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Sample records for immiscible carrier fluid

  1. Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800# Cao'an Road, ... was developed from a discretized fluid model known as the lattice gas automata ... of two immiscible fluids, several lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been ...

  2. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  3. Mixed convective flow of immiscible viscous fluids confined between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... finite difference methods to analyze the problem of natural convection boundary layer flow along a complex vertical surface ... analyzed the flow of two immiscible fluids in a parallel plate channel ... wavy and flat walls are maintained at constant temperatures w.

  4. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  5. Local lattice-gas model for immiscible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Doolen, G.D.; Eggert, K.; Grunau, D.; Loh, E.Y.

    1991-01-01

    We present a lattice-gas model for two-dimensional immiscible fluid flows with surface tension that uses strictly local collision rules. Instead of using a local total color flux as Somers and Rem [Physica D 47, 39 (1991)], we use local colored holes to be the memory of particles of the same color. Interactions between walls and fluids are included that produce arbitrary contact angles

  6. Mixing of immiscible fluids in chaotic flows and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The basis goal of this work was to obtain a basic understanding of mixing of immiscible fluids leading to the determination of flow conditions which result in efficient breakup and dispersion of one mass of fluid in the bulk of another. Related issues were the prediction of the morphological structures and drop size distribution for a given set of operating conditions. The primary motivation for these investigations was to produce basic knowledge leading to increased understanding of industrial processes involving blending, agitation, emulsification, and dissolution

  7. Immiscible two-phase fluid flows in deformable porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Majer, Ernest

    Macroscopic differential equations of mass and momentum balance for two immiscible fluids in a deformable porous medium are derived in an Eulerian framework using the continuum theory of mixtures. After inclusion of constitutive relationships, the resulting momentum balance equations feature terms characterizing the coupling among the fluid phases and the solid matrix caused by their relative accelerations. These terms, which imply a number of interesting phenomena, do not appear in current hydrologic models of subsurface multiphase flow. Our equations of momentum balance are shown to reduce to the Berryman-Thigpen-Chen model of bulk elastic wave propagation through unsaturated porous media after simplification (e.g., isothermal conditions, neglect of gravity, etc.) and under the assumption of constant volume fractions and material densities. When specialized to the case of a porous medium containing a single fluid and an elastic solid, our momentum balance equations reduce to the well-known Biot model of poroelasticity. We also show that mass balance alone is sufficient to derive the Biot model stress-strain relations, provided that a closure condition for porosity change suggested by de la Cruz and Spanos is invoked. Finally, a relation between elastic parameters and inertial coupling coefficients is derived that permits the partial differential equations of the Biot model to be decoupled into a telegraph equation and a wave equation whose respective dependent variables are two different linear combinations of the dilatations of the solid and the fluid.

  8. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it

  9. A novel coarsening mechanism of droplets in immiscible fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    In our daily lives, after shaking a salad dressing, we see the coarsening of oil droplets suspended in vinegar. Such a demixing process is observed everywhere in nature and also of technological importance. For a case of high droplet density, domain coarsening proceeds with inter-droplet collisions and the resulting coalescence. This phenomenon has been explained primarily by the so-called Brownian-coagulation mechanism: stochastic thermal forces exerted by molecules induce random motion of individual droplets, causing accidental collisions and subsequent interface-tension-driven coalescence. Contrary to this, here we demonstrate that the droplet motion is not random, but hydrodynamically driven by the composition Marangoni force due to an interfacial tension gradient produced in each droplet as a consequence of composition correlation among droplets. This alters our physical understanding of droplet coarsening in immiscible liquid mixtures on a fundamental level.

  10. Experiments and MPS analysis of stratification behavior of two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen, E-mail: ligen@fuji.waseda.jp [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Oka, Yoshiaki [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Furuya, Masahiro; Kondo, Masahiro [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Improving numerical stability of MPS method. • Implicitly calculating viscous term in momentum equation for highly viscous fluids. • Validation of the enhanced MPS method by analyzing dam break problem. • Various stratification behavior analysis by experiments and simulations. • Sensitivity analysis of the effects of the fluid viscosity and density difference. - Abstract: Stratification behavior is of great significance in the late in-vessel stage of core melt severe accident of a nuclear reactor. Conventional numerical methods have difficulties in analyzing stratification process accompanying with free surface without depending on empirical correlations. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, which calculates free surface and multiphase flow without empirical equations, is applicable for analyzing the stratification behavior of fluids. In the present study, the original MPS method was improved to simulate the stratification behavior of two immiscible fluids. The improved MPS method was validated through simulating classical dam break problem. Then, the stratification processes of two fluid columns and injected fluid were investigated through experiments and simulations, using silicone oil and salt water as the simulant materials. The effects of fluid viscosity and density difference on stratification behavior were also sensitively investigated by simulations. Typical fluid configurations at various parametric and geometrical conditions were observed and well predicted by improved MPS method.

  11. Seismoelectric couplings in a poroelastic material containing two immiscible fluid phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2015-08-01

    A new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been recently proposed to detect saturation fronts in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires however a complete modelling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluid phases, one being usually electrically insulating (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of Biot dynamic theory, valid for porous media containing two immiscible Newtonian fluids, with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of effective volumetric charge densities dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability and saturation of each fluid phase. The coupled partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method. We also derive analytically the transfer function connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P wave (coseismic electrical field) and we study the influence of the water content on this coupling. We observe that the amplitude of the co-seismic electrical disturbance is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in amplitude with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions (interface effect) occurring at the water table. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones are sharp enough. A relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the water table through seismoelectric measurements. Indeed, in this case, the coseismic electrical disturbances are vanishingly small compared to the seismoelectric interface response.

  12. Stability conditions of stationary rupture of liquid layers on an immiscible fluid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, A. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria; Kostarev, K.; Shmyrov, A.; Zuev, A. [Inst. of Continuous Media Mechanics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The stationary equilibrium shape of a 3-phase liquids-gas system was investigated. The system consisted of a horizontal liquid layer with an upper free boundary placed on the immiscible fluid interface. The study investigated the stability conditions of rupture of the liquid layer surface. The dependence of rupture parameters on the experimental cuvette diameter and layer thickness was investigated, as well as the difference in the values of surface tension of the examined fluids. The 2-layer system of horizontal fluid layers was formed in a glass cylindrical cuvette. The liquid substrate was tetrachloride carbon (CCI{sub 4}), while upper layers included water, glycerine, ethyleneglycol, and aqueous solutions of 1,4-butanediol C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O{sub 2} and isopropanol C{sub 3H8L}. Initially, the surface of the substrate fluid was overlaid with a horizontal liquid layer. The rupture was formed by subjecting the layer surface to short-time actions of a narrow directional air jet. After rupture formation, the layer thickness increased gradually. The measurements demonstrated that the rupture diameter depends on the initial thickness of the upper layer as well as the diameter of the cuvette, and the difference in the values of the surface tension of the examined fluids. Analysis of the experimental relationships indicated that the critical thickness of the breaking layer is a constant value for any specific pairs of fluids. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Small and large amplitude movement of the unstable interface between two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aribert, J M; Thirriot, C

    1970-01-01

    The flow of immiscible fluids in a confined flow channel is accompanied by a deformation of the surface of separation when the stability conditions are not fulfilled. A simplified schematic for the problem is given, and the characteristic surface perturbation is calculated analytically and numerically. The perturbation is characterized by a wavelength, an amplitude, and the shape of the perturbation at a sufficient distance from the front. Two asymptotic cases are fully discussed: the creation of a wave in the surface, and the shape of a fully developed perturbation. Experimental results from 2 Hele-Shaw models are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions. Further studies will be concerned with variable rate flow, geometrically divergent flow, layered flow with variable viscosity between layers, and non-Newtonian flow.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO 2 that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S nw ) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S nw . In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S nw during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S nw for either favorable (M ≥ 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement

  15. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  16. Structure-Preserving Methods for the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard System to Model Immiscible Fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel F.

    2017-12-03

    This work presents a novel method to model immiscible incompressible fluids in a stable manner. Here, the immiscible behavior of the flow is described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model, which is based on a diffuse interface method. We introduce buoyancy effects in the model through the Boussinesq approximation in a consistent manner. A structure-preserving discretization is used to guarantee the linear stability of the discrete problem and to satisfy the incompressibility of the discrete solution at every point in space by construction. For the solution of the model, we developed the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Isogeometric Analysis with Multi-Field discretizations (PetIGA-MF), a high-performance framework that supports structure-preserving spaces. PetIGA-MF is built on top of PetIGA and the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc), sharing all their user-friendly, performance, and flexibility features. Herein, we describe the implementation of our model in PetIGA-MF and the details of the numerical solution. With several numerical tests, we verify the convergence, scalability, and validity of our approach. We use highly-resolved numerical simulations to analyze the merging and rising of droplets. From these simulations, we detailed the energy exchanges in the system to evaluate quantitatively the quality of our simulations. The good agreement of our results when compared against theoretical descriptions of the merging, and the small errors found in the energy analysis, allow us to validate our approach. Additionally, we present the development of an unconditionally energy-stable generalized-alpha method for the Swift-Hohenberg model that offers control over the numerical dissipation. A pattern formation example demonstrates the energy-stability and convergence of our method.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haihu, E-mail: haihu.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); James Weir Fluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhang, Yonghao [James Weir Fluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Valocchi, Albert J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO{sub 2} that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S{sub nw}) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S{sub nw}. In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S{sub nw} during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S{sub nw} for either favorable (M ≥ 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement.

  18. A study on the unsteady flow of two immiscible micropolar and Newtonian fluids through a horizontal channel: A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakar, M.; Raje, Ankush

    2018-05-01

    The unsteady flow of two immiscible micropolar and Newtonian fluids through a horizontal channel is considered. In addition to the classical no-slip and hyper-stick conditions at the boundary, it is assumed that the fluid velocities and shear stresses are continuous across the fluid-fluid interface. Three cases for the applied pressure gradient are considered to study the problem: one with constant pressure gradient and the other two cases with time-dependent pressure gradients, viz. periodic and decaying pressure gradient. The Crank-Nicolson approach has been used to obtain numerical solutions for fluid velocity and microrotation for diverse sets of fluid parameters. The nature of fluid velocities and microrotation with various values of pressure gradient, Reynolds number, ratio of viscosities, micropolarity parameter and time is illustrated through graphs. It has been observed that micropolarity parameter and ratio of viscosities reduce the fluid velocities.

  19. Stochastic porous media modeling and high-resolution schemes for numerical simulation of subsurface immiscible fluid flow transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantson, Eric Thompson; Ju, Binshan; Wu, Dan; Gyan, Patricia Semwaah

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes stochastic petroleum porous media modeling for immiscible fluid flow simulation using Dykstra-Parson coefficient (V DP) and autocorrelation lengths to generate 2D stochastic permeability values which were also used to generate porosity fields through a linear interpolation technique based on Carman-Kozeny equation. The proposed method of permeability field generation in this study was compared to turning bands method (TBM) and uniform sampling randomization method (USRM). On the other hand, many studies have also reported that, upstream mobility weighting schemes, commonly used in conventional numerical reservoir simulators do not accurately capture immiscible displacement shocks and discontinuities through stochastically generated porous media. This can be attributed to high level of numerical smearing in first-order schemes, oftentimes misinterpreted as subsurface geological features. Therefore, this work employs high-resolution schemes of SUPERBEE flux limiter, weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO), and monotone upstream-centered schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) to accurately capture immiscible fluid flow transport in stochastic porous media. The high-order schemes results match well with Buckley Leverett (BL) analytical solution without any non-oscillatory solutions. The governing fluid flow equations were solved numerically using simultaneous solution (SS) technique, sequential solution (SEQ) technique and iterative implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) technique which produce acceptable numerical stability and convergence rate. A comparative and numerical examples study of flow transport through the proposed method, TBM and USRM permeability fields revealed detailed subsurface instabilities with their corresponding ultimate recovery factors. Also, the impact of autocorrelation lengths on immiscible fluid flow transport were analyzed and quantified. A finite number of lines used in the TBM resulted into visual

  20. Numerical simulations of negatively buoyant jets in an immiscible fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Torrecilla, Monica; Geyer, Adelina; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    In this work we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), a newly developed tool that combines the flexibility of particle-based methods with the accuracy of the finite element discretization. In order to test the applicability of PFEM to the study of negatively buoyant jets, we have compared the two-dimensional numerical results with experiments investigating the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Reynolds Re and Froude numbers Fr, such that 0.1 < Fr < 30, reproducing both weak and strong fountains in a laminar regime (8 < Re < 1350). Numerical results, together with the experimental observations, allow us to describe three different fountain behaviors that have not been previously reported. Based on the Re and Fr values for the numerical and experimental simulations, we have built a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of each of the observed flow types. Whereas the Fr number itself provides a prediction of the maximum penetration height of the jet, its combination with the Re number provides a prediction of the flow behavior for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity. Conclusive remarks concerning the dynamics of negatively buoyant jets may be applied later on to several geological situations, e.g. the flow structure of a fully submerged subaqueous eruptive vent discharging magma or the replenishment of magma chambers in the Earth's crust.

