR group, vs. artificial rearing method using a commercial milk replacer, named MR ...

  18. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and infant immune response to routine childhood vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanewa, Olayinka; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition. Response to childhood vaccination may be associated with fetal and early life environment; evaluation of programs should take this into account.

  19. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects

  20. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  1. Carotenoids of human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, S; Canfield, L M; Huston, G E; Ferris, A M; Jensen, R G

    1990-03-01

    Colostrum, the initial postpartum secretion of the breast, ordinarily has a distinct yellow color due to carotenoids of its fat globules. This pigmentation progressively diminishes as milk production increases during the first week of lactation. Identity of these carotenoids was investigated by means of thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin were revealed as major chromogens. A component corresponding to lutein and/or zeaxanthin was also detected by both chromatographic techniques. Extracts of 23 saponified colostrum samples from 10 donors revealed considerable variation in total carotenoid concentration (0.34-7.57 micrograms/ml of colostrum). Multiparous mothers had greater mean colostrum carotenoid concentrations than did the primiparae, 2.18 +/- 1.94 vs 1.14 +/- 1.32 micrograms/ml, respectively. Seven of the eight primiparous donors' samples had little or no yellow color. These findings imply a difference in carotenoid transport by breasts that have lactated as compared to those that have not. The interrelation of carotenoids, lactation and breast cancer is discussed.

  2. Role of medicinal plants on growth performance and immune status in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Elham; Awaad, Amani

    2017-08-01

    Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases. This article describes a wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, seeds, and spices with different forms such as crude, extracts, mixed and active compounds, used as immunostimulants and resulting in a marked enhancement in the immune system of fish to prevent and control microbial diseases. Moreover, different activity was recorded from plant parts like seeds, roots, flowers and leaves. The mode of action of medicinal plants was stimulation of the cellular and humoral immune response which was monitored through elevation in immune parameters. Various levels of immune stimulation have been shown by medicinal plants at different concentrations through injection or immersion or oral administration. However, it is critically important to determine the optimal dose to enhance the immune system of fish and avoid the risk of immunosuppression. Some medicinal plants have been used to replace the protein in fishmeal as a cheap source of protein and proved to be efficient in this respect. Medicinal plants can act as a growth promoter and immunomodulator at the same time. Further investigations should be carried out to examine the influence of those plants on fish health (including physiological and histological parameters) as a preliminary step for use in large scale in aquaculture. The current review describes the role of medicinal plants and their derivatives on innate and adaptive immune status as well as growth

  3. Immunization status of residents in pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bernardi Viviani Silveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of health care workers is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. We assessed the immunization status of Residents in Pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo from June to December 2008. Their immunization records were checked and evaluated according to the Brazilian Immunization Schedule for health care workers. Considering all required vaccines, only 3.1% of the 64 Residents were up-to-date with their immunizations. Influenza was the vaccine with the lowest uptake (3.1% and measles and rubella were diseases with the highest evidence of immunity (62.5% each. Only 37.5% of Residents had received three hepatitis B vaccine doses with a subsequent serology confirming seroconversion. Moreover, the vast majority of Residents in Pediatrics who were not up-to-date were unaware of the fact. Both medical schools and Pediatric Residence programs should not only offer information but also check vaccination records in an effort to keep their healthcare workers´ vaccinations up-to-date.

  4. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  5. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B 12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B 12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  6. The seroprevalence of human papillomavirus by immune status and by ethnicity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of cutaneous HPV is unclear and in particular, seroprevalence among individuals with different levels of immune function and ethnicity is unknown. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 409 OTR patients without skin cancer (243 Caucasians and 166 non-Caucasians, 367 individuals with end stage renal failure on dialysis (222 Caucasians and 145 non-Caucasians and 152 immunocompetent (IC individuals without skin cancer (102 Caucasians and 50 non-Caucasians to compare the HPV seroprevalence in patients with differing immune status and ethnicity. In total, seroprevalence data from 928 individuals, all from London, was available. Results Overall, no difference between HPV seroprevalence by immune status was observed (P = 0.3 among Caucasian or among non-Caucasian individuals, with seroprevalence varying from 87% to 94% across different immune status and ethnic groups. Those individuals seropositive to multiple types of one genus were more likely to be seroreactive to multiple types of another genus, independent of immune status or ethnicity. Lower seroprevalence for gammaHPV 4, and to a lesser extent gammaHPV 48, were observed among OTR compared to IC and dialysis patients. Higher seroprevalence against antibodies to betaHPV 93 were detected more frequently in non-Caucasians than Caucasians whereas muHPV 1 and, to a lesser extent, gammaHPV 4 were found more frequently among Caucasians - these findings were independent of immune status. Within non-Caucasian subgroups, the seroprevalence of 8 HPV (alpha-mucosal HPV16 and 13, alpha-cutaneous HPV7 and 2, betaHPV8, 17, 23 and 38 was significantly (P Conclusion We did not observe major disturbance in antibody response between immunocompetent, dialysis and OTR individuals, but

  7. [The immune status of the population of the Crimea to the tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Karavanov, A S; Kovin, V V; Zakharova, T F; Evstratov, Iu V; Bychkova, M V; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-10-01

    The immune status of the Crimean population with respect to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has been studied. The results of the study confirm the existence of natural foci of TBE in the Crimea. The most active and potentially dangerous foci are located in forests of the mountain area of the peninsula. The study has revealed that humans are mainly exposed to the risk of contacting TBE virus infection during their work and rest in the forest.

  8. Dynamics of the immune status in the Chernobyl liquidators in the remote period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivonchik, A.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The population of Belarus is being exposed to an irradiation because of the Chernobyl disaster. Forming of the distant effects of an irradiation much depends on a condition of immune system. Accumulation of data, studying liquidators' of disaster state of health allow to establish new laws.The research of liquidators' of disaster immunological status at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant 1986–1987 during the distant period, 2008–2010. (authors)

  9. Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Moïse, Alexander R.

    2014-01-08

    Carotenoid synthesis is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. Carotenoids are tetraterpenes derived through the condensation of the five-carbon (C5) universal isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A recently developed concept that could explain the role of the poly-cis pathway in carotenoid synthesis is that the intermediates of this pathway have additional physiological roles that extend beyond serving as precursors of lycopene. This concept is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. The feedback regulation of early carotenoid synthetic genes in response to a block in upstream metabolism represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanism and regulation of carotenoid synthesis and of metabolic regulation in general. The molecular details of a signaling pathway that regulates carotenogenesis in response to the levels of carotenoid precursors are still unclear.

  10. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  11. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  12. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  13. Verifying influenza and pneumococcal immunization status of children in 2009-2010 from primary care practice records and from the North Carolina Immunization Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehling, Katherine A; Vannoy, Lauren; Peters, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    The North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) has been available since 2004. We sought to measure its utilization among practices that provide primary care for children who are enrolled in a prospective influenza surveillance study. This study included children aged 0.5-17 years who presented with fever or acute respiratory symptoms to an emergency department or inpatient setting in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, from September 1, 2009, through May 19, 2010. Study team members verified influenza and pneumococcal immunization status by requesting records from each child's primary care practice and by independently reviewing the NCIR. We assessed agreement of nonregistry immunization medical records with NCIR data using the kappa statistic. Fifty-six practices confirmed the immunization status of 292 study-enrolled children. For most children (238/292, 82%), practices verified the child's immunizations by providing a copy of the NCIR record. For 54 children whose practices verified their immunizations by providing practice records alone, agreement with the NCIR by the kappa statistic was 0.6-0.7 for seasonal and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines and 0.8-0.9 for pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines. A total of 221 (98%) of 226 enrolled children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR. NCIR usage may vary in other regions of North Carolina. More than 95% of children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR; thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 goal for immunization information systems was met in this population. We found substantial agreement between practice records and the NCIR for influenza and pneumococcal immunizations in children.

  14. Oral mucosal lesions and immune status in HIV-infected Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric HIV is growing at an alarming rate in developing countries. Due to their compromised immune status, children infected with HIV are prone to a number of opportunistic infections. Oral manifestations are the first signs of the disease in many of them. To assess the oral mucosal status of Indian children with HIV, based on their CD4 cell counts. Two hundred and twenty one HIV infected children aged 6-18 years from various HIV centers, were divided into three groups, based on their CD4 cell counts; Group 1: ≥500, Group 2: 201-499 and Group 3: ≤200 cells. The children in each group were further considered as 'prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART)' and 'on ART'. Oral mucosal examination was done based on presumptive criteria given by Ramos-Gomez for diagnosis of oro-facial lesions commonly associated with HIV infection in children. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Angular cheilitis and pseudomembranous candidiasis were the frequently seen oral lesions. Children with CD4 cell count ≥500 had significantly fewer oral lesions each. A high percentage of HIV-infected children were affected with oral mucosal lesions. There was a significant association between immune status and frequency of oral lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates.

  16. Opportunistic Infections and Complications in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children: Correlation with immune status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the correlation between various opportunistic infections and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected children and the immune status of these patients, evaluated by absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 count and CD4 percentage. Methods: This study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2010 at the Antiretroviral Treatment Centre of the Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak, Haryana, in northern India. A total of 20 HIV-1-infected children aged 4–57 months were studied. Demographic and baseline investigations were performed prior to the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. A fixed-dose combination of HAART was given based on the patient’s weight. Baseline investigations were repeated after six months of HAART. Results: There was a significant increase in the patients’ haemoglobin, weight, height and CD4 count after six months of HAART. Significant improvements (P <0.05 were also noted in the patients’ immune status, graded according to the World Health Organization. Conclusion: This study observed that the severity and frequency of opportunistic complications in paediatric patients with HIV-1 increased with a fall in the CD4 count. The treatment of opportunistic infections, along with antiretroviral therapy, may lead to both clinical and immunological recovery as well as a decreased incidence of future opportunistic infections. The CD4 count may give treating physicians an initial idea about the immune status of each child and could also be used as a biological marker of HAART efficacy. Patient compliance must be ensured during HAART as this is a key factor in improving outcomes.

  17. Biodisponibilidad de carotenoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Baracaldo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La vitamina A y sus derivados conocidos como retinoides (de origen animal y compuestos pro-vitamina A denominados carotenoides (de origen vegetal son importantes en la prevención de cáncer, enfermedades crónicas y enfermedades relacionadas con la deficiencia de vitamina A; por tanto, es importante conocer la absorción, metabolismo, transporte y almacenamiento de estos compuestos en humanos. Debido a lo compleja que ha sido la utilización de modelos humanos para estudiar la biodisponibilidad de carotenoides de fuentes naturales y sintéticas, recientemente se han desarrollado modelos animales que permiten avances significativos en áreas de poca conocimiento. Esta revisión pretende dar la mayor información acerca de la farmacocinética y el metabolismo de este nutriente que permita a los interesados utilizar el modelo más apropiado para los fines que persiga.

  18. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is more conducive to the recovery of patients.

  19. Determination of immune status in dogs against CPV-2 by recombinant protein based latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jobin; Singh, Mithilesh; Goswami, T K; Glora, Philma; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Chander, Vishal; Upmanyu, Vikramaditya; Verma, Suman; Sharma, Chhavi; Mahendran, K

    2017-09-01

    Canine parvoviral enteritis is a highly contagious viral illness caused by canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) which affects puppies of mainly 6-20 weeks of age. Vaccination is pivotal in preventing and controlling CPV-2 infection. Determination of antibody status is a critical determinant for successful vaccination. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is 'gold standard' test for quantification of antibodies specific to CPV-2, although the execution of this test is not feasible under field conditions. The present study was undertaken to develop a point of care testing to determine immune status prior to CPV-2 vaccination or to detect seroconversion in immunized dogs by latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant antigen. Truncated portion of VP2 protein (tVP2) of CPV-2 was selected on the basis of antigenic indices, overexpressed the recombinant protein in E. coli system and was subsequently used in development of LAT. A total of 59 serum samples obtained from vaccinated (n = 54) and healthy unvaccinated (n = 5) dogs were tested. The positivity was observed in 85% (46/54) of these dogs with varying agglutination pattern. The overall sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination test in comparison to HI test was recorded as 90% and 88% respectively with an agreement value of 90% (CI = 95%). Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  1. From Carotenoids to Strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Kunpeng

    2017-12-13

    Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that regulate different plant developmental and adaptation processes. When released into soil, SLs act as chemical signals attracting symbiotic arbuscular fungi and inducing seed germination in root parasitic weeds. SLs are carotenoid-derivatives characterized by the presence of a butenolide ring that is connected by an enol ether bridge to a less conserved, second moiety. Carotenoids are isopenoid pigments that differ in structure, number of conjugated double bonds and stereo-configuration. Genetic analysis and enzymatic studies demonstrate that SLs originate from all-trans-β-carotene in a pathway that involves the all-trans-/9-cis-β-carotene isomerase DWARF27 (D27) and the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 and 8 (CCD7, 8). The CCD7-mediated, regio- and stereospecific double bond cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene leads to a 9-cis-configured intermediate that is converted by CCD8 via a combination of reactions into the central metabolite carlactone. By catalyzing repeated oxygenation reactions that can be coupled to ring closure, CYP711 enzymes convert carlactone into tricyclic ring containing, canonical and non-canonical SLs. Mostly unknown, modifying enzymes further increase SLs diversity. In this review, we touch on carotenogenesis, provide an update on SL biosynthesis, with emphasis on the substrate specificity and reactions catalyzed by the different enzymes, and describe the regulation of the pathway.

  2. Training Load, Immune Status, and Clinical Outcomes in Young Athletes: A Controlled, Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Katharina; Körber, Nina; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Beside positive effects on athlete's health, competitive sport can be linked with an increased risk of illness and injury. Because of high relative increases in training, additional physical and psychological strains, and an earlier specialization and professionalization, adolescent athletes needs an increased attention. Training can alter the immune system by inducing a temporary immunosuppression, finally developing infection symptoms. Previous studies identified Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) as potential indicator for the immune status. In addition to the identification of triggering risk factors for recurrent infections, the aim was to determine the interaction between training load, stress sense, immunological parameters, and clinical symptoms. Methods: A controlled, prospective, longitudinal study on young athletes (n = 274, mean age: 13.8 ± 1.5 yrs) was conducted between 2010 and 2014. Also 285 controls (students, who did not perform competitive sports, mean age: 14.5 ± 1.9 yrs) were recruited. Athletes were examined 3 times each year to determine the effects of stress factors (training load: training hours per week [Th/w]) on selected outcome parameters (clinical [susceptibility to infection, WURSS-21: 21-item Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey], immunological, psychological end points). As part of each visit, EBV serostatus and EBV-specific IgG tiers were studied longitudinally as potential immune markers. Results: Athletes (A) trained 14.9 ± 5.6 h weekly. Controls (C) showed no lower stress levels compared to athletes (p = 0.387). Twelve percent of athletes reported recurrent infections (C: 8.5%, p = 0.153), the presence of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was achieved in 30.7%. EBV seroprevalence of athletes was 60.3% (C: 56.6%, p = 0.339). Mean EBV-specific IgG titer of athletes was 166 ± 115 U/ml (C: 137 ± 112 U/ml, p = 0.030). With increasing Th/w, higher stress levels were observed (p athletes showed no increased

  3. Immune status changes in patients with phlegmon in the maxillofacial region relation with purulent process prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Barannik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant portion of patients with acute purulent-inflammatory diseases of the face and neck often has a pronounced secondary immunodeficiency. One manifestation of violation of protective functions in this group of patients are changes in the synthesis of interleukin blood. Knowledge about the of the immune changes in the early stages of the face and neck abscesses development can be used for choosing the right timely empirical therapy. However, the currently available data regarding immune abnormalities in this pathology are controversial. Perhaps this is due to the influence of geographical, environmental and socio-economic factors on the immune status of patients and the results of studies. Thus, to obtain an objective picture of the nature of changes in the body's defenses of patients with inflammatory processes of the face and neck, it is advisable to carry out the study of the state of immunity for each region separately, and that was the basis for this study Aim. to improve pyoinflammatory facial diseases diagnostics on the background of the cytokine status study. Materials and Methods. Serum cytokines (IL-1, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 concentration in 60 patients with maxillofacial phlegmon were determined with ELISA method. All patients were residents of Zaporozhye and the Zaporozhye area. Patients were divided into III groups: the 1st included 40 (66.7% patients with a checkered phlegmons space; 2nd group – 15 (25.0% patients with phlegmons of the more than one space; the 3rd group – 5 (8.3% patients with diffuse face and neck phlegmon, and with mediastinitis. The average age of patients was 37.0±7 years. 21 healthy subjects were included into control group. 5 ml of the peripheral blood was taken from the antecubital vein under aseptic conditions; and was placed in sterile tubes containing 25 IU of heparin per 1ml. Blood was centrifuged at 3000 rev./min for 10 minutes. Serum was dispensed at 0.3 ml. in plastic tubes

  4. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T D; Bittl, R; Schlodder, E; Geisenheimer, I; Lubitz, W

    2000-01-01

    The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Based upon recent structural studies on reaction centres and antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria, the detailed organization of the carotenoids is described. Then with specific reference to bacterial antenna complexes the details of the photoprotective role, ...

  5. Local IL-23 expression in murine vaginal candidiasis and its relationship with infection and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Tan, Zhijian; Liu, Zhixiang; Xia, Dechao; Li, Jiawen

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the expression of vaginal IL-23 and its role in experimental murine vaginal candidiasis and its relationship with infection and immune status, immuno-competent (group A) and immuno-suppressed (group B) murine models of vaginal candidiasis were established in estrogen-treated mice. Non-estrogen-treated mice were used as controls (group C). The level of IL-23 p19 mRNA in murine vaginal tissue was determined by RT-PCR. Significantly increased levels of IL-23p19mRNA were observed on the 4th, the 7th and 14th day after inoculation in immuno-competent group when compared with that in control group (Pvaginal candidiasis and has a protective function during infection. Low vaginal IL-23 level may correlate with the increased susceptibility to Candida albicans in immuno-suppressed group.

  6. Immunity and inflammation in status epilepticus and its sequelae: possibilities for therapeutic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Dingledine, Raymond; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency often refractory to available treatment options. It is a very heterogeneous condition in terms of clinical presentation and causes, which besides genetic, vascular and other structural causes also include CNS or severe systemic infections, sudden withdrawal from benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants and rare autoimmune etiologies. Treatment of SE is essentially based on expert opinions and antiepileptic drug treatment per se seems to have no major impact on prognosis. There is, therefore, urgent need of novel therapies that rely upon a better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying this clinical condition. Accumulating evidence in animal models highlights that inflammation ensuing in the brain during SE may play a determinant role in ongoing seizures and their long-term detrimental consequences, independent of an infection or auto-immune cause; this evidence encourages reconsideration of the treatment flow in SE patients. PMID:26312647

  7. [Recent knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, P; Drai, J; Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Laromiguière, M; Le Moël, G

    2005-01-01

    Our knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids has rapidly grown during the last years. New facts about carotenoid absorption have emerged while some controversies about cleavage are close to end. The knowledge of the absorption and conversion processes is indispensable to understand and interpret the perturbations that can occur in the metabolism of carotenoids and vitamin A. Recently, it has been shown that the absorption of certain carotenoids is not passive - as believed for a long time - but is a facilitated process that requires, at least for lutein, the class B-type 1 scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Various epidemiological and clinical studies have shown wide variations in carotenoid absorption from one subject to another, such differences are now explained by the structure of the concerned carotenoid, by the nature of the food that is absorbed with the carotenoid, by diverse exogenous factors like the intake of medicines or interfering components, by diet factors, by genetic factors, and by the nutritional status of the subject. Recently, the precise mechanism of beta-carotene cleavage by betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) - formerly called beta-carotene 15,15' dioxygenase (ex EC 1.13.11.21) - has been discovered, and a second enzyme which cleaves asymmetrically the beta-carotene molecule has been found. beta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase only acts on the 15,15' bond, thus forming two molecules of retinal from one molecule of beta-carotene by central cleavage. Even though the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is much more active on the beta-carotene molecule, a study has shown that it can act on all carotenoids. Searchers now agree that other enzymes that can catalyse an eccentric cleavage of carotenoids probably exist, but under physiological conditions the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is by far the most active, and it is mainly effective in the small bowel mucosa and in the liver. However the

  8. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  9. Role of ABO secretor status in mucosal innate immunity and H. pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fucosylated ABH antigens, which constitute the molecular basis for the ABO blood group system, are also expressed in salivary secretions and gastrointestinal epithelia in individuals of positive secretor status; however, the biological function of the ABO blood group system is unknown. Gastric mucosa biopsies of 41 Rhesus monkeys originating from Southern Asia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A majority of these animals were found to be of blood group B and weak-secretor phenotype (i.e., expressing both Lewis a and Lewis b antigens, which are also common in South Asian human populations. A selected group of ten monkeys was inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and studied for changes in gastric mucosal glycosylation during a 10-month period. We observed a loss in mucosal fucosylation and concurrent induction and time-dependent dynamics in gastric mucosal sialylation (carbohydrate marker of inflammation, which affect H. pylori adhesion targets and thus modulate host-bacterial interactions. Of particular relevance, gastric mucosal density of H. pylori, gastritis, and sialylation were all higher in secretor individuals compared to weak-secretors, the latter being apparently "protected." These results demonstrate that the secretor status plays an intrinsic role in resistance to H. pylori infection and suggest that the fucosylated secretor ABH antigens constitute interactive members of the human and primate mucosal innate immune system.

  10. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter.

  11. Full Immunization Status of Under-Five Children in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caregivers numbering 250 (96.5%) correctly stated at least one benefit of immunization. Overall, immunization coverage was low, despite accessible immunization services. Community members and household influencers should educate caregivers to ensure their children's full immunization and employers should grant ...

  12. Selection Based on Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth, Environmental Enrichment and Coping Style Affect the Immune Status of Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ursinus, W.W.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were

  13. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  14. [Carotenoids: 1. Metabolism and physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Le Moël, G; Steghens, J P; Van Kappel, A; Nabet, F

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are a family of pigments with at least 600 members. They derive from lycopene after steps of cyclisation, dehydrogenation and oxidation. It is their chemical structure that determines their physiochemical properties and, in part, their biological activities. About 50 carotenoids can be found in human diet and about 20 of them have been found in plasma and tissues. There is no RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for carotenoids. Quantities of carotenoids in diet are difficult to estimate, partly because methods used for the establishment of food composition tables were not specific and sensitive enough. Also, given values do not always take into account variations due to season and region of culture. Absorption of beta-carotene in humans has been the subject of numerous studies but only very little is known about other carotenoids. In general, absorption depends on bioavailability from the food matrix and solubility in micelles. After absorption through passive diffusion, carotenoids follow the chylomicrons metabolism. They are taken up by the liver and released in the blood stream in lipoproteins (VLDL). Carotenoids with no-substituted beta-ionone cycles (alpha and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) have provitamin A activity. Highest activity has been found for all-trans beta-carotene. Not all steps of vitamin A biosynthesis and metabolism of other carotenoids have been clarified yet. Besides their provitamin A activity, carotenoids have numerous biological functions. They are efficient scavengers of free radicals, particularly of 1O2. In vitro they have been shown to protect LDL. However, results in vivo are inconsistent. Other functions include enhancement of gap junctions, immunomodulation and regulation of enzyme activity involved in carcinogenesis.

  15. Neopterin and Beta-2 Microglobulin Relations to Immunity and Inflammatory Status in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT, β2-microglobulin (β2-M levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM. Methods. Serum NPT and β-2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test. The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts. Results. The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients—group A—being low in 72.8% patients—group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50–12.57 versus 4.99 (2.66–8.28 nmol/L (P<0.05. β-2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71–3.58 and B (2.52 (1.51–3.72 than in the control group 1.75 (1.28–1.96 mg/L, P<0.001. Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens (P<0.05 acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (P<0.05; fibrinogen (P<0.01; and NYHA functional class (P<0.05 and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.05. Conclusions. Neopterin but not β-2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure.

  16. Non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids in atopy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, R

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoids are important derivatives of the human diet and occur in high concentrations in the human organism. Various carotenoids are also present in human breast milk and are transferred to breast-fed children. The alternative to breastfeeding is supplementation with an infant milk formula, but these formulas contain only a limited variety of carotenoids. Our question is: 'What is the function of various carotenoids in human nutrition with a special emphasis on child development and the development of atopy?' In this review, the mechanisms of action of the most important non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and retinoids are discussed. In summary, the combination of carotenoids, especially lycopene, seems to be of great importance, and exclusive usage of β-carotene in infant formula may yield in an increased atopy prevalence mediated in various target organs like the skin, lungs and immune competent cells. We conclude that the determination of novel bioactive metabolites of various carotenoids, at various stages in different organs during atopy development, might be the key to understanding the potential importance of carotenoids on atopy development. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Training Load, Immune Status, and Clinical Outcomes in Young Athletes: A Controlled, Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Blume

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beside positive effects on athlete's health, competitive sport can be linked with an increased risk of illness and injury. Because of high relative increases in training, additional physical and psychological strains, and an earlier specialization and professionalization, adolescent athletes needs an increased attention. Training can alter the immune system by inducing a temporary immunosuppression, finally developing infection symptoms. Previous studies identified Epstein Barr Virus (EBV as potential indicator for the immune status. In addition to the identification of triggering risk factors for recurrent infections, the aim was to determine the interaction between training load, stress sense, immunological parameters, and clinical symptoms.Methods: A controlled, prospective, longitudinal study on young athletes (n = 274, mean age: 13.8 ± 1.5 yrs was conducted between 2010 and 2014. Also 285 controls (students, who did not perform competitive sports, mean age: 14.5 ± 1.9 yrs were recruited. Athletes were examined 3 times each year to determine the effects of stress factors (training load: training hours per week [Th/w] on selected outcome parameters (clinical [susceptibility to infection, WURSS-21: 21-item Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey], immunological, psychological end points. As part of each visit, EBV serostatus and EBV-specific IgG tiers were studied longitudinally as potential immune markers.Results: Athletes (A trained 14.9 ± 5.6 h weekly. Controls (C showed no lower stress levels compared to athletes (p = 0.387. Twelve percent of athletes reported recurrent infections (C: 8.5%, p = 0.153, the presence of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI was achieved in 30.7%. EBV seroprevalence of athletes was 60.3% (C: 56.6%, p = 0.339. Mean EBV-specific IgG titer of athletes was 166 ± 115 U/ml (C: 137 ± 112 U/ml, p = 0.030. With increasing Th/w, higher stress levels were observed (p < 0.001. Analyzes of WURSS

  18. Immunity status in children with Bacilli Chalmette-Guarin addition's: A prospective study in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samileh, Noorbaksh; Ahmad, Siadati; Lida, F.; Farzaneh, A.; Mohammad, N.; Shahnaz, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to determine the immunity status of children with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) lymphadenitis (patient group) and unaffected children (control group) in Iran. We performed this longitudinal case-control study on 75 children between 2 months to 14 years old in Rasool Akram and Markaz Tebbi Hospital, Tehran, Iran during the period of 2 years (2000-2002). Ninety percent of patients had normal immunoglobulin, 10% had low level, 96.1% had normal nitro blue tetrazolium test and 3.9% had lower activity. There was a significant difference in the total lymphocyte CD3,CD8, CD19, CD16/CD56 and natural killers (NK) cell but no significant difference in the CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4 between case (n=75) and control (n=100) groups. Thirty-eight cases with mild lymphoenia, isolated CD4, CD3, CD19, NK cells (CD16/CD56) deficiency in 3 (22%); idiopathic disseminated BCG infection (unknown immunodeficiency type) in 3 (22%) patients were observed. Thirty-eight cases are diagnosed as mild immune deficient without any previous recurrent infections (mild lymphopenia; Isolated CD4; CD3 or CD19 deficiency. Natural killers (CD16/CD56) deficiency in 3 (22%); idiopathic disseminated BCG infection (unknown immunodeficiency type) in 3 (22%) patients. The natural killers (CD16/CD56) deficient cases respond well to 3 antimycobacterial drugs without immunomodulator. Natural killer's cells deficiency not yet reported as a risk factor for progression and complication of BCG infection. All cases of idiopathic disseminated BCG infection (unknown immunodeficiency type) with nonlethal and indulgent BCG infections responded well to needle aspiration and antimycobacterial drugs with immunomodulator (gamma interferon). In cases with multiple and recurrent BCG lymphadenitis without any previous recurrent infection complete immunological studies should be carried out. Most cases with mild immune deficiency usually response well to needle aspiration alone or combine with antimycobacterial drugs. The

  19. Effects of immune supplementation and immune challenge on oxidative status and physiology in a model bird: implications for ecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommenacker, van de J.; Horrocks, N.P.C.; Versteegh, M.A.; Tieleman, B.I.; Komdeur, J.; Matson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    One route to gain insight into the causes and consequences of ecological differentiation is to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms. We explored the relationships between immunological and oxidative status and investigated how birds cope physiologically with the effects of

  20. Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Moï se, Alexander R.; Al-Babili, Salim; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2014-01-01

    precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A recently developed concept that could explain the role of the poly-cis pathway in carotenoid synthesis is that the intermediates of this pathway have additional physiological

  1. Sex-specific life history responses to nymphal diet quality and immune status in a field cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C D; Neyer, A A; Gress, B E

    2014-02-01

    Individual fitness is expected to benefit from earlier maturation at a larger body size and higher body condition. However, poor nutritional quality or high prevalence of disease make this difficult because individuals either cannot acquire sufficient resources or must divert resources to other fitness-related traits such as immunity. Under such conditions, individuals are expected to mature later at a smaller body size and in poorer body condition. Moreover, the juvenile environment can also produce longer-term effects on adult fitness by causing shifts in resource allocation strategies that could alter investment in immune function and affect adult lifespan. We manipulated diet quality and immune status of juvenile Texas field crickets, Gryllus texensis, to investigate how poor developmental conditions affect sex-specific investment in fitness-related traits. As predicted, a poor juvenile diet was related to smaller mass and body size at eclosion in both sexes. However, our results also reveal sexually dimorphic responses to different facets of the rearing environment: female life history decisions are affected more by diet quality, whereas males are affected more by immune status. We suggest that females respond to decreased nutritional income because this threatens their ability to achieve a large adult body size, whereas male fitness is more dependent on reaching adulthood and so they invest in immunity and survival to eclosion. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesschaert, Bart; McFadden, Grant; Hermans, Katleen; Nauwynck, Hans; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2011-06-09

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS) by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. MYXV still has a great impact on European rabbit populations around the world. In contrast, only a single cutaneous lesion, restricted to the point of inoculation, is seen in its natural long-term host, the South-American Sylvilagus brasiliensis and the North-American S. Bachmani. Apart from being detrimental for European rabbits, however, MYXV has also become of interest in human medicine in the last two decades for two reasons. Firstly, due to the strong immune suppressing effects of certain MYXV proteins, several secreted virus-encoded immunomodulators (e.g. Serp-1) are being developed to treat systemic inflammatory syndromes such as cardiovascular disease in humans. Secondly, due to the inherent ability of MYXV to infect a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, the live virus is also being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic to treat human cancer. In this review, an update will be given on the current status of MYXV in rabbits as well as its potential in human medicine in the twenty-first century.