  1. Method and apparatus for purifying nucleic acids and performing polymerase chain reaction assays using an immiscible fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Light, Yooli Kim; Piccini, Matthew Ernest; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-10-31

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and methods for purifying nucleic acids to conduct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In one example, a method includes generating complexes of silica beads and nucleic acids in a lysis buffer, transporting the complexes through an immiscible fluid to remove interfering compounds from the complexes, further transporting the complexes into a density medium containing components required for PCR where the nucleic acids disassociate from the silica beads, and thermocycling the contents of the density medium to achieve PCR. Signal may be detected from labeling agents in the components required for PCR.

  2. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  3. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  4. Multiphase flows of N immiscible incompressible fluids: A reduction-consistent and thermodynamically-consistent formulation and associated algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent formulation and an associated numerical algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an isothermal mixture consisting of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with different physical properties (densities, viscosities, and pair-wise surface tensions). By reduction consistency we refer to the property that if only a set of M (1 ⩽ M ⩽ N - 1) fluids are present in the system then the N-phase governing equations and boundary conditions will exactly reduce to those for the corresponding M-phase system. By thermodynamic consistency we refer to the property that the formulation honors the thermodynamic principles. Our N-phase formulation is developed based on a more general method that allows for the systematic construction of reduction-consistent formulations, and the method suggests the existence of many possible forms of reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent N-phase formulations. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for flow problems involving multiple fluid components and large density ratios and large viscosity ratios, and the simulation results are compared with the physical theories or the available physical solutions. The comparisons demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for this class of problems.

  5. Simulation results for a multirate mass transfer modell for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M

  6. Axisymmetric capillary-gravity waves at the interface of two viscous, immiscible fluids - Initial value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoiya, Palas Kumar; Dasgupta, Ratul

    2017-11-01

    When the interface between two radially unbounded, viscous fluids lying vertically in a stable configuration (denser fluid below) at rest, is perturbed, radially propagating capillary-gravity waves are formed which damp out with time. We study this process analytically using a recently developed linearised theory. For small amplitude initial perturbations, the analytical solution to the initial value problem, represented as a linear superposition of Bessel modes at time t = 0 , is found to agree very well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, for a range of initial conditions. Our study extends the earlier work by John W. Miles who studied this initial value problem analytically, taking into account, a single viscous fluid only. Implications of this study for the mechanistic understanding of droplet impact into a deep pool, will be discussed. Some preliminary, qualitative comparison with experiments will also be presented. We thank SERB Dept. Science & Technology, Govt. of India, Grant No. EMR/2016/000830 for financial support.

  7. Etude d'un modele de Boltzmann sur reseau pour la simulation assistee par ordinateur des fluides a plusieurs phases immiscibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sebastien

    The computer assisted simulation of the dynamics of fluid flow has been a highly rewarding topic of research for several decades now, in terms of the number of scientific problems that have been solved as a result, both in the academic world and in industry. In the fluid dynamics field, simulating multiphase immiscible fluid flow remains a challenge, because of the complexity of the interactions at the flow phase interfaces. Various numerical methods are available to study these phenomena, and, the lattice Boltzmann method has been shown in recent years to be well adapted to solving this type of complex flow. In this thesis, a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-phase immiscible flows is studied. The main objective of the thesis is to develop this promising method further, with a view to enhancing its validity. To achieve this objective, the research is divided into five distinct themes. The first two focus on correcting some of the deficiencies of the original model. The third generalizes the model to support the simulation of N-phase immiscible fluid flows. The fourth is aimed at modifying the model itself, to enable the simulation of immiscible fluid flows in which the density of the phases varies. With the lattice Boltzmann class of models studied here, this density variation has been inadequately modeled, and, after 20 years, the issue still has not been resolved. The fifth, which complements this thesis, is connected with the lattice Boltzmann method, in that it generalizes the theory of 2D and 3D isotropic gradients for a high order of spatial precision. These themes have each been the subject of a scientific article, as listed in the appendix to this thesis, and together they constitute a synthesis that explains the links between the articles, as well as their scientific contributions, and satisfy the main objective of this research. Globally, a number of qualitative and quantitative test cases based on the theory of multiphase fluid flows

  8. Eutectic, monotectic and immiscibility systems of nimesulide with water-soluble carriers: phase equilibria, solid-state characterisation and in-vivo/pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Salem, Hesham; Alani, Adam W G; Alany, Raid G

    2014-10-01

    The solid-state interactions of fused mixtures nimesulide (ND) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, urea or mannitol were studied through constructing thaw-melt phase equilibrium diagrams. The solid-state characteristics were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Various types of interactions were identified such as the formation of a eutectic system of ND-PEG 4000, monotectic system of ND-urea and complete solid immiscibility of ND with mannitol. The effects of carrier concentrations on the equilibrium solubility and in-vitro dissolution characteristics were studied. Linear increases (R(2)  > 0.99) in the aqueous solubility of ND in various concentrations of PEG 4000 and urea were obtained, whereas mannitol did not exhibit any effect on the solubility of ND. Similar trends were obtained with the dissolution efficiency of the fused mixtures of ND with PEG 4000 and urea compared with the corresponding physical mixtures and untreated drug. The analgesic effects of untreated ND and the selected formulations were investigated by evaluating the drug's ability to inhibit the acetic acid-induced writhing response. The analgesic effect of ND in a eutectic mixture with PEG 4000 and a monotectic mixture with urea was potentiated by 3.2 and 2.7-fold respectively compared with the untreated drug. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Numerical simulations of natural or mixed convection in vertical channels: comparisons of level-set numerical schemes for the modeling of immiscible incompressible fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research dissertation is at studying natural and mixed convections of fluid flows, and to develop and validate numerical schemes for interface tracking in order to treat incompressible and immiscible fluid flows, later. In a first step, an original numerical method, based on Finite Volume discretizations, is developed for modeling low Mach number flows with large temperature gaps. Three physical applications on air flowing through vertical heated parallel plates were investigated. We showed that the optimum spacing corresponding to the peak heat flux transferred from an array of isothermal parallel plates cooled by mixed convection is smaller than those for natural or forced convections when the pressure drop at the outlet keeps constant. We also proved that mixed convection flows resulting from an imposed flow rate may exhibit unexpected physical solutions; alternative model based on prescribed total pressure at inlet and fixed pressure at outlet sections gives more realistic results. For channels heated by heat flux on one wall only, surface radiation tends to suppress the onset of re-circulations at the outlet and to unify the walls temperature. In a second step, the mathematical model coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the Level-Set method for interface tracking is derived. Improvements in fluid volume conservation by using high order discretization (ENO-WENO) schemes for the transport equation and variants of the signed distance equation are discussed. (author)

  10. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  11. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry in east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type districts: Evidence for immiscibility and implications for depositional mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.D.; Kesler, S.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of fluid inclusion gases from Mississippi Valley-type districts in east Tennessee reveal the presence of several distinct aqueous solutions and vapors that were part of the mineralizing process. Inclusion contents were released by crushing 5 to 25 mg mineral samples and by decrepitating individual inclusions; all analyses were obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Most analyzed inclusion fluids consist of H{sub 2}O with significant amounts of CH{sub 4} (0.3 to 2.9 mol%), CO{sub 2} (0.1 to 4.7 mol%), and smaller amounts of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar. Compositional similarities in the inclusion fluids from three districts imply that mineralization probably formed from fluids that permeated the entire region. Saturation pressures calculated for these fluid compositions range from 300 to 2,200 bars. Burial depths for the host unit have been estimated to be about 2 to 3 km during Devonian time, the age of mineralization indicated by recent isotopic ages. Exsolution of a vapor phase from the mineralizing brines should cause precipitation of carbonate and sulfide minerals, but reaction path modeling indicates that the resulting sparry dolomite:sphalerite ratios would be too high to form an ore-grade deposit. If the vapor phase was from a preexisting sour gas cap that was intercepted by a Zn-rich brine, large amounts of spalerite would precipitate in a fairly small region. Preliminary mass balance calculations suggest that a gas cap of dimensions similar to the individual districts in east Tennessee could have contained enough H{sub 2}S to account for the total amount of sphalerite precipitated.

  12. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Horwitz, Jeremy A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  13. Studying effect of carrier fluid viscosity in magnetite based ferrofluids using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, S.; Iyengar, Shruthi S.; Ananthamurthy, Sharath; Bhattacharya, Sarbari

    2018-02-01

    Ferrofluids with varying viscosities of carrier fluids have been prepared with magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). They were found to be nearly spherical in shape with an almost uniform size of 13nm. The superparamagnetic nature of the water based ferrofluids at room temperature was established by SQUID magnetometry. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out to establish the size of the nanoparticle clusters in the ferrofluids synthesized. The results indicate an increase in cluster size with increase in carrier fluid viscosity. This is supported by results from Raman Spectroscopy. A further attempt to characterise these ferrofluids was made by studying the behaviour of well characterised non-magnetic micron sized probes that are optically trapped while suspended in the ferrofluid. An increase in carrier fluid viscosity results in a decrease in corner frequency when only the carrier fluid is used as the suspending medium. When the magnetic component is also present the corner frequency is higher than with just the carrier fluid. This relative increase happens at all laser powers at the trapping plane. This trend is also found to be independent of the size and material of the probe particle. Comparisons of various parameters that influence optical trapping lead us to believe that the enhancement could be due to a directed motion of the magnetic clusters in the presence of an optical trap.

  14. Ultrathin-skinned asymmetric membranes by immiscible solvents treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved semipermeable asymmetric fluid separation membranes useful in gas, vapor and liquid separations are disclosed. The membranes are prepared by substantially filling the pores of asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membranes having a finely porous layer on one side thereof with a water immiscible organic liquid, followed by contacting the finely porous layer with water.

  15. Synthesis of Ferrofluids Made of Iron Oxide Nanoflowers: Interplay between Carrier Fluid and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Spizzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferrofluids are nanomaterials consisting of magnetic nanoparticles that are dispersed in a carrier fluid. Their physical properties, and hence their field of application are determined by intertwined compositional, structural, and magnetic characteristics, including interparticle magnetic interactions. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of iron(III chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3·6H2O in 2-pyrrolidone, and were then dispersed in two different fluids, water and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG. A number of experimental techniques (especially, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry were employed to study both the as-prepared nanoparticles and the ferrofluids. We show that, with the adopted synthesis parameters of temperature and FeCl3 relative concentration, nanoparticles are obtained that mainly consist of maghemite and present a high degree of structural disorder and strong spin canting, resulting in a low saturation magnetization (~45 emu/g. A remarkable feature is that the nanoparticles, ultimately due to the presence of 2-pyrrolidone at their surface, are arranged in nanoflower-shape structures, which are substantially stable in water and tend to disaggregate in PEG. The different arrangement of the nanoparticles in the two fluids implies a different strength of dipolar magnetic interactions, as revealed by the analysis of their magnetothermal behavior. The comparison between the magnetic heating capacities of the two ferrofluids demonstrates the possibility of tailoring the performances of the produced nanoparticles by exploiting the interplay with the carrier fluid.

  16. Earthquake wave propagation in immiscibly compressible porous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, S.; Kurita, S.; Izumi, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper utilizes the formalism of the theory of immiscible compressible mixtures to formulate the wave propagation equation for the soil where the soil has been assumed as a binary mixture consisting of one solid phase and one fluid phase. The method is developed to solve the one dimensional wave equation by the above theory. The relations between the wave attenuating characteristic value Q and the volume fraction, the relative motion of two phases have been shown. It is concluded that based on such theory we can solve more precisely the soil behaviors while considering the interaction of structure and soil of immiscible mixture. (author)

  17. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke H.H. Meeter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41 and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32 and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results: Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions: Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials.

  18. Stability of a radial immiscible drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, J

    1968-11-01

    The stability of the displacement front between 2 immiscible fluids of radial flow between 2 parallel plates (Hele-Shaw model) is studied mathematically by superposing onto the circular displacement front a sinusoidal perturbation. The equations are reduced to dimensionless variables, and it is shown that the stable and unstable domains in a plot: dimensionless viscosity vs. dimensionless time are separated by a polygonal contour, each side of the contour being characterized by the (integer) number of perturbations along the circumference. There is a critical reduced time below which the perturbations are amortized but beyond which they are amplified. Experimental results have been in fair general agreement with theoretical results, the divergence between them being attributable to neglecting capillary phenomena, which may become very important at large radial distances. One test with miscible fluids has shown that even in this case, there is a critical time or an equivalent critical radius.

  19. Morphology development in immiscible polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Guo, Qipeng

    This chapter discusses the morphology development of immiscible binary polymer blends. It first describes morphology development in droplet-matrix structures, the dynamics of fibrillar structures and cocontinuous structures. The chapter then considers binary immiscible polymer blends, such systems

  20. Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating immiscible two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, T; Phillips, T N

    2007-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann equation is often promoted as a numerical simulation tool that is particularly suitable for predicting the flow of complex fluids. This paper develops a two-dimensional 9-velocity (D2Q9) lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible binary fluids with variable viscosities and density ratio using a single relaxation time for each fluid. In the macroscopic limit, this model is shown to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows. This is achieved by constructing a two-phase component of the collision operator that induces the appropriate surface tension term in the macroscopic equations. A theoretical expression for surface tension is determined. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by comparing numerical and theoretical predictions of surface tension as a function of density. The model is also shown to predict Laplace's law for surface tension and Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids. The spinodal decomposition of two fluids of equal density but different viscosity is then studied. At equilibrium, the system comprises one large low viscosity bubble enclosed by the more viscous fluid in agreement with theoretical arguments of Renardy and Joseph (1993 Fundamentals of Two-Fluid Dynamics (New York: Springer)). Two other simulations, namely the non-equilibrium rod rest and the coalescence of two bubbles, are performed to show that this model can be used to simulate two fluids with a large density ratio

  1. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  2. Magnetic Particles as Multifunctional Transport Carriers and Fluid Drivers in Micro Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, R.J.S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Prins, M.W.J.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic actuation principles using superparamagnetic particles suspended in a fluid are studied in this paper. Two experimental setups for different magnetic field settings are designed and fabricated. On the basis of optical velocity measurements, the induced behavior of single and ordered chains

  3. Comment on the treatment of residual water content in “A consistent set of parametric models for the two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in the subsurface” by L. Luckner et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Luckner et al. [1989] (hereinafter LVN) present a clear summary and generalization of popular formulations used for convenient representation of porous media fluid flow characteristics, including water content (θ) related to suction (h) and hydraulic conductivity (K) related to θ or h. One essential but problematic element in the LVN models is the concept of residual water content (θr; in LVN, θw,r). Most studies using θr determine its value as a fitted parameter and make the assumption that liquid flow processes are negligible at θ values less than θr. While the LVN paper contributes a valuable discussion of the nature of θr, it leaves several problems unresolved, including fundamental difficulties in associating a definite physical condition with θr, practical inadequacies of the models at low θ values, and difficulties in designating a main wetting curve.

  4. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  5. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M B

    1997-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  6. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1990-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1991-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V

    2010-08-21

    The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.

  9. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments have been performed with non-reactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies have been performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non-entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model. However heat transfer data for fluid pairs which are found to entrain (water-oil), believed to be characteristic of molten reactor core-concrete conditions, were measured to be up to two orders of magnitude greater than surface renewal predictions and are calculated by a simple entrainment heat transfer model

  10. Evaporative mass transfer behavior of a complex immiscible liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Colleen M; Johnson, Gwynn R; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult's law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium.

  11. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  12. Modified analytic EAM potentials for the binary immiscible alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F.; Shu, X.L.; Deng, H.Q.; Hu, W.Y.; Zhu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type potentials have been constructed for seven binary immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Fe-Cu, Ag-Cu, Cu-Ta, Cu-W and Cu-Co. The potentials are fitted to the lattice constant, cohesive energy, unrelaxed monovacancy formation energy and elastic constants for only pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy systems. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM potentials, formation enthalpies of disordered alloys for those seven binary immiscible alloy systems have been calculated. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental data available and those theoretical results calculated by other authors. As only very limited experimental information is available for alloy properties in immiscible alloy systems, the MAEAM is demonstrated to be a reasonable method to construct the interatomic potentials for immiscible alloy systems because only the properties of pure elements are needed in calculation

  13. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  14. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  15. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  16. Numerical analysis of natural convection in a double-layer immiscible system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubaidullin, A.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper numerical analysis has been applied to study the natural convection heat transfer in a system composed of two immiscible fluids with uniform internal heat generation in the lower layer or in both layers enclosed in a rectangular or in a semi-circular vessel. The objective of the work is to perform a parametric study to assess the effect of physical properties on the heat transfer characteristics as well as to complement results obtained from experiments by means of CFD simulations for a range of lower Rayleigh number and combine the experimental data and the computational results. (author)

  17. Ensemble distribution for immiscible two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Isha; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vassvik, Morten; Sinha, Santanu; Hansen, Alex

    2017-02-01

    We construct an ensemble distribution to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a porous medium. The system is found to be ergodic. The distribution is used to compute macroscopic flow parameters. In particular, we find an expression for the overall mobility of the system from the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the porous medium is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description. We test numerically some of the central theoretical results.

  18. Gravity Effect on Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Layered Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    An upscaling method is developed for two-phase immiscible incompressible flows in layered reservoirs with good communication between the layers. It takes the effect of gravity into consideration. Waterflooding of petroleum reservoirs is used as a basic example for application of this method....... An asymptotic analysis is applied to a system of 2D flow equations for incompressible fluids at high-anisotropy ratios, but low to moderate gravity ratios, which corresponds to the most often found reservoir conditions. The 2D Buckley–Leverett problem is reduced to a system of 1D parabolic equations...

  19. Continuous Solidification of Immiscible Alloys and Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxiang; Zhao, Jiuzhou

    2018-05-01

    Immiscible alloys have aroused considerable interest in last few decades due to their excellent physical and mechanical characteristics as well as potential industrial applications. Up to date, plenty of researches have been carried out to investigate the solidification of immiscible alloys on the ground or in space and great progress has been made. It is demonstrated that the continuous solidification technique have great future in the manufacturing of immiscible alloys, it also indicates that the addition of surface active micro-alloying or inoculants for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets and proper application of external fields, e.g., static magnetic field, electric current, microgravity field, etc. may promote the formation of immiscible alloys with an expected microstructure. The objective of this article is to review the research work in this field.

  20. A variational theory of immiscible mixtures with mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, E.G.D. do.

    1982-02-01

    A variational formulation for immiscible mixtures with mechanical restrictions is put forward and the arbitrary parts of the interactional force and stress tensor of the constituents are determined. (Author) [pt

  1. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  2. Flow split characterization of two immiscible phases with different wettability scenarios: a numerical investigation using a coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flow branching of two-phase immiscible fluids in a Y-shaped, planner channel is conducted by solving the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Naiver-Stokes system with finite element method. In this system a horizontal channel

  3. A review on rising bubble dynamics in viscosity-stratified fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kirti Chandra Sahu

    Multiphase flow; non-Newtonian; immiscible fluids; bubbles; numerical simulations. 1. Introduction. The fluid dynamics of a gas bubble rising due to buoyancy in a surrounding .... Figure 2. Behaviour of a single bubble rising in quiescent liquid.

  4. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  5. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  6. Interfaces and fluctuations in confined polymeric liquid mixtures: from immiscible to near critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sferrazza, Michele; Carelli, Clara

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the structure of the interface between polymer films is discussed to elucidate fluctuations and confinement effects in fluid polymer mixtures. The neutron reflectivity technique has been employed to investigate the dependence of the structure of the interface on the degree of immiscibility of the polymers over a wide range, as criticality is approached, and to characterize it in terms of intrinsic width, as calculated by mean field theories, and capillary fluctuations. For more immiscible systems, as the degree of incompatibility between the polymers is decreased, the width of the interface increases slowly, and it is independent of the molecular weight of the polymers. Closer to the critical point the dependence on the degree of miscibility becomes stronger and the way in which the interfacial width diverges, as criticality is approached, is related to both chain length and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). The results have been compared to the predictions of mean field theories. Self-consistent field numerical calculations, with the additional contribution due to capillary waves, provide a good description of the width of the interface between two polymer bulk phases, in particular at higher and intermediate degrees of immiscibility-the product of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ and the number N of monomers of the chain, χN. For more miscible systems a crossover is observed to a region where the square gradient theory in the weak segregation limit better approximates the experimental results. Moreover, the mechanisms by which confinement affects the interface have been investigated. To understand the relative importance of the long ranged van der Waals forces and short ranged 'truncation forces' in modifying thermally excited fluctuations at the polymer/polymer interface, the thickness dependence of the interfacial width has been studied for different degrees of miscibility, approaching criticality. The results show a gradual

  7. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  8. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  9. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  10. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-07

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods.

  11. Upscaling of Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Stratified Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    A semi-analytical method for upscaling two-phase immiscible flows in heterogeneous porous media is described. This method is developed for stratified reservoirs with perfect communication between layers (the case of vertical equilibrium), in a viscous dominant regime, where the effects of capillary...... forces and gravity may be neglected. The method is discussed on the example of its basic application: waterflooding in petroleum reservoirs. We apply asymptotic analysis to a system of two-dimensional (2D) mass conservation equations for incompressible fluids. For high anisotropy ratios, the pressure...... and piston-like displacement, and it presumes non-zero exchange between layers. The method generalizes also the study of Yortsos (Transp Porous Media 18:107–129, 1995), taking into account in a more consistent way the interactions between the layers....