  3. Immune and hormonal status of children at respiratory diseases have been born before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, I.M.

    1997-01-01

    Immune- and hormonal status of preschool healthy children and of those often falling ill with respiratory diseases born of healthy mothers and of those with endocrine disorders before and after Chernobyl accident has been studied. The study has revealed evident deviation from the norm in the immune system and non-specific resistance indices of children from after 1986 and particularly of those living in the radionuclide contaminated areas as well as of children often falling ill. Breaks of correlation between separate hormonal systems have been found too

  4. Carotenoid supplementation and retinoic acid in immunoglobulin A regulation of the gut microbiota dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Fang; Shen, Xinchun; Lin, Dingbo

    2018-04-01

    Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota. The present minireview summarizes the recent findings in the gut microbiota dysbiosis and dysfunction of immunoglobulin A induced by the imbalance of pathogenic bacteria and commensal microbiota. We also propose the potentials of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and astaxanthin, in the improvement of the gut immune system maturation and immunoglobulin A production, and the consequent promotion of the gut health. Impact statement The concept of carotenoid metabolism in the gut health has not been well established in the literature. Here, we review and discuss the roles of retinoic acid and carotenoids, including pro-vitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls in the maturation of the gut immune system and IgA production. This is the first review article about the carotenoid supplements and the metabolites in the regulation of the gut microbiome. We hope this review would provide a new direction for the management of the gut microbiota dysbiosis by application of bioactive carotenoids and the metabolites.

  5. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  6. Carotenoid Intakes, Assessed by food frequency questionnaires are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: Validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report ...

  7. Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: α-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Branton

    's microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain.

  8. Serial Assessment of Immune Status by Circulating CD8+ Effector T Cell Frequencies for Posttransplant Infectious Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Uemoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the role of CD8+ effector T cells for infectious complications, 92 recipients were classified according to the hierarchical clustering of preoperative CD8+CD45 isoforms: Group I was naive, Group II was effector memory, and Group III was effector (E T cell-dominant. The posttransplant infection rates progressively increased from 29% in Group I to 64.3% in Group III recipients. The posttransplant immune status was compared with the pretransplant status, based on the measure (% difference and its graphical form (scatter plot. In Groups I and II, both approaches showed a strong upward deviation from pretransplant status upon posttransplant infection, indicating an enhanced clearance of pathogens. In Group III, in contrast, both approaches showed a clear downward deviation from preoperative status, indicating deficient cytotoxicity. The % E difference and scatter plot can be used as a useful indicator of a posttransplant infectious complication.

  9. Immunization status of Iranian military recruits against Bordetella pertussis infection (whooping cough).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Ranjbar, Reza; Gooya, Mohammad Mahdi; Robat Sarpooshi, Javad; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Soheylipoor, Hamid

    2011-03-21

    Military recruits are susceptible to respiratory pathogens because of increased antibiotic resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine. The goal of the current study was to determine the immunological status of the Bordetella pertussis among conscripts in Iranian military garrisons. The study population consisted of 424 conscripts aged 18 to 21 years who enrolled for military service. They were selected using cluster stratified sampling from all military garrisons in Tehra, Iran. To determine the seroprevalence of infection, blood specimens from all recruits were collected and stored at - 20 °C until assayed. All serum samples were screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Bordetella pertussis toxin (PT) and by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of B. pertussis seropositivity in military recruits was 60.6. Only 55.0% of the recruits had low awareness about the record of vaccination against B. pertussis during childhood. Among 424 studied individuals, 48 recruits (11.3%) had a positive history of whooping cough; prevalence of seropositivity in these recruits was 70.0%. Among these subjects, 61.7% were referred to a physician for treatment and only 39.6% of them were administered anti-pertussis therapy. Our study showed that military conscripts in Tehran garrisons were not serologically immune to pertussis and also confirmed the low awareness about vaccination and medical history related to pertussis infection in this high-risk subgroup of the Iranian population. Routine acellular booster vaccination, particularly before 18 years of age, is recommended.

  10. [Study on the immunization status and its influencing factors among workers from the polio network laboratories in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y S; Wang, J Q; Xu, C; Liu, Y N; He, X H; Wei, Q

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To Investigate the immune status and influencing factors of provincial polio network laboratory (PNL) workers in China so as to provide evidence for the development of related strategies to protect personnel working at the PNLs. Methods: All the practitioners from the PNLs at the provincial centers for disease control, were selected as objects for this study, from October to December, 2016, under a questionnaire survey. Information on status of immunity and influencing factors was collected, with SAS software, trend chi-square used for statistics analysis. Results: A total of 77 workers were involved in this survey, with 60 (78 % ) of them completed the polio-based immune program but the rest 17 (22 % ) remained records unclear. 66 people (about 86 % ) remembered clearly that they had received vaccination when engaging in the polio-lab work, but the rest 11 (14 % ) with only partial vaccination records. We also noticed that the Influencing factors realted to vaccination status were: age ( χ (2)=2.48, P polio-related vaccination, with 41 % of them completed a 3-time inoculation program, when started working in this field.

  11. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

    2012-02-01

    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mothers’ Characteristics and Immunization Status of Under-Five Children in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lekan Oyefara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunization is a key element of public health, a pre-requisite to social and economic development, and a crucial element that enables every child to reach his or her full physical and intellectual potential. It is a prevention against various child killer diseases such as tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette Gurine [BCG], tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, yellow fever, and measles. The main objective of this study is to examine the relationships between household characteristics, social mobilization, and immunization status of under-5 children in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, a non-experimental research design was adopted. The research method utilized in the design is cross-sectional survey. The sampled study location is Ojo local government area of Lagos State. A total of 265 respondents were randomly sampled for the survey using multistage random sampling technique. Generated data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques. The findings of the study reveal significant relationship between women’s level of education and full immunization of their children. Specifically, 38.9% of women without any formal education had fully immunized their children compared with 86.9% of women with secondary education. In addition, 90.9% of women who assessed themselves to be average on wealth assessment compared with 45.3% of the poor had fully immunized their children. On the basis of the study’s findings, there is a need for a holistic approach that will involve all social classes and communities on child immunization to have 100% immunization coverage and minimal child morbidity and mortality in all areas of the city.

  14. Potential production of carotenoids from Neurospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PRIATNI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Priatni S. 2014. Review: Potential production of carotenoids from Neurospora. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 63-68. Carotenoids are abundant and widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. Commercial use of carotenoids competes between microorganisms and synthetic manufacture. Carotenoids production can be increased by improving the efficiency of carotenoid synthesis in microbes. Some of the cultural and environmental stimulants are positively affecting the carotenoid content of carotenogenic strains such as Neurospora. Neurospora is a fungus that exhibits the formation of spores and conidia, the part of the cell for carotenoids biosynthesis. The Indonesian traditional fermented food, red peanut cake or oncom, especially in West Java, is produced from legume residues of Neurospora sp. This fungus has been isolated and identified as Neurospora intermedia. In order to apply this pigment for food and cosmetic colorants, encapsulation techniques of carotenoids have been developed to improve its solubility and stability.

  15. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological

  16. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Enteral Combined with Parenteral Nutrition Treatment for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Immune Function, Nutritional Status and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong

    2016-11-20

    Objective To compare the conjoint effect of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) with single EN or PN on immune function, nutritional status, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods A prospective randomized control trial was carried out from January 2009 to May 2012 in Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Patients of STBI who met the enrolment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale score 6~8; Nutritional Risk Screening ≥3) were randomly divided into 3 groups and were admi- nistrated EN, PN or EN+PN treatments respectively. The indexes of nutritional status, immune function, complications and clinical outcomes were examined and compared statistically. Results There were 120 patients enrolled in the study, with 40 pationts in each group. In EN+PN group, T lymthocyte subsets CD3+%, CD4+%, ratio of CD3+/CD25+, ratio of CD4+/CD8+, the plasma levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG at 20 days after nutritional treatment were significantly increased compared to the baseline(t=4.32-30.00, Pnutritional status, the serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin and hemoglobin were significantly higher in the EN (t=5.87-11.91; Pnutrition treatment. The serum prealbumin was higher in EN+PN group than that in EN group (t=2.08; Pnutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  18. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiesschaert Bart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. MYXV still has a great impact on European rabbit populations around the world. In contrast, only a single cutaneous lesion, restricted to the point of inoculation, is seen in its natural long-term host, the South-American Sylvilagus brasiliensis and the North-American S. Bachmani. Apart from being detrimental for European rabbits, however, MYXV has also become of interest in human medicine in the last two decades for two reasons. Firstly, due to the strong immune suppressing effects of certain MYXV proteins, several secreted virus-encoded immunomodulators (e.g. Serp-1 are being developed to treat systemic inflammatory syndromes such as cardiovascular disease in humans. Secondly, due to the inherent ability of MYXV to infect a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, the live virus is also being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic to treat human cancer. In this review, an update will be given on the current status of MYXV in rabbits as well as its potential in human medicine in the twenty-first century. Table of contents Abstract 1. The virus 2. History 3. Pathogenesis and disease symptoms 4. Immunomodulatory proteins of MYXV 4.1. MYXV proteins with anti-apoptotic functions 4.1.1. Inhibition of pro-apoptotic molecules 4.1.2. Inhibition by protein-protein interactions by ankyrin repeat viral proteins 4.1.3. Inhibition of apoptosis by enhancing the degradation of cellular proteins 4.1.4. Inhibition of apoptosis by blocking host Protein Kinase R (PKR 4

  19. Dscam1 in Pancrustacean Immunity: Current Status and a Look to the Future

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    Sophie A. O. Armitage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1 gene is an extraordinary example of diversity: by combining alternatively spliced exons, thousands of isoforms can be produced from just one gene. So far, such diversity in this gene has only been found in insects and crustaceans, and its essential part in neural wiring has been well-characterized for Drosophila melanogaster. Ten years ago evidence from D. melanogaster showed that the Dscam1 gene is involved in insect immune defense and work on Anopheles gambiae indicated that it is a hypervariable immune receptor. These exciting findings showed that via processes of somatic diversification insects have the possibility to produce unexpected immune molecule diversity, and it was hypothesized that Dscam1 could provide the mechanistic underpinnings of specific immune responses. Since these first publications the quest to understand the function of this gene has uncovered fascinating insights from insects and crustaceans. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of how Dscam1 functions in relation to parasites and pathogens and its full relevance for the immune system. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we first briefly introduce Dscam1 and what we know so far about how it might function in immunity. By focusing on seven questions, we then share our sometimes contrasting thoughts on what the evidence tells us so far, what essential experiments remain to be done, and the future prospects, with the aim to provide a multiangled view on what this fascinating gene has to do with immune defense.

  20. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  1. [Effect of Supportan on nutritional status and immune function of late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-jun; Ying, Jie-er; Ma, Sheng-lin

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Supportan, an enteral nutrition (EN) specific for tumor patients, on the nutritional status and immune function of late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Sixty-six late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were randomly divided into EN group (n=33) and control group (n=33). During chemotherapy, the patients in EN group received Supportan and the patients in the control group received basic diet. On the 14th day before chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, nutritional status and cell immune indicators were evaluated. As for nutrition indicators, there were no significant differences in EN group before and after chemotherapy (P > 0.05). Total protein, hemoglobin, prealbumin and transferrin significantly decreased after chemotherapy compared with those before chemotherapy in the control group (Pnutrition in EN group were superior to that in the control group, however, the differences were not statistically significant. The incidences of nausea, vomiting and marrow inhibition in Supportan group was lower compared with those in the control group, but with no significant difference. Supportan can prevent malnutrition of the late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and improve immune function and alleviate adverse effects of chemotherapy.

  2. Immune Status and Epidemiological Characteristics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroconverters in Korea, 1999–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Sook; Kim, Na-young; Sim, Hyo Jung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The detection of HIV seroconverters increased annually since HIV antigen/antibody testing kits have been available widely in South Korea. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of HIV seroconverters and their immune level at HIV diagnosis. Method We analyzed the epidemiological and immunological characteristics of 341 HIV seroconverters among 6,008 HIV-diagnosed individuals from 1999 and 2009. The analysis of immune level and epidemiological factors of HIV...

  3. STATUS OF THE IMMUNITY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS’S PHARYNGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognivenko E.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory and immunostimulatory drugs present the greatest interest in treating such patients and the rehabilitation of their immune system. Today, a wide clinical application has Polioksidonium (Petrovax Pharm, which has a wide range of influence on the immune system. There are studies proving the effectiveness of Polioksidonium treatment of inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, chronic inflammatory process in pharyngeal plexus. Material and methods. We observed 62 patients on chronic staphylococcus’s pharyngitis in age from 21 to 45 years, who were treated in the communal health institution "Kharkiv city hospital № 6". The first group (basic group amounted to 32 patients, together with anti-inflammatory therapy (topical Decatilen 1 tablet 3 times daily for 7 days, physiotherapy for 5 days, was obtained Polioksidonium (12 mg every 24 hours per os for 10 days. The second group (control group consisted of 30 patients who received similar therapy without Polioksidonium. Clinical, microbiological, immunological studies were performed before the treatment, at 7 and 30 days after the end of the therapy. As indicators of standards the results of 30 healthy individuals were used. Immunological studies included the determination of the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, their biocidity, opsonizing properties serum titers of antibodies to the causative infectious agents, concentrations of the major classes of immunoglobulins in saliva and serum. Results and discussion. Before the treatment the patients showed complaints to pain and irritation in a throat, feeling of a foreign matter in a throat, dry cough and low-grade fever. Microbiological examination of oropharyngeal secretions ChFh patients revealed a 34 % S. pneumonia, at 24 % - S.aureus. Microbial associations were sown in 45 % of the cases. Immunological studies have shown that patients with chronic staphylococcus’s pharyngitis of increasing concentrations

  4. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  5. Effect of citric acid, avilamycin, and their combination on the performance, tibia ash, and immune status of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, R; Islam, K M S; Khan, M J; Karim, M R; Haque, M N; Khatun, M; Pesti, G M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the supplementation of an organic acid (citric acid), antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin), and their combination for a period of 35 d on the growth, feed efficiency, carcass yield, tibia ash, and immune status of broilers. One hundred sixty 1-d-old broiler chicks (Hubbard Classic) were randomly distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicate cages having 10 birds in each. A corn-soybean-based diet was used as the basal diet (control). The basal diet was supplemented with an organic acid (citric acid, 0.5%), an antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin, 0.001%), and their combination in other groups. The highest BW was attained in citric acid-fed chicks (1,318 g), which was significantly (P 0.05). Total feed intake was higher in citric acid-fed chicks compared with antibiotic-supplemented chicks. The addition of citric acid improved feed conversion efficiency (g of weight gain/ kg of feed intake) significantly (P ash percentage significantly (P ash, and immune status of broilers. Therefore, citric acid might be a useful additive instead of antibiotic growth promoters such as avilamycin, considering performance and health status of broilers.

  6. Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids by the Enterocyte: Focus on Transport Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Reboul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of intestinal vitamin A absorption is a key step in this direction. It was long thought that β-carotene (the main provitamin A carotenoid in human diet, and thus all carotenoids, were absorbed by a passive diffusion process, and that preformed vitamin A (retinol absorption occurred via an unidentified energy-dependent transporter. The discovery of proteins able to facilitate carotenoid uptake and secretion by the enterocyte during the past decade has challenged established assumptions, and the elucidation of the mechanisms of retinol intestinal absorption is in progress. After an overview of vitamin A and carotenoid fate during gastro-duodenal digestion, our focus will be directed to the putative or identified proteins participating in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte (i.e., Scavenger Receptors or Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins, among others. Further progress in the identification of the proteins involved in intestinal transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte is of major importance for optimizing their bioavailability.

  7. Effects of carotenoids on lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quentin R; Mostofian, Barmak; Fuente Gomez, Gabriel; Smith, Jeremy C; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2018-01-31

    Carotenoids have been found to be important in improving the integrity of biomembranes in eukaryotes. However, the molecular details of how carotenoids modulate the physical properties of biomembranes are unknown. To this end, we have conducted a series of molecular dynamics simulations of different biologically-relevant membranes in the presence of carotenoids. The carotenoid effect on the membrane was found to be specific to the identity of the carotenoid and the composition of the membrane itself. Therefore, different classes of carotenoids produce a different effect on the membrane, and different membrane phases are affected differently by carotenoids. It is apparent from our data that carotenoids do trigger the bilayer to become thinner. The mechanism by which this occurs depends on two competing factors, the ability of the lipid tails of opposing monolayers to either (1) compress or (2) interdigitate as the bilayer condenses. Indeed, carotenoids directly influence the physical properties via these two mechanisms, thus compacting the bilayer. However, the degree to which these competing mechanisms are utilized depends on the bilayer phase and the carotenoid identity.

  8. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  9. Immunization Status Against Hepatitis B Among Iranian Junior Medical, Nursing, and Obstetrics Students With Different Vaccination Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the protection time by hepatitis B (HB vaccination is unclear, the strategy of immunization of junior students who previously received hepatitis vaccine is controversial. Objectives This study aimed to determine the status of immunity to hepatitis B in junior medical, nursing and obstetrics students with different hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination patterns. Patients and Methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, 255 junior medical sciences students were tested for quantitative antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs. The proportion of protective immunity was compared in different vaccination patterns. Results Vaccination coverage rates were 74.1%. About half the participants didn’t show serological evidence of protective immunity; 68.9% had their last shot more than 10 years ago and 30.4% had a vaccination history of five years or less (P < 0.001. Geometric mean level of anti-HBs titer among students, who had received a primary series vaccine at birth, was significantly lower than students who had started vaccination at an older age (P < 0.001. Also, analysis of variance for geometric mean of anti-HBs titer showed significant differences between groups based on injection time from the last shot (P < 0.001 (post hoc comparisons resulted in a P value of < 0.001 for birth versus < 5 year group, and P < 0.001 for the 5 to 10 year group. The lowest rate of non-protective level belonged to participants with complete three doses and a booster additional shot (27.1%. The final model for independent predictors of anti-HBs positive status was made by a binary logistic regression analysis. The model included presence of a booster dose, injection time from last shot, and discipline of study. Conclusions This study shows lower anti-HBs among students who were vaccinated at infancy compared to those vaccinated at older childhood or adolescence. Also, subsequent measurement of anti-HBs level at the time of entrance to

  10. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic inflammation, nutritional status and tumor immune microenvironment determine outcome of resected non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Marco Alifano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypothesizing that nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment play a role as determinants of lung cancer evolution, the purpose of this study was to assess their respective impact on long-term survival in resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinical, pathological and laboratory data of 303 patients surgically treated for NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed. C-reactive protein (CRP and prealbumin levels were recorded, and tumoral infiltration by CD8+ lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells was assessed. We observed that factors related to nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment were correlated; significant correlations were also found between these factors and other relevant clinical-pathological parameters. With respect to outcome, at univariate analysis we found statistically significant associations between survival and the following variables: Karnofsky index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class, CRP levels, prealbumin concentrations, extent of resection, pathologic stage, pT and pN parameters, presence of vascular emboli, and tumoral infiltration by either CD8+ lymphocytes or mature dendritic cells and, among adenocarcinoma type, tumor grade (all p285 mg/L prealbumin levels and high (>96/mm2 CD8+ cell count had a 5-year survival rate of 80% [60.9-91.1] as compared to 18% [7.9-35.6] in patients with an opposite pattern of values. When stages I-II were considered alone, the prognostic significance of these factors was even more pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that nutrition, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune contexture are prognostic determinants that, taken together, may predict outcome.

  12. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  13. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  14. Occurrence and biosynthesis of carotenoids in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jim Junhui; Lin, Shaoling; Xu, Wenwen; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. The carotenoids that accumulate in particular phytoplankton phyla are synthesized by specific enzymes and play unique physiological roles. This review focuses on studies related to the occurrence of carotenoids in different phytoplankton phyla and the molecular aspects of their biosynthesis. Recent biotechnological advances in the isolation and characterization of some representative carotenoid synthases in phytoplankton are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carotenoids content and sunlight susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppezzo, Oscar J.; Costa, Cristina; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An environmental pink pigmented bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Pigmentation mutants were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. Pigments present in the wild type strain (RMB90), in a pale yellow mutant (RMB91) and in two mutants exhibiting increased pigmentation (RMB92 and RMB93), were extracted with chloroform-methanol and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Survival of these strains after exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation from artificial sources was studied under different physiological and irradiation conditions. The ability of RMB91 to survive sunlight exposure was reduced with respect to that of RMB90. Resistance was similar in both strains when bacteria grew in the presence of a carotenoid synthesis inhibitor, which had no effect on survival of RMB91. Reduced sunlight resistance in RMB91 was also observed during irradiations under N2. Using artificial radiation sources, non pigmented bacteria were less resistant to UVA, but not to UVB or UVC. Lethal effects of sunlight and UVA on RMB92 and RMB93 were increased with respect to the wild type strain. Carotenoids protect Rhodococcus sp against deleterious effects of sunlight. In non-photosynthetic bacteria studied to date, photo protection by carotenoids was dependent on [O 2 ]. This is not the case with Rhodococcus sp RMB90, suggesting the occurrence of a different mechanism for protection. UVA radiation seems to playa key role in photo-damage. (author)

  16. Current status of research on radiation hormesis in the immune system after low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    The paper highlights the chief results of experimental studies recently carried out in the author's laboratory on the stimulatory effects of low level radiation on immunity. The intercellular relationship within the immune system after whole-body irradiation (WBI) with low doses of X- and gamma-rays was briefly outlined with the emphasis on the potential effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on the helper T cells which was thought to occupy a pivotal position in the process of immuno-stimulation. Data suggesting the facilitation by LDR of the signal transduction process within the T cells were presented. Some hypotheses prevailing in the literature for the explanation of the stimulatory effect of LDR were critically evaluated. Existing experimental data both from the literature and from the author's laboratory were analysed giving no strong support to the speculation of either the preferential deletion of the radiosensitive suppressor T subset or the increased apoptosis of the T cell 'precursors' in the thymus leading to secondary immunologic augmentation by low doses which stimulate immune functions. The possible influence of systemic changes, especially those in the neuroendocrine regulation, on the T cell potentiation following LDR was suggested. Finally the biological implications of the hermetic effects of LDR were discussed

  17. Biosynthesis of porphyrins and immune status of children and teenagers exposed to irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubina, L.A.; Shavrova, Ye.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Vinnik, L.M.; Kuchinskaya, E.A.; Khmelevskaya, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Immunological indices and porphyrins levels were studied in children of various ages living on the radionuclide contaminated territories. A reliable reduction of medium levels of proto- and coproporphyrins in erythrocytes of children and teenagers with the thyroid gland pathologies from radio contaminated regions was revealed. The lowest level of porphyrins was observed in children with thyroid neoplasm. The state of immune system of children with thyroid pathology was characterized by decreasing content of T-lymphocytes production and by stimulation of B-lymphocytes generation despite of the type of thyroid gland disease. Maximal changes of both porphyrins metabolism and T- and B-immune system were registered in children from the Stolin District of the Brest Region with increasing amount of incorporated cesium 137. It could be due to the complex of radio ecological factors. In another investigated groups a correlation between the immune parameters and porphyrins level from the one hand and the level of radionuclide contamination or absorbed amount of cesium 137 in organism from the other hand was not obtained

  18. Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Phillip G; Silla, Aimee J

    2017-03-01

    The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chromatin status of apoptosis genes correlates with sensitivity to chemo-, immune- and radiation therapy in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Anne; Janssen, Connie M; van den Elsen, Peter J; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; Hoon, Dave S B; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2014-12-01

    The apoptosis pathway of programmed cell death is frequently deregulated in cancer. An intact apoptosis pathway is required for proper response to anti-cancer treatment. We investigated the chromatin status of key apoptosis genes in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal cancer cell lines in relation to apoptosis induced by chemo-, immune- or radiation therapy. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we measured the presence of transcription-activating histone modifications H3Ac and H3K4me3 and silencing modifications H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 at the gene promoter regions of key apoptosis genes Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9, Fas (CD95) and p53. Cell lines DLD1, SW620, Colo320, Caco2, Lovo and HT29 were treated with cisplatin, anti-Fas or radiation. The apoptotic response was measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and annexin V-FITC. The chromatin status of the apoptosis genes reflected the activation status of the intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9 and p53) and extrinsic (Fas) pathways. An active intrinsic apoptotic pathway corresponded to sensitivity to cisplatin and radiation treatment of cell lines DLD1, SW620 and Colo320. An active Fas promoter corresponded to an active extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cell line DLD1. mRNA expression data correlated with the chromatin status of the apoptosis genes as measured by ChIP. In conclusion, the results presented in this study indicate that the balance between activating and silencing histone modifications, reflecting the chromatin status of apoptosis genes, can be used to predict the response of tumor cells to different anti-cancer therapies and could provide a novel target to sensitize tumors to obtain adequate treatment responses.