  12. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  13. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  14. Characteristic impedance of a microchannel with two immiscible microfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Consider the case of a microcapillary of radius R with two microfluidic immiscible. The micro-capillary region 0 expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Similarly, the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary is expressed by a complex formula Bessel functions. Obtain the analytical results are important for designing engineering microdevices with applications in pharmaceutical, food engineering, nanotechnology and biotechnology in general in particular. For future research it is interesting to consider the case of boundary conditions with memory effects.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible displacement in the cavity with different channel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Zang, Chenqiang; Yang, Mo; Xu, Hongtao

    In this work, the immiscible displacement in a cavity with different channel configurations is studied using an improved pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model. This model overcomes the drawback of the dependence of the fluid properties on the grid size, which exists in the original pseudo-potential LBE model. The approach is first validated by the Laplace law. Then, it is employed to study the immiscible displacement process. The influences of different factors, such as the surface wettability, the distance between the gas cavity and liquid cavity and the surface roughness of the channel are investigated. Numerical results show that the displacement efficiency increases and the displacement time decreases with the increase of the surface contact angle. On the other hand, the displacement efficiency increases with increasing distance between the gas cavity and the liquid cavity at first and finally reaches a constant value. As for the surface roughness, two structures (a semicircular cavity and a semicircular bulge) are studied. The comprehensive results show that although the displacement processes for both the structures depend on the surface wettability, they present quite different behaviors. Specially, for the roughness structure constituted by the semicircular cavity, the displacement efficiency decreases and displacement time increases evidently with the size of the semicircular cavity for the small contact angle. The trend slows down as the increase of the contact angle. Once the contact angle exceeds a certain value, the size of the semicircular cavity almost has no influence on the displacement process. While for the roughness structure of a semicircular bulge, the displacement efficiency increases with the size of bulge first and then it decreases for the small contact angle. The displacement efficiency increases first and finally reaches a constant for the large contact angle. The results also show that the displacement time has an

  16. A novel numerical approach for the solution of the problem of two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media: Application to LNAPL and DNAPL

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-06-17

    The flow of two immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in petroleum exploration and extraction. The displacement of one fluid by another immiscible with it represents a very important aspect in what is called enhanced oil recovery. Another example is related to the long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide, CO2 , in deep geologic formations. In this technique, supercritical CO2 is introduced into deep saline aquifer where it displaces the hosting fluid. Furthermore, very important classes of contaminants that are very slightly soluble in water and represent a huge concern if they get introduced to groundwater could basically be assumed immiscible. These are called light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). All these applications necessitate that efficient algorithms be developed for the numerical solution of these problems. In this work we introduce the use of shifting matrices to numerically solving the problem of two-phase immiscible flows in the subsurface. We implement the cell-center finite difference method which discretizes the governing set of partial differential equations in conservative manner. Unlike traditional solution methodologies, which are based on performing the discretization on a generic cell and solve for all the cells within a loop, in this technique, the cell center information for all the cells are obtained all at once without loops using matrix oriented operations. This technique is significantly faster than the traditional looping algorithms, particularly for larger systems when coding using languages that require repeating interpretation each time a loop is called like Mat Lab, Python and the like. We apply this technique to the transport of LNAPL and DNAPL into a rectangular domain.

  17. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  18. Regularized lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yan; Wang, Ningning; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qiang; He, Guoqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a regularized lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is developed for the simulation of immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology. This model is as simple as the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) color-gradient model except that an additional regularization step is introduced prior to the collision step. In the regularization step, the pseudo-inverse method is adopted as an alternative solution for the nonequilibrium part of the total distribution function, and it can be easily extended to other discrete velocity models no matter whether a forcing term is considered or not. The obtained expressions for the nonequilibrium part are merely related to macroscopic variables and velocity gradients that can be evaluated locally. Several numerical examples, including the single-phase and two-phase layered power-law fluid flows between two parallel plates, and the droplet deformation and breakup in a simple shear flow, are conducted to test the capability and accuracy of the proposed color-gradient model. Results show that the present model is more stable and accurate than the BGK color-gradient model for power-law fluids with a wide range of power-law indices. Compared to its multiple-relaxation-time counterpart, the present model can increase the computing efficiency by around 15%, while keeping the same accuracy and stability. Also, the present model is found to be capable of reasonably predicting the critical capillary number of droplet breakup.

  19. Electric-double-layer potential distribution in multiple-layer immiscible electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we calculate the electric-double-layer (EDL) electrostatic potential in a system of several layers of immiscible electrolytes. Verwey-Niessen theory predicts that at the interface between two immiscible electrolytes back-to-back EDLs are formed. The present analysis extends

  20. On the efficiency of a fluid-fluid centrifugal separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apazidis, N.

    1984-05-01

    Efficiency of a separation process of two immiscible incompressible fluids of different densities occuring under the influence of a combined centrifugal and gravitational force field is investigated. The analysis is based on the set of equations for a rotating two-phase flow of a mixture as presented by Greenspan (1983). The geometry of the separation process is considered and the total flow of the separated phases evaluated. (author)

  1. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  2. Immiscible three-dimensional fingering in porous media: A weakly nonlinear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a weakly nonlinear theory for the development of fingering instabilities that arise at the interface between two immiscible viscous fluids flowing radially outward in a uniform three-dimensional (3D) porous medium. By employing a perturbative second-order mode-coupling scheme, we investigate the linear stability of the system as well as the emergence of intrinsically nonlinear finger branching events in this 3D environment. At the linear stage, we find several differences between the 3D radial fingering and its 2D counterpart (usual Saffman-Taylor flow in radial Hele-Shaw cells). These include the algebraic growth of disturbances and the existence of regions of absolute stability for finite values of viscosity contrast and capillary number in the 3D system. On the nonlinear level, our main focus is to get analytical insight into the physical mechanism resulting in the occurrence of finger tip-splitting phenomena. In this context, we show that the underlying mechanism leading to 3D tip splitting relies on the coupling between the fundamental interface modes and their first harmonics. However, we find that in three dimensions, in contrast to the usual 2D fingering structures normally encountered in radial Hele-Shaw flows, tip splitting into three branches can also be observed.

  3. Displacement of one Newtonian fluid by another: density effects in axial annular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) finite elementtechnique is used to simulate 3D displacement oftwo immiscible Newtonian fluids in vertical annular wells. For equally viscous fluids the effect of distinct fluid densities is investigated in the region of low to intermediate Reynolds numbers......, the efficiency of the displacement is analysed for various flow situations....

  4. Specific interface area in a thin layer system of two immiscible liquids with vapour generation at the contact interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Gazdaliev, Ilias M.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2017-06-01

    For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or “specific interface area” SV, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter SV as a function of the heat influx {\\dot{Q}}V to the system or the average system overheat above the interfacial boiling point. The derived results can be reformulated for the case of an endothermic chemical reaction between two liquid reagents with the gaseous form of one of the reaction products. The final results are restricted to the case of thin layers, where the potential gravitational energy of bubbles leaving the contact interface is small compared to their surface tension energy.

  5. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  6. Laboratory and numerical investigations of kinetic interface sensitive tracers transport for immiscible two-phase flow porous media systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A number of theoretical approaches estimating the interfacial area between two fluid phases are available (Schaffer et al.,2013). Kinetic interface sensitive (KIS) tracers are used to describe the evolution of fluid-fluid interfaces advancing in two phase porous media systems (Tatomir et al., 2015). Initially developed to offer answers about the supercritical (sc)CO2 plume movement and the efficiency of trapping in geological carbon storage reservoirs, KIS tracers are tested in dynamic controlled laboratory conditions. N-octane and water, analogue to a scCO2 - brine system, are used. The KIS tracer is dissolved in n-octane, which is injected as the non-wetting phase in a fully water saturated porous media column. The porous system is made up of spherical glass beads with sizes of 100-250 μm. Subsequently, the KIS tracer follows a hydrolysis reaction over the n-octane - water interface resulting in an acid and phenol which are both water soluble. The fluid-fluid interfacial area is described numerically with the help of constitutive-relationships derived from the Brooks-Corey model. The specific interfacial area is determined numerically from pore scale calculations, or from different literature sources making use of pore network model calculations (Joekar-Niasar et al., 2008). This research describes the design of the laboratory setup and compares the break-through curves obtained with the forward model and in the laboratory experiment. Furthermore, first results are shown in the attempt to validate the immiscible two phase flow reactive transport numerical model with dynamic laboratory column experiments. Keywords: Fluid-fluid interfacial area, KIS tracers, model validation, CCS, geological storage of CO2

  7. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    temperatures above 500 °C.1 Figure 1 describes the primary components of a TPV system : a heat source, an emitter, and a photovoltaic converter. The heat...carrier surface not covered by the photovoltaic cell. 4. Mesh The mesh was set to level 3 with the minimum gap size manually set to 0.01 inch. A...heat sink to control the temperature of the photovoltaic cell while exposed to radiation from the emitter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TPV

  8. RBS/NRA/channeling analysis of implanted immiscible species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naramoto, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Narumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation of immiscible elements was performed to prepare supersaturated substance for further heat treatment. 63 Cu ion implantation was made at low temperature into Nb(1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal films on sapphire, and the induced lattice damage and the lattice location of implanted Cu atoms were analyzed by 2.7 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling. The coherent segregation of 63 Cu atoms with specific crystallographic orientations was found in the near surface region (Cu(1 0 0)/Nb(1 0 0), Cu(1 1 1)/Nb(1 1 0) and Cu(1 1 0)/Nb(1 1 1)). The same kind of study was also made in Ir(1 0 0)/MgO(1 0 0) implanted with 50 keV 12 C + ions. In addition to 2 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling, 1.22 MeV d + RBS/NRA/channeling was employed to detect implanted 12 C atoms. The results suggest that 12 C atoms are aligned along Ir direction at least by low temperature implantation followed by thermal annealing

  9. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Study of void fraction and mixing of immiscible liquids in a pool configuration by an upward gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.C.; Corradini, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, investigations are performed to study the mixing between immiscible liquids in a pool configuration due to an upward gas flow. A water-R113 system is sued in the bubbly/churn-turbulent regimes to determine the effects of the unagitated pool depth on layer mixing. The superficial gas velocity at which full mixing is attained is observed to increase with the pool depth, although it is concluded that this is a weak dependency. Mixing in the churn-turbulent regime is studied with Wood's metal-water and Wood's metal-silicone fluid (100 cS) as pairs of fluids. Additional past mixing data from six other fluids are also included in the data base. A criterion is proposed to determine if two liquids will entrain in bubbly or churn-turbulent flow. Correlations are derived that, for a set of given conditions, allow prediction of the mixing state (mixed or segregated) of a system. Because of the indirect method of measuring the mixed layer thickness, pool void fraction experiments are also performed. For the case of water and R113, the effect of unagitated pool depth on the void fraction is studied

  11. Riemann-problem and level-set approaches for two-fluid flow computations I. Linearized Godunov scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Koren (Barry); M.R. Lewis; E.H. van Brummelen (Harald); B. van Leer

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA finite-volume method is presented for the computation of compressible flows of two immiscible fluids at very different densities. The novel ingredient in the method is a two-fluid linearized Godunov scheme, allowing for flux computations in case of different fluids (e.g., water and

  12. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  13. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  14. Numerical Study of the Influence of Cavity on Immiscible Liquid Transport in Varied-Wettability Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Dou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence indicates that cavities often occur in fractured rocks, especially in a Karst region. Once the immiscible liquid flows into the cavity, the cavity has the immiscible liquid entrapped and results in a low recovery ratio. In this paper, the immiscible liquid transport in cavity-fractures was simulated by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The interfacial and surface tensions were incorporated by Multicomponent Shan-Chen (MCSC model. Three various fracture positions were generated to investigate the influence on the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation and displacement time. The influences of fracture aperture and wettability on the immiscible liquid transport were discussed and analyzed. It was found that the cavity resulted in a long displacement time. Increasing the fracture aperture with the corresponding decrease in displacement pressure led to the long displacement time. This consequently decreased the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation. The fracture positions had a significant effect on the displacement time and irreducible saturation. The distribution of the irreducible nonwetting phase was strongly dependent on wettability and fracture position. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the LBM was very effective in simulating the immiscible two-phase flow in the cavity-fracture.

  15. Structure-Preserving Methods for the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard System to Model Immiscible Fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2017-01-01

    in the energy analysis, allow us to validate our approach. Additionally, we present the development of an unconditionally energy-stable generalized-alpha method for the Swift-Hohenberg model that offers control over the numerical dissipation. A pattern formation

  16. A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...... possibility of modeling two-phase flow through energy balance. The saturation profile generated through the suggested approach is different from those through other approaches....

  17. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    colored type contains 30.9 6 4.2 wt% FeOt and 40.7 6 3.6 wt% SiO2, whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 6 5.9 wt% FeOt and 65.6 6 7.3 wt% SiO2. Similar light colored melt inclusions in olivine and fine grained dark and light colored interstitial pockets also give evidence of crystallization from......Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  18. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  19. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Elyeznasni, N; Russier, V

    2005-11-22

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by suppressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (rho,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  20. Mechanical alloying of an immiscible α-Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    in the immiscible ceramic oxide system. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy investigations show that mechanical milling of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 involves alloying on an atomic scale and that true solid solution formation occurs. We suggest that the high defect concentration and the chemical enthalpy of Fe3......+-O2--Sn4+ interfaces between nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 regions may serve as a driving force for the formation of a solid solution in the immiscible ceramic system....

  1. A note on the standard electron transfer potential at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 0034-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions * interfacial electron transfer * standard electron trasfer potential * homogeneous electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  2. The Cauchy problem for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sande, Hilde

    2008-12-15

    The thesis consists of an introduction and two papers; 1. The solution of the Cauchy problem with large data for a model of a mixture of gases. 2. Front tracking for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data. (AG) refs, figs

  3. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  4. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  5. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  6. A comparative study of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys prepared by conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotadia, H.R., E-mail: hiren.kotadia@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Das, A. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Doernberg, E.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic investigation on the solidification microstructure of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible system aided by computational thermodynamics calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative study of conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated the high effectiveness of ultrasound exposure during solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cavitation on nucleation and the relative effects of cavitation and acoustic streaming on the dispersion of Sn-rich liquid phases have been explained from the experimental observation. Cavitation was found to promote fragmentation and dispersion of Sn-rich liquid leading to homogeneous dispersion of refined Sn phase. Microstructural modification was found to be contributed by cavitation and associated shockwave generation while bulk fluid flow under acoustic streaming was found to be less effective on the microstructure evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Globular and highly refined {alpha}-Al formed near the radiator through enhanced heterogeneous nucleation in contrast to dendritic {alpha}-Al observed in conventional solidification. - Abstract: A comparative study on the microstructure of four ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys, guided by the recent thermodynamic assessment of the system, was carried out with specific focus on the soft Sn particulate distribution in hard Al-rich matrix in the presence and absence of ultrasonic irradiation during solidification. The results clearly demonstrate high effectiveness of ultrasonication in promoting significantly refined and homogeneously dispersed microstructure, probably aided by enhanced nucleation and droplet fragmentation under cavitation. While conventional solidification produced highly segregated Sn phase at the centre and bottom of Sn-rich alloy ingots, ultrasonic treatment produced effective dispersion irrespective of the alloy constitution in

  7. An efficient IMPES-based, shifting matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO 2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, etc. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits, e.g., in the form of increased oil extraction, when using certain technology. However, this accurate prediction depends to a large extent on two things; the first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities and the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique to solving the governing conservation laws which govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. This work will be applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more cases. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are based on discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that, calling and iterating these loops several times can take significant amount of CPU time. Furthermore, if this process is done using programming languages which require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called like Matlab, Python or the like, extremely longer time is expected particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is done for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. Then using shifting matrices, these vectors are sifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of CPU times compared with traditional technique implemented within the framework of

  8. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  9. Metal Immiscibility Route to Synthesis of Ultrathin Carbides, Borides, and Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixing; Kochat, Vidya; Pandey, Prafull; Kashyap, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Soham; Samanta, Atanu; Sarkar, Suman; Manimunda, Praveena; Zhang, Xiang; Asif, Syed; Singh, Abhisek K; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-08-01

    Ultrathin ceramic coatings are of high interest as protective coatings from aviation to biomedical applications. Here, a generic approach of making scalable ultrathin transition metal-carbide/boride/nitride using immiscibility of two metals is demonstrated. Ultrathin tantalum carbide, nitride, and boride are grown using chemical vapor deposition by heating a tantalum-copper bilayer with corresponding precursor (C 2 H 2 , B powder, and NH 3 ). The ultrathin crystals are found on the copper surface (opposite of the metal-metal junction). A detailed microscopy analysis followed by density functional theory based calculation demonstrates the migration mechanism, where Ta atoms prefer to stay in clusters in the Cu matrix. These ultrathin materials have good interface attachment with Cu, improving the scratch resistance and oxidation resistance of Cu. This metal-metal immiscibility system can be extended to other metals to synthesize metal carbide, boride, and nitride coatings. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inhomogeneity of block copolymers at the interface of an immiscible polymer blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Kim, YongJoo; Lee, Won Bo

    2018-04-01

    We present the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interfacial properties of an immiscible homopolymer blend. Diblock and two-arm grafted copolymers with variation in stiffness are modeled using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to compare the compatibilization efficiency, i.e., reduction of interfacial tension. Overall, grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, an increase in the stiffness for one of the blocks of the diblock copolymers causes unusual inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation. However, an increase in the stiffness for one of blocks of the grafted copolymers prevents the bundle formation due to the branched chain. As a result, homogeneous interfacial coverage of homopolymer blends is realized with significant reduction of interfacial tension which makes grafted copolymer a better candidate for the compatibilizer of immiscible homopolymer blend.

  11. Subsurface migration of petroleum hydrocarbons: A case study of immiscible migration and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The subsurface distribution of a leaked crude oil illustrates the combined influence of both the chemical and physical properties of soil and free product on the migration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Immiscible phase behavior was observed, as well as chromatographic-like separation of the lighter constituents of the crude oil from the heavier constituents. After downward migration through approximately 50 ft of unsaturated, heterogeneous alluvial sediments, the crude oil formed a horizontal plume on top of a perched, saturated zone. Immiscible phase trapping is evident from the occurrence of very high concentration of hydrocarbons in both the vertical and horizontal plumes. Samples taken from the vertical zone of contamination indicate a transition from heavier hydrocarbons near the surface to lighter hydrocarbons at depth. This phenomenon is attributed to chromatographic-like separation of the heavier hydrocarbons by the soil, possibly due to preferential solubility of the lighter hydrocarbons in percolating ran water

  12. Boiling of the Interface between Two Immiscible Liquids below the Bulk Boiling Temperatures of Both Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becomin...

  13. A Membrane‐Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short‐lifetimes, and expensive ion‐selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane‐free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes ...

  14. Gas Separation Membranes Derived from High-Performance Immiscible Polymer Blends Compatibilized with Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panapitiya, Nimanka P; Wijenayake, Sumudu N; Nguyen, Do D; Huang, Yu; Musselman, Inga H; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P

    2015-08-26

    An immiscible polymer blend comprised of high-performance copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA(3:2) (6FDD) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) was compatibilized using 2-methylimidazole (2-MI), a commercially available small molecule. Membranes were fabricated from blends of 6FDD:PBI (50:50) with and without 2-MI for H2/CO2 separations. The membranes demonstrated a matrix-droplet type microstructure as evident with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging where 6FDD is the dispersed phase and PBI is the continuous phase. In addition, membranes with 2-MI demonstrated a uniform microstructure as observed by smaller and more uniformly dispersed 6FDD domains in contrast to 6FDD:PBI (50:50) blend membranes without 2-MI. This compatibilization effect of 2-MI was attributed to interfacial localization of 2-MI that lowers the interfacial energy similar to a surfactant. Upon the incorporation of 2-MI, the H2/CO2 selectivity improved remarkably, compared to the pure blend, and surpassed the Robeson's upper bound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a small molecule to compatibilize a high-performance immiscible polymer blend. This approach could afford a novel class of membranes in which immiscible polymer blends can be compatibilized in an economical and convenient fashion.

  15. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Applied Chemistry Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Ahmed, Sohail [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish Ali [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Muhammad Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nadeem, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  16. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Rabia; Ahmed, Sohail; Mazhar, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad; Khan, Nawazish Ali; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy) 3 ]Cl 2 and [Mo(bipy)Cl 4 ] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, 57 Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy) 3 ]Cl 2 , and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl 4 ], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, 57 Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals

  17. Two compressible and immiscible flow in porous media: mathematical and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study of Cauchy problem (existence of weak solutions) for three degenerate highly coupled parabolic systems modeling compressible immiscible flow in porous media. The motivation of this work is a benchmark of the GNR MoMaS, to study the impact of the gas flow due to the corrosion of ferrous materials in a radioactive waste storage site. This thesis is divided into three independent chapters. Firstly, we look at a problem modeling the flow of two immiscible phases and considering one phase is compressible and the other is incompressible (water/gas). Secondly, we consider the problem modeling two-compressible immiscible flow in porous media. An existence results for both problems established by a semi-discretization method. Finally, The fourth chapter is devoted to the construction and convergence of a multi-dimensional finite volume method (upwind scheme) for the gas-water model under the assumption that the gas density is a function of a global pressure. (author)

  18. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  19. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  20. Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite

  1. A double Fe-Ti oxide and Fe-sulphide liquid immiscibility in the Itsindro Gabbro Complex, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Thierry; Bailly, Laurent; Roig, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    The petrology and mineralogy of the Itsindro complex in south-central Madagascar has been investigated through samples obtained from the 320.7 m-deep Lanjanina borehole. The section consists of a 254 m-thick pyroxenite unit with interbedded gabbro layers that overlies a gabbro unit and is itself overlain by a 19 m-thick granite unit. Most of the structures are sub-horizontal. A weak magmatic layering is locally observed but at the scale of the core, the intrusion does not appear to be a layered complex. Pyroxenite and gabbro show a systematic disseminated mineralization consisting of Fe-Ti-P oxides and Fe-(Cu-Ni) sulphides that takes the form of ilmenite-titanomagnetite ± apatite and pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite ± pentlandite. In the upper zone, from 90 to 72 m, sub-massive centimetre-to decimetre-sized layers of oxides and sulphides comprise a total of 16 m of sub-massive sulphide (the main mineralized zone). In this mineralized zone the oxide/sulphide ratio is close to 1/1. The sulphide is strongly dominated by pyrrhotite, which may locally contain inclusions of molybdenite crystals with the Re sulphide rheniite (ReS2). Oxides are generally euhedral, included in or attached to the Fe-sulphide, and also locally form sub-massive centimetre-sized bands. Apatite as a cumulus phase is ubiquitous. Locally it may account for 30% of the ore-rich samples and some samples consist of apatite-Fe-Ti oxides-Fe-Cu-Ni sulphides with virtually no silicate. Apatite is the main REE carrier but the total REE content remains low (<90 ppm). Mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry indicate that the rocks are highly differentiated, and in spite of a relatively limited thickness, the differentiation process is observed. Two zones can be distinguished: from the bottom to 162.8 m we see a decrease in the Mg number of olivine and pyroxene, and a drop in TiO2 and Al2O3 for the latter. A reverse trend is then observed within the pyroxenite unit from the 162.8 m level upwards. The

  2. Heat Transfer Characteristics during Boiling of Immiscible Liquids Flowing in Narrow Rectangular Heated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Shinmoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of immiscible liquids for cooling of surfaces with high heat generation density is proposed based on the experimental verification of its superior cooling characteristics in fundamental systems of pool boiling and flow boiling in a tube. For the purpose of practical applications, however, heat transfer characteristics due to flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels with different small gap sizes need to be investigated. The immiscible liquids employed here are FC72 and water, and the gap size is varied as 2, 1, and 0.5 mm between parallel rectangular plates of 30 mm × 175 mm, where one plate is heated. To evaluate the effect of gap size, the heat transfer characteristics are compared at the same inlet velocity. The generation of large flattened bubbles in a narrow gap results in two opposite trends of the heat transfer enhancement due to thin liquid film evaporation and of the deterioration due to the extension of dry patch in the liquid film. The situation is the same as that observed for pure liquids. The latter negative effect is emphasized for extremely small gap sizes if the flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid to the total is not reduced. The addition of small flow rate of less-volatile liquid can increase the critical heat flux (CHF of pure more-volatile liquid, while the surface temperature increases at the same time and assume the values between those for more-volatile and less-volatile liquids. By the selection of small flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid, the surface temperature of pure less-volatile liquid can be decreased without reducing high CHF inherent in the less-volatile liquid employed. The trend of heat transfer characteristics for flow boiling of immiscible mixtures in narrow channels is more sensitive to the composition compared to the flow boiling in a round tube.

  3. Atomic arrangement in immiscible Ag–Cu alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elofsson, V.; Almyras, G.A.; Lü, B.; Boyd, R.D.; Sarakinos, K.