  20. Determinants of DHA status and functional effects on metabolic markers and immune modulation in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    Optimal intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during infancy and early childhood is not known and only a few studies have examined to what extend docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status is affected by endogenous synthesis from α-linolenic acid relative to the influence of dietary...... intake and other potential determinants in infancy and childhood. The first part of the PhD thesis describes several potential determinants of infant and young child DHA status including genetic variation in FADS, breastfeeding and fish intake. Results can be found in Paper 1. Evidence for effects of n-3...

  1. Long-term tryptophan supplementation decreased the welfare and innate immune status of pikeperch juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N. M.; Redivo, Baptiste; Baekelandt, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    was slowed by the long- term dietary TRP in association to an increase in FCR values. The available results indicate that long-term TRP supplementation has negative impact on the overall welfare status of pikeperch. Other analyses are ongoing and more results concerning key- brain neurotransmitters...

  2. Interaction between sexual steroids and immune response in affecting oxidative status of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Costantini, David; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    One hypothesis explaining the honesty of secondary sexual traits regulated by testosterone (T) is that T can impair the balance between pro-oxidant compounds and antioxidant defences, favouring a status of oxidative stress that only good quality individuals can sustain (oxidative handicap

  3. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  4. Relationship of aging and nutritional status to innate immunity in tube-fed bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Tashiro, Tomoe; Yamamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Katayose, Kozo; Kohga, Shin; Takase, Mitsunori; Imawari, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Aging and malnutrition are known to influence immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of aging and malnutrition to innate immune functions in tube-fed bedridden patients. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 71 tube-fed bedridden patients aged 50-95 years (mean age±SD, 80.2±8.5 years) with serum albumin concentrations between 2.5 and 3.5 g/dL. We evaluated associations of age and nutritional variables with natural-killer cell activity, neutrophilphagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity. Nutritional variables included body mass index, weightadjusted energy intake, total lymphocyte count, and serum concentrations of albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and zinc. Natural-killer cell activity, neutrophil-phagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity were normal or increased in 67 (94%), 63 (89%), and 69 (97%) patients, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis with a backward elimination method showed that natural-killer cell activity correlated negatively with aging and lymphocyte counts (pbedridden patients with hypo-albuminemia, natural-killer cell activity may be associated with aging, body mass index, transferrin, and lymphocyte counts.

  5. Vitamin D3 affects innate immune status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, M; Guardiola, F A; Vazzana, M; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A; Cammarata, M

    2017-08-01

    The effects of vitamin D 3 dietary administration on certain innate immune parameters on the expression of immune-related genes in head-kidney (HK) and gut were investigated in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Vitamin D 3 (vD 3 ) was orally administered to fish in a commercial pellet food supplemented with 0 (control); 3750; 18,750; or 37,500 U kg -1 . Furthermore, gut histology was considered. This study showed a modulation in the activities examined in fish fed with the addition of vD 3 . After just 2 weeks of administration, diet supplementation with the vitamin resulted in increased phagocytic ability, while serum peroxidase content was increased in fish fed with all experimental diets after 4 weeks, no significant differences were observed in protease, anti-protease, natural haemolytic complement activities and total IgM level. At gene level, fbl and rbl transcripts were up-regulated in HK in fish fed with the highest concentration of vD 3 -supplemented diets after 4 weeks, while in the gut, an up-regulation of hep gene was observed in fish fed with the different doses of vD 3 . These results suggest that vD 3 may be of great interest for immunostimulatory purposes in fish farms.

  6. The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Meltem; Carman, Kursat Bora; Kilic, Omer; Laciner Gurlevik, Sibel; Yarar, Coskun; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. 12 children (3.6%) had not received vaccines; only two had true contraindications. Because most of the vaccines have been implemented through the NIP for 10 years in Turkey, 88% of children required these new vaccines or booster doses. Moreover, 86.6% of the children and 92.6% of household contacts had no prior history of influenza vaccine. Furthermore, 88% of the patients had not received the varicella vaccine, and the anti-varicella IgG levels were only negative in 27.9%. In addition, 18.6% of the children were negative for anti-mumps IgG, 23.7% for anti-measles IgG, and 6.3% for anti-rubella IgG. Anti-HBs IgG level was 0-10 IU/L in 45.6% of the patients (most of them previously vaccinated) and 79.8% were negative for hepatitis A IgG antibodies. For pertussis infection, the antibody titers of 54.1% of patients were below the protective level, and 10% of patients had a prior acute pertussis infection. Therefore, it is suggested that children with CND should be evaluated for their vaccination status during their first and follow-up visits at certain intervals, and their primary immunization should be completed; moreover, many will need revaccination or booster doses.

  7. [Evaluation of immune status of kidney transplant recipients by combined HLA-G5 and sCD30].

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIN, Zhan-kui; TIAN, Pu-xun; XUE, Wu-jun; DING, Xiao-ming; PAN, Xiao-ming; DING, Chen-guang; JIA, Li-ning; GE, Guan-qun; HAO, Jun-jun

    2010-09-28

    to study the relationship between the expression of serum human leucocyte antigen-G5 (HLA-G5)/soluble CD30 (sCD30) and the function of renal graft in kidney transplant recipients and investigate the immune status of recipients with combined HLA-G5 and sCD30. from January 2002 to November 2008, a total of 66 kidney transplant recipients in our centre were selected as subjects and divided into three groups: stable function of renal graft (n = 38), acute rejection (n = 15) and chronic rejection (n = 13). The expressions of serum HLA-G5 and sCD30 were detected. There were two different immune conditions with acute/chronic allograft rejection and normal renal graft in kidney transplant recipients as evaluated by combined HLA-G5 and sCD30. The sensitivity, specificity and critical value of the method were analyzed by the curve of receiver operating characteristic. the levels of HLA-G5 and sCD30 were significantly correlated with serum creatinine (r = -0.493, 0.691, both P transplantation, the sensitivity was 78.6% and the specificity 85.7% when HLA-G5 critical value 82 microg/L and sCD30 critical value 12.2 microg/L. After one year post-transplantation: the sensitivity was 92.3% and the specificity 84.6% when HLA-G5 critical value 141 microg/L and sCD30 critical value 10.3 microg/L. the immune state of recipients are evaluated by combine HLA-G5 and sCD30 which may be a simple and valid method.

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Impact of mineral and vitamin status on beef cattle immune function and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Ball, J J; Beck, P A

    2016-12-01

    The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress (weaning, transport, comingling, etc.), when feed intake is reduced. The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle, high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers. Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system. However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds (and hence

  9. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  10. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  11. Multiple effects of theobromine on fetus development and postnatal status of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorostowska-Wynimko, J; Skopińska-Rózewska, E; Sommer, E; Rogala, E; Skopiński, P; Wojtasik, E

    2004-01-01

    Caffeine and its active derivative, theobromine, are probably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substances. Considering their uninhibited transport via the placental barrier as well as immature enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways in embryos and infants resulting in the longer half-life of methyloxanthines and their accumulation, unrestrained uptake of these substances might result in noticeably more pronounced biological effects during pregnancy and the postnatal period. Our previous studies have shown that methyloxanthines are significant inhibitors of angiogenic growth factors production and angiogenesis itself. We have hypothesized that increased uptake of these substances might affect embryonal angiogenesis and, later in the postnatal period, maturation and functional activity of the offspring's immune system. The study was performed on 2-month-old Balb/c mice fed theobromine 2 or 6 mg/day during pregnancy and lactation. On day 18 of pregnancy the number and weight of embryos were assessed as was their tissue angiogenic activity, using the cutaneous angiogenesis assay. In the group of 4-week-old sucklings, body and spleen were weighed together with the trunk, and tail and limb length were measured. Six weeks after birth the splenocytes' mitogen-induced activity and their ability to induce graft-versus-host reaction as well as the humoral response to SRBC antigen were evaluated. Content of theobromine in the embryos' tissue was estimated by high liquid performance chromatography (HPLC). Theobromine feeding resulted in significant inhibition of embryo growth as assessed by their weight and decreased angiogenic activity of their tissue. The theobromine content in embryo tissue from treated groups was higher than in the controls, and the difference was close to significant. In the postnatal period the discrepancies in the treated 4-week-old group's development were also observed in the significantly shorter limbs in comparison to the

  12. Carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma : Antioxidant activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this work was to establish the stability and antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained through different techniques for recovering carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma NRRL-Y 17268. The best conditions for extracting carotenoids through cell rupture with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were found to be a ...

  13. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  14. Features of immune status in athletes specializing in rowing and handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is perfromed at the department of the hospital therapy GPMU, laboratory of llergiology and immunology of the research-practical Center of Dental faculty of SpbGMU named after I. Р. Pavlov. State of cellular and humoral immunity at the beginning and at the end of the training year of 15-17 years old young sportsmen of the first level and candidates masters of sports involved in an academic rowing and handball was studied. The athletes of both groups showed significant improvements as compared to the persons not involved in sports, lymphocyte apoptosis inducers (CD95+, the natural killer cells (CD16 + and B-lymphocytes (CD20 + . Over time, in the athletes, regardless the sport, unidirectional changes are detected, encompassing the enhancing of the relative number of CD25+ with receptors for IL2, and immunoglobulin levels.

  15. CORRECTION OF IMMUNE STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENTLY RECURRENT INFECTIONS WITH COMPLEX PERORAL VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Chernikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of drugs proposes some new medicines which are labeled by manufacturers as immunomodulating agents. Most of them are not licensed and they have no any evidence of their efficacy. In opposite, non-specific ribosomal modulator (Ribomunyl is the wellstudied drug with good database on its efficacy and safety. The article presents a description of drug’s effect on the immune system of a child for increase of organism’s resistance to the most widespread causative agents of infections of ENT-organs and airways.Key words: children, respiratory infections, recurrent course, immunomodulators, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 92–96

  16. Immunity status of foot-and-mouth disease in the border districts of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, K.; Daud, Z.M.; Seri Masran, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A serological survey for the prevalence of protective level of antibody to Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was carried out in 10 border districts in Peninsular Malaysia. A liquid phase blocking ELISA kit prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for the testing. A total of 800 serum samples collected by a random process were tested for protective level of antibody for virus types O, A and Asia I. An overall mean prevalence for antibody to FMD in the 'immune-belt' region was found to be 51.0%, 37.3%, 53.6% for virus types Q, A, and Asia I respectively and 28.9% for all the three sero-types. The percentage of cattle population having protective level of antibody was too low to prevent active spread of FMD infection. There was also substantial variation in the prevalence of antibody detected at the district level and varied from a low mean of 18.8% for the State of Kedah and a high of 67.5% for the district of Besut. More than 70% of the population need to have protective level of antibody to effectively prevent disease spread. The States of Kedah and Kelantan had variable levels of vaccination coverage from 1994 and had less than 45% coverage for the year 1996. A coverage of more than 90% would be essential to maintain high herd immunity and the current high variability in the vaccination coverage at the district level will only favour a higher infection on rate in the field. (author)

  17. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  18. Assessment of leaf carotenoids content with a new carotenoid index: Development and validation on experimental and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Dong, Yingying; Casa, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Leaf carotenoids content (LCar) is an important indicator of plant physiological status. Accurate estimation of LCar provides valuable insight into early detection of stress in vegetation. With spectroscopy techniques, a semi-empirical approach based on spectral indices was extensively used for carotenoids content estimation. However, established spectral indices for carotenoids that generally rely on limited measured data, might lack predictive accuracy for carotenoids estimation in various species and at different growth stages. In this study, we propose a new carotenoid index (CARI) for LCar assessment based on a large synthetic dataset simulated from the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5, and evaluate its capability with both simulated data from PROSPECT-5 and 4SAIL and extensive experimental datasets: the ANGERS dataset and experimental data acquired in field experiments in China in 2004. Results show that CARI was the index most linearly correlated with carotenoids content at the leaf level using a synthetic dataset (R2 = 0.943, RMSE = 1.196 μg/cm2), compared with published spectral indices. Cross-validation results with CARI using ANGERS data achieved quite an accurate estimation (R2 = 0.545, RMSE = 3.413 μg/cm2), though the RBRI performed as the best index (R2 = 0.727, RMSE = 2.640 μg/cm2). CARI also showed good accuracy (R2 = 0.639, RMSE = 1.520 μg/cm2) for LCar assessment with leaf level field survey data, though PRI performed better (R2 = 0.710, RMSE = 1.369 μg/cm2). Whereas RBRI, PRI and other assessed spectral indices showed a good performance for a given dataset, overall their estimation accuracy was not consistent across all datasets used in this study. Conversely CARI was more robust showing good results in all datasets. Further assessment of LCar with simulated and measured canopy reflectance data indicated that CARI might not be very sensitive to LCar changes at low leaf area index (LAI) value, and in these conditions soil moisture

  19. Immune status, antibiotic medication and pH are associated with changes in the stomach fluid microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, Erik C; Song, Yang; White, James R; Maddox, Cynthia; Blanchard, Thomas; Fricke, W Florian

    2013-07-01

    The stomach acts as a barrier to ingested microbes, thereby influencing the microbial ecology of the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The stomach microbiota and the role of human host and environmental factors, such as health status or medications, in shaping its composition remain largely unknown. We sought to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiota in the stomach fluid in order to gain insights into the role of the stomach in GI homeostasis. Gastric fluid was collected from 25 patients undergoing clinically indicated upper endoscopy. DNA isolates were used for PCR amplification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and fungal internal transcribed spacers (ITS). RNA isolates were used for 16S rRNA cDNA generation and subsequent PCR amplification. While all stomach fluid samples are dominated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria (>99% of sequence reads), the transcriptionally active microbiota shows significant reduction in Actinobacteria (34%) and increase in Campylobacter (444%) (PpH >4 (70%; P<0.05). Immunosuppression correlates with decreased abundance of Prevotella (24%), Fusobacterium (2%) and Leptotrichia (6%) and increased abundance of Lactobacillus (3844%) (P<0.003). We have generated the first in-depth characterization of the human gastric fluid microbiota, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene and transcript, and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing and provide evidence for a significant impact of the host immune status on its composition with likely consequences for human health.

  20. Effects of Protein-Iron Complex Concentrate Supplementation on Iron Metabolism, Oxidative and Immune Status in Preweaning Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kupczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding protein-iron complex (PIC on productive performance and indicators of iron metabolism, hematology parameters, antioxidant and immune status during first 35 days of a calf’s life. Preparation of the complex involved enzymatic hydrolysis of milk casein (serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Iron chloride was then added to the hydrolyzate and lyophilizate. Calves were divided into treated groups: LFe (low iron dose 10 g/day calf of protein-iron complex, HFe (height iron dose 20 g/day calf, and control group. Dietary supplements containing the lower dose of concentrate had a significant positive effect on iron metabolism, while the higher dose of concentrate resulted in increase of total iron binding capacity (TIBC, saturation of transferrin and decrease of and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC, which suggest iron overload. Additionally, treatment with the lower dose of iron remarkably increased the antioxidant parameters, mainly total antioxidant (TAS and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Higher doses of PIC were related to lower total antioxidant status. IgG, IgM, insulin, glucose, TNFα and IGF-1 concentration did not change significantly in either group after supplementation. In practice, the use of protein-iron complex concentrate requires taking into account the iron content in milk replacers and other feedstuffs.

  1. Optimisation of the zinc sulphate turbidity test for the determination of immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, I; Doherty, M; Fagan, J; Kennedy, E; Conneely, M; Crowe, B; Lorenz, I

    2016-02-13

    Failure of passive transfer of maternal immunity occurs in calves that fail to absorb sufficient immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum. The zinc sulphate turbidity test has been developed to test bovine neonates for this failure. The specificity of this test has been shown to be less than ideal. The objective was to examine how parameters of the zinc sulphate turbidity test may be manipulated in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and five blood samples were taken from calves of dairy cows receiving various rates of colostrum feeding. The zinc sulphate turbidity test was carried out multiple times on each sample, varying the solution strength, time of reaction and wavelength of light used and the results compared with those of a radial immunodiffusion test, which is the reference method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in serum. Reducing the time over which the reaction occurs, or increasing the wavelength of light used to read the turbidity, resulted in decreased specificity without improving sensitivity. Increasing the concentration of the zinc sulphate solution used in the test was shown to improve the specificity without decreasing sensitivity. Examination of the cut-off points suggested that a lower cut-off point would improve the performance. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Hematological, oxidative stress, and immune status profiling in elite combat sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopsaj, Violeta; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Kasum, Goran; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Koropanovski, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to profile hematological, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters in male athletes who practiced combat sports and to determine whether the type of combat sport influenced the measured parameters. Eighteen karate professionals, 15 wrestlers, and 14 kickboxers participated in the study. Hematological, iron-related, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters were measured at the beginning of a precompetitive period. The general linear model showed significant differences between the karate professionals, wrestlers, and kickboxers with respect to their hematological and iron status parameters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.270, F = 2.186, p stress status (Wilks' Lambda = 0.529, F = 1.940, p < 0.05). The immature reticulocyte fraction was significantly higher in wrestlers (0.30 ± 0.03) compared with kickboxers (0.24 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) and karate professionals (0.26 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Low hemoglobin density was significantly lower in wrestlers and kickboxers (p < 0.05) compared with karate professionals (karate: 3.51 ± 1.19, wrestlers: 1.95 ± 1.10, and kickboxers: 1.77 ± 0.76). Significant differences were observed between the karate professionals and wrestlers with respect to their pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (437 ± 103 vs. 323 ± 148, p < 0.05) and superoxide-dismutase activity (SOD) (73 ± 37 vs. 103 ± 30, p < 0.05). All the measured parameters (with the exception of SOD activity) fell within their physiological ranges, indicating that the study participants represented a young and healthy male population. Hematological parameters differed between kickboxers and karate professionals. The low pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and high SOD activity in wrestlers could be associated with the long-term impact of wrestling as a type of strenuous exercise.

  3. Theobromine Is Responsible for the Effects of Cocoa on the Antibody Immune Status of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2018-03-01

    A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition. Three-week-old female Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (AIN-93M; RF group), a 10% cocoa diet (CC group), or a 0.25% theobromine diet (the same amount provided by the cocoa diet; TB group) in 2 separate experiments that lasted 19 (experiment 1) or 8 (experiment 2) d. Serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations were determined. In addition, at the end of experiment 2, thymus, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and spleen lymphocyte populations were analyzed. Both CC and TB groups in experiments 1 and 2 showed similar serum IgG, IgM, and IgA and intestinal sIgA concentrations, which were lower than those in the RF group (46-98% lower in experiment 1 and 23-91% lower in experiment 2; P theobromine diets similarly changed the thymocyte composition by increasing CD4-CD8- (+133%) and CD4+CD8- (+53%) proportions (P theobromine in cocoa plays an immunoregulatory role that is responsible for cocoa's influence on both systemic and intestinal antibody concentrations and also for modifying lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition in young healthy Lewis rats. The majority of these changes are observed after a single week of being fed a diet containing 0.25% theobromine.

  4. Structures and Analysis of Carotenoid Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    Modifications of the usual C40 linear and symmetrical carotenoid skeleton give rise to a wide array of structures of carotenes and xanthophylls in plant tissues. These include acyclic, monocyclic and dicyclic carotenoids, along with hydroxy and epoxy xanthophylls and apocarotenoids. Carotenols can be unesterified or esterified (monoester) in one or two (diester) hydroxyl groups with fatty acids. E-Z isomerization increases the array of possible plant carotenoids even further. Screening and especially quantitative analysis are being carried out worldwide. Visible absorption spectrometry and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy have been used for the initial estimation of the total carotenoid content or the principal carotenoid content when large numbers of samples needed to be analyzed within a short time, as would be the case in breeding programs. Although inherently difficult, quantitative analysis of the individual carotenoids is essential. Knowledge of the sources of errors and means to avoid them has led to a large body of reliable quantitative compositional data on carotenoids. Reverse-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector has been the preferred analytical technique, but UHPLC is increasingly employed. HPLC-MS has been used mainly for identification and NMR has been useful in unequivocally identifying geometric isomers.

  5. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake and biochemical status of antioxidants like carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with chronic diseases. Our objectives were to describe the dietary patterns of a subset of the JHS participants using data from a region-specific FFQ and to investigate the associations between these patter...

  6. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloz, Miroslav [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pillai, Smitha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Kodis, Gerdenis [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gust, Devens [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Thomas A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); van Grondelle, Rienk [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kennis, John T. M. [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-14

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S1 signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S1 state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)1Pc to Car S1 energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between 1Pc and Car S1 and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment

  7. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunity status against poliomyelitis in childbearing women in a province of northern Italy. A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, L; Affanni, P; Verrotti di Pianella, C; Colucci, M E; Tanzi, M L

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional seroprevalence study was carried out in 2007 to estimate the immunological status associated with poliomyelitis among fertile women , according to demographic changes. We consecutively enrolled 493 healthy mothers at the time of delivery in order to assess immunity against poliomyelitis by a neutralisation inhibition test. Despite the lack of seronegative subjects, our investigation showed low GMTs, which confirmed a reduction in the "booster effect". The GMTs against poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2 and poliovirus 3 were 25.20, 14.79 and 8.80, respectively. The data that emerged from our survey showed that GMTs have decreased significantly since 1983 and reached low-to-medium values over the past 25 years. The serum prevalence studies, together with the vaccination coverage estimates, are useful and are strongly recommended in order to highlight and identify the possible scenarios in which susceptible subject groups may be present simultaneously as well the possibility of the reintroduction of wild virus in an area that was previously free of polio.

  9. Immune status of perpons taking part in accident effect elimination and personnel of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone according to the data of 5-year monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oradovskaya, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical-immunological surveillance of persons taking part in accident effect elimination realized 5 years later has shown that the most characteristic clinical symptocomplex for the persons examined remains the syndrome of increased fatiguability. Supression of the immune status cell link expressed in lowering the mean values of T-lymphocytes is revealed for the persons examined 5 years later. It may be supposed that the fifth year is the critical period in which T-cell immune deficits develop for more than one third of persons subjected to the effects of the complex of severe radiation accident factors. 5 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  11. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  12. Depressed Immune Responses and Accelerated Splenic Apoptosis due to Experience of Food Deprivation and Inequality but not Unstable Social Status in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Marjan; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Najafabadi, Mohsen Khalili; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moradi, Fatemeh; Golchoobian, Ravieh; Askari, Hasan; Sanadgol, Nima; Moghaddam, Ehsan Kazemi

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to show that the immune system is sensitive to the detrimental effects of inequality and social injustice, and splenic vulnerability to apoptosis may also increase. In order of better determination of immune responses to chronic social stress, we implemented food deprivation, food intake inequality, and unstable social status (a change of cage-mate every 3 days) for a period of 14 days in 60 male Balb/c mice. At the end of this stress period, nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal adherent cells and the serum concentration of corticosterone were measured. Moreover, the viability of peritoneal adherent cells and spleen lymphocytes was evaluated by MTT assay. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was done to reveal the TUNEL-reactive apoptotic bodies in the spleen. Our results showed that food deprivation and inequality caused significant changes in the apoptosis of splenic cells in comparison with the control group (p social status did not cause a further increase in the viability of lymphocytes and peritoneal adherent cells, or NO production in animals that were food-deprived or experienced inequality. Serum concentration of corticosterone in all experimental groups, except for animals that experienced unstable social status only, significantly decreased versus the control group (p poverty and social inequality, but not unstable social status, affect immune responses and are likely involved in the induction of splenic apoptosis in mice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Analyses of the correlation between dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C; Schweigert, Florian J; Müller, Kerstin E; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Herd health programs for the maintenance of welfare and productivity in cattle need efficient tools for monitoring the health of individual animals. Recent reports demonstrate that the oxidative status is related to various stress conditions in dairy cows. Biomarkers, among other carotenoids, could serve as indicators of stress originating from the environment (e.g., heat stress or sun radiation) or from the animal itself (e.g., disease). To date, only invasive in vitro tests are available to assess the oxidative status in cattle. The present study compares the results of optical noninvasive in vivo measurements of dermal carotenoids in cattle udder skin using an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) with those obtained by photometric analysis of beta carotene in whole blood samples using a portable device. Correlations between the concentrations of dermal and blood carotenoids were calculated under consideration of the nutritional status of the animals. Significant correlation (R = 0.86) was found for cattle with a moderate to obese body condition. Thus, the blood and skin concentrations of the marker substance beta carotene are comparable under stable stress conditions of the cattle. This demonstrates that the MSS is suitable for noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoid concentrations in cattle.

  14. Analyses of the correlation between dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Meinke, Martina C.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Herd health programs for the maintenance of welfare and productivity in cattle need efficient tools for monitoring the health of individual animals. Recent reports demonstrate that the oxidative status is related to various stress conditions in dairy cows. Biomarkers, among other carotenoids, could serve as indicators of stress originating from the environment (e.g., heat stress or sun radiation) or from the animal itself (e.g., disease). To date, only invasive in vitro tests are available to assess the oxidative status in cattle. The present study compares the results of optical noninvasive in vivo measurements of dermal carotenoids in cattle udder skin using an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) with those obtained by photometric analysis of beta carotene in whole blood samples using a portable device. Correlations between the concentrations of dermal and blood carotenoids were calculated under consideration of the nutritional status of the animals. Significant correlation (R=0.86) was found for cattle with a moderate to obese body condition. Thus, the blood and skin concentrations of the marker substance beta carotene are comparable under stable stress conditions of the cattle. This demonstrates that the MSS is suitable for noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoid concentrations in cattle.

  15. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Differential effects of testosterone metabolites oestradiol and dihydrotestosterone on oxidative stress and carotenoid-dependent colour expression in a bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, S.; Costantini, D.; Dell'Omo, G.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Omo, G. Dell’; Graves, J.A.

    Despite extensive research, the potential costs that keep secondary sexual traits honest and evolutionary stable remain somewhat elusive. Many carotenoid-based signals are regulated by testosterone (T), which has been suggested to impose a cost to the signaller by suppression of the immune system or

  17. Relationship of HIV Reservoir Characteristics with Immune Status and Viral Rebound Kinetics in an HIV Therapeutic Vaccine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Heisey, Andrea; Ahmed, Hayat; Wang, Hongying; Zheng, Lu; Carrington, Mary; Wrin, Terri; Schooley, Robert T.; Lederman, Michael M.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of therapeutic HIV vaccination on the HIV reservoir, and assess the relationship of the viral reservoir with HIV-specific immune status and viral rebound kinetics. Design Retrospective analysis of ACTG A5197, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic rAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine. Methods Participants received vaccine/placebo at weeks 0, 4, and 26 prior to a 16-week analytic treatment interruption (ATI) at week 38. Cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA (CA-RNA and CA-DNA) and HIV-1 residual viremia (RV) were quantified at weeks 0, 8, and 38. HIV-specific CD4+/CD8+ activity were assessed by an intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results At study entry, CA-RNA and CA-DNA levels were correlated inversely with the numbers of HIV-specific CD4+ interferon-γ-producing cells (CA-RNA: r = −0.23, P=0.03 and CA-DNA: r = −0.28, P<0.01, N=93). Therapeutic HIV vaccination induced HIV-specific CD4+ activity, but did not significantly affect levels of CA-RNA or CA-DNA. Vaccine recipients with undetectable RV at week 8 had higher frequencies of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ interferon-γ-producing cells (undetectable versus detectable RV: 277 versus 161 CD4+ cells/106 lymphocytes, P=0.03 and 1326 versus 669 CD8+ cells/106 lymphocytes, P=0.04). Pre-ATI CA-RNA and CA-DNA were associated with post-ATI plasma HIV set point (CA-RNA: r = 0.51, P<0.01 and CA-DNA: r = 0.47, P<0.01). Conclusions Vaccine-induced T-cell responses were associated with a modest transient effect on RV, but more potent immune responses and/or combination treatment with latency-reversing agents are needed to reduce the HIV reservoir. HIV reservoir measures may act as biomarkers of post-ATI viral rebound kinetics. PMID:25254301

  18. Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogareda, Carmina; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero, Manuel; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives). Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Plasma carotenoids and the risk of premalignant breast disease in women aged 50 and younger: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kevin; Liu, Ying; Luo, Jingqin; Appleton, Catherine M; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association of plasma carotenoids, micronutrients in fruits, and vegetables, with risk of premalignant breast disease (PBD) in younger women. Blood samples were collected at the Siteman Cancer Center between 2008 and 2012 from 3537 women aged 50 or younger with no history of cancer or PBD. The analysis included 147 participants diagnosed with benign breast disease or breast carcinoma in situ during a 27-month follow-up and 293 controls. Cases and controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity, and date of and fasting status at blood draw. Plasma carotenoids were quantified. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and linear regression to assess racial differences in plasma carotenoids. The risk reduction between the highest and lowest tertiles varied by carotenoid, with β-cryptoxanthin having the greatest reduction (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.62-1.09; P trend  = 0.056) and total carotenoids the least (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48-1.44; P trend  = 0.12). We observed an inverse association between plasma carotenoids and risk of PBD in obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ; 61 cases and 115 controls) but not lean women (BMI carotenoids and risk of PBD in younger women, consistent with inverse associations reported for invasive breast cancer. Carotenoids may play a role early in breast cancer development.