    2016-01-01

    Physical attributes of multicomponent materials of a given chemical composition are determined by atomic arrangement at property-relevant length scales. A potential route to access a vast array of atomic configurations for material property tuning is by synthesis of multicomponent thin films using vapor fluxes with their deposition pattern modulated in the sub-monolayer regime. However, the applicability of this route for creating new functional materials is impeded by the fact that a fundamental understanding of the combined effect of sub-monolayer flux modulation, kinetics and thermodynamics on atomic arrangement is not available in the literature. Here we present a research strategy and verify its viability for addressing the aforementioned gap in knowledge. This strategy encompasses thin film synthesis using a route that generates multi-atomic fluxes with sub-monolayer resolution and precision over a wide range of experimental conditions, deterministic growth simulations and nanoscale microstructural probes. Investigations are focused on structure formation within the archetype immiscible Ag-Cu binary system, revealing that atomic arrangement at different length scales is governed by the arrival pattern of the film forming species, in conjunction with diffusion of near-surface Ag atoms to encapsulate 3D Cu islands growing on 2D Ag layers. The knowledge generated and the methodology presented herein provides the scientific foundation for tailoring atomic arrangement and physical properties in a wide range of miscible and immiscible multinary systems.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Extensional Deformation of Immiscible Droplets in a Laminar, Converging Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangli, Aditya; Arispe-Guzman, Marcelo; Armstrong, Connor; Bigio, David

    2017-11-01

    The deformation of an immiscible droplet in an extensional flow has been widely studied by researchers using experimental four-roll mills where the bulk liquid imposes a stagnation extensional deformation on the droplet. However, it is of vital interest to study the behavior of an immiscible droplet in a non-stagnant extensional flow which can be produced using a converging channel. A hyperbolic converging channel was built, which could produce a constant extensional rate in the center of the channel, and deformation of droplets of Castor oil injected in a matrix of Silicone oil was observed. Droplets injected in the center of the channel experienced a pure extensional deformation while the droplets injected at an offset position attained the affine state. The nature of the droplet deformation and the critical Capillary numbers are compared with the four-roll mill experiments. Additional experiments were performed with the initial position of the droplet being vertically off center. Higher strain rates were exhibited compared to the pure extensional flow condition. An analysis of the flow field helps explaining the phenomenon and provides insight into the droplet behavior.

  5. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds through solid-state foaming of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changchun; Li Wei; Ma Liang; Yao Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer-blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20 to 70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  6. The immiscible aqueous solutions of alkyl phosphates. Study for the purpose of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauborgne, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    Systems of immiscible aqueous solutions composed by a phase rich in mineral salt and by another phase almost totally containing an organic salt, have been studied for years, with quaternary ammonium salts with an organic cation. The objective of this research is to study systems symmetric to the previous ones, i.e. with organic anions such as alkyl phosphates, and then to try to understand mechanisms of extraction of metals in these environments. Based on properties of immiscible aqueous solutions, an original three-phase process of liquid-liquid extraction has been developed, and is used to separate uranium in phosphoric acids with better performance than the existing industrial processes [fr

  7. Continuous Reduced Graphene Oxide Film Prepared by Stitching of Nanosheets at the Interface of Two Immiscible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Young Ku; Kim, Seog K.; Min, Bong Ki

    2011-01-01

    RGO sheets dispersed in water are prepared by chemical reduction of GO using ascorbic acid. By mixing and sonication of submicron-size RGO sheets in two immiscible liquids (e. g., chloroform and water) for the first time we have prepared a continuous large-area RGO film at the interface. In other words, we have shown that aggregated RGO sheets could be fully stretched at the interface to form a continuous film. The RGO film has been characterized by SEM, TEM, UV-vis absorption, XPS and Raman. The film exhibits high flexibility, transparency, and very long-term stability without forming aggregations. Without requiring vapor deposition, a special instrument, or a filtration followed by a removing the filter paper one could easily achieve a continuous RGO-film in any laboratories. Our solution-based method is much simpler and cost-effective, and very good for large scale mass production. This finding could boost real applications of graphene in laboratory and industry, and provide a new methodology for the fabrication of large-area continuous graphene films. Graphene, an atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice sheet of sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms, has recently been emerged as a new promising material in various fields. Because of its gigantic charge carrier mobility it could be applied to field-effect transistors as a substitute of silicon. Due to its transparency and high electrical conductivity, it could be used as a substitute of ITO electrode in solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Other superior properties include large surface area, flexibility, strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. These provides wide applications of graphene including supercapa-citor, battery, sensor, storage and drug delivery. For real applications, large-scale of graphene sheets or films needs to be prepared. Large-area (orders of centimeters) graphene films have recently been fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on various metal substrates. This

  8. Inducing conductivity in immiscible PS/PP blends by a percolated polyaniline/PA filler selectively localised by specific interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharatia, A.; Hejmady, P.; Cardinaels, R.; Seo, Jin Won; Moldenaers, P.; Maazouz, A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an approach to develop conducting immiscible blends of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with a percolated polyaniline/polyamide (PANI/PA) filler in the presence of a SEBS-g-MA compatibilizer. The underlying principle of the work is the ability of the compatibilizer to concurrently

  9. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  10. Forced chemical mixing in immiscible alloys during severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Nhon Q.; Odunuga, Samson; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The forced chemical mixing of atoms in model immiscible alloys during severe plastic deformation (SPD) has been investigated as a function of temperature and the heat of mixing using molecular dynamics computer simulations. At low temperatures, A 75 B 25 alloys form solid solutions during SPD for heats of mixing less than ∼20 kJ mol -1 , but tend to phase separate at larger values. At high temperatures these alloys show more extensive precipitation, with the precipitate morphology dependent on the heat of mixing. Analysis of the high-temperature mixing kinetics reveals that the precipitation process involves two separate mechanisms. The first derives from long-range diffusion mediated by shear-induced vacancies, while the second is due to local rearrangements of atoms induced by the forced mixing of atoms.

  11. Anomalous Behaviors of Block Copolymers at the Interface of an Immiscible Polymer Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Lee, Won Bo

    We investigate the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interface of an immiscible polymer blend using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation. The diblock and grafted copolymers, which are described by Kremer and Grest bead spring model, are used to compare the compatibilization efficiency, that is, reduction of the interfacial tension. It is found that, overall, the grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, it is noted that an increase in the stiffness of one block of diblock copolymer causes inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation among the stiff blocks and orientational constraint on bundled structures near the interface, which makes copolymers poor compatibilizers. The dependence of anomalous orientational constraint on the chain length of homopolymers is also investigated. Theoretical and Computational Soft Matters Lab.

  12. A Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model for the simulation of three phase immiscible incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celine Lapuerta; Bruno Piar; Franck Boyer; Philippe Angot; Michel Quintard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model designed for incompressible flows of three immiscible phases, characterized by different surface tensions and without phase change. This physical context is relevant to study the late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear pressurized water reactor. Thanks to a suitable choice of a free energy and a particular form of the Cahn-Hilliard equation, the evolution of the three phases is described by only two order parameters. Moreover, this model allows the simulation of purely two phase flows as a limiting case: no artificial apparition of the third phase occurs if this later is physically absent which contrasts with others models of the literature. We examine the spreading of a liquid lens at the interface between two stratified phases. We present results showing that the method gives correct contact angles and pressure jumps, at equilibrium. (authors)

  13. Investigation of metastable immiscibility in nuclear-waste-glasses. I-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egnell, J.; Larsen, J.G.; Moeller, L.; Roed, G.

    1981-12-01

    Metastable liquid-liquid separation in glasses can often cause significant changes in physical and chemical properties of the original homogeneous glass. In some technical borosilicate glasses this phenomenon is used to change the chemical durability of the glass. For potential nuclear-waste-glasses the slow cooling through the temperature range 550 0 C - 700 0 C may lead to such a liquid-liquid phase separation. In order to investigate the susceptibility of phase separation of nuclear-waste-glasses, two KBS model glasses, ABS-39 and ABS-41, were investigated. Two of the subsequent reports are concerned with this problem. The third report also takes into consideration the effects of MoO 3 on the immiscibility gap. The maximum amount of MoO 3 that can be dissolved in ABS-39 and ABS 41 is also determined. (Auth.)

  14. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop Impacting on a Superheated Pool Mohamad Alchalabi The interactions between two immiscible liquids of different temperatures can be violent to the extent of causing harm to individuals, or damage to equipment, especially when used in the industry. Only a few studies investigated these interactions but they could not produce the violent interactions often reported by the industry, and therefore their results did not help much to develop clear understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. In this work, a high speed imaging system operated at 100,000 frames per second was utilized to record the events and phenomena taking place upon the impact of Perfluorohexane droplet at room temperature onto a hot soybean oil pool at temperatures as high as 300 ºC. The impact velocity was varied by varying the height of the droplet before it pinches off under its own weight. The recorded events identified the occurrence of vortex ring vapor explosions, weak and strong nucleate boiling, and film boiling. An impact velocity vs. oil temperature diagram identifying the regions in which each of these phenomena takes place was generated, and the dynamics driving their occurrences were explored. The vortex ring vapor explosions were found to become less violent as the impact velocity was increased, which was attributed to the existence of a smaller amount of liquid Perfluorohexane within the rings at high speed impacts, which does evaporate but does not expand violently. Weak nucleate boiling occurred at very high impact velocities relatively. As the temperature is increased, however, they start 5 turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  15. On Numerical Methods for Including the Effect of Capillary Pressure Forces on Two-phase, Immiscible Flow in a Layered Porous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, B.G.

    1996-05-01

    This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC-201) and Escalating Doses of Recombinant Factor VIla (rFVIIa) as a Novel Pre-hospital Resuscitation Fluid in a Swine Model of Severe Uncontrolled Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    challenge [ 16]. Trauma-associated co- agulopathy is attributed to the dilutional effect of fluid resus- citation and transfusion, hypothermia, acidosis ...alongside with correcting acidosis and hypothermia [ 18]. These steps, however, often fail to control life-threatening bleeding in trauma [ 19...ispurified,filtered,stroma-freeandheat-treated bovine hemoglobin that is polymerized by gluteraldehyde- crosslinking to form polymers ranging from 130-500

  17. An efficient implicit-pressure/explicit- saturation-method-based shifting-matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-07-04

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is widespread, particularly in the oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery and carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits and consequences of the use of certain technologies. However, this accurate prediction depends--to a large extent--on two things. The first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities; the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique for solving the conservation laws that govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. As an example, this work is applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more scenarios. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are modeled after discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that calling and iterating these loops multiple times can take a significant amount of computer time. Furthermore, if this process is performed with programming languages that require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called, such as Matlab, Python, and others, much longer time is expected, particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is performed for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. By use of shifting matrices, these vectors are shifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of central-processing-unit (CPU) time compared with a traditional

  18. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  19. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  20. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  1. Formation of disorder aluminium zones in an immiscible lead-aluminium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R Z; Zhang, L H; Sui, M L; Wang, Y M

    2004-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations show evidence for the formation of disorder Al zones around some faceted Pb inclusions embedded in an Al matrix in immiscible lead-aluminium samples, which were prepared by a melt-spun method and then aged for about two months at room temperature. Furthermore, it is found that, both before and after ageing, all such Pb inclusions have a cube-cube orientation relationship with the Al matrix. The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give an extensive analysis of the formation of the disorder Al zones and provide a reasonable explanation for the HRTEM finding: the existence of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusions at higher temperatures may lead to the formation of the disorder Al zone in the aged sample. The dependence of the thickness of the disorder Al zone on the amount of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusion at higher temperatures, and the average stress in the equilibrium configuration of a MD cell, is discussed

  2. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Kalavathy [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600006 (India); Kumarsan, Dhanapal [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Vengidusamy, Naryanan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arumainathan, Stephen, E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  3. Atomistic study of self-diffusion in Cu-Ag immiscible alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianmin; Chen Gouxiang; Xu Kewei

    2006-01-01

    Combining molecular dynamic (MD) simulation with modified analytic embedded-atom method (MAEAM) potential, the formation, migration and activation energies have been calculated for four-kind migrations of Cu vacancy and three-kind migrations of Ag vacancy in Cu-Ag immiscible alloy system. The equilibrium concentration of Cu vacancies is greater than that of Ag vacancies owing to the formation energy of Cu vacancy (1.012 eV) is lower than that of Ag vacancy (1.169 eV). Comparing the migration or activation energy needed for four-kind migrations of Cu vacancy and three-kind migrations of Ag vacancy show that the favorable migration mechanism is the nearest-neighbor (NN) jump for Cu vacancy, while the straight [0 1 0] six-jump cycle (6JC) for Ag vacancy. Furthermore, the activation energy of the NN jump of Cu vacancy (2.164 eV) is lower than that of straight [0 1 0] 6JC of Ag vacancy (2.404 eV) also show that the former is more favorable. We conclude accordingly that the primary migration mechanism is the NN jump of an abundance of Cu vacancies

  4. The effect of additives interaction on the miscibility and crystal structure of two immiscible biodegradable polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly lactic acid (PLLA is a promising biopolymer, obtained from polymerization of lactic acid that is derived from renewable resources through fermentation. The characteristic brittleness of PLLA is attributed to slow crystallization rates, which results in the formation of the large spherulites. Its glass temperature is relative high, above room temperature and close to 60 ºC, and therefore its applications are limited. The additives poly((R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc and tributyl citrate (TBC were used as compatibilizers in the biodegradable polymer blend of (PLLA/PPC. Results from DSC and POM analysis indicated that the blends of PLLA and PPC are immiscible. However, the blends with additives are miscible. TBC as plasticizer was added to PLLA to reduce its Tg. PVAc was used as compatibilizer to improve the miscibility between PLLA and PPC. FT-IR showed about 7 cm-1 shift in the C=O peak in miscible blends due to physical interactions. POM experiments together with the results of DSC and WAXD showed that PHB enhances the crystallization behavior of PLLA by acting as bio nuclei and the crystallization process can occur more quickly. Consequently an increase was observed in the peak intensity in WAXD.