  20. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  1. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.N.; Chukhutsina, Volha; Domonkos, Ildikó; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, Mihály; Lénárt, Zsófia; Garab, Gyozo; Kovács, László; Gombos, Zoltán; Amerongen, Van Herbert

    2015-01-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are important for light harvesting, photoprotection and structural stability of a variety of pigment-protein complexes. Here, we investigated the consequences of altered carotenoid composition for the functional organization of

  2. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes

  3. Carotenoids and retinoids: molecular aspects and health issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packer, Lester

    2005-01-01

    ... are byproducts of metabolism in humans. Indeed, the presence of carotenoids in the diet and their role in human health has become a subject of unprecedented interest. Some carotenoids are called provitamin A compounds because they are precursors of retinol and retinoic acid. The type of carotenoids found in human plasma depends on the...

  4. The fate of carotenoids in sediments: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Despite carotenoids being abundant natural products, there are only scattered literature reports of carotenoid derivatives (mainly in the form of their 'perhydro' derivatives) in ancient sediments and petroleum. This was thought to be due to the sensitivity of carotenoids toward oxygen and their

  5. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  6. Differences in mortality based on worsening ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen corrected for immune system status and respiratory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lachlan F; Bailey, Michael; Young, Paul; Pilcher, David V

    2012-03-01

    To define the relationship between worsening oxygenation status (worst PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission) and mortality in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent ICU patients in the presence and absence of mechanical ventilation. Retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. Adult patients admitted to 129 ICUs in Australasia, 2000-2010. In hospital and ICU mortality; relationship between mortality and declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio by ventilation status and immune status. 457 750 patient records were analysed. Worsening oxygenation status was associated with increasing mortality in all groups. Higher mortality was seen in immunosuppressed patients than immunocompetent patients. After multivariate analysis, in mechanically ventilated patients, declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours of ICU admission was associated with a more rapidly rising mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients than non-immunosuppressed patients. Immunosuppression did not affect the relationship between oxygenation status and mortality in non-ventilated patients. Immunosuppression increases the risk of mortality with progressively worsening oxygenation status, but only in the presence of mechanical ventilation. Further research into the impact of mechanical ventilation in immunosuppressed patients is required.

  7. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States. Status as of 31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 65 Members which have accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 31 December 1996. The list is followed by the texts of reservations made to the Agreement

  8. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. THE BIOTIC FACTOR OF TREMATOD OPISTHORHIS FELINEUS INVASION INFLUENCE ON HOST IMMUNE STATUS AND SOMATIC CELLS PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rybka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms long-time opisthorhis invasion role as a risk factor of host immune system reconstitution as well as an important factor in holangiocarcinomas development. It was shown that opisthorhosis invasion primal stage induce host immune system reconstitution. Host immune B-cells system is activated by metacercaria antigens, while the same antigens inhibits T-cells activity. Opisthorhis metabolites stimulate proliferative mithogen-induced T-cells acti vity. Chronic opisthorchis invasion leads to immune system disbalance. It means: decrease of specific and non-speci fic natural killers activity, number of high proliferative activity T-lymphocytes and the shift of regulatory T-cells subset to suppressors prevalence. At the same time specific as well as non-specific T-suppressors functional ability is very low. It was shown T-cells helper-amplifier activation. Despite of circulating B-cells decrease the antibody produced cells number is spleen increases significantly at the same time with circulating immune complexes accumulation. Even 3–6 month after dehelmintisation the immune system disbalance decreases but lefts. In addition, chronic opisthorhis invasion leads to the proliferative processes activation in ductal epithelium, liver, lymph nodes and in other organs which leads to cancer proliferation. According to the results obtained the opisthorhis infected patients needs to be immunocorrected before as well as after dehelmintisation for holangiocancerogenesis profylaxis.

  10. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  11. Carotenoid-protein interaction alters the S1 energy of hydroxyechinenone in the Orange Carotenoid Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Chábera, P.; Kerfeld, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1827, č. 3 (2013), s. 248-254 ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : orange-carotenoid protein * excited states * photoprotection Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2013

  12. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (Pheat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. PMID:26308012

  14. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-08-25

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed.

  15. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A, E-mail: jdavis@swin.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S{sub 2}|S{sub 0}) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  16. The role of carotenoids in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2002-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits in decreasing the risk of disease, particularly certain cancers and eye disease. The carotenoids that have been most studied in this regard are beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. In part, the beneficial effects of carotenoids are thought to be due to their role as antioxidants. beta-Carotene may have added benefits due its ability to be converted to vitamin A. Furthermore, lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective in eye disease because they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye. Food sources of these compounds include a variety of fruits and vegetables, although the primary sources of lycopene are tomato and tomato products. Additionally, egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are available in supplement form. However, intervention trials with large doses of beta-carotene found an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer in smokers and workers exposed to asbestos. Until the efficacy and safety of taking supplements containing these nutrients can be determined, current dietary recommendations of diets high in fruits and vegetables are advised.

  17. Solid-phase extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Hu, Yumin; Huang, Ke; Yin, Shi'an; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2009-07-24

    In this work, solid-phase extraction (SPE) trapping performance of lutein and beta-carotene, which were used as the model molecules of carotenoids, was investigated. The absorption, elution, and enrichment of carotenoids on SPE cartridges with four different sorbents, i.e. C(30), C(18), diol, and silica, were compared respectively with the help of frontal analysis technique. The high retentions of both lutein and beta-carotene were achieved on the C(18) and C(30) cartridges. The diol and silica cartridges only had good retention for lutein. The optimized SPE method for sample pretreatment for the carotenoids analysis was obtained after the investigation of trapping performance. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of biological sample, i.e. serum and human breast milk. The recovery, accuracy, and precision of SPE method comparing with those of traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method for the sample pretreatment for the analysis of carotenoids owned a number of advantages such as rapid, no chloroform used, and accurate versus LLE.

  18. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P; Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A

    2010-01-01

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S 2 |S 0 ) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  19. Excited state properties of aryl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Župčanová, Anita; Hříbek, P.; Arellano, J.B.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 13 (2010), s. 3112-3120 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-states * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  20. Dietary Carotenoids and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Foods is focused on the general topic of carotenoids within the nervous system. The focus is on the effects of the xanthophylls on the central nervous system (CNS, reflecting the majority of work in this area. [...

  1. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  2. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: 4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index. PMID:22292108

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  4. Carotenoid Metabolism in Plants: The Role of Plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhu; Yuan, Hui; Cao, Hongbo; Yazdani, Mohammad; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2018-01-08

    Carotenoids are indispensable to plants and critical in human diets. Plastids are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage in plant cells. They exist in various types, which include proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. These plastids have dramatic differences in their capacity to synthesize and sequester carotenoids. Clearly, plastids play a central role in governing carotenogenic activity, carotenoid stability, and pigment diversity. Understanding of carotenoid metabolism and accumulation in various plastids expands our view on the multifaceted regulation of carotenogenesis and facilitates our efforts toward developing nutrient-enriched food crops. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of various types of plastids on carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory control of carotenogenesis and metabolic engineering of carotenoids in light of plastid types in plants. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  6. RELATIONSHIP OF LIPID PROFILE AND IMMUNE STATUS IN THE DYNAMICS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO COAL-ROCK DUST ON THE BODY (EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия Сергеевна Казицкая

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The relationship between lipid metabolism and immune reactivity in the dynamics of long-term exposure to coal-rock dust (CRD on the body. Objective. In the experiment to examine the impact of the changes in the lipid profile on immune status under the conditions of long-term exposure to CRD on the body. Methods. The experiments were carried out on 110 white male rats weighing 200-250 g. The inhalation method was used for modeling that best fits the conditions of coal-mine production. Animals were divided into 2 groups: the control (n = 30; the experiment (n = 80, that are the rats who inhaled CRD with a particle size of up to 5 microns in an average concentration of 50 mg/m3 for 4 hours daily for 12 weeks. Main results. Early terms of the CRD impact are characterized by the activation of the immune system against the background of metabolic shifts as well as by morphological changes of the immune nature in the bronchopulmonary system and liver of the rats that can be regarded as compensatory-adaptive. Prolonged exposure to the dust factor leads to an increase in dyslipidemia, which contributes to the development of immune imbalance as well as morphological changes that are indicative of the chronic inflammation and disturbance of compensatory mechanisms. Field of application. The results of the conducted experimental studies broaden the fundamental ideas about the mechanisms of immune body defense. The detection of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the formation and course of occupational diseases allows assessing the functional state of the organism at the stage of pre-existing disease, revealing the initial signs of developing pathology and determining the ways of their correction. Conclusions. CRD intake is characterized by the development of metabolic changes, which are closely related to immune reactivity. An integrated approach to the study of occupational and industrially-caused pathology makes it possible to assess the

  7. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the IAEA. Status list as of 12 September 2000. Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document lists the 67 Members which, by 12 September 2000, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. The list is followed by the texts of declarations/reservations made to the Agreement

  8. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  9. Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Louise M; Clandinin, M Thomas; Davies, David P; Fernandez, Maria C; Jackson, Joan; Hawkes, Jo; Goldman, William J; Pramuk, Kathryn; Reyes, Horacio; Sablan, Benjamin; Sonobe, Tomoyoshi; Bo, Xu

    2003-06-01

    Carotenoids in serum vary between countries and within populations with evidence suggesting a qualitative relationship to diet. Breast milk carotenoids furnish a source of vitamin A and potentially provide immunoprotection and other health benefits for infants. There have been numerous studies of milk carotenoid concentrations in undernourished populations; however, carotenoid concentrations have not previously been compared in populations of well-nourished mothers. To compare concentrations of five major carotenoid groups: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in breast milk of healthy women from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and to qualitatively compare patterns of dietary intake with milk carotenoid concentrations. Breast milk collected from healthy lactating women was analyzed for concentrations of five carotenoids and retinol and quantitated relative to total milk lipid. All determinations were performed in a single research laboratory using standardized methodology. Mothers consumed their usual diets and provided a single 24-h dietary recall. Breast milk carotenoid concentrations varied greatly among countries, with the greatest differences in beta-cryptoxanthin (approximately 9-fold) and the least in alpha-carotene and lycopene (approximately 3-fold). Breast milk retinol concentrations varied approximately 2-fold across countries. The provitamin A carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin as a group accounted for > 50 % of the carotenoids measured. Total breast milk carotenoids were highest in Japanese and lowest in Philippine mothers. Breast milk beta-carotene concentrations were highest in Chile and lowest in the Philippines. Patterns of breast milk carotenoids were unique to each country and qualitative patterns reflected the dietary carotenoid supply.

  10. Effect of cesium radioisotope on humoral immune status in Ukrainian children with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome related to Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, M R; Kuznetsova, L V; Bojenko, V B

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine humoral immune status in Ukrainian children with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome 23 years after the Chernobyl disaster. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4-18, who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation (falling under three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5-15 as a control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. B-lymphocytes population was analyzed with monoclonal antibody against antigen CD22(+). Serum immunoglobulins were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. p < 0.05 was considered significant. The percentage of CD22(+) in study groups is increased significantly in comparison to control group at p < 0.05. Reduced serum immunoglobulins levels have developed in the majority of the participants. Humoral immune status of study groups with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome residing in a contaminated area has changed.

  11. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life.

  12. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  13. Mechanisms of immune evasion and current status of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Angel; Coffey, David G; Warren, Edus H; Ramnath, Nithya

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without actionable driver mutations that have progressed on standard chemotherapy. We are also beginning to understand the methods of immune evasion employed by NSCLC which likely contribute to the 20% response rate to immunotherapy. It is also yet unclear what tumor or patient factors predict response to immunotherapy. The objectives of this review are (1) review the immunogenicity of NSCLC (2) describe the mechanisms of immune evasion (3) summarize efforts to target the anti-program death-1 (PD-1) and anti-program death-ligand 1(PD-L1) pathway (4) outline determinants of response to PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and (5) discuss potential future areas for research. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Marine carotenoids: Bioactivities and potential benefits to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuyen, Hoang Van; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2017-08-13

    Among natural pigments, carotenoids play important roles in physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids and their effects on human health have been reported for a long time, but most studies have focused on carotenoids from vegetables, fruits, and other parts of higher plants. Few reports are available on carotenoids from marine sources, such as seaweeds, microalgae, and marine animals, which have attracted attention in recent decades. Hundreds of carotenoids have been identified and isolated from marine organisms and their beneficial physiological functions, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities have been reported. The purpose of this review is to discuss the literature on the beneficial bioactivities of some of the most abundant marine carotenoids, including fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, cantaxanthin, peridinin, fucoxanthinol, and halocynthiaxanthin.

  15. Study of transitory forms of carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    1970-01-01

    In order to explain the biological role of the carotenoids their transitory forms were studied with an apparatus measuring the small (∼10 -3 ) short-lived (100 ns to 1 ms) optical density variations obtained by excitation with a ruby laser. Two forms were studied: a) Triplet state 3 Car. - This state (t 1/2 ∼6 μs) is obtained not by direct excitation but by T-T energy transfer from chlorophyll, in different media (chloroplasts, pigments in solution or in micelle). Two arguments can be advanced to explain in terms of triplet energy transfer an essential biological role of carotenoids, protection against photodynamic effects: - the energy level of 3 Car is lower than that of the singlet of oxygen; - in vivo the T-T transfer from chlorophyll to the carotenoids is very fast: 30 ns.. b) Radical cation Car + . - This form is obtained by electron transfer from carotene to the triplet of Toluidine Blue, in ethanol. Car + (t 1/2 ∼200 μs) shows a strong absorption band at 910 nm. The properties of Car + are discussed in relation to other polyene derivatives and to hydrocarbon ions. Car + could be involved in certain biological electron transfers. (author) [fr

  16. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  17. ProCarDB: a database of bacterial carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, L N U; Vats, Asheema; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashwani

    2016-05-26

    Carotenoids have important functions in bacteria, ranging from harvesting light energy to neutralizing oxidants and acting as virulence factors. However, information pertaining to the carotenoids is scattered throughout the literature. Furthermore, information about the genes/proteins involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids has tremendously increased in the post-genomic era. A web server providing the information about microbial carotenoids in a structured manner is required and will be a valuable resource for the scientific community working with microbial carotenoids. Here, we have created a manually curated, open access, comprehensive compilation of bacterial carotenoids named as ProCarDB- Prokaryotic Carotenoid Database. ProCarDB includes 304 unique carotenoids arising from 50 biosynthetic pathways distributed among 611 prokaryotes. ProCarDB provides important information on carotenoids, such as 2D and 3D structures, molecular weight, molecular formula, SMILES, InChI, InChIKey, IUPAC name, KEGG Id, PubChem Id, and ChEBI Id. The database also provides NMR data, UV-vis absorption data, IR data, MS data and HPLC data that play key roles in the identification of carotenoids. An important feature of this database is the extension of biosynthetic pathways from the literature and through the presence of the genes/enzymes in different organisms. The information contained in the database was mined from published literature and databases such as KEGG, PubChem, ChEBI, LipidBank, LPSN, and Uniprot. The database integrates user-friendly browsing and searching with carotenoid analysis tools to help the user. We believe that this database will serve as a major information centre for researchers working on bacterial carotenoids.

  18. [Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanati, Armando; Brosio, Federica; Kuhdari, Parvanè; Baccello, Valeria; De Paris, Paola; Nardini, Marco; Boschetto, Piera; Lupi, Silvia; Gabutti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Hepatitis B (and hepatitis D), hepatitis C and HIV are the most common infections transmitted by biological injuries. Physicians should acquire awareness of the risks associated with their professional activity during their training as medical residents (MRs). Some infectious diseases are preventable by vaccination and the "National Immunization Plan 2017-2019" (PNPV) recommends HCWs vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, measles -mumps -rubella, chicken pox, and pertussis. Besides, not only HCWs' vaccination can prevent the disease in healthcare professionals, but it also may reduce the transmission to patients. Therefore, active immunization of HCWs by recommended vaccinations plays an important role to prevent disease cases, complications and death in patients. An increased awareness of risk behaviors is the first important point to address in order to reduce biological accidents and infectious diseases transmission, so as to reduce their frequency. Besides, HCWs' vaccination is useful to reinforce protection and to prevent the transmission of some infectious diseases in case of exposure. The aim of this five-year incidence study is to investigate the MRs' biological accidents characteristics and to analyze the MRs' immune status at the University of Ferrara in the period 2011-2015. Data on MRs' biological accidents and immune status at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Ferrara in 2011-2015 were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007 Software. In this study, the percentage of MRs' biological injuries compared to the total number of MRs showed an annual variability, with a peak in 2011 (11.9%). During the analyzed period, there were 190

  19. Dietary supplementation of biofloc influences growth performance, physiological stress, antioxidant status and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghua; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Guodong; Xia, Bin; Li, Yuquan

    2018-01-01

    Bioflocs are rich in various probiotics and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving growth and health status of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, physiological stress, antioxidant status, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Juvenile sea cucumbers were fed five experimental diets containing graded levels of biofloc from 0% to 20% (referred as B0, B5, B10, B15 and B20, respectively). The results showed that the sea cucumbers at dietary supplementation levels of 10%-15% biofloc had significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) compared to control group (diet B0). Digestive enzyme activity increased with the increasing of dietary biofloc level, while no significant difference was found between diets B15 and B20. Dietary supplementation of biofloc also had significant influences on physiological stress parameters except for lactate. There was no significant discrepancy in total coelomocytes counts (TCC) in coelomic fluid of sea cucumber between the treatments. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst of cellular immune at 15% and 20% biofloc levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS), lysozyme (LSZ), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities of sea cucumber were found at highest dietary supplementation level of 20% biofloc. The expression patterns of immune-related genes (i.e., Hsp90, Hsp70, p105, Rel, NOS and LSZ) in tissues of sea cucumber were analyzed between the experimental diets, and a general trend of up-regulation was observed at higher biofloc levels. Furthermore, dietary 10%-20% biofloc significantly reduced cumulative mortality of sea cucumber after being challenged with Vibrio splendidus. In conclusion, dietary

  20. Carboidratos e carotenoides totais em duas variedades de mangarito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sato Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de carboidratos e carotenoides em rizomas mãe e filhos das variedades de mangarito (Xanthosoma riedelianum pequeno e gigante. Amostras dos rizomas coletadas ao longo do ciclo cultural e após 90 dias de armazenamento foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de carboidratos e carotenoides totais. Os rizomas apresentaram aumento no teor de carboidratos, e o rizoma-mãe da variedade pequeno apresentou acréscimos lineares no teor de carotenoides, ao longo do cultivo. O armazenamento reduz os teores de carboidratos e de carotenoides totais em todos os rizomas.

  1. Incidence of Severe Malaria Syndromes and Status of Immune Responses among Khat Chewer Malaria Patients in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsige Ketema

    Full Text Available Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20 software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%. Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P0.05, IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001 among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001 with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05 in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.

  2. Photolysis of carotenoids in chloroform: enhanced yields of carotenoid radical cations in the presence of a tryptophan ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agamey, Ali; Burke, Marc; Edge, Ruth; Land, Edward J.; McGarvey, David J.; Truscott, T. George

    2005-01-01

    The presence of an acetyl tryptophan ester gives rise to enhanced yields of carotenoid radical cations in chloroform following 355 nm laser excitation of the carotenoid, even though the tryptophan does not absorb at this wavelength. The increase is attributed to positive charge transfer from semi-oxidized tryptophan itself generated by light absorbed by the carotenoid. The mechanism of these radical processes has been elucidated by pulse radiolysis studies

  3. Screening and Selection of High Carotenoid Producing in Vitro Tomato Cell Culture Lines for [13C]-Carotenoid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Engelmann, Nancy J.; Campbell, Jessica K.; Rogers, Randy B.; Rupassara, S. Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-lab...

  4. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  5. Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of Red and Yellow Physalis (Physalis alkekengi L. and P. pubescens L.) Fruits and Calyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Hempel, Judith; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Ni, Yuanying; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-08-02

    Carotenoid profiles of fruits and calyces of red (Physalis alkekengi L.) and yellow (P. pubescens L.) Physalis were characterized by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Altogether 69 carotenoids were detected in red Physalis, thereof, 45 were identified. In yellow Physalis, 40 carotenoids were detected and 33 were identified. Zeaxanthin esters with various fatty acids were found to be the most abundant carotenoids in red Physalis, accounting for 51-63% of total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin esters (16-24%). In yellow Physalis, mainly free carotenoids such as lutein and β-carotene were found. Total carotenoid contents ranged between 19.8 and 21.6 mg/100 g fresh red Physalis fruits and 1.28-1.38 mg/100 g fresh yellow Physalis fruits, demonstrating that Physalis fruits are rich sources of dietary carotenoids. Yellow Physalis calyces contained only 153-306 μg carotenoids/g dry weight, while those of red Physalis contained substantially higher amounts (14.6-17.6 mg/g dry weight), thus possibly exhibiting great potential as a natural source for commercial zeaxanthin extraction.

  6. Carotenoids in staple cereals: Metabolism, regulation, and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shengnan zhai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grain. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1 seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, PSY (phytoene synthase, LCYB (β-cyclase and LCYE (ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, HYDB (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and CCDs (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and OR (orange conditioning sequestration sink; (2 pro-vitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3 QTLs for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and ten gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be benefitical in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for vitamin A biofortification.

  7. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  8. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (Pfeed conversion efficiency (Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (Phens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (Phens. The high stocking density challenge suppressed NDV antibody response (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage (P<0.01). From the present observations, it can be concluded that CrMet can improve laying performance largely because it alleviates harmful responses to stressful conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of oxidative and radiation stress effect to the status of calcium homeostasis of immune system cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhteeva, I.V.; Gerasimovich, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    In some works ability of active forms of oxygen and low doses of irradiation to damage biological molecules and theirs role in the disorganisation of the cellular structures is shown. The dynamics of the change of the ratio of the free and connected calcium in thymocytes of the rats after the influence of peroxide (10-9 - 10-3 M) and the irradiation in low doses and the structural state of plasmatic membrane in the present work was analysed. The peroxide and irradiation brought about the modification of the structured organization of the plasmatic membrane and calcium homeostasis. Thus the results of the influence of the peroxide and low doses of ionizing irradiation on the cells of the immune system are similar.(authors)

  10. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  11. Ultrafast spectroscopy tracks carotenoid configurations in the orange and red carotenoid proteins from cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, V.; Kuznetsova, V.; Fuciman, M.; de Carbon, C.B.; Wilson, A.; Kirilowsky, D.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2017), s. 105-117 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Intramolecular charge-transfer state * Non-photochemical quenching * Orange carotenoid protein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  12. Effect of carotenoid structure on excited-state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábera, P.; Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2009), s. 8795-8703 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : excited-state dynamics * carbonyl carotenoids * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2009

  13. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal, a positive control (Zn-bacitracin and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS, and acidifier. Two holding times included (a immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED and (b access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD. Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE, whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05 proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05 IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05. All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05. The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05. The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05. It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  14. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ω 70 promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs

  15. The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5-1.5 µg/retina, but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific

  16. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  17. The Integrated Impact of Diet on Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological

  18. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  19. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  20. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Sakagami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  1. Improved extraction procedure for carotenoids from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Hurtienne, A; Bathe, K

    2000-05-01

    An improved method for the extraction of the major carotenoids from human milk is described. Carotenoids were extracted from milk first with ethanol and n-hexane. Then, polar xanthophylls were extracted from n-hexane into ethanol/water. The remaining n-hexane was evaporated, the residue combined with the ethanolic milk fraction and the mixture briefly saponified. Carotenoids were extracted from the hydrolysate with n-hexane, combined with the polar xanthophylls from the non-saponified ethanol/water-extract and separated by HPLC. Using this method we were able to significantly improve the recovery of xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin from human milk. The recovery rate of all carotenoids was > 90%. This method might not only be of value for milk but should be especially useful in the extraction of carotenoids from human tissues such as the adipose tissue.

  2. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  3. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  4. Carotenoids assist in cyanobacterial Photosystem II assembly and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eZakar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes. Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of phycobilisomes.

  5. Carotenoids from microalgae: A review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2016-12-01

    Carotenoids have been receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. Microalgae are recognized as a natural source of carotenoids and other beneficial byproducts. However, the production of micro-algal carotenoids is not yet sufficiently cost-effective to compete with traditional chemical synthetic methods and other technologies such as extraction from plant based sources. This review presents the recent biotechnological developments in microalgal carotenoid production. The current technologies involved in their bioprocessing including cultivation, harvesting, extraction, and purification are discussed with a specific focus on downstream processing. The recent advances in chemical and biochemical synthesis of carotenoids are also reviewed for a better understanding of suitable and economically feasible biotechnological strategies. Some possible future directions are also proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the role of labile oxocomplexes in carotenoids antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorova, L.I.; Revina, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Early stages of the interaction of carotenoids and molecular oxygen are studied and role of its interaction in the processes responsible for radiation resistance of carotenoids, superoxide dismutase activity to the singlet oxygen quenching. Ethanol and aqueous solutions of the carotenoids (phosphate buffer with pH 7.5) were exposed to accelerated electron flux at pulse regime and dose rate (0.7-2.0)x10 17 eV/ml imp in the dark and in case of combined effect of radiation and light. It is concluded that at the early stages of processes with the participation of carotenoids the formation of reversible complexes with charge transfer plays the important role. Properties and reaction capability of these complexes are determined by the peculiarities in chemical structure of carotenoid molecules [ru

  7. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-09-30

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  8. Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but few are converted by the body into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Among the 600 carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity, the most common are α- and β-carotene. These carotenoids are susceptible to degradation (e.g., isomerization and oxidation during cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the total carotenoid, α- and β-carotene, and 9 and 13-Z- β-carotene isomer contents in C. moschata after different cooking processes. The raw pumpkin samples contained 236.10, 172.20, 39.95, 3.64 and 0.8610 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked in boiling water contained 258.50, 184.80, 43.97, 6.80, and 0.77 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The steamed samples contained 280.77, 202.00, 47.09, 8.23, and 1.247 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene,13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked with added sugar contained 259.90, 168.80, 45.68, 8.31, and 2.03 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoid, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z- β-carotene, and 9-Z- β-carotene, respectively. These results are promising considering that E- β-carotene has 100% pro-vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid and carotenoid isomers increased after the cooking methods, most likely as a result of a higher availability induced by the cooking processes.

  9. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection status and infertility causes in couples seeking fertility treatment-Indicator of impaired immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Mak, Jennifer S M; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between hepatitis B (HBV) infection in infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and infertility causes is unknown. A total of 831 infertile couples attending our unit seeking IVF during January to December 2015 were recruited. HBV infection was found in 6.3% and 7.3% of female and male partners, respectively, and infection in one or both partners was associated with less primary infertility (44.2% vs 55.1%, P=.038). Infected female partners had increased tubal (69.2% vs 43.2%, Pinfertility, while infected male partners were associated with increased tubal (62.3% vs 43.4%, P=.004) causes and reduced endometriosis (62.3% vs 73.9%, P=.050). Our results suggest HBV infection in either partner was associated with tubal infertility. HBV infection in either partner probably increases the risk of pelvic infection in female partner through impaired immune response to sexually transmitted infections, with consequent tubal damage and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 h vs. 14 h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, A.; Sánchez-Macías, D.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (...

  12. Retention of total carotenoid and β-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz after domestic cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design: The total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results: The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total β-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The β-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest β-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-β-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of β-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR% in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or β-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion: Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or β-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or

  13. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wendy S.; Varni, Susan E.; Barry, Sara E.; Frankowski, Barbara L.; Harder, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase…

  14. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, B J; Rissler, H M

    2000-10-29

    There are multiple complementary and redundant mechanisms to provide protection against photo-oxidative damage, including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ dissipates excess excitation energy as heat by using xanthophylls in combination with changes to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) antenna. The xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids that in addition to contributing to NPQ can quench singlet or triplet chlorophyll and are necessary for the assembly and stability of the antenna. We have genetically manipulated the expression of the epsilon-cyclase and beta-carotene hydroxylase carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The epsilon-cyclase overexpression confirmed that lut2 (lutein deficient) is a mutation in the epsilon-cyclase gene and demonstrated that lutein content can be altered at the level of mRNA abundance with levels ranging from 0 to 180% of wild-type. Also, it is clear that lutein affects the induction and extent of NPQ. The deleterious effects of lutein deficiency on NPQ in Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas are additive, no matter what the genetic background, whether npq1 (zeaxanthin deficient), aba1 or antisense beta-hydroxylase (xanthophyll cycle pool decreased). Additionally, increasing lutein content causes a marginal, but significant, increase in the rate of induction of NPQ despite a reduction in the xanthophyll cycle pool size.

  15. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mieko; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-04-23

    Because hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, the carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables commercialized in Campinas, Brazil, was determined. All samples were collected and analyzed in winter. Lactucaxanthin was quantified for the first time and was found to have concentrations similar to that of neoxanthin in the four types of lettuce analyzed. Lutein predominated in cress, chicory, and roquette (75.4 +/- 10.2, 57.0 +/- 10.3, and 52.2 +/- 12.6 microg/g, respectively). In the lactucaxanthin-containing lettuces, beta-carotene and lutein were the principal carotenoids (ranging from 9.9 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g and from 10.2 +/- 1.0 to 22.9 +/- 2.6 microg/g, respectively). Comparison of hydroponic and field-produced curly lettuce, taken from neighboring farms, showed that the hydroponic lettuce had significantly lower lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin contents than the conventionally produced lettuce. Because the hydroponic farm had a polyethylene covering, less exposure to sunlight and lower temperatures may have decreased carotenogenesis.

  16. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaolong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]. On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum, interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum, and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers.

  17. Pulsed radiation studies of carotenoid radicals and excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, M.

    2001-04-01

    The one-electron reduction potentials of the radical cations of five dietary carotenoids, in aqueous micellar environments, have been obtained from a pulse radiolysis study of electron transfer between the carotenoids and tryptophan radical cations as a function of pH, and lie in the range 980 to 1060 mV. The decays of the carotenoid radical cations suggest a distribution of exponential lifetimes. The radicals persist for up to about one second, depending on the medium and may re-orientate within a biological environment to react with other biomolecules, such as tyrosine, cysteine or ascorbic acid, which was indeed confirmed. Spectral information of carotenoid pigmented liposomes has been collected, subsequently pulse radiolysis was used to generate the radical cations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein, in unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. The rate constants for the 'repair' of these carotenoid radical cations by water-soluble vitamin C were found to be similar (∼1 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 ) for β-carotene and zeaxanthin and somewhat lower (∼0.5 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 ) for lutein. The results are discussed in terms of the microenvironment of the carotenoids and suggest that for β-carotene, a hydrocarbon carotenoid, the radical cation is able to interact with a water-soluble species even though the parent hydrocarbon carotenoid is probably entirely in the non-polar region of the liposome. Studies investigating the ability of ingested lycopene to protect human lymphoid cells against singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide radical mediated cell damage have shown that a high lycopene diet is beneficial in protecting human cells against reactive oxygen species. Triplet states of carotenoids were produced in benzene solvent and their triplet lifetimes were found to depend on the concentration of the parent molecule. The rate constants obtained for ground state quenching correlate with the number of conjugated double bonds, the longer chain systems having

  18. Deworming and the immune status of HIV positive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals in Arba Minch, Chencha and Gidole hospitals, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abossie, Ashenafi; Petros, Beyene

    2015-09-28

    Helminths/HIV co-infections are very common in developing countries, especially in Africa. The effect of overlapping distribution of HIV and helminths becomes important because concomitant infection may exacerbate disease outcome of HIV infection. The study aimed at determining the effect of deworming on the immune status of helminth/HIV coinfected Pre-ART HIV patients attending three health institutions in Southern Ethiopia. 97 HIV-positive Pre-ART individuals were observed into 2 groups on the basis of helminth co-infection and no infection. Out of these, 66 study participants were helminths/HIV co-infected and the remaining 31 study participants were helminths (-)/HIV (+) control. Helminth/HIV co-infected participants CD4+ T-cell count was done at baseline, after 15 weeks and 6 months after antihelminthics treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest prevalent soil transmitted helminths in Pre-ART individuals in this study. CD4+ T-cell count in the Ascaris lumricoides/HIV co-infected was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and (P intestinal helminth parasites detected in the study. In conclusion, this finding on Ascaris lumbricoides-specific nature of immune interaction in helminth/HIV co-infection may partly explain the inconsistent reports on the role of intestinal helminths on progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Therefore, a well-designed longitudinal study on helminth species-specific HIV/helminth co-infection will be needed to fully establish the possible benefits of deworming in intestinal helminth/HIV co-infection.

  19. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  20. Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, carotenoids are valuable molecules in different industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, poultry, food and cosmetics. These pigments not only can act as vitamin A precursors, but also they have coloring and antioxidant properties, which have attracted the attention of the industries and researchers. The carotenoid production through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants is limited by low yields that results in high production costs. This leads to research of microbial production of carotenoids, as an alternative that has shown better yields than other aforementioned. In addition, the microbial production of carotenoids could be a better option about costs, looking for alternatives like the use of low-cost substrates as agro-industrials wastes. Yeasts have demonstrated to be carotenoid producer showing an important growing capacity in several agro-industrial wastes producing high levels of carotenoids. Agro-industrial wastes provide carbon and nitrogen source necessary, and others elements to carry out the microbial metabolism diminishing the production costs and avoiding pollution from these agro-industrial wastes to the environmental. Herein, we discuss the general and applied concepts regarding yeasts carotenoid production and the factors influencing carotenogenesis using agro-industrial wastes as low-cost substrates. PMID:24443802

  1. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. II. Humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    The filarial-specific humoral responses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE) to a Brugia pahangi antigen was assessed in 9 groups of adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. In 5 of the groups, individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and circulating...... filarial antigen (CFA) and had leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades. A 6th group had mixed grades of lymphoedema and were actively infected with mf and/or CFA. Three groups of asymptomatic individuals with different infection status (mf+CFA+; mf-CFA+; mf-CFA-) were...... also included. No differences in the antibody levels were observed between the 5 uninfected pathology groups. However, groups with advanced lymphoedema had a significantly higher level of IgG3 as compared to groups with early lymphoedema. A decline in the IgG4/IgE ratios were observed when moving from...

  2. Carotenoid accumulation in the tissues of zebra finches: predictors of integumentary pigmentation and implications for carotenoid allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kevin J; Toomey, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce the bright yellow to red ornamental colors of many animals, especially birds, and must ultimately be derived from the diet. However, they are also valuable for many physiological functions (e.g., antioxidants, immunostimulants, photoprotection, visual tuning, yolk nourishment to embryos), and as a result they are present in numerous internal body tissues (e.g., liver, adipose tissue, retina) whose carotenoid types and amounts are rarely studied in the context of color acquisition. Because male and female animals typically place different priorities on fitness-enhancing activities (e.g., gametic investment in females, sexual attraction in males), carotenoid allocation may track such investment patterns in the two sexes, and we can test for such sex-specific priorities of carotenoids by assessing body-tissue distributions of these pigments. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify and quantify carotenoid pigments from the plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and retina as well as the beak and legs of male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males display sexually attractive, red, carotenoid-based beak coloration and females also display some (albeit a less rich orange) beak color. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the predictors of carotenoid-based leg coloration-another potentially important visual signal-in this species. The same suite of dietary (e.g., lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (e.g., dehydrolutein, anhydrolutein) yellow and orange carotenoids was present in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue of both sexes. Retina contained two different metabolites (astaxanthin and galloxanthin) that serve specific functions in association with unique photoreceptor types in the eye. Beaks were enriched with four red ketocarotenoid derivatives in both sexes (alpha-doradexanthin, adonirubin, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin), while the carotenoid profile of legs

  3. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of carotenoid triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.A.; Bolt, J.D.; deCosta, S.M.; Sauer, K.

    1980-01-01

    Triplet states of carotenoids have been detected by X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and are reported here for the first time. The systems in which carotenoid triplets are observed include cells of photosynthetic bacteria, isolated bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes, and detergent micelles which contain β-carotene. It is well known that if electron transfer is blocked following the initial acceptor in the bacterial photochemical reaction center, back reaction of the primary radical pair produces a bacteriochlorophyll dimer triplet. Previous optical studies have shown that in reaction centers containing carotenoids the bacteriochlorophyll dimer triplet sensitizes the carotenoid triplet. We have observed this carotenoid triplet state by EPR in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, strain 2.4.1 (wild type), which contain the carotenoid spheroidene. The zero-field splitting parameters of the triplet spectrum are /D/ = 0.0290 +- 0.0005 cm -1 and /E/ = 0.0044 +-0.0006 cm -1 , in contrast with the parameters of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer triplet, which are /D/ = 0.0189 +- 0.0004 cm -1 and /E/ = 0.0032 +- 0.004 cm -1 . Bacteriochlorophyll in a light harvesting protein complex from Rps. sphaeroides, wild type, also sensitizes carotenoid triplet formation. In whole cells the EPR spectra vary with temperature between 100 and 10 K. Carotenoid triplets also have been observed by EPR in whole cells of Rps. sphaeroides and cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum which contain the carotenoid spirilloxanthin. Attempts to observe the triplet state EPR spectrum of β-carotene in numerous organic solvents failed. However, in nonionic detergent micelles and in phospholipid bilayer vesicles β-carotene gives a triplet state spectrum with /D/ = 0.0333 +- 0.0010 cm -1 and /E/ = 0.0037 +- 0.0010 cm -1 . 6 figures, 1 table

  5. Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? : results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120 852 subjects aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986), the association between vitamins and carotenoids intake, vitamin supplement use, and bladder cancer incidence was examined. Exposure status was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of

  6. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2010), s. 19-28 ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/08/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carotenoids * Ornamentation * Oxidative stress * Testosterone * Trade-off Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.250, year: 2010

  7. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  8. The research status of immune checkpoint blockade by anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1/PD-l1 antibodies in tumor immunotherapy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqin; He, Liangmei; Mao, Kaiyun; Chen, Daming; Jiang, Hongbo; Liu, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Using bibliometrics, we analyzed the research status of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB, a popular tumor immunotherapy method represented by antibodies targeted CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1) in tumor immunotherapy in China during the past 2 decades. Methods: Articles in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), patents in Thomson Innovation, and drugs in Cortellis Competitive Intelligence in the field of ICB for tumor immunotherapy from 1996 to 2015 were the subjects of bibliometric analysis. Using database-attached software and Excel, quantitative analyses were performed including examination of the number of documents, citation frequency, h-index, key projects, quantity of publications, public patents, and status of new drug research. Results: The number of publications from 1996 to 2015 in the field of ICB for tumor immunotherapy that came out of China was 380, which was 14.3% of the total publications worldwide and was second only to that of the USA. In the past decade, China has rapidly increased the number of publications and patents in this field. However, indicators of publication influence, such as citation frequency and h-index, were far behind other advanced countries. In addition, the total number of patents in China was much lower than that of the USA. China has introduced 5 drugs for ICB that are being developed for the healthcare market. Conclusion: Tumor immunotherapy research such as ICB in China has developed rapidly with increasing influence in the last 2 decades. However, there is still a relatively large gap compared with the USA. It is expected that China will have greater influence on tumor immunotherapy research in the near future. PMID:29642147

  9. A post-infection serologic assessment of cattle herd immune status after a vesicular stomatitis outbreak and the agreement of antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Mary Lou; O'Hearn, Emily; Lomkin, Richanne; Newens, Ken; Havas, Karyn A

    2018-03-01

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle, and pigs in the Western Hemisphere caused by viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. Disease manifests as vesicles and erosions on the oral mucosa, teats, prepuce, and coronary band, and is similar in presentation to foot-and-mouth disease. Laboratory confirmation is therefore required. Conventional assays include competitive (c)ELISA and complement fixation (CF). The cELISA provides more accurate herd-level detection of VSV-exposed cattle, but may lack the ability to capture fluctuating antibody levels in individual animals. The CF assay can confirm newly infected animals because of its ability to detect antigen-antibody complexes, thus is considered to be indicative of IgM. We evaluated the immune status of 2 herds affected by VSV in 2014 by testing sera collected in June 2015. Two conventional assays were compared to a novel IgM-IgG ELISA. When sampled in 2015, both herds had detectable VSV-specific antibodies; 18% and 36% of animals tested by cELISA and 2% and 8% of animals tested by CF were positive. The novel IgM-IgG assay exhibited fair agreement (adjusted kappa score of 48) with the conventional assays, and should be evaluated further to assess its ability to replace the 2 separate assays with a single assay system, or for its ability to replace the CF assay as a more sensitive method for defining newly exposed animals.

  10. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  11. Carotenoid-based breast plumage colour, body condition and clutch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent ornamental trait. In some species of birds, red, orange and yellow feather colouration reflects male quality and advertises the carotenoid concentration of feathers. Such colouration is an important aspect of mate selection by females.

  12. Carotenoids Functionality, Sources, and Processing by Supercritical Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid is a group of pigments naturally present in vegetal raw materials that have biological properties. These pigments have been used mainly in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Currently, the industrial production is executed through chemical synthesis, but natural alternatives of carotenoid production/attainment are in development. The carotenoid extraction occurs generally with vegetal oil and organic solvents, but supercritical technology is an alternative technique to the recovery of these compounds, presenting many advantages when compared to conventional process. Brazil has an ample diversity of vegetal sources inadequately investigated and, then, a major development of optimization and validation of carotenoid production/attainment methods is necessary, so that the benefits of these pigments can be delivered to the consumer.

  13. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental

  14. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Walk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One apparent consequence of aging appears to be loss of some aspects of cognitive control. This loss is measurable as early as mid-adulthood. Since, like many aspects of cognition, there is wide variance among individuals, it is possible that behavior, such as one’s diet, could drive some of these differences. For instance, past data on older humans and non-human primates have suggested that dietary carotenoids could slow cognitive decline. In this study, we tested how early such protection might manifest by examining a sample (n = 60 of 25–45 year olds. Carotenoid status was assessed by directly measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD which has shown to be highly correlated with the primary carotenoid in brain, lutein. Cognitive control was measured using event-related potentials during the performance of cognitive control tasks designed to tap into different aspects of attentional (i.e., selective attention, attentional inhibition, and response inhibition control. Our results showed that, across participants, MPOD was related to both age and the P3 component of participants’ neuroelectric profile (P3 amplitude for attentional, but not response, inhibition. Although younger adults exhibited larger P3 amplitudes than their older adult counterparts, older subjects with higher MPOD levels displayed P3 indices similar to their younger adult counterparts in amplitude. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses showed that age was no longer a significant predictor of P3 amplitude when MPOD was included as a predictor in the model, suggesting that MPOD may partially contribute to the relationship between age and P3 amplitude. In addition, age and MPOD were shown to have independent associations with intraindividual variability of attentional control, such that younger individuals and individuals with higher MPOD showed less intraindividual variability. These results show a relationship between retinal carotenoids and neuroelectric

  15. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  17. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  18. Effects of the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, on the survival, development, stress tolerance, and immune status of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Shiu, Ya-Li; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, isolated from the human health food, natto, was used for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, larvae breeding to improve the larval survival rate and development by adding probiotic to the rearing water at (control), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu L(-1) salt water once every 3 days during the 14 days of breeding experiment. Thereafter, stress tolerance and immune status of postlarvae were evaluated. Shrimp larval development was significantly accelerated after adding the probiotic to the larval rearing water at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1). The survival rate of larvae was significantly higher in the treatment with 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control and the treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1) after all larvae had metamorphosed to postlarvae. Adding the probiotic to the shrimp larvae rearing water produced a weak inhibition of bacterial growth by an analysis of the total bacterial count and presumptive Vibrio count. For stress tests, no postlarvae died when they were reared in water in which the temperature was decreased from 30 to 2 degrees C at a rate of 0.1 degrees C min(-1). Postlarvae had significantly lower cumulate mortality in the treatments with 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control when they were suddenly exposed to fresh water and 60 per thousand salt water. A significant decrease in the cumulative mortality of postlarvae treated with the probiotic at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1) was recorded after the sudden transfer to 300 mg L(-1) nitrite-N compared to the control and treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1). The analysis of immune-related gene expressions showed that the gene expression of prophenoloxidase I, prophenoloxidase II, and lysozyme of larvae were significantly increased after being reared in probiotic-containing water at the levels of 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1). However, no significant difference in serine proteinase or glutathione peroxidase gene expressions was recorded in this study. It is therefore

  19. 75 FR 30044 - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., Kent ``Oz'' Nelson Auditorium, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open to the public, limited only by the... for More Information: Antonette Hill, Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization...

  20. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  1. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonglong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  2. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  3. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  4. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  5. Effects of dietary on antioxidant status, lipid profile, immune response and performance characteristics of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mirzaie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue-green algae but more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira. This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat-exposed broilers. Methods Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615.6 g at 17 days of age were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 chicks. Treatment groups were as follows: positive and negative controls with 0% Spirulina supplement and three Spirulina receiving groups with 5 g/kg (0.5%, 10 g/kg (1%, and 20 g/kg (2% supplementation. Spirulina receiving groups as well as positive control were exposed to high ambient temperature at 36°C for 6 h/d from 38 to 44 days of age. Biochemical variables were measured in serum samples at 35, 38, 42, and 45 days of broiler chickens age. Results The results showed that supplementation of the diet with Spirulina decreased concentration of stress hormone and some serum lipid parameters while enhanced humoral immunity response and elevated antioxidant status whereas it didn’t meaningfully affect performance characteristics. Nevertheless, feed conversion ratio was improved numerically but not statistically in broilers fed with 1% Spirulina under high ambient temperature. Conclusion Overall, the present study suggests that alleviation of adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile can be approached in broiler chickens through supplementation of the diet with Spirulina platensis.

  6. Comparative assessment of radiation versus nutritional and other factors that may influence immune status. Report of a Joint IAEA/WHO advisory group meeting, Vienna, Austria, 3-6 May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An Advisory Group Meeting was convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization in May 1994 to review the role of radiation, nutrition, toxic chemicals and other factors that may influence immune status in human populations. Priorities for future research were proposed, and possibilities for using isotope in such studies were identified. The Group recommended that the IAEA should initiate a broadly based Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) focussed mainly on the effects of low-level radiation on immune status in human populations. The main variables of interest are (i) the level of individual radiation exposure, and (ii) the nutritional status. Possible experimental groups include persons living in areas of high radiation background (e.g. in countries where areas of high radiation background are known to occur naturally, or at high altitudes, or in areas affected by Chernobyl accident). Other possible experimental groups comprise radiation workers and uranium miners. It was also recommended that the contribution of toxic chemical exposure to immune dysfunction in these population groups should be assessed. Such research should be complemented by animal studies, and possibly also by in vitro studies with human and animal cells, by some participants in the CRP. This report has been prepared as a source of information for potential participants in the proposed CRP and for other persons associated with related programmes of the IAEA and the WHO. 15 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  7. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  8. Carotenoids of Microalgae Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Hélène; Solymosi, Katalin; Marchand, Justine; Schoefs, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative microalgal sources used for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Incorporation of [1-C14] Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate into Carotenoids and Homo carotenoids using a Cell-free Preparation of Micrococcus Luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The early steps up to the formation of acyclic unsaturated carotenes (e.g.,phytoene to lycopene) are presumed to be common to the biosynthesis of all carotenoids with 40 or more carbon atoms, nevertheless, no direct evidence so far available to confirm this for homo carotenoids (c 45 and c 50 carotenoids). In the present study, an active cell-free preparation was obtained from diphenylamine-inhibited cells of Micrococcus Iuteus and found to be capable to incorporate radioactivity from Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (labelled with C-14)into carotenoids and homo carotenoids, providing for the first time a direct evidence which suggests that both carotenoids and homo carotenoids are sharing the same biological origin. Furthermore, the technique developed in this study may be considered as a valuable method for preparation of biological-active labelled compounds which may have some advantages over conventional chemical syntheses methods

  10. Carotenoids, versatile components of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Ildikó; Kis, Mihály; Gombos, Zoltán; Ughy, Bettina

    2013-10-01

    Carotenoids (CARs) are a group of pigments that perform several important physiological functions in all kingdoms of living organisms. CARs serve as protective agents, which are essential structural components of photosynthetic complexes and membranes, and they play an important role in the light harvesting mechanism of photosynthesizing plants and cyanobacteria. The protection against reactive oxygen species, realized by quenching of singlet oxygen and the excited states of photosensitizing molecules, as well as by the scavenging of free radicals, is one of the main biological functions of CARs. X-ray crystallographic localization of CARs revealed that they are present at functionally and structurally important sites of both the PSI and PSII reaction centers. Characterization of a CAR-less cyanobacterial mutant revealed that while the absence of CARs prevents the formation of PSII complexes, it does not abolish the assembly and function of PSI. CAR molecules assist in the formation of protein subunits of the photosynthetic complexes by gluing together their protein components. In addition to their aforementioned indispensable functions, CARs have a substantial role in the formation and maintenance of proper cellular architecture, and potentially also in the protection of the translational machinery under stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches.

  12. Role of PPARγ in the nutritional and pharmacological actions of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao WE

    2016-04-01

    molecular mechanisms underlying retinoic acid effects on adipose-tissue biology and the development of adiposity remain poorly understood. Adiposity can be affected by retinoids through long-lasting effects at critical developmental stages. Retinol saturase increases PPARγ-transcriptional activity and adipocyte differentiation. Other carotenoids that have been reported to suppress adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in the main via modulation of PPARγ and PPARγ-target genes include astaxanthin, bixin, norbixin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin and its metabolites, lycopene, apo-10’-lycopenoic acid, siphonaxanthin, and neoxanthin, except paprika pigments. Lutein, lycopene, and paprika carotenoids reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels by an induction of PPARγ in immune tissues and cells. Lycopene, apo-10’-lycopenoic acid, and astaxanthin might prevent atherosclerosis through modifying cholesterol metabolism via increasing PPARγ expression in macrophages. Keywords: carotenoids, PPARγ, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antiatherosclerosis

  13. Effect of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials on immune status in broiler chickens raised on fresh or used litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota play an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present stu...

  14. Pulsed radiation studies of carotenoid radicals and excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M

    2001-04-01

    The one-electron reduction potentials of the radical cations of five dietary carotenoids, in aqueous micellar environments, have been obtained from a pulse radiolysis study of electron transfer between the carotenoids and tryptophan radical cations as a function of pH, and lie in the range 980 to 1060 mV. The decays of the carotenoid radical cations suggest a distribution of exponential lifetimes. The radicals persist for up to about one second, depending on the medium and may re-orientate within a biological environment to react with other biomolecules, such as tyrosine, cysteine or ascorbic acid, which was indeed confirmed. Spectral information of carotenoid pigmented liposomes has been collected, subsequently pulse radiolysis was used to generate the radical cations of {beta}-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein, in unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. The rate constants for the 'repair' of these carotenoid radical cations by water-soluble vitamin C were found to be similar ({approx}1 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1}s{sup -1}) for {beta}-carotene and zeaxanthin and somewhat lower ({approx}0.5 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1}s{sup -1}) for lutein. The results are discussed in terms of the microenvironment of the carotenoids and suggest that for {beta}-carotene, a hydrocarbon carotenoid, the radical cation is able to interact with a water-soluble species even though the parent hydrocarbon carotenoid is probably entirely in the non-polar region of the liposome. Studies investigating the ability of ingested lycopene to protect human lymphoid cells against singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide radical mediated cell damage have shown that a high lycopene diet is beneficial in protecting human cells against reactive oxygen species. Triplet states of carotenoids were produced in benzene solvent and their triplet lifetimes were found to depend on the concentration of the parent molecule. The rate constants obtained for ground state quenching correlate with the number

  15. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  17. Nutritional aspects of phytoene and phytofluene, carotenoid precursors to lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between tomato consumption and serum and tissue lycopene (LYC) levels with risk of some chronic diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease. LYC, the red carotenoid found in tomatoes, is often considered to be the primary bioactive carotenoid in tomatoes that mediates health benefits, but other colorless precursor carotenoids, phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF), are also present in substantial quantities. PE and PF are readily absorbed from tomato foods and tomato extracts by humans. Animal models of carotenoid absorption suggest preferential accumulation of PE and PF in some tissues. The reasonably high concentrations of PE and PF detected in serum and tissues relative to the concentrations in foods suggest that absorption or metabolism of these compounds may be different from that of LYC. Experimental studies, both in vitro and in vivo, suggest that PE and PF exhibit bioactivity but little is known about their impact in humans. Methods for producing isotopically labeled PE, PF, and LYC tracers from tomato plant cell culture offer a unique tool for further understanding the differential bioavailability and metabolism of these 3 prominent tomato carotenoids and how they may affect health.

  18. A comprehensive review on the colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Mapelli-Brahm, Paula; Benítez-González, Ana; Stinco, Carla M

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and their derivatives are versatile isoprenoids involved in many varied actions, hence their importance in the agri-food industry, nutrition, health and other fields. All carotenoids are derived from the colorless carotenes phytoene and phytofluene, which are oddities among carotenoids due to their distinct chemical structure. They occur together with lycopene in tomato and other lycopene-containing foods. Furthermore, they are also present in frequently consumed products like oranges and carrots, among others. The intake of phytoene plus phytofluene has been shown to be higher than that of lycopene and other carotenoids in Luxembourg. This is likely to be common in other countries. However, they are not included in food carotenoid databases, hence they have not been linked to health benefits in epidemiological studies. Interestingly, there are evidences in vitro, animal models and humans indicating that they may provide health benefits. In this sense, the study of these colorless carotenes in the context of food science, nutrition and health should be further encouraged. In this work, we review much of the existing knowledge concerning their chemical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, analysis, distribution in foods, bioavailability and likely biological activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  20. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    .g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also...

  1. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...

  2. Development of carotenoid-enriched vegetables with increased nutritional quality and visual appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....