  5. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S H [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Solid State Self-Healing System: Effects of Using Immiscible Healing Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Nabilah Muhamad; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil

    2015-01-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employs a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using immiscible healing agents, which are polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol, on solid state self-healing system. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature; above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order for thermal expansion to occur. The thermal properties and bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was performed in preliminary work. Further work then has been done using compact tension test to demonstrate details self-healing capability of the different specimens. Under compact tension test, it was found that healable resin with PVC has highest healing efficiency followed PVA with 7.4 % and 3 % of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/ network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies using microscope optic prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins. (author)

  7. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E. [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Solution of the equations for one-dimensional, two-phase, immiscible flow by geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronin, Ivan; Shevlyakov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    Buckley-Leverett equations describe non viscous, immiscible, two-phase filtration, which is often of interest in modelling of oil production. For many parameters and initial conditions, the solutions of these equations exhibit non-smooth behaviour, namely discontinuities in form of shock waves. In this paper we obtain a novel method for the solution of Buckley-Leverett equations, which is based on geometry of differential equations. This method is fast, accurate, stable, and describes non-smooth phenomena. The main idea of the method is that classic discontinuous solutions correspond to the continuous surfaces in the space of jets - the so-called multi-valued solutions (Bocharov et al., Symmetries and conservation laws for differential equations of mathematical physics. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1998). A mapping of multi-valued solutions from the jet space onto the plane of the independent variables is constructed. This mapping is not one-to-one, and its singular points form a curve on the plane of the independent variables, which is called the caustic. The real shock occurs at the points close to the caustic and is determined by the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.

  9. Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)

  10. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  11. Solidification of Al-Sn-Cu Based Immiscible Alloys under Intense Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Doernberg, E.; Patel, J. B.; Fan, Z.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2009-09-01

    The growing importance of Al-Sn based alloys as materials for engineering applications necessitates the development of uniform microstructures with improved performance. Guided by the recently thermodynamically assessed Al-Sn-Cu system, two model immiscible alloys, Al-45Sn-10Cu and Al-20Sn-10Cu, were selected to investigate the effects of intensive melt shearing provided by the novel melt conditioning by advanced shear technology (MCAST) unit on the uniform dispersion of the soft Sn phase in a hard Al matrix. Our experimental results have confirmed that intensive melt shearing is an effective way to achieve fine and uniform dispersion of the soft phase without macro-demixing, and that such dispersed microstructure can be further refined in alloys with precipitation of the primary Al phase prior to the demixing reaction. In addition, it was found that melt shearing at 200 rpm and 60 seconds will be adequate to produce fine and uniform dispersion of the Sn phase, and that higher shearing speed and prolonged shearing time can only achieve minor further refinement.

  12. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  13. A planar lens based on the electrowetting of two immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaoxuan; Park, Jihwan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and characterization of a planar liquid lens based on electrowetting. The working concept of electrowetting two immiscible liquids is demonstrated with measurement and characterization of contact angles with regard to externally applied electric voltages. Consequently, a planar liquid lens is designed and implemented based on this competitive electrowetting. A droplet of silicone oil confined in an aqueous solution (1% KCl) works as a liquid lens. Electrowetting then controls the shape of the confined silicone oil and the focal length of the liquid lens varies depending upon an applied dc voltage. A unique feature of this lens design is the double-ring planar electrodes beneath the hydrophobic substrate. While an outer ring electrode provides an initial boundary for the silicone oil droplet, an inner ring works as the actuation electrode for the lens. Further, the planar electrodes, instead of vertical or out-of-plane wall electrodes, facilitate the integration of liquid lenses into microfluidic systems. With the voltage applied in the range of 50–250 V, the confined silicone oil droplet changed its shape and the optical magnification of a 3 mm-diameter liquid lens was clearly demonstrated. Moreover, focal lengths of liquid lenses with diameters of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were characterized, respectively. The obtained results suggest that a larger lens diameter yields a longer focal length and a wider range of focal length change in response to voltage. The demonstrated liquid lens has a simple structure and is easy to fabricate

  14. A Membrane‐Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short‐lifetimes, and expensive ion‐selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane‐free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof‐of‐concept of a membrane‐free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L−1, and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long‐term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). PMID:28658538

  15. A Membrane-Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-10-02

    Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short-lifetimes, and expensive ion-selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane-free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof-of-concept of a membrane-free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L -1 , and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long-term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  17. Density and adiabatic compressibility of the immiscible molten AgBr+LiCl mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Victor P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry; Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kulik, Nina P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2017-07-01

    The adiabatic compressibility, β, of the immiscible liquid mixture 0.52 LiCl+0.48 AgBr (the top of the miscibility gap) was experimentally investigated in the temperature range from the melting point to the critical mixing temperature using the sound velocity values, u, measured by the pulse method, and the density quantities, ρ, which were determined using the hydrostatic weight procedure based on the relationship β = u{sup -2}ρ{sup -1}. It is shown that the coefficients of the temperature dependencies for the compressibility and density of the upper and lower equilibrium phases have opposite signs because of the superposition of the intensity of the thermal motion of the ions and the change in the composition of the phases. The differences, Δβ and Δρ, in the magnitudes of the compressibility and density for the equilibrium phases decrease with temperature elevation. The temperature dependencies of the compressibility and density difference are described using the empirical equations Δβ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.438} and Δρ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.439}.

  18. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  19. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  20. Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2014-03-12

    When a bubble rises to an interface between two immiscible liquids, it can pass through the interface, if this is energetically favourable, i.e. The bubble preferring the side of the interface with the lower air-liquid surface tension. Once the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite side, akin to the dynamics in the coalescence cascade. We identify the critical Ohnesorge numbers where such satellites are produced and characterize their sizes. The total transition time scales with the bubble size and differential surface tension, while the satellite pinch-off time scales with the capillary-inertial time of the pool liquid, which originally surrounds the bubble. We also use high-speed video imaging to study the motion of the neck of the contact. For low viscosity we show that it grows in time with a power-law exponent between 0.44 and 0.50, with a prefactor modified by the net sum of the three interfacial tensions. Increasing the viscosity of the receiving liquid drop drastically slows down the motion of the triple-line, when the Ohnesorge number exceeds ${\\\\sim }$0.08. This differs qualitatively from the coalescence of two miscible drops of different viscosities, where the lower viscosity sets the coalescence speed. We thereby propose a strong resistance from the triple-line. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Effects of shear during the cooling on the rheology and morphology of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammani, S; Moulai-Mostefa, N; Benyahia, L; Tassin, J F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the generation of a microfibrillar structure in immiscible polymer blends using a new technique. The blend polymer model is the emulsion formed by a mixture of polypropylene (PP) with polystyrene (PS) in the proportion of PP10/PS90. In the first case the pellets of polystyrene and polypropylene were blended on the twin-screw mini extruder in the classical manner with different shear rates. In the second case, the same blend was prepared in the same way followed by a dynamic cooling at different shear rates. The phase morphologies of PP in the blend were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy on two directions (transversal and longitudinal direction to the flow). In the two cases, the dispersed phase size decreased with the increase of the shear rate in the extruder. An anomaly was registered in the classical method at 200 rpm, where the size of the dispersed phase increases with the increase of the shear rate. The dynamic cooling technique recorded smaller diameters (4 to 5 times) of the dispersed phase compared to the conventional technique. In addition, the reappearance of the microfilaments at 200rpm was observed. The rheological properties were determined by RS100 (Thermo Scientific Haake). Using this new technique, it was noticed that he elastic modulus increases with one decade compared to the classical method and the complex viscosity decreases with the increase of the shear rate. An anomaly was registered in the classical technique, where the dynamic viscosity at 200rpm increases with increasing the shear rate in the extruder

  2. Flow split characterization of two immiscible phases with different wettability scenarios: a numerical investigation using a coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2017-12-23

    Numerical investigation of flow branching of two-phase immiscible fluids in a Y-shaped, planner channel is conducted by solving the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Naiver-Stokes system with finite element method. In this system a horizontal channel is branched into two identical and symmetric branches with the walls of the channels assigned several different wettability values. The studied scenarios consider a blob of one phase initially encompassed by the other phase. When an applied pressure difference induces flow, it is found that the motion of the blob in the two branches is significantly influenced by the wettability conditions at the channel walls. For the scenarios in which symmetric wettability configurations are applied, the blob divides equally among the two branches. For all the other scenarios in which the wettability configurations are asymmetric, the blob splits unequally. Comparisons between the different scenarios are performed in terms of the volume of the blob in each branch to investigate the percentage of the blob volume moving in each branch. In addition, we also considered the effect of the flow rate on the branching scenarios. In this work it is demonstrated that even though the pressure gradient is the same among the two symmetric branches, the phases partition differently when asymmetric wettability conditions are applied. The significance of this work may be that it provides evidences that relative permeability (a concept that has been introduced in the study of multiphase flow in porous media) may be more complex than just a mere scalar quantity function of saturation. It also highlights the importance of including the effects of wettability conditions in capillary pressure relationships

  3. Lattice Boltzmann model for three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chiyu; Lei, Wenhai; Wang, Moran

    2018-02-01

    A lattice Boltzmann (LB) framework is developed for simulation of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flows in complex geometries. This model is based on a Rothman-Keller type model for immiscible multiphase flows which ensures mass conservation of each component in porous media even for a high density ratio. To account for the viscoelastic effects, the Maxwell constitutive relation is correctly introduced into the momentum equation, which leads to a modified lattice Boltzmann evolution equation for Maxwell fluids by removing the normal but excess viscous term. Our simulation tests indicate that this excess viscous term may induce significant errors. After three benchmark cases, the displacement processes of oil by dispersed polymer are studied as a typical example of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow. The results show that increasing either the polymer intrinsic viscosity or the elastic modulus will enhance the oil recovery.

  4. Identification of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources in aquifers by a modified two-level saturation based imperialist competitive algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, H. R.; Mosharaf-Dehkordi, M.; Afzalan, B.

    2017-07-01

    A simulation-optimization model is proposed for identifying the characteristics of local immiscible NAPL contaminant sources inside aquifers. This model employs the UTCHEM 9.0 software as its simulator for solving the governing equations associated with the multi-phase flow in porous media. As the optimization model, a novel two-level saturation based Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is proposed to estimate the parameters of contaminant sources. The first level consists of three parallel independent ICAs and plays as a pre-conditioner for the second level which is a single modified ICA. The ICA in the second level is modified by dividing each country into a number of provinces (smaller parts). Similar to countries in the classical ICA, these provinces are optimized by the assimilation, competition, and revolution steps in the ICA. To increase the diversity of populations, a new approach named knock the base method is proposed. The performance and accuracy of the simulation-optimization model is assessed by solving a set of two and three-dimensional problems considering the effects of different parameters such as the grid size, rock heterogeneity and designated monitoring networks. The obtained numerical results indicate that using this simulation-optimization model provides accurate results at a less number of iterations when compared with the model employing the classical one-level ICA. A model is proposed to identify characteristics of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources. The contaminant is immiscible in water and multi-phase flow is simulated. The model is a multi-level saturation-based optimization algorithm based on ICA. Each answer string in second level is divided into a set of provinces. Each ICA is modified by incorporating a new knock the base model.

  5. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  6. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  7. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G.; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  8. Evolution of Immiscibly Blended Functionalized Polymers with Respect to Cure Parameters and Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Nicholas Walter Medicus

    Powder coatings are becoming ubiquitous in the coating marketplace due to the absence of solvents in their formulation, but they have yet to see implementation in low-reflectance outdoor applications. This demand could be met by utilizing polymer blends formulated with low loadings of matting agents and pigments. The goal of this research is a thorough characterization of prototype low-reflectance coatings through several analytical techniques. Prototypical thermoset blends consist of functionalized polyurethanes rendered immiscible by differences in polar and hydrogen bonding characteristics, resulting in a surface roughened by droplet domains. Analysis of both pigmented and control clear films was performed. This research project had three primary aims: (1) determine the composition of the resin components of the polymer blend; (2) to monitor the evolution of domains before and during curing of clear polymer blends; (3) to monitor the evolution of these domains when pigments are added to these blends. The clear films enabled unhindered analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy on the binder. However, these domains provided no spectroscopic signatures despite their observation by optical microscopy. This necessitated the development of a new procedure for cross-section preparation that leaves no contamination from polishing media, which enabled Raman mapping of the morphology via an introduced marker peak from styrene monomer. The clears were analyzed as a powder and as films that were quenched at various cure-times using FTIR, Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermomechanical methods to construct a model of coating evolution based on cure parameters and polymer dynamics. Domains were observed in the powder, and underwent varying rates of coarsening as the cure progressed. TEM, scanning electron microscopy and thermomechanical methods were also used on pigmented systems at different states of the cure, including in

  9. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G., E-mail: g.naderi@ippi.ac.ir; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  10. Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics: G-Jitter Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report on our NASA grant, Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics NAG3-2513: 12/14/2000 - 11/30/2003, extended through 11/30/2004. This grant was made to Stanford University and then transferred to the University of California at Santa Barbara when the PI relocated there in January 2001. Our main activity has been to conduct both experimental and theoretical studies of instabilities in fluids that are relevant to the microgravity environment, i.e. those that do not involve the action of buoyancy due to a steady gravitational field. Full details of the work accomplished under this grant are given below. Our work has focused on: (i) Theoretical and computational studies of the effect of g-jitter on instabilities of convective states where the convection is driven by forces other than buoyancy (ii) Experimental studies of instabilities during displacements of miscible fluid pairs in tubes, with a focus on the degree to which these mimic those found in immiscible fluids. (iii) Theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of time dependent electrohydrodynamic forces on chaotic advection in drops immersed in a second dielectric liquid. Our objectives are to acquire insight and understanding into microgravity fluid mechanics problems that bear on either fundamental issues or applications in fluid physics. We are interested in the response of fluids to either a fluctuating acceleration environment or to forces other than gravity that cause fluid mixing and convection. We have been active in several general areas.

  11. Experimental study of extent and rate of gravity drainage of oil from matrix into fractures in presence of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, K.; Torabi, F. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The use of miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection to improve oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs was discussed. The main production mechanism in fractured reservoirs is gravity drainage. The performance of this process is a function of a series of parameters such as fracture-matrix geometry, size, and matrix-fracture flow interaction. Both viscosity and density of oil and injected CO{sub 2} play important roles in the case of miscible CO{sub 2}. This paper presented the results of an experimental study of the effect of injecting CO{sub 2} into fractured media and its influence on the performance of gravity drainage and ultimate oil production. Both miscible and immiscible schemes for CO{sub 2} were examined in this study. In order to simulate a matrix with surrounding fractures, a steel holder was specifically designed to allow for an open space around a core of 30 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. CO{sub 2} and normal decane were used as solvent and oil, respectively. All experiments were conducted at constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and six series of experiments were carried out at 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, and 1500 psi. The produced oil was collected and measured continuously under the pressure and temperature conditions of the experiments. It was shown that injecting CO{sub 2} at higher pressures substantially improves the recovery factor of gravity drainage mechanism in fractured media. The injection of CO{sub 2} in fractures at pressures below minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) can recover up to 19 per cent of oil in-place (OIP). However, at miscible conditions, oil recovery can increase to more than 50 per cent of OIP. At a pressure much above MMP of CO{sub 2}, ultimate recovery may decrease due to the presence of denser fluid in fractures, which could prevent flow of fluid from matrix into fractures. It was concluded that CO{sub 2} injection in fractured reservoir may be a viable option for combined CO{sub 2} EOR and storage projects

  12. Interface-driven alloying and metallic glass formation in nano-multilayers in an immiscible Y-Nb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.G.; Liu, B.X.; Nanjing Univ.

    1999-01-01

    Several new amorphous alloys were obtained in an immiscible Y-Nb system by room temperature 190 keV xenon ion mixing of Y-Nb multilayered films, which were designed to include a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms and thus possessed a high free energy comparable to that of the amorphous state. In addition, two metastable f.c.c. phases were formed in Y-rich and Nb-rich multilayered films, respectively. The growth kinetics of the f.c.c. phases and their effect on the composition range of amorphization are also discussed. To understand the observed unusual alloying behaviors, a Gibbs free-energy diagram was constructed based on Miedema's model. The diagram included the free-energy curves of all the involved phases as well as that of the Y-Nb multilayered films including the extra interfacial free energy and thus gave a qualitative and reasonable interpretation to the formation of metastable alloys upon ion mixing. Furthermore, some multilayered films with a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms were subjected to steady-state thermal annealing, which also resulted in the formation of the Y-Nb amorphous phases, suggesting that alloying in this immiscible system was actually driven by the interfacial free energy

  13. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  14. Fundamental problems on immiscibility, crystallization, and chemical interaction between stainless steel 304 and glasses for radioactivewaste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1982-01-01

    Immiscibility and crystallization, and chemical interaction with stainless steel, SUS 304, which is designed as a canister material, were investigated on non-radioactive glasses with simulated waste of 26.4 wt%. Although glasses whose initial color was black changed to yellow or yellow-brown by heat-treatment at 600 0 C, the change of color was hardly observed by the treatment at 850 0 C. Molybdenum oxide and molybdate were detected in all heat-treated glasses. It was deduced that the compounds were existing as meta-stable particle corresponding to immiscibility particle at 600 0 C and as stable crystallized particle at 850 0 C. The chemical interaction occurred at the interface between glasses and SUS 304, whose surface was attacked by boundary corrosion proceeding to uniform corrosion with increasing temperature and time. Chromium oxide layer was mainly formed in the region suffered chemical interaction. It was deduced that the chemical interaction was moderated due to the formation of protective layer, which mainly consisted of nickel oxide, at the same time as the formation of Cr 2 O 3 layer. (author)

  15. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  16. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  17. Salinity effects during immiscible displacement in porous media: electrokinetic stabilization of viscous fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Interfacial instabilities are ubiquitous in Fluid Mechanics and have been one of the main the subjects of pattern formation. However, these instabilities could lead to inefficiencies which are undesired in many applications. For instance, viscous fingering results in residual trapping of oil during secondary recovery when a low-viscosity fluid, e.g. water, is used for injection. In their seminal work, Saffman and Taylor showed that the onset of this instability is controlled by the viscosity ratio of the two fluids. However, other physiochemical processes could enhance or suppress viscous fingering. Here we consider the role of salinity effects on the front stability. Our recent theory suggests that viscous fingering could be controlled, and even suppressed, by appropriately injecting electric currents. However, even in the absence of any external currents, strong electrokinetic coupling (present in small pores when the electric double layers overlap) can reduce viscous fingering by increasing the ``effective viscosity'' of the injected fluid. These findings suggest that it might be possible to improve extraction efficiencies by appropriately controlling the salt concentration of the injected fluid.

  18. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  19. Convective boiling heat transfer of mixture of immiscible two-liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.; Ito, H.; Mori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy conversion of low or middle temperature difference to electric power is conventionally made by the Rankine cycle using the organic compound as a working fluid. However, the energy conversion efficiency from thermal energy to electric power is limited by the pinch point temperature difference in the high temperature side heat exchanging. In order to avoid the efficiency ceiling due to the pinch point temperature difference, utilization of mixture of miscible two liquids as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle has been proposed and its cycle efficiency has been calculated. However, in the miscible mixture, mutual diffusion process is considered to greatly affect the thermo-fluid characteristics, but has not been clarified yet because of its complexity

  20. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  1. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  2. Calibrating the Shan-Chen lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible displacement in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Schaap, M.G.; Wildenschild, D.

    2006-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) modeling technique is increasingly being applied in a variety of fields where computational fluid dynamics are investigated. In our field of interest, environmentally related flow processes in porous media, the use of the LB method is still not common. For the LB...

  3. Method for calibration measurement in a liquid scintillation counter and carrier used in the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reunanen, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for use in liquid scintillation measurements to feed an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance to a fluid scintillation system for a calibration measurement. According to the invention an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance is adsorbed to a carrier, which is introduced into the fluid scintillation system. The invention also relates to a carrier for use in the method

  4. Particles at fluid-fluid interfaces: A new Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard surface- phase-field-crystal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Colloid particles that are partially wetted by two immiscible fluids can become confined to fluid-fluid interfaces. At sufficiently high volume fractions, the colloids may jam and the interface may crystallize. The fluids together with the interfacial colloids form an emulsion with interesting material properties and offer an important route to new soft materials. A promising approach to simulate these emulsions was presented in Aland et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 062103 (2011)], where a Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model for the macroscopic two-phase fluid system was combined with a surface phase-field-crystal model for the microscopic colloidal particles along the interface. Unfortunately this model leads to spurious velocities which require very fine spatial and temporal resolutions to accurately and stably simulate. In this paper we develop an improved Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard-surface phase-field-crystal model based on the principles of mass conservation and thermodynamic consistency. To validate our approach, we derive a sharp interface model and show agreement with the improved diffuse interface model. Using simple flow configurations, we show that the new model has much better properties and does not lead to spurious velocities. Finally, we demonstrate the solid-like behavior of the crystallized interface by simulating the fall of a solid ball through a colloid-laden multiphase fluid.

  5. Fluid properties control degassing or storage of abiogenic CH4 during slab exhumation: the fluid inclusion record from the Western Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, S.; Castelli, D.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Abiogenic CH4 can be produced by interaction between carbonates and reducing fluids derived from the hydration of ultramafics (e.g., mantle peridotite or HP Ol-serpentinite). This process occurs during slab exhumation because cooling promotes serpentinization of olivine in presence of water (Fo + H2O = Atg + Brc and the linked reactions: Fa + H2O = Fe-Atg + Mag + H2 and Atg + CaCO3 + H2 = Di + Brc + CH4 + H2O) at ca. 500-375°C (P=2.0-0.2 GPa). Experiments in the CH4-H2O-NaCl system indicate that, at these conditions, fluids are immiscible even for very low salinity (ca. 3 wt%) and that the NaCl content in the aqueous part of the fluid increases with temperature whereas the CH4 content in the gaseous part shows an opposite trend (Lamb et al., 2002; Li, 2017).In HP rodingite from the Piemonte ophiolite Zone (W Alps), primary fluid inclusions consisting of a brine (6 wt% CaCl2