  3. Upscaling from leaf to canopy chlorophyll/carotenoid pigment based vegetation indices reveal phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and deciduous trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Bhathena, Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2017-12-01

    Optically derived vegetation indices have been developed to provide information about plant status including photosynthetic activity. They reflect changes in leaf pigments, which vary seasonally in pigment composition, enabling them to be used as a proxy of photosynthetic phenology. Important pigments in photosynthetic activity are carotenoids and chlorophylls, which are associated with light harvesting and energy dissipation. In temperate forests, which consist of deciduous and evergreen trees, there are difficulties resolving evergreen phenology using the most widely used index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). NDVI works well in deciduous trees, which exhibit a "visible" phenological process of leaf growth in the spring, and leaf senescence and abscission in the autumn. Evergreen conifers stay green year-round and utilize "invisible" changes of overwintering pigment composition that NDVI cannot resolve, so carotenoid pigment sensitive vegetation indices have been suggested for evergreens. The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid based vegetation indices over the chlorophyll sensitive NDVI. For this purpose, we evaluated the greenness index, NDVI, and carotenoid pigment sensitive indices: photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll/carotenoid index (CCI) in red maple, white oak and eastern white pine for two years. We also measured leaf gas exchange and pigment concentrations. We observed that NDVI correlated with photosynthetic activity in deciduous trees, whereas PRI and CCI correlated with photosynthesis across both evergreen and deciduous trees. This pattern was consistent, upscaling from leaf- to canopy-scales indicating that the mechanisms involved in winter acclimation can be resolved at larger spatial scales. PRI and CCI detected seasonal changes in carotenoids and chlorophylls linked to photoprotection and are suitable as a proxy of photosynthetic activity. These findings have implications to improve our use and

  4. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  5. Screening and selection of high carotenoid producing in vitro tomato cell culture lines for [13C]-carotenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Rupassara, S Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2010-09-22

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-labeling. Different Solanum lycopersicum allelic variants for high lycopene and varying herbicide treatments were compared for carotenoid accumulation in callus and suspension culture, and cell suspension cultures of the hp-1 line were chosen for isotopic labeling. When grown with [U]-13C-glucose and treated with CPTA, hp-1 suspensions yielded highly enriched 13C-lycopene with 45% of lycopene in the M+40 form and 88% in the M+35 to M+40 isotopomer range. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of highly enriched 13C-carotenoid production from in vitro plant cell culture.

  6. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  7. Photoprotection by dietary carotenoids: concept, mechanisms, evidence and future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Wilhelm; Sies, Helmut

    2012-02-01

    Carotenoids are micronutrients present mainly in fruits and vegetables, and they are ingested from these sources with the diet. They exhibit specific antioxidant activity but also influence signaling and gene expression at the cellular level. β-Carotene and lycopene, the colorants of carrots and tomatoes, respectively, are among the most prominent members of this group of lipids, and they are usually the dominating carotenoids in human blood and tissues. Both compounds modulate skin properties when ingested as supplements or as dietary products. There is evidence that they protect the skin against sunburn (solar erythema) by increasing the basal defense against UV light-mediated damage. Their photoprotective efficacy, however, is not comparable to the use of a sunscreen. In vitro data show that also other carotenoids are efficient photoprotectors. Among them are lutein and structurally unusual phenolic polyenes like 3,3'-dihydroxyisorenieratene. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Adaptability and stability of carotenoids in maize cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Almeida Rios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adaptability and stability of carotenoids in maize cultivars inthe 2004/2005 growing season. Total carotenoids (TC, total carotenoids with provitamin A activity (Pro VA (μg g-1 andgrain yield (kg ha-1 were quantified in 10 cultivars at five locations. The chemical analyses were conducted in a laboratoryof the EMBRAPA/CNPMS, in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais. The methodologies of Eberhart and Russell (1966, Lin and Binns(1988 and Rocha et al. (2005 were used to analyze adaptability and stability. In general, the linear regression modelproposed by Eberhart and Russell (1966 failed to fit the Pro VA contents in the evaluated cultivars satisfactorily. However,with regard to the TC levels, all different analysis methodologies of adaptability and stability rated hybrid BRS 2020 as anideal genotype with general adaptability.

  9. Stability of bacterial carotenoids in the presence of iron in a model of the gastric compartment - comparison with dietary reference carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 are sources of carotenoids (∼fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments and ∼thirteen distinct pink pigments, respectively). They are glycosides of oxygenated lycopene derivatives (apo-lycopenoids) and are assumed to be more heat- and gastric-stable than common carotenoids. In this study, the oxidation by O2 of the bacterial carotenoids was initiated by free iron (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin) in a mildly acidic aqueous solution mimicking the gastro-intestinal compartment and compared to the oxidation of the common dietary carotenoids β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Under these conditions, all bacterial carotenoids appear more stable in the presence of heme iron vs. free iron. Carotenoid autoxidation initiated by Fe(II) is relatively fast and likely involves reactive oxygen-iron species derived from Fe(II) and O2. By contrast, the corresponding reaction with Fe(III) is kinetically blocked by the slow preliminary reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) by the carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids toward autoxidation increases as follows: β-carotenecarotenoids react more quickly than reference carotenoids with Fe(III), but much more slowly than the reference carotenoids with Fe(II). This reaction is correlated with the structure of the carotenoids, which can have opposite effects in a micellar system: bacterial carotenoids with electro-attracting terminal groups have a lower reducing capacity than β-carotene and lycopene. However, their polar head favours their location close to the interface of micelles, in closer contact with oxidative species. Kinetic analyses of the iron-induced autoxidation of astaxanthin and HU36 carotenoids has been performed and gives insights in the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancuta Scrob

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

  11. Differential effects of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on carotenoid deposition in an avian sexually selected signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Dijkstra, Cor; Tagliavini, James; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-based traits are under the control of testosterone (T) by up-regulation of carotenoid carriers (lipoproteins) and/or tissue-specific uptake of carotenoids. T can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2), and variation in conversion

  12. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively

  13. The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods.

  14. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, -ca...

  15. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  16. Certain aspects of the reactivity of carotenoids. Redox processes and complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V

    2006-01-01

    The published data on the redox reactions of carotenoids, their supramolecular inclusion complexes and the composition, properties and practical application of these complexes are generalised. Special attention is given to the effect of complexation on radical processes involving carotenoids and on the antioxidant activity of carotenoids.

  17. Metabolic regulation of carotenoid-enriched Golden rice line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Gayen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI. In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation of endosperm specific carotenoid pathways. The main alteration was observed in carbohydrate metabolism pathways of the transgenic seeds. The 2D based proteomic studies demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, such as pullulanase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucose-1-phosphate adenylyl transferase, were primarily up-regulated in transgenic rice seeds. In addition, the enzyme PPDK was also elevated in transgenic seeds thus enhancing pyruvate biosynthesis, which is the precursor in the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway. GC-MS based metabolite profiling demonstrated an increase in the levels of glyceric acid, fructo-furanose, and galactose, while decrease in galactonic acid and gentiobiose in the transgenic rice compared to WT. It is noteworthy to mention that the carotenoid content, especially β-carotene level in transgenic rice (4.3 µg/g was significantly enhanced. The present study highlights the metabolic adaptation process of a transgenic golden rice line (homozygous T4 progeny of SKBR-244 after enhancing carotenoid biosynthesis. The presented information would be helpful in the development of crops enriched in carotenoids by expressing metabolic flux of pyruvate biosynthesis.

  18. Lutein and preterm infants with decreased concentrations of brain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Kuchan, Matthew J; Sen, Sarbattama; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during the first 1.5 years of life were obtained from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank. Tissues (hippocampus and prefrontal, frontal, auditory, and occipital cortices) were extracted using standard lipid extraction procedures and analyzed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were the major carotenoids found in the infant brain tissues. Lutein was the predominant carotenoid accounting for 59% of total carotenoids. Preterm infants (n = 8) had significantly lower concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin in their brain compared with term infants (n = 22) despite similarity in postmenstrual age. Among formula-fed infants, preterm infants (n = 3) had lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin compared with term infants (n = 5). Brain lutein concentrations were not different between breast milk-fed (n = 3) and formula-fed (n = 5) term decedents. In contrast, term decedents with measurable brain cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid that is inherently low in formula, had higher brain lutein, suggesting that the type of feeding is an important determinant of brain lutein concentrations. These data reveal preferential accumulation and maintenance of lutein in the infant brain despite underrepresentation in the typical infant diet. Further investigation on the impact of lutein on neural development in preterm infants is warranted.

  19. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  20. Thraustochytrids as production organisms for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Inga Marie; Ertesvåg, Helga; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Liu, Bin; Brautaset, Trygve; Vadstein, Olav; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2016-05-01

    Thraustochytrids have been applied for industrial production of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) since the 1990s. During more than 20 years of research on this group of marine, heterotrophic microorganisms, considerable increases in DHA productivities have been obtained by process and medium optimization. Strains of thraustochytrids also produce high levels of squalene and carotenoids, two other commercially interesting compounds with a rapidly growing market potential, but where yet few studies on process optimization have been reported. Thraustochytrids use two pathways for fatty acid synthesis. The saturated fatty acids are produced by the standard fatty acid synthesis, while DHA is synthesized by a polyketide synthase. However, fundamental knowledge about the relationship between the two pathways is still lacking. In the present review, we extract main findings from the high number of reports on process optimization for DHA production and interpret these in the light of the current knowledge of DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms in general. We also summarize published reports on squalene and carotenoid production and review the current status on strain improvement, which has been hampered by the yet very few published genome sequences and the lack of tools for gene transfer to the organisms. As more sequences now are becoming available, targets for strain improvement can be identified and open for a system-level metabolic engineering for improved productivities.

  1. Stability of carotenoids toward UV-irradiation in hexane solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN CVETKOVIC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stabilities of four selected carotenoids dissolved in hexane, two carotenes and two xanthophylls, toward UV-irradiation of three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C were studied in this work. The carotenoids underwent bleaching via a probable free radical mediated mechanism following first-order kinetics. The bleaching rates were highly dependent on the input of the involved photons and, although not consistently, on the chemical structures of the investigated compounds. For the two xanthophylls, a possible role of oxygen associated with their bleaching cannot be neglected.

  2. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    effects on carotenoid liberation from different cultivars of Asia salads and negative or no effects on liberation and in vitro accessibility of carotenoids from spinach. In vitro-in vivo study: Mincing resulted in a factor two difference in in vitro accessibility of carotenoids when comparing whole leaf...... variable positive effects on carotenoid liberation from different cultivars of Asia salads and negative or no effects on liberation and in vitro accessibility of carotenoids from spinach. Similarly, fat addition influenced β-car liberation positively; however, the effect was eliminated on the level...

  3. Estimation of carotenoid content at the canopy scale using the carotenoid triangle ratio index from in situ and simulated hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Xianfeng; Song, Xiaoyu; Casa, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoids (Car) content in plants, from remotely sensed data, is challenging due to their small proportion in the overall total pigment content and to the overlapping of spectral absorption features with chlorophyll (Chl) in the blue region of the spectrum. The use of narrow band vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from hyperspectral data has been considered an effective way to estimate Car content. However, VIs have proved to lack sensitivity to low or high Car content in a number of studies. In this study, the carotenoid triangle ratio index (CTRI), derived from the existing modified triangular vegetation index and a single band reflectance at 531 nm, was proposed and employed to estimate Car canopy content. We tested the potential of three categories of hyperspectral indices earlier proposed for Car, Chl, Car/Chl ratio estimation, and the new CTRI index, for Car canopy content assessment in winter wheat and corn. Spectral reflectance representing plant canopies were simulated using the PROSPECT and SAIL radiative transfer model, with the aim of analyzing saturation effects of these indices, as well as Chl effects on the relationship between spectral indices and Car content. The result showed that the majority of the spectral indices tested, saturated with the increase of Car canopy content above 28 to 64 μg/cm2. Conversely, the CTRI index was more robust and was linearly and highly sensitive to Car content in winter wheat and corn datasets, with coefficients of determination of 0.92 and 0.75, respectively. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction were 6.01 and 9.70 μg/cm2, respectively. Furthermore, the CTRI index did not show a saturation effect and was not greatly influenced by changes of Chl values, outperforming all the other indices tested. Estimation of Car canopy content using the CTRI index provides an insight into diagnosing plant physiological status and environmental stress.

  4. The REAnimation Low Immune Status Markers (REALISM) project: a protocol for broad characterisation and follow-up of injury-induced immunosuppression in intensive care unit (ICU) critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rol, Mary-Luz; Venet, Fabienne; Rimmele, Thomas; Moucadel, Virginie; Cortez, Pierre; Quemeneur, Laurence; Gardiner, David; Griffiths, Andrew; Pachot, Alexandre; Textoris, Julien; Monneret, Guillaume

    2017-06-21

    The host response to septic shock is dynamic and complex. A sepsis-induced immunosuppression phase has recently been acknowledged and linked to bad outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Moreover, a marked suppression of the immune response has also been partially described in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) for severe trauma or burns. It has been hypothesized that immune monitoring could enable identification of patients who might most benefit from novel, adjunctive immune-stimulating therapies. However, there is currently neither a clear definition for such injury-induced immunosuppression nor a stratification biomarker compatible with clinical constraints. We set up a prospective, longitudinal single-centre clinical study to determine the incidence, severity and persistency of innate and adaptive immune alterations in ICU patients. We optimized a workflow to describe and follow the immunoinflammatory status of 550 patients (septic shock, severe trauma/burn and major surgery) during the first 2 months after their initial injury. On each time point, two immune functional tests will be performed to determine whole-blood TNF-α production in response to ex vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation and the T lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohaemagglutinin. In addition, a complete immunophenotyping using flow cytometry including monocyte HLA-DR expression and lymphocyte subsets will be obtained. New markers (ie, levels of expression of host mRNA and viral reactivation) will be also evaluated. Reference intervals will be determined from a cohort of 150 age-matched healthy volunteers. This clinical study will provide, for the first time, data describing the immune status of severe ICU patients over time. Ethical approval has been obtained from the institutional review board (no 69HCL15_0379) and the French National Security agency for drugs and health-related products. Results will be disseminated through presentations at scientific meetings

  5. Host immune status affects maturation time in two nematode species--but not as predicted by a simple life-history model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinnee, M A; Gemmill, A W; Chan, B H K; Viney, M E; Read, A F

    2003-11-01

    In theory, the age at which maturation occurs in parasitic nematodes is inversely related to pre-maturational mortality rate, and cross-species data on mammalian nematodes are consistent with this prediction. Immunity is a major source of parasite mortality and parasites stand to gain sizeable fitness benefits through short-term adjustments of maturation time in response to variation in immune-mediated mortality. The effects of thymus-dependent immune responses on maturation in the nematode parasites Strongyloides ratti and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were investigated using congenitally thymus-deficient (nude) rats. As compared with worms in normal rats, reproductive maturity of parasites (presence of eggs in utero) in nude rats occurred later in S. ratti but earlier in N. brasiliensis. Immune-mediated differences in maturation time were not associated with differences in worm length. Thymus-dependent immunity had no effect on prematurational mortality. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical expectations and possible explanations for the observed patterns in parasite maturation.

  6. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids.

  7. Changes in membrane lipids and carotenoids during light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... increased their content, the changes of PG(18:3/16:0) and MGDG(18:3/16:0) being primarily significant. Major lipid changes were also ... reported to increase with exposure to high light in Cyano- bacteria (Masamoto and .... Absorption spectrum of the other carotenoid (unkn1) has absorption maxima at 448/.

  8. Teor de carotenoides em polpas de acerola congeladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Lorena Santos Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A acerola é uma espécie frutífera muito aceita pelos consumidores, que vem se destacando no Brasil e no mundo, principalmente por ser uma das principais fontes naturais de vitamina C e carotenoides, sendo amplamente industrializada na forma de polpa congelada.  Destacam-se como antioxidantes, elevando esse fruto ao campo dos alimentos funcionais, pois conferi benefícios na redução do risco de algumas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis como o câncer. Desta forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o teor de carotenoides em polpas de acerolas congeladas comercializadas em Picos-PI. Foram analisadas 5 amostras coletadas aleatoriamente no comércio varejista, a fim de realizar as análises. As polpas de acerolas analisadas apresentaram variação nos teores de β-caroteno de 23,49 a 37,04 mg/100ml e licopeno de 0,00 a 2,70 mg/100ml. Com a determinação dos carotenoides pode-se observar que as variações decorem de fatores que vão desde a área de cultivo da acerola até o armazenamento da polpa, embora as polpas tenham apresentado uma concentração relativamente boa de carotenoides

  9. Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, Norman I; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2005-12-01

    Based on extensive epidemiological observation, fruits and vegetables that are a rich source of carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits by decreasing the risk of various diseases, particularly certain cancers and eye diseases. The carotenoids that have been most studied in this regard are beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. In part, the beneficial effects of carotenoids are thought to be due to their role as antioxidants. beta-Carotene may have added benefits due its ability to be converted to vitamin A. Additionally, lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective in eye disease because they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye. Food sources of these compounds include a variety of fruits and vegetables, although the primary sources of lycopene are tomato and tomato products. Additionally, egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are available in supplement form. However, intervention trials with large doses of beta-carotene found an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer in smokers and workers exposed to asbestos. Until the efficacy and safety of taking supplements containing these nutrients can be determined, current dietary recommendations of diets high in fruits and vegetables are advised.

  10. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  11. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow (corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle East population. This study was carried out to determine the contents of major carotenoids quantitatively in mallow, by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bis...

  12. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  13. New opportunities for developing tomato varieties with enhanced carotenoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leiva-Brondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of varieties with a high content of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, has become a major focus in the marketing of tomato. Several mutants have been used in the development of high pigment varieties, but the significant influence of the environment on carotenoid content and the presence of negative side effects in vegetative growth and yield have limited the success of these variants. Consequently, the identification of alternative sources of variation in the quest for high carotenoid content is ongoing. In this study, 12 accessions of Solanum lycopersicum (including the former var cerasiforme and S. pimpinelifolium have been evaluated in three different environments: open field and glasshouse cultivation at two sites. Three accessions (BGV6195 of S. pimpinellifolium, LA1423 of the former var cerasiforme and LA3633 a possible hybrid between S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum showed outstanding and stable lycopene content, that doubled in all three environments the content of the positive control LA3538, with the high pigment-1 mutation (hp1. In addition, accession CATIE14812 would also be interesting as regards improvement of β-carotene content. These materials offer new opportunities in the development of tomato varieties with enriched and reliable carotenoid content and the close taxonomic relationship of these accessions with cultivated tomato will facilitate their use in breeding programs.

  14. Molecular Factors Controlling Photosynthetic Light Harvesting by Carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2010), s. 1125-1134 ISSN 0001-4842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * energy transfer * photosynthesis * light-harvesting Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 21.840, year: 2010

  15. Dark excited states of carotenoids: Consensus and controversy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Sundström, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, 1-3 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 0009-2614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited states * relaxation pathways * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.291, year: 2009

  16. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takeshi [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Buckup, Tiago [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Krause, Marie S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Southall, June [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow; UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow; UK; Motzkus, Marcus [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2to the optically dark state S1.

  17. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóth, T. N.; Chukhutsina, V.; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, M.; Lenart, Z.; Garab, G.; Kovács, L.; Gombos, Z.; van Amerongen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1847, č. 10 (2015), s. 1153-1165 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Carotenoid deficiency * Cyanobacterial photosynthesis * Phycobilisome Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2015

  18. Femtosecond carotenoid to retinal energy transfer in xanthorhodopsin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Balashov, S.P.; Chábera, P.; Imasheva, E.S.; Yartsev, A.; Sundström, V.; Lanyi, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2009), s. 2268-2277 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : energy transfer * carotenoids * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2009

  19. Photon echo spectroscopy reveals structure-dynamics relationships in carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christensson, N.; Polívka, Tomáš; Yartsev, A.; Pullerits, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 24 (2009), s. 1-14 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : electron correlations * energy gap * excited states * carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  20. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway during ripening and their association with accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruits. Shuchi Smita, Ravi Rajwanshi, Sangram Keshari Lenka, Amit Katiyar, Viswanathan Chinnusamy and. Kailash Chander Bansal. J. Genet. 92, 363–368. Table 1.

  1. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  2. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield, selectivity (purity, high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  3. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-11-22

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  4. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fruit ripening process is associated with change in carotenoid profile and accumulation of lycopene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In this study, we quantified the -carotene and lycopene content at green, breaker and red-ripe stages of fruit ripening in eight tomato genotypes by using high-performance liquid ...

  5. Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P<0.05 in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.

  6. From neuro-pigments to neural efficiency: The relationship between retinal carotenoids and behavioral and neuroelectric indices of cognitive control in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Anne M; Khan, Naiman A; Barnett, Sasha M; Raine, Lauren B; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J; Moulton, Christopher J; Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M; Hammond, Billy R; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-08-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated. The present study investigated the relationship between MPOD and the behavioral and neuroelectric indices elicited during a cognitive control task in preadolescent children. 49 participants completed a modified flanker task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the P3 component of the ERP waveform. MPOD was associated with both behavioral performance and P3 amplitude such that children with higher MPOD had more accurate performance and lower P3 amplitudes. These relationships were more pronounced for trials requiring greater amounts of cognitive control. These results indicate that children with higher MPOD may respond to cognitive tasks more efficiently, maintaining high performance while displaying neural indices indicative of lower cognitive load. These findings provide novel support for the neuroprotective influence of retinal carotenoids during preadolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  8. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Takashi; Narita, Masanao

    2014-01-01

    Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction. PMID:24633249

  9. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, Lowell D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Focsan, A Ligia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Konovalova, Tatyana A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence, Jesse [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowman, Michael K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Molnar, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deli, Jozsef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond

  10. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, Lowell D.; Focsan, A. Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A.; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K.; Dixon, David A.; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car ·+ ) but also neutral radicals ((number s ign)Car · ) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5(prime), and possibly 9 or 9(prime) and 13 or 13(prime). Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car # center d ot# + which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid π-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity (Lycopene (III) versus 8(prime)-apo-β-caroten-8(prime)-al (IV)); hydrogen bonding (Lutein (V) versus III); host (silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve); and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H + from the 5(5(prime)), 9(9(prime)) or 13(13(prime)) methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1 Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I # center d ot# + ...Chl # center d ot# - ), lower in

  11. Evaluation of carotenoid contents in irradiated buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jaqueline M. da; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Keila S.C.; Lima, Antonio L.S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O.; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Ferreira, Rubemar S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste CRCN-CO/CNEN, Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); E-mail: rferreira@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical Brazilian fruit, can be found at north, northeast and center-west regions in Brazil. It has a high nutritional value and is considered an excellent source of vitamin A precursors, called carotenoids, showing a majority of {beta}-carotene. It can be used in many regional dishes. In this study, Buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation, deriving from a cavity type research irradiator which has a Cs-137 radiation source, with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. The objective is to evaluate the irradiation effects on nutritional quality maintenance and conservation of Buriti, focusing in optimizer the processing conditions and increase consumption as a way to fight vitamin A deficiency. Clinical, biological and dietetic studies have indicated that the lack of vitamin A is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to the agriculture through the reduction of post harvesting losses. The irradiated fruits and the control group were evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (a and b-carotene and luteine) determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ANOVA was used to treat the results. The results show that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids, with a concentration of 44500 {mu}g/100 g in the pulp (70% of {beta}-carotene). The reduction of carotenoids contents due to the irradiation process does not compromise its nutritional quality that is still very above of recommendations, being the dose of 0.5 kGy more appropriate. (author)

  12. Evaluation of carotenoid contents in irradiated buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jaqueline M. da; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Keila S.C.; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Ferreira, Rubemar S.

    2007-01-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical Brazilian fruit, can be found at north, northeast and center-west regions in Brazil. It has a high nutritional value and is considered an excellent source of vitamin A precursors, called carotenoids, showing a majority of β-carotene. It can be used in many regional dishes. In this study, Buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation, deriving from a cavity type research irradiator which has a Cs-137 radiation source, with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. The objective is to evaluate the irradiation effects on nutritional quality maintenance and conservation of Buriti, focusing in optimizer the processing conditions and increase consumption as a way to fight vitamin A deficiency. Clinical, biological and dietetic studies have indicated that the lack of vitamin A is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to the agriculture through the reduction of post harvesting losses. The irradiated fruits and the control group were evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (a and b-carotene and luteine) determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ANOVA was used to treat the results. The results show that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids, with a concentration of 44500 μg/100 g in the pulp (70% of β-carotene). The reduction of carotenoids contents due to the irradiation process does not compromise its nutritional quality that is still very above of recommendations, being the dose of 0.5 kGy more appropriate. (author)

  13. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  14. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  15. Raman spectroscopy technology to monitor the carotenoids in skin of thalassemia patients: a novel non-invasive tool relating oxidative stress with iron burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Perrone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we approach the relationship between redox state and iron overload by noninvasive instrumental techniques. Intracardiac, liver iron and liver fibrosis have been monitored in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic transient elastography examinations. These measurements have been matched with a non-invasive, and yet unexplored in clinical practice, evaluation of body’s oxidative stress through measurement of antioxidant carotenoids in skin, by a spectroscopic method based on Raman technology (RRS. The global body’s antioxidant status results from a balance between the level of antioxidants in cells and body fluids, including blood, and pro-oxidant species endogenously produced or coming from external sources. On this basis, the level of skin carotenoids can be considered a biomarker of the entire antioxidant status. In our work the use of RRS method provided information on the redox state of thalassemia patients, which was correlated with the iron status of the patients. Due to the highly adverse effects of accumulated iron, the novel, simple, non-invasive RRS to monitor dermal carotenoids with high compliance of the patients may be a useful tool for the management of thalassemia patients.

  16. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  17. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G P; Mishra, S K; Pradhan, C R; Behura, N C; Das, A; Behera, K

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38(th) day of age. At 42(nd) day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  18. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartarini Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid

  19. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  20. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  2. Identification of a carotenoid oxygenase synthesizing acyclic xanthophylls: combinatorial biosynthesis and directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijts, Benjamin N; Lee, Pyung Cheon; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2005-04-01

    A carotenoid desaturase homolog from Staphylococcus aureus (CrtOx) was identified. When expressed in engineered E. coli cells synthesizing linear C(30) carotenoids, polar carotenoid products were generated, identified as aldehyde and carboxylic acid C(30) carotenoid derivatives. The major product in this engineered pathway is the fully desaturated C(30) dialdehyde carotenoid 4,4'-diapolycopen-4,4'-dial. Very low carotenoid yields were observed when CrtOx was complemented with the C(40) carotenoid lycopene pathway. But extension of an in vitro evolved pathway of the fully desaturated 2,4,2',4'-tetradehydrolycopene produced the structurally novel fully desaturated C(40) dialdehyde carotenoid 2,4,2',4'-tetradehydrolycopendial. Directed evolution of CrtOx by error-prone PCR resulted in a number of variants with higher activity on C(40) carotenoid substrates and improved product profiles. These findings may provide new biosynthetic routes to highly polar carotenoids with unique spectral properties desirable for a number of industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  4. Reinterpretation of the results of a pooled analysis of dietary carotenoid intake and breast cancer risk by using the interval collapsing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies reported in 2012 for evaluating carotenoid intakes and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR statuses by using the “highest versus lowest intake” method (HLM. By applying the interval collapsing method (ICM to maximize the use of the estimated information, we reevaluated the results of the previous analysis in order to reinterpret the inferences made. METHODS: In order to estimate the summary effect size (sES and its 95% confidence interval (CI, meta-analyses with the random-effects model were conducted for adjusted relative risks and their 95% CI from the second to the fifth interval according to five kinds of carotenoids and ER/PR status. RESULTS: The following new findings were identified: α-Carotene and β-cryptoxanthin have protective effects on overall breast cancer. All five kinds of carotenoids showed protective effects on ER− breast cancer. β-Carotene level increased the risk of ER+ or ER+/PR+ breast cancer. α-Carotene, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene showed a protective effect on ER−/PR+ or ER−/PR− breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The new facts support the hypothesis that carotenoids that show anticancer effects with anti-oxygen function might reduce the risk of ER− breast cancer. Based on the new facts, the modification of the effects of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin should be evaluated according to PR and ER statuses.

  5. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 25 thereof, the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.' The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  6. Regular Yoga Practice Improves Antioxidant Status, Immune Function, and Stress Hormone Releases in Young Healthy People: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Ah; Cheong, Kwang-Jo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to highlight the beneficial effects of yoga practice on bio-parameters, such as oxidative stress, antioxidant components, immune functions, and secretion of stress hormones, in healthy young people. This study was conducted on healthy volunteers recruited from among university students, who were divided into two groups: a control (no yoga intervention, n=13) group and a yoga (n=12) group. Yoga practice was with an instructor for 90 minutes once a week spread over 12 weeks, with recommendations to practice daily at home for 40 minutes with the help of a DVD. The yoga program consisted of yoga body poses (asanas), exercises involving awareness, voluntary regulation of breath (pranayama), and meditational practices. Whole blood samples were collected when the volunteers had fasted for 8 hours at 0 and 12 weeks. The oxidative stress/antioxidant components, immune-related cytokines, and stress hormones were evaluated in serum or plasma. Serum levels of nitric oxide, F2-isoprostane, and lipid peroxide were significantly decreased by yoga practice (pstress and improved antioxidant levels of the body. Moreover, yoga beneficially affected stress hormone releases as well as partially improved immune function.

  7. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-17

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  8. A pilot randomized trial assessing the effects of autogenic training in early stage cancer patients in relation to psychological status and immune system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidderley, Margaret; Holt, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a type of meditation usually used for reducing stress. This pilot study describes how AT was used on a group of early stage cancer patients and the observed effect on stress-related behaviours and immune system responses. This was a randomized trial with 31 early stage breast cancer women, having received a lumpectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. The women were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received a home visit only. Group 2 received a home visit and 2 months' weekly Autogenic training. At the beginning and end of the 2 monthly periods, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and T and B cell markers were measured to give an indication of changes in immune system responses and measurement of anxiety and depression. At the end of the study, HADS scores and T and B cell markers remained similar in the women who did not receive AT. The women receiving AT showed a strong statistical difference for an improvement in their HADS scores and those women observed in a meditative state as opposed to a relaxed state were found to have an increase in their immune responses. This study suggests AT as a powerful self-help therapy.

  9. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  10. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  11. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae: Emerging technology and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae.

  12. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Patzelt, A; Darvin, M; Sterry, W; Fluhr, J W; Caspers, P J; Van der Pol, A; Zastrow, L

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC

  13. Concurrent production of carotenoids and lipid by a filamentous microalga Trentepohlia arborum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Lanlan; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    During the study of Trentepohlia arborum it became clear that its cells are rich in lipids and carotenoids. Thus, lipid content, composition and fatty acids profiles in individual lipid classes, as well as pigment profiles, responding to different culture conditions, were further investigated. The results showed that the predominant carotenoids and lipid fraction in total lipid in this study was β-carotene and TAG, respectively. The lipid content increased significantly under high light while nitrogen-replete conditions induced the highest carotenoids content. However, only with a double stress of high light and nitrogen-deficiency it was possible to maximize the productivities of both carotenoids and lipids. Carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) accounted for ca. 5% of the microalgal lipid under the double stress. Data herein show the potential of T. arborum for the production of both lipids and carotenoids, and hence provide an appropriate way to produce different products from T. arborum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds.

  15. Loss of triglycerides and carotenoids in human milk after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacken, K J M; Vogelsang, A; van Lingen, R A; Slootstra, J; Dikkeschei, B D; van Zoeren-Grobben, D

    2009-11-01

    Human milk (HM) is considered to be the best nutrition for preterm infants. However, storage, heating or tube feeding can cause a decline in essential nutrients, which can lead to the loss of antioxidant vitamins, resulting in an increased risk for oxygen radical diseases. Recently we found that carotenoids, present in human milk, can play a role in the antioxidant protection of preterm infants. In this study we evaluated the effect of processing HM and infant formula on the triglycerides and carotenoid concentrations. The triglyceride, alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene concentrations of 30 samples of mature HM of mothers who delivered a term infant and 10 samples of infant formula were measured after refrigeration, freezing, microwave heating and tube feeding with and without exposure to normal light and phototherapy, imitating the clinical feeding routine in the NICU. After tube feeding triglyceride, lutein and beta-carotene concentrations decreased with 33%, 35% and 26% respectively. The decrease in triglycerides in HM accounts for 16% of the total caloric intake of neonates. Triglyceride and carotenoid concentrations in HM remained stable after refrigeration, freezing or low temperature microwave heating, except for lutein which decreased after refrigeration and freezing. In infant formula no differences were found. Mature human milk can be stored safely in a freezer and heated in a microwave oven without loss of fat or carotenoids. The clinically important loss of fat during tube feeding is probably the most important contributing factor to the decrease in lutein and beta-carotene in tube feeding, with only a small role for peroxidation during light-exposure.

  16. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  17. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Impact of canning and storage on apricot carotenoids and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Reling, Patrice; Bott, Romain; Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2018-02-01

    Apricot polyphenols and carotenoids were monitored after industrial and domestic cooking, and after 2months of storage for industrial processing. The main apricot polyphenols were flavan-3-ols, flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers, with an average degree of polymerization between 4.7 and 10.7 and caffeoylquinic acids. Flavonols and anthocyanins were minor phenolic compounds. Upon processing procyanidins were retained in apricot tissue. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ol monomers, flavonols and anthocyanins leached in the syrup. Flavonol concentrations on per-can basis were significantly increased after processing. Industrial processing effects were higher than domestic cooking probably due to higher temperature and longer duration. After 2months of storage, among polyphenols only hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ol monomers and anthocyanins were reduced. Whichever the processing method, no significant reductions of total carotenoids were observed after processing. The cis-β-carotene isomer was significantly increased after processing but with a lower extent in domestic cooking. Significant decreased in total carotenoid compounds occurred during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of pumpkin puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provesi, João Gustavo; Dias, Carolinne Odebrecht; Amante, Edna Regina

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the contents of carotenoids and their true retentions (% TR) during the production of puree of Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and of Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' pumpkins and the stability of such compounds during 180days of storage were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Cooking caused higher losses than commercial sterilisation. High losses of xanthophylls such as lutein and violaxanthin were noted during processing and storage of pumpkin puree. Such losses show the low stability of these compounds. The major carotenoids, pro-vitamin A carotenes, namely, α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene for C. moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and all-trans-β-carotene for C. maxima 'Exposição' obtained high retentions (>75%) after processing. A slight degree of isomerisation of β-carotene was noted in the puree samples, but with low concentrations of cis-isomers. Storage for 180days did not significantly affect (P⩽0.05) the concentrations of these carotenoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Carotenoid production and phenotypic variation in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenholtz, Gal Reem; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Okon, Yaacov; Burdman, Saul

    2017-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of phenotypic variation in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp7, Cd, Sp245, Az39 and phv2 during growth in rich media, screening for variants altered in colony pigmentation or extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. Previous studies showed that EPS-overproducing variants of Sp7 appear frequently following starvation or growth in minimal medium. In contrast, no such variants were detected during growth in rich media in the tested strains except for few variants of phv2. Regarding alteration in colony pigmentation (from pink to white in strain Cd and from white to pink in the others), strain Sp7 showed a relatively high frequency of variation (0.009-0.026%). Strain Cd showed a lower frequency of alteration in pigmentation (0-0.008%), and this type of variation was not detected in the other strains. In A. brasilense, carotenoid synthesis is controlled by two RpoE sigma factors and their cognate ChrR anti-sigma factors, the latter acting as negative regulators of carotenoid synthesis. Here, all tested (n = 28) pink variants of Sp7 carried mutations in one of the anti-sigma factor genes, chrR1. Our findings indicate that, in A. brasilense, phenotypic variation is strain- and environment-dependent and support the central role of ChrR1 in regulation of carotenoid production. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Phytoene and Phytofluene, Carotenoid Precursors to Lycopene12

    OpenAIRE

    Engelmann, Nancy J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between tomato consumption and serum and tissue lycopene (LYC) levels with risk of some chronic diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease. LYC, the red carotenoid found in tomatoes, is often considered to be the primary bioactive carotenoid in tomatoes that mediates health benefits, but other colorless precursor carotenoids, phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF), are also present in substantial quantities. PE and PF are...

  3. Use of Several waste substrates for carotenoid-rich yeast biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marova, I.; Carnecka, M.; Halienova, A.; Dvorakova, T.; Haronikova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are industrially significant pigments produced in many bacteria, fungi, and plants. Carotenoid biosynthesis in yeasts is involved in stress response mechanisms. Thus, control ed physiological and nutrition stress can be used for enhanced pigment production. Huge commercial demand for natural carotenoids has focused attention on developing of suitable biotechnological techniques including use of liquid waste substrates as carbon and/or nitrogen source. (Author)

  4. Investigations of carotenoids in fungi. III. Fructifications of some species from the genus Suillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using column and thin-layer chromatography the occurrence of carotenoids and their content was determined in fructifications of 5 species from the genus Suillus. 21 carotenoids were found, among them 3 which had not hitherto been detected in fungi (auroxanthin, 3,4-dihydroxy-α-carotene and myxoxantophyll. Moreover quantitative and qualitative differences were found in the content of carotenoids in fructifications of Boletus luteus which may be of importance in their taxonomy.

  5. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  6. Carotenoids of Red, Brown, and Black Specimens of Plectropomus leopardus, the Coral Trout (Suziara in Japanese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Nagai, Hidetada; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the carotenoids occurring in the integument of Plectropomus leopardus, the coral trout. For a red specimen, the major carotenoids included astaxanthin diester and monoester, as well as α-cryptoxanthin ester, tunaxanthin diester, adonixanthin diester, adonirubin ester, and adonirubin; for brown and black specimens, tunaxanthin diester was the main carotenoid. 1 H-NMR and MS spectral analyses showed that docosahexaenoic acid was the sole fatty acid esterified with xanthophylls in the coral trout.

  7. Effect of different wavelengths of light on the antioxidant and immunity status of juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Ryeol; Shin, Yoon Sub; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effect of light wavelengths on antioxidant and immunity parameters in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress (25 and 30°C). We exposed the fish to light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting green (520 nm) and red light (630 nm) of 0.25 and 0.5 W/m2 intensity, and measured the activity, and mRNA and protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also determined the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melatonin, and lysozyme. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were measured and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. We observed that mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma H2O2 levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures. However, increases in these parameters were significantly lower after exposure to green LED light. The plasma melatonin and lysozyme levels were significantly lower in the different groups after exposure to high temperatures; however, in groups exposed to green LED light, their levels were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression pattern of caspase-3 mRNA was similar to that of H2O2. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was markedly higher at higher water temperatures than that at 20°C. These results indicate that high water temperatures induce oxidative stress and decrease the immunity in juvenile rock bream but green LED light inhibits the rise in oxidative stress and combats the decrease in immunity and should, thus, be useful in the culture of rock bream.

  8. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  9. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of carotenoid-containing and carotenoid-depleted LH2 complexes from purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Ilya; Kompanetz, Viktor; Makhneva, Zoya; Chekalin, Sergey; Moskalenko, Andrei; Razjivin, Andrei

    2009-08-27

    We applied two-photon fluorescence excitation spectroscopy to LH2 complex from purple bacteria Allochromatium minutissimum and Rhodobacter sphaeroides . Bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence was measured under two-photon excitation of the samples within the 1200-1500 nm region. Spectra were obtained for both carotenoid-containing and -depleted complexes of each bacterium to allow their direct comparison. The depletion of carotenoids did not alter the two-photon excitation spectra of either bacteria. The spectra featured a wide excitation band around 1350 nm (2x675 nm, 14,800 cm(-1)) which strongly resembled two-photon fluorescence excitation spectra of similar complexes published by other authors. We consider obtained experimental data to be evidence of direct two-photon excitation of bacteriochlorophyll excitonic states in this spectral region.

  10. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXXII. Carotenoids occurring in the thalli of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cartenoids in nineteen species of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa was studied by column and thinlayer chromatography. This investigations revealed the presence of the following carotenoids: neurosporene, α-carotene, β-carotene, rubixanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, torularhodin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, echinenone, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, β-carotene epoxide, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, flavoxanthin, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-10'-carotenal and apo-12'-violaxanthal. Five of these, torularhodin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-10'-carotenal, are reported for the first time from lichens. The total carotenoid content of the material ranged from 15.88 (Pyxine cocoes to 135.44 µg g-1 dry weight (Telaschistes chrysophthalmus.

  11. Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in transplastomic tomatoes by induced lycopene-to-provitamin A conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Wiebke; Bock, Ralph

    2009-09-01

    Carotenoids are essential pigments of the photosynthetic apparatus and an indispensable component of the human diet. In addition to being potent antioxidants, they also provide the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, carotenoids accumulate in specialized plastids, the chromoplasts. How the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated and what limits total carotenoid accumulation in fruit chromoplasts is not well understood. Here, we have introduced the lycopene beta-cyclase genes from the eubacterium Erwinia herbicola and the higher plant daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) into the tomato plastid genome. While expression of the bacterial enzyme did not strongly alter carotenoid composition, expression of the plant enzyme efficiently converted lycopene, the major storage carotenoid of the tomato fruit, into provitamin A (beta-carotene). In green leaves of the transplastomic tomato plants, more lycopene was channeled into the beta-branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in increased accumulation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and correspondingly reduced accumulation of the alpha-branch xanthophyll lutein. In fruits, most of the lycopene was converted into beta-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching 1 mg per g dry weight. Unexpectedly, transplastomic tomatoes also showed a >50% increase in total carotenoid accumulation, indicating that lycopene beta-cyclase expression enhanced the flux through the pathway in chromoplasts. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and demonstrate the potential of plastids genome engineering for the nutritional enhancement of food crops.

  12. Excitation wavelength selection for quantitative analysis of carotenoids in tomatoes using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Risa; Ishigaki, Mika; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Genkawa, Takuma

    2018-08-30

    The difference in Raman spectra for different excitation wavelengths (532 nm, 785 nm, and 1064 nm) was investigated to identify an appropriate wavelength for the quantitative analysis of carotenoids in tomatoes. For the 532 nm-excited Raman spectra, the intensity of the peak assigned to the carotenoid has no correlation with carotenoid concentration, and the peak shift reflects carotenoid composition changing from lycopene to β-carotene and lutein. Thus, 532 nm-excited Raman spectra are useful for the qualitative analysis of carotenoids. For the 785 nm- and 1064 nm-excited Raman spectra, the peak intensity of the carotenoid showed good correlation with carotenoid concentration; thus, regression models for carotenoid concentration were developed using these Raman spectra and partial least squares regression. A regression model designed using the 785 nm-excited Raman spectra showed a better result than the 532 nm- and 1064 nm-excited Raman spectra. Therefore, it can be concluded that 785 nm is the most suitable excitation wavelength for the quantitative analysis of carotenoid concentration in tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature.

  15. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  16. [Isolation and preliminary characterization of carotenoids from pink-pigmented methylotrophs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, A M; Shylin, S O; Rokytko, P V

    2006-01-01

    An effective method was developed for complete removal of pigments from the cells and solvent mixture for further separation of pigments using thin layer chromatography on silica gel. Carotenoid samples that have been obtained in this way are of good purity for further investigations. Carotenoid pigments of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria Methylobacterium have been characterized. These carotenoids are represented mainly by xanthophylls, particularly hydroxycarotenoids. Strains M. fujisawaense B-3365 and M. mesophilicum B-3352 also have nonpolar carotenes in a small amount. Physico-chemical properties of carotenoids have been studied.

  17. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  18. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Michaela; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. PMID:26134165

  19. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  20. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  1. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  2. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  3. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These

  4. Simultaneous electrochemical-electron spin resonance studies of carotenoid cation radicals and dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, M.; Hadjipetrou, A.; Xinhai Chen; Kispert, L.

    1989-01-01

    Carotenoids are present in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic green plants and serve as photoprotect devices and antenna pigments, and active role in the photosynthetic electron-transport chain with the carotenoid cation radical as an integral part of the electron-transfer process. The research reported herein has confirmed that carotenoid cation radicals have a lifetime that is sensitive to solvent, being longest in CH 2 Cl 2 and are best prepared electrochemically. Semiempirical AM1 and INDO calculations of the trans and cis isomers of β-carotene, canthaxanthin and β-apo-8'-carotenal cation radicals predicted the unresolved EPR line whose linewidth varies to a measurable degree with carotenoid, which subsequent experimental observations affirmed. Simultaneous electrochemical - electron spin resonance studies of carotenoid cation radicals and dications have shown the radicals detected by EPR are formed by the one electron oxidation of the carotenoid, that dimers are not formed upon decay of the radical cations and an estimate of the rate of comproportionation as a function of carotenoid can be given. The formal rate constant K' for heterogenous electron transfer rate at the electrode surface has been deduced from rotating disc experiments. Upon deuteration, and in the presence of excess β-carotene, the half-life for decay of the carotenoid radical cation increased an order of magnitude due to the reaction between diffusion carotenoid dications and carotenoids to form additional radical cations. The carotenoid diffusion coefficients deduced by chronocoulometry substantiates this measurement. The produces formed upon electrochemical studies are being studied by HPLC and the isomers formed thermally are being separated. Additional radical reactions are currently being studied by EPR and electrochemical methods

  5. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  6. Influencia de las infecciones helmínticas y el estado nutricional en la respuesta inmunitaria de niños venezolanos Influence of helminthic infections and nutritional status on the immune response of Venezuelan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo estudiar la influencia del estado nutricional, determinado por medición antropométrica, y las infecciones helmínticas sobre la respuesta inmunitaria de niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico en dos poblaciones rurales diferentes de Venezuela: El Cardón, Estado Nueva Esparta, y San Daniel, Estado Miranda. Participaron en el estudio 125 niños de ambos sexos entre 2 y 15 años de edad, cuyo estrato socioeconómico se determinó por el método de Graffar modificado. Se les realizó un examen físico y una evaluación antropométrica tomando en cuenta los indicadores peso-talla, peso-edad, y talla-edad según los parámetros establecidos por la OMS. También se les practicaron exámenes de heces, IgA secretoria en saliva e IgE sérica total e inmunoglobulinas específicas anti-Ascaris. Ambas poblaciones pertenecían a los estratos IV y V de la escala de Graffar, con un mayor número significativo (P We investigated the influence of nutritional status, as determined from anthropometric measurement, and of helminthic infections on the immune response of children of low socioeconomic status in two rural communities in Venezuela: El Cardón in the state of Nueva Esparta and San Daniel in the state of Miranda. A total of 125 boys and girls between 2 and 15 years old participated in the study. Their socioeconomic stratum was determined by a modified Graffar method. A physical examination was performed, as was also an anthropometric evaluation that took into account three indicators--weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age--according to parameters established by the World Health Organization. Other examinations included feces, secretory IgA in saliva, total serum IgE, and anti-Ascaris-specific immunoglobulins. The children in both of the communities were in strata IV and V of the of Graffar scale, with a significantly greater number of stratum V inhabitants in San Daniel (P < 0.001. The results suggest

  7. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

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    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  8. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = -1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the

  9. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  10. Carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), determined by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, A F; de Rosso, V V; Mercadante, A Z

    2009-06-01

    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to confirm the carotenoid composition of jackfruit by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The main carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (24-44%), all-trans-beta-carotene (24-30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4-9%) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10%). Either qualitative or quantitative differences, mainly related to the lutein proportion, were found among three batches of jackfruit. Since the fruits from batch A showed significantly lower contents for almost all carotenoids, it also had the lowest total carotenoid content (34.1 microg/100 g) and provitamin A value, whereas the total carotenoid ranged from 129.0 to 150.3 microg/100 g in the other batches. The provitamin A values from batches B and C were 3.3 and 4.3 microg RAE/100 g, respectively. The carotenoid composition of jackfruit was successfully determined, where 14 of the 18 identified carotenoids were reported for first time. Differences among batches may be due to genetic and/or agricultural factors.

  11. More than meets the eye: from carotenoid biosynthesis to new insights into apocarotenoid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoid compounds synthesized almost exclusively in plants and are involved in a myriad of roles including the provision of flower and fruit pigmentation for the attraction of pollinators and seed dispersing organisms. While carotenoids are essential throughout plant de...

  12. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, M.G.; Oliveira, L.; Camoes, M.F.G.F.C.; Nunes, B.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the

  13. Tradeoff between robustness and elaboration in carotenoid networks produces cycles of avian color diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Morrison, Erin S; Belloni, Virginia; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-08-20

    Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the evolution of carotenoid pigmentation that produces spectacular diversity in avian colors and show that basic structural properties of the underlying carotenoid metabolic network are reflected in global patterns of elaboration and diversification in color displays. Birds color themselves by consuming and metabolizing several dietary carotenoids from the environment. Such fundamental dependency on the most upstream external compounds should intrinsically constrain sustained evolutionary elongation of multi-step metabolic pathways needed for color elaboration unless the metabolic network gains robustness - the ability to synthesize the same carotenoid from an additional dietary starting point. We found that gains and losses of metabolic robustness were associated with evolutionary cycles of elaboration and stasis in expressed carotenoids in birds. Lack of metabolic robustness constrained lineage's metabolic explorations to the immediate biochemical vicinity of their ecologically distinct dietary carotenoids, whereas gains of robustness repeatedly resulted in sustained elongation of metabolic pathways on evolutionary time scales and corresponding color elaboration. The structural link between length and robustness in metabolic pathways may explain periodic convergence of phylogenetically distant and ecologically distinct species in expressed carotenoid pigmentation; account for stasis in carotenoid colors in some ecological lineages; and show how the connectivity of the underlying metabolic network provides a mechanistic link between microevolutionary elaboration and macroevolutionary diversification.

  14. Structure versus time in the evolutionary diversification of avian carotenoid metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin S; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2018-05-01

    Historical associations of genes and proteins are thought to delineate pathways available to subsequent evolution; however, the effects of past functional involvements on contemporary evolution are rarely quantified. Here, we examined the extent to which the structure of a carotenoid enzymatic network persists in avian evolution. Specifically, we tested whether the evolution of carotenoid networks was most concordant with phylogenetically structured expansion from core reactions of common ancestors or with subsampling of biochemical pathway modules from an ancestral network. We compared structural and historical associations in 467 carotenoid networks of extant and ancestral species and uncovered the overwhelming effect of pre-existing metabolic network structure on carotenoid diversification over the last 50 million years of avian evolution. Over evolutionary time, birds repeatedly subsampled and recombined conserved biochemical modules, which likely maintained the overall structure of the carotenoid metabolic network during avian evolution. These findings explain the recurrent convergence of evolutionary distant species in carotenoid metabolism and weak phylogenetic signal in avian carotenoid evolution. Remarkable retention of an ancient metabolic structure throughout extensive and prolonged ecological diversification in avian carotenoid metabolism illustrates a fundamental requirement of organismal evolution - historical continuity of a deterministic network that links past and present functional associations of its components. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan E Lipkie

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples. Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L, β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L, β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L, and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L. Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L and total lipids (g/L decreased (p0.05 with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p0.3. This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  16. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (pLutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (pmilk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  17. In Vitro Antioxidant, Antihemolytic, and Anticancer Activity of the Carotenoids from Halophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Halophilic archaea represent a promising natural source of carotenoids. However, little information is available about the biological effects of carotenoids from halophilic archaea. In this study, the carotenoids produced by seven halophilic archaeal strains Halogeometricum rufum, Halogeometricum limi, Haladaptatus litoreus, Haloplanus vescus, Halopelagius inordinatus, Halogranum rubrum, and Haloferax volcanii were identified by ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The C 50 carotenoids bacterioruberin and its derivatives monoanhydrobacterioruberin and bisanhydrobacterioruberin were found to be the predominant carotenoids. The antioxidant capacities of the carotenoids from these strains were significantly higher than β-carotene as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The antihemolytic activities of these carotenoid extracts against H 2 O 2 -induced hemolysis in mouse erythrocytes were 3.9-6.3 times higher than β-carotene. A dose-dependent in vitro antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cells was observed for the extract from Hgm. limi, while that from Hpn. vescus exhibited a relatively high activity in a dose-independent manner. These results suggested that halophilic archaea could be considered as an alternative source of natural carotenoids with high antioxidant, antihemolytic, and anticancer activity.

  18. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Naziri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v. The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5. The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786. Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies.

  19. A new energy transfer channel from carotenoids to chlorophylls in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Tseng, Chi-Wei; Chen, Tingwei; Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Rohlfing, Michael; Ma, Yuchen

    2017-07-10

    It is unclear whether there is an intermediate dark state between the S 2 and S 1 states of carotenoids. Previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements support its existence and its involvement in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls, but there is still considerable debate on the origin of this dark state and how it regulates the energy transfer process. Here we use ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated two-dimensional electronic spectrum of carotenoids from purple bacteria to provide evidence supporting that the dark state may be assigned to a new A g + state. Our calculations also indicate that groups on the conjugation backbone of carotenoids may substantially affect the excited-state levels and the energy transfer process. These results contribute to a better understanding of carotenoid excited states.Carotenoids harvest energy from light and transfer it to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Here, Feng et al. perform ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated 2D electronic spectrum of carotenoids, supporting the existence of a new excited state in carotenoids.

  20. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris.

  1. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and Natural Killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  2. CAROTENOID RETENTION IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED BIOFORTIFIED GREEN CORN STORED UNDER RETAIL MARKETING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Alves Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Storing processed food products can cause alterations in their chemical compositions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed normal and vitamin A precursor (proVA-biofortified green corn ears that were packaged in polystyrene trays covered with commercial film or in multilayered polynylon packaging material and were stored. Throughout the storage period, the carotenoids were extracted from the corn kernels using organic solvents and were quantified using HPLC. A completely factorial design including three factors (cultivar, packaging and storage period was applied for analysis. The green kernels of maize cultivars BRS1030 and BRS4104 exhibited similar carotenoid profiles, with zeaxanthin being the main carotenoid. Higher concentrations of the carotenoids lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, the total carotenoids and the total vitamin A precursor carotenoids were detected in the green kernels of the biofortified BRS4104 maize. The packaging method did not affect carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed green corn ears during the storage period.

  3. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using column (CC), thin- layer (TLC) and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), carotenoid content was examined in the fillets (muscles with skin) of 16 fish species from the fisheries of West African Coast. 15 carotenoids, including 6 ketocarotenoids (4'- hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, phoenicopterone, ...

  4. Carotenoids and their conversion products in the control of adipocyte function, adiposity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisa Bonet, M; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2015-04-15

    A novel perspective of the function of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived products - including, but not restricted to, the retinoids - is emerging in recent years which connects these compounds to the control of adipocyte biology and body fat accumulation, with implications for the management of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cell and animal studies indicate that carotenoids and carotenoids derivatives can reduce adiposity and impact key aspects of adipose tissue biology including adipocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, capacity for fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (including browning of white adipose tissue) and secretory function. Epidemiological studies in humans associate higher dietary intakes and serum levels of carotenoids with decreased adiposity. Specifically designed human intervention studies, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings in this area, place them in physiological contexts, and provide likely regulatory schemes whenever possible. The focus will be on the effects of carotenoids as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology and both animal and human studies, which support a role of carotenoids and retinoids in the prevention of abdominal adiposity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic dissection in a mouse model reveals interactions between carotenoids and lipid metabolism[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M. Airanthi K.; Amengual, Jaume; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids affect a rich variety of physiological functions in nature and are beneficial for human health. However, knowledge about their biological action and the consequences of their dietary accumulation in mammals is limited. Progress in this research field is limited by the expeditious metabolism of carotenoids in rodents and the confounding production of apocarotenoid signaling molecules. Herein, we established a mouse model lacking the enzymes responsible for carotenoid catabolism and apocarotenoid production, fed on either a β-carotene- or a zeaxanthin-enriched diet. Applying a genome wide microarray analysis, we assessed the effects of the parent carotenoids on the liver transcriptome. Our analysis documented changes in pathways for liver lipid metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. We biochemically defined these effects, and observed that β-carotene accumulation resulted in an elevation of liver triglycerides and liver cholesterol, while zeaxanthin accumulation increased serum cholesterol levels. We further show that carotenoids were predominantly transported within HDL particles in the serum of mice. Finally, we provide evidence that carotenoid accumulation influenced whole-body respiration and energy expenditure. Thus, we observed that accumulation of parent carotenoids interacts with lipid metabolism and that structurally related carotenoids display distinct biological functions in mammals. PMID:27389691

  6. Macular pigment carotenoids in the retina and occipital cortex are related in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the retina. Together with mesozeaxanthin, a conversion product of lutein in the macula, they form the macular pigment. Lutein is also the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue and...

  7. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-19

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail.

  8. Carotenoid profiling of leaves of selected eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focused on the quantification of carotenoids of the leaves of African eggplants commonly consumed as leafy and fruit vegetables. The results gave comparative profiles of carotenoids at different growth and developmental stages and under drought stress. Stress was achieved by limiting irri...

  9. Genetic dissection in a mouse model reveals interactions between carotenoids and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Amengual, Jaume; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Carotenoids affect a rich variety of physiological functions in nature and are beneficial for human health. However, knowledge about their biological action and the consequences of their dietary accumulation in mammals is limited. Progress in this research field is limited by the expeditious metabolism of carotenoids in rodents and the confounding production of apocarotenoid signaling molecules. Herein, we established a mouse model lacking the enzymes responsible for carotenoid catabolism and apocarotenoid production, fed on either a β-carotene- or a zeaxanthin-enriched diet. Applying a genome wide microarray analysis, we assessed the effects of the parent carotenoids on the liver transcriptome. Our analysis documented changes in pathways for liver lipid metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. We biochemically defined these effects, and observed that β-carotene accumulation resulted in an elevation of liver triglycerides and liver cholesterol, while zeaxanthin accumulation increased serum cholesterol levels. We further show that carotenoids were predominantly transported within HDL particles in the serum of mice. Finally, we provide evidence that carotenoid accumulation influenced whole-body respiration and energy expenditure. Thus, we observed that accumulation of parent carotenoids interacts with lipid metabolism and that structurally related carotenoids display distinct biological functions in mammals. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Characterization of carotenoid hydroxylase gene promoter in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C X; Wei, W; Su, Z- L; Qin, S

    2006-10-01

    Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid is mainly used in fish aquaculture. It also has potential in human health due to its higher antioxidant capacity than beta-carotene and vitamin E. The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis is known to accumulate astaxanthin in response to environmental stresses, such as high light intensity and salt stress. Carotenoid hydroxylase plays a key role in astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. In this paper, we report the characterization of a promoter-like region (-378 to -22 bp) of carotenoid hydroxylase gene by cloning, sequence analysis and functional verification of its 919 bp 5'-flanking region in H. pluvialis. The 5'-flanking region was characterized using micro-particle bombardment method and transient expression of LacZ reporter gene. Results of sequence analysis showed that the 5'-flanking region might have putative cis-acting elements, such as ABA (abscisic acid)-responsive element (ABRE), C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (C-repeat/DRE), ethylene-responsive element (ERE), heat-shock element (HSE), wound-responsive element (WUN-motif), gibberellin-responsive element (P-box), MYB-binding site (MBS) etc., except for typical TATA and CCAAT boxes. Results of 5' deletions construct and beta-galactosidase assays revealed that a highest promoter-like region might exist from -378 to -22 bp and some negative regulatory elements might lie in the region from -919 to -378 bp. Results of site-directed mutagenesis of a putative C-repeat/DRE and an ABRE-like motif in the promoter-like region (-378 to -22 bp) indicated that the putative C-repeat/DRE and ABRE-like motif might be important for expression of carotenoid hydroxylase gene.

  11. What does carotenoid-dependent coloration tell? : Plasma carotenoid level signals immunocompetence and oxidative stress state in birds - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Cohen, Alan A.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms maintaining honesty of sexual signals are far from resolved, limiting our understanding of sexual selection and potential important parts of physiology. Carotenoid pigmented visual signals are among the most extensively studied sexual displays, but evidence regarding hypotheses on how

  12. Arabidopsis OR proteins are the major post-transcriptional regulators of phytoene synthase in mediating carotenoid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are indispensable natural pigments to plants and humans. Phytoene synthase (PSY), the rate-limiting enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and ORANGE (OR), a regulator of chromoplast differentiation and enhancer of carotenoid biosynthesis, represent two key proteins that control caro...

  13. Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progress has been achieved in recent years in refining the analytical methods and evaluating the accuracy of carotenoid data. Although carotenoid analysis is inherently difficult and continues to be error prone, more complete and reliable data are now available. Rather than expressing the analytical results as retinol equivalents, there is a tendency to present the concentrations of individual carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, carotenoids found in the human plasma and considered to be important to human health in terms of the provitamin A activity and/or reduction of the risk for developing degenerative diseases. With the considerable effort directed to carotenoid analysis, many food sources have now been analyzed in different countries. The carotenoid composition of foods vary qualitatively and quantitatively. Even in a given food, compositional variability occurs because of factors such as stage of maturity, variety or cultivar, climate or season, part of the plant consumed, production practices, post-harvest handling, processing and storage of food. During processing, isomerization of trans-carotenoids, the usual configuration in nature, to the cis-forms occurs, with consequent alteration of the carotenoids' bioavailability and biological activity. Isomerization is promoted by light, heat and acids. The principal cause of carotenoid loss during processing and storage of food is enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of the highly unsaturated carotenoid molecules. The occurrence and extent of oxidation depends on the presence of oxygen, metals, enzymes, unsaturated lipids, prooxidants, antioxidants; exposure to light; type and physical state of the carotenoids present; severity and duration of processing; packaging material; storage conditions. Thus, retention of carotenoids has been the major concern in the preparation, processing and storage of foods. However, in recent years

  14. The effect of cellular carotenoid levels in micrococcus luteus on resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, a biological system was developed to link the cellular carotenoid levels to Gamma radiation resistance in bacteria for the frst time. thus, in a non-photosynrhetic bacterium, in Micrococcus Luteus an inverse relationship was found between the increase in diphenylamine (DPA) concentration (5.25 μg/ml culture) and the polar cellular carotenoid pigments (C-45 and C-50 carotenoids and their glucosides). It was also found that irradiation of cells with different carotenoid concentrations with doses of γ-radiation in the range of (0.2500 gray) under oxic, air and hypoxic conditions showed that carotenoid pigments offer no significant protection as they usually do in case of visible light. (author).15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-03

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  16. SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM QUANTITATIVE THING LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF CAROTENOID COMPOSITION OF TOMATOES SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of tomatoes carote-noid composition is considered to be the basis of tomato selection. Among known methods of identification and carotenoid content determination thing layer chromatography (TLC is characterized by inexpensive, quick and availab-le method of analysis. Comparison of individual tomato carotenoid content data obtained using wellknown empirical formulas and based of TLC separation on chromatoraphic paper was achieved. Empirical formulas for the determination of lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations were shown to give high variations in beta-carotene content and decreased values of total carotenoids concentration values. Developed conditions of chromatographic separation and identification of selected carotenoids are based on different polarity of individual pigments and specific absorption spectra of the latter. Method of thin layer chromatography may serve as a quick and effective method for quality evaluation of tomato fruit of different color and determination of beta-carotene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, lycopene and lutein content.

  17. Influence of sample processing on the analysis of carotenoids in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Sol; Canela, Ramon

    2012-09-21

    We performed a number of tests with the aim to develop an effective extraction method for the analysis of carotenoid content in maize seed. Mixtures of methanol-ethyl acetate (6:4, v/v) and methanol-tetrahydrofuran (1:1, v/v) were the most effective solvent systems for carotenoid extraction from maize endosperm under the conditions assayed. In addition, we also addressed sample preparation prior to the analysis of carotenoids by liquid chromatography (LC). The LC response of extracted carotenoids and standards in several solvents was evaluated and results were related to the degree of solubility of these pigments. Three key factors were found to be important when selecting a suitable injection solvent: compatibility between the mobile phase and injection solvent, carotenoid polarity and content in the matrix.

  18. Significance of Genetic, Environmental, and Pre- and Postharvest Factors Affecting Carotenoid Contents in Crops: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2018-05-30

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of tetraterpenoid pigments that play indispensable roles in plants and animals. The biosynthesis of carotenoids in plants is strictly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in accordance with inherited genetic signals and developmental requirements and in response to external environmental stimulants. The alteration in the biosynthesis of carotenoids under the influence of external environmental stimulants, such as high light, drought, salinity, and chilling stresses, has been shown to significantly influence the nutritional value of crop plants. In addition to these stimulants, several pre- and postharvesting cultivation practices significantly influence carotenoid compositions and contents. Thus, this review discusses how various environmental stimulants and pre- and postharvesting factors can be positively modulated for the enhanced biosynthesis and accumulation of carotenoids in the edible parts of crop plants, such as the leaves, roots, tubers, flowers, fruit, and seeds. In addition, future research directions in this context are identified.

  19. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  20. Carotenoids from Capsicum annuum fruits: Influence of spectral quality of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Candela, M.E.; Sabater, F.

    1986-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L. cv. Ramillete fruits grown in the field were covered 60 d after flowering with “white”, yellow, red and blue cellophane filters. Two other sets were left in full sunlight and under cover, respectively. After 30 d of treatment, during the ripening period, the contents of individual carotenoids were analyzed. The red radiation was the most effective to increase the carotenoid biosynthesis, but the green and blue radiations inhibited their production. Either class of filters inhibited the formation of capsanthin, the most important carotenoid in the production of red colour of the maturation, but capsorubin, the other carotenoid responsible for the maturation colour, was more enhanced in the shade and under red radiation. Neither type of radiation was so efficient in increasing the total carotenoids content as the full sun radiation

  1. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A; Yunker, Colleen E

    2004-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C....... tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), zeta-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), gamma......-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1',2'-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants...

  2. Role of structural barriers in the in vitro bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in comparison with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Buvé, Carolien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc

    2017-07-15

    Although natural structural barriers are factors limiting nutrient bioaccessibility, their specific role in anthocyanin bioaccessibility is still unknown. To better understand how natural barriers govern bioactive compound bioaccessibility, an experimental approach comparing anthocyanins and carotenoids was designed, using a single plant matrix. Initial results revealed increased anthocyanin bioaccessibility in masticated black carrot. To explain this observation, samples with increasing levels of bioencapsulation (free-compound, homogenized-puree, puree) were examined. While carotenoid bioaccessibility was inversely proportional to the level of bioencapsulation, barrier disruption did not increase anthocyanin bioaccessibility. This means that mechanical processing is of particular importance in the case of carotenoid bioaccessibility. While micelle incorporation is the limiting factor for carotenoid bioaccessibility, anthocyanin degradation under alkaline conditions in the gastrointestinal tract dominates. In the absence of structural barriers, anthocyanin bioaccessibility is greater than that of carotenoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotenoids in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications: A mechanistic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Karimi, Gholamreza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2017-07-01

    Carotenoids are a large class of natural antioxidants that occur in many vegetables, foods and other natural sources. To date, a large number of biological properties have been reported from carotenoids, particularly protective effects against diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, and neurodegenerative, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies including clinical evidences, have shown that carotenoids play a role in the treatment of diabetes via enhancing insulin sensitivity. They are also able to protect the body from long-term consequences of diabetes including infectious diseases, nephropathy, neuronal and eye abnormalities. In this review, we try to discuss the mechanisms behind the biological effects of carotenoids for the prevention and treatment of DM and its complications. The authors believe that carotenoids will have a prominent place in the treatment of DM and its complications in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  5. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  6. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Agut, Agustí; Becerril, José M.; García-Plazaola, José I.; Kranner, Ilse; Colville, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae). Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family) and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of carotenoids

  7. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8′-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of CapryolTM90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system. PMID:27150134

  8. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  9. Effects of stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) on immunities, antioxidant status, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in a biofloc system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhu, Songming; Liu, Dezhao; Guo, Xishan; Ye, Zhangying

    2017-08-01

    Determining optimum stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) is a big concern for shrimp farmers. However, few studies have assessed the influence of stocking density on the antioxidant status, immunology, digestive enzyme activities, and growth performance of white shrimp in biofloc systems. In this study, these parameters of white shrimp in a biofloc system were compared at three stocking densities: 300 orgs m -3 as low stocking density (LD), 400 orgs m -3 as medium stocking density (MD), and 500 orgs m -3 as high stocking density (HD). The feed conversion ratio in the LD group was significantly lower than that in the MD and HD groups (P white shrimp can be seriously impaired in the HD condition (i.e., ≥500 m -3 ) in biofloc systems. These findings can be used to determine suitable stocking densities in the white shrimp farming industry using the biofloc system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  11. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-29

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  13. Effects of a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition on nutritional and immune status of diabetic, obese, and endotoxemic rats: interest of a graded arginine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, Charlotte; Darquy, Sylviane; Curis, Emmanuel; Neveux, Nathalie; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Cynober, Luc; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Obese and type 2 diabetic patients present metabolic disturbance-related alterations in nonspecific immunity, to which the decrease in their plasma arginine contributes. Although diabetes-specific formulas have been developed, they have never been tested in the context of an acute infectious situation as can be seen in intensive care unit patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a diabetes-specific diet enriched or not with arginine in a model of infectious stress in a diabetes and obesity situation. As a large intake of arginine may be deleterious, this amino acid was given in graded fashion. Randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Gastrostomized Zucker diabetic fatty rats were submitted to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide administration and fed for 7 days with either a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition without (G group, n=7) or with graded arginine supply (1-5 g/kg/day) (GA group, n=7) or a standard enteral nutrition (HP group, n=10). Survival rate was better in G and GA groups than in the HP group. On day 7, plasma insulin to glucose ratio tended to be lower in the same G and GA groups. Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α (G: 5.0±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 3.7±0.8 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.7±0.6 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 5.1±1.0 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.0±0.5 nmol/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; pdiabetic obese and endotoxemic rats, a diabetes-specific formula leads to a lower mortality, a decreased insulin resistance, and an improvement in peritoneal macrophage function. Arginine supplementation has no additional effect. These data support the use of such disease-specific diets in critically ill diabetic and obese patients.

  14. 75 FR 5094 - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., NE., Building 19, Kent ``Oz'' Nelson Auditorium, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open to the public... to change as priorities dictate. Contact Person for More Information: Antonette Hill, Immunization...

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of carotenoid underproducing and overproducing mutants from an extremely thermophilic Thermus thermophilus HB27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, T.; Yoshino, Y.; Guevarra, E.D.; Ishida, S.; Hiruta, T.; Fujii, R.; Nakahara, T.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two carotenoid underproducing and thirteen overproducing mutants were obtained from Thermus thermophilus HB27. The strain HB27 was found to produce at least seven colored carotenoids, believed to be identical to those produced by Thermus aquaticus YT1. Based on the results of the genetic analyses performed on twelve carotenoid underproducing mutants, they were classified into three groups; groups 1, 2 and 3. No colored carotenoid was extracted from the cells of mutants belonging to groups 2 and 3, although the accumulation of phytoene, a colorless carotenoid, was observed in group 2 strains. Group 1 was subdivided into groups 1-a and 1-b, where 1-a stains produced neither colored carotenoids nor phytoene and 1-b strains produced two polar colored carotenoids. All of the overproducing mutants produced about twelve times as much seven colored carotenoid mixtures as the parental strain. The mutation loci among all the overproducing mutants were very close to one another, possibly in the same gene. Carotenoid overproducing mutants showed an extensive resistance to UV-irradiation and showed poorer growth at higher temperatures. Carotenoid underproducing mutants were slightly more UV-sensitive but they grew almost normally at higher temperatures. These results suggest that carotenoids are secondary metabolites which are not essential for growth of T. thermophilus

  16. Characterization of carotenoids in soil bacteria and investigation of their photodegradation by UVA radiation via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar B N, Vinay; Kampe, Bernd; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-07-07

    A soil habitat consists of an enormous number of pigmented bacteria with the pigments mainly composed of diverse carotenoids. Most of the pigmented bacteria in the top layer of the soil are photoprotected from exposure to huge amounts of UVA radiation on a daily basis by these carotenoids. The photostability of these carotenoids depends heavily on the presence of specific features like a carbonyl group or an ionone ring system on its overall structure. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive and powerful techniques to detect and characterize these carotenoids and also monitor processes associated with them in their native system at a single cell resolution. However, most of the resonance Raman profiles of carotenoids have very minute differences, thereby making it extremely difficult to confirm if these differences are attributed to the presence of different carotenoids or if it is a consequence of their interaction with other cellular components. In this study, we devised a method to overcome this problem by monitoring also the photodegradation of the carotenoids in question by UVA radiation wherein a differential photodegradation response will confirm the presence of different carotenoids irrespective of the proximities in their resonance Raman profiles. Using this method, the detection and characterization of carotenoids in pure cultures of five species of pigmented coccoid soil bacteria is achieved. We also shed light on the influence of the structure of the carotenoid on its photodegradation which can be exploited for use in the characterization of carotenoids via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  17. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C E; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-10-14

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner.

  18. Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Richins, Richard D; Arcos, Juan Manuel Garcia; Victorino, Jesus; O'Connell, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    The fruits of Capsicum spp. are especially rich sites for carotenoid synthesis and accumulation, with cultivar-specific carotenoid accumulation profiles. Differences in chromoplast structure as well as carotenoid biosynthesis are correlated with distinct carotenoid accumulations and fruit color. In the present study, the inheritance of chromoplast shape, carotenoid accumulation profiles, and transcript levels of four genes were measured. Comparisons of these traits were conducted using fruit from contrasting variants, Costeño Amarillo versus Costeño Red, and from F1 hybrids; crosses between parental lines with novel versions of these traits. Intermediate chromoplast shapes were observed in the F1, but no association between specific carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast shape was detected. Increased total carotenoid content was associated with increased β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Transcript levels for phytoene synthase (Psy) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ-2) were positively correlated with increased levels of specific carotenoids. No correlation was detected between transcript levels of capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) and carotenoid composition or chromoplast shape. Transcript levels of fibrillin, were differentially correlated with specific carotenoids, negatively correlated with accumulation of capsanthin, and positively correlated with violaxanthin. The regulation of carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts in Capsicum fruit continues to be a complex process with multiple steps for control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. A Review of the Biological Activities of Microalgal Carotenoids and Their Potential Use in Healthcare and Cosmetic Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Sathasivam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits. The main objectives of this review are to provide an updated view of recent work on the health and cosmetic benefits associated with carotenoid use, as well as to provide a list of microalgae that produce different types of carotenoids. This review could provide new insights to researchers on the potential role of carotenoids in improving human health.

  1. Interplay between Carotenoids, Abscisic Acid and Jasmonate Guides the Compatible Rice-Meloidogyne graminicola Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kyndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have characterized the role of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the compatible interaction between the sedentary root knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne graminicola and the monocot model plant rice (Oryza sativa. Previous transcriptome data showed a differential expression of carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in nematode-induced giant cells and gall tissue. Metabolite measurement showed that galls indeed accumulate chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA. When ABA was externally applied on rice plants, or when ABA-biosynthesis was inhibited, a significant increase in gall formation and nematode development was found, showing the complex role of ABA in this interaction. ABA application suppressed jasmonic acid (JA levels in the plants, while ABA-biosynthesis inhibition lead to increased JA levels confirming an antagonism between ABA and JA in rice roots. In addition, combined applications of ABA and JA showed that the ABA-effect can overcome JA-induced defense. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid precursors would be beneficial to nematode infection. Indeed, when chemically blocking the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway at different steps, which leads to differential accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the plants, a positive and clear link between accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll and rice susceptibility to RKN was detected.

  2. Inter-population variation of carotenoids in Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, David; Dell'omo, Giacomo; Casagrande, Stefania; Fabiani, Anna; Carosi, Monica; Bertacche, Vittorio; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard; Snell, Heidi; Tapia, Washington; Gentile, Gabriele

    2005-10-01

    Carotenoids have received much attention from biologists because of their ecological and evolutionary implications in vertebrate biology. We sampled Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus) to investigate the types and levels of blood carotenoids and the possible factors affecting inter-population variation. Blood samples were collected from populations from three islands within the species natural range (Santa Cruz, Isabela, and Fernandina) and one translocated population (Venecia). Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids found in the serum. In addition, two metabolically modified carotenoids (anhydrolutein and 3'-dehydrolutein) were also identified. Differences in the carotenoid types were not related to sex or locality. Instead, carotenoid concentration varied across the localities, it was higher in females, and it was positively correlated to an index of body condition. Our results suggest a possible sex-related physiological role of xanthophylls in land iguanas. The variation in the overall carotenoid concentration between populations seems to be related to the differences in local abundance and type of food within and between islands.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  4. The carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes in wheat and their association with yellow pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Nigro, Domenica; Giancaspro, Angelica; Mangini, Giacomo; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Pecchioni, Nicola; Houston, Kelly; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-31

    In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding. Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. Together these outputs can be combined to exploit the genetic variability of colour-related traits for the nutritional and commercial improvement of wheat products.

  5. Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianfeng; Aldini, Giancarlo; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Rasmussen, Helen; Kraemer, Klaus; Woolf, Herb; Musaeus, Nina; Krinsky, Norman I; Russell, Robert M; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Carotenoids could be a part of a protective strategy to minimize oxidative damage in vulnerable populations, such as the elderly. Our aim was to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against DNA damage. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted. Thirty-seven healthy, nonsmoking postmenopausal women aged 50-70 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and were instructed to consume a daily dose of mixed carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene; 4 mg each), 12 mg of a single carotenoid (beta-carotene, lutein, or lycopene), or placebo for 56 d. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by using HPLC, and lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. At day 57, all carotenoid-supplemented groups showed significantly lower endogenous DNA damage than at baseline (P lutein, beta-carotene, and lycopene), an intake that can be achieved by diet, or a larger dose (12 mg) of individual carotenoids exerts protection against DNA damage.

  6. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2008-05-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 +/- 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and three-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and body mass index (BMI). Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). Beta-cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum alpha-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis.

  7. Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, José A; García-González, Mercedes; Guerrero, Miguel G

    2007-04-01

    Microalgae are a major natural source for a vast array of valuable compounds, including a diversity of pigments, for which these photosynthetic microorganisms represent an almost exclusive biological resource. Yellow, orange, and red carotenoids have an industrial use in food products and cosmetics as vitamin supplements and health food products and as feed additives for poultry, livestock, fish, and crustaceans. The growing worldwide market value of carotenoids is projected to reach over US$1,000 million by the end of the decade. The nutraceutical boom has also integrated carotenoids mainly on the claim of their proven antioxidant properties. Recently established benefits in human health open new uses for some carotenoids, especially lutein, an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of a variety of degenerative diseases. Consumers' demand for natural products favors development of pigments from biological sources, thus increasing opportunities for microalgae. The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable progress and relevance in recent decades, with carotenoid production representing one of its most successful domains. In this paper, we review the most relevant features of microalgal biotechnology related to the production of different carotenoids outdoors, with a main focus on beta-carotene from Dunaliella, astaxanthin from Haematococcus, and lutein from chlorophycean strains. We compare the current state of the corresponding production technologies, based on either open-pond systems or closed photobioreactors. The potential of scientific and technological advances for improvements in yield and reduction in production costs for carotenoids from microalgae is also discussed.

  8. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

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    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  9. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

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    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  10. Identification of Carotenoids and Isoprenoid Quinones from Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis

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    Hubert Antolak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and quantitatively assess of carotenoids and isoprenoid quinones biosynthesized by six different strains of acetic acid bacteria, belonging to genus Asaia, that are common beverage-spoiling bacteria in Europe. Bacterial cultures were conducted in a laboratory liquid culture minimal medium with 2% sucrose. Carotenoids and isoprenoid quinones were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis. In general, tested strains of Asaia spp. were able to produce 10 carotenoids and 3 isoprenoid quinones: menaquinone-7, menaquinone-8, and ubiquinone-10. The main identified carotenoids in Asaia lannensis strains were phytofluene, neurosporene, α-carotene, while for Asaia bogorensis, neurosporene, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin were noted. What is more, tested Asaia spp. were able to produce myxoxanthophyll, which has so far been identified primarily in cyanobacteria. The results show that A. lannensis are characterized by statistically higher concentrations of produced carotenoids, as well as a greater variety of these compounds. We have noted that carotenoids were not only accumulated by bacterial cells, but also some strains of A. lannensis produced extracellular carotenoids.

  11. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

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    Irini F. Strati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices.

  12. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

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    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  13. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

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    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (Pcarotenoids when compared with the positive controls (Pcarotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  14. Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial.

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    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Burrows, Tracy L; Wood, Lisa G; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare E

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (F/V) leads to accumulations in human skin, altering skin yellowness. The influence of the quantity of F/V consumed on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations has not been examined previously. To compare the influence of consuming high-carotenoid-containing F/V (HCFV) (176,425 μg beta carotene/wk) vs low-carotenoid F/V (LCFV) (2,073 μg beta carotene/wk) on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations, over 4 weeks. A single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial from October 2013 to March 2014. Thirty women were randomized to receive 7 daily servings of HCFV or LCFV for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period they followed the alternate intervention. Skin color (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space, where L* represents skin lightness and positive values of a* and b* represent degrees of redness and yellowness, respectively) was assessed by reflectance spectroscopy in both sun-exposed and nonexposed skin areas. Fasting plasma carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after each intervention period. Linear mixed models were used to determine the HCFV and LCFV response on skin color and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for intervention order, time, and interaction between baseline differences and time. There were no significant differences in mean daily fruit (P=0.42) and vegetable (P=0.17) intakes between HCFV and LCFV groups. Dietary alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and beta cryptoxanthin intakes were significantly different between the two groups (Pcarotenoid concentrations were significantly higher following HCFV than LCFV over 4 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress and the effect of parasites on a carotenoid-based ornament.

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    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Blount, J D; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-02-01

    Oxidative stress, the physiological condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences, causes damage to key bio-molecules. It has been implicated in many diseases, and is proposed as a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. Whether oxidative stress mediates the expression of carotenoid-based signals, which are among the commonest signals of many birds, fish and reptiles, remains controversial. In the present study, we explored interactions between parasites, oxidative stress and the carotenoid-based ornamentation of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We tested whether removing nematode parasites influenced both oxidative balance (levels of oxidative damage and circulating antioxidant defences) and carotenoid-based ornamentation. At the treatment group level, parasite purging enhanced the size and colouration of ornaments but did not significantly affect circulating carotenoids, antioxidant defences or oxidative damage. However, relative changes in these traits among individuals indicated that males with a greater number of parasites prior to treatment (parasite purging) showed a greater increase in the levels of circulating carotenoids and antioxidants, and a greater decrease in oxidative damage, than those with initially fewer parasites. At the individual level, a greater increase in carotenoid pigmentation was associated with a greater reduction in oxidative damage. Therefore, an individual's ability to express a carotenoid-based ornament appeared to be linked to its current oxidative balance and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Our experimental results suggest that oxidative stress can mediate the impact of parasites on carotenoid-based signals, and we discuss possible mechanisms linking carotenoid-based ornaments to oxidative stress.

  16. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T.E.; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtORHis (R90H) or SbORHis (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtORAla (R90A) functioned similarly to AtORHis to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtORHis greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtORHis exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtORHis triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtORHis in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates ORHis/Ala as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying ORHis-regulated carotenoid accumulation. PMID:26224804

  17. Raman spectroscopy application in frozen carrot cooked in different ways and the relationship with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorani, Paolo; Chiavaro, Emma; Cristofolini, Luigi; Paciulli, Maria; Zaupa, Maria; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-08-30

    Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro-Raman variation, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices, being faster, non-destructive, and avoiding sample extraction, but no data are present in the literature concerning its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatment of carrots. The effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot, comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their high-performance liquid chromatographic determination and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Conversely, boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase in carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids, causing a shift of vibration frequencies towards a higher energy, increase in the spectral baseline and peak intensities as well as a broadening of their width, probably in relation to the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e. the all-trans form) and the isomerization process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency, in accordance with a more pronounced isomerization and changes in colour parameters. This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could provide information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots cooked using various methods. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize cooking processes aimed at maximizing carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprat, Andressa Bacalau; Menegol, Tania; Boelter, Juliana Ferreira; Zmozinski, Ariane; Rodrigues Vale, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Rech, Rosane

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae have been used as food supplements owing to their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acid and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties and the carotenoid composition of microalgae has been poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition of two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/MS 2 ). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated. The carotenoid composition of the two microalgae was similar, with 13 carotenoids being found in H. luteoviridis and 12 in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40% (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than that in other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrot, red pepper and broccoli). The microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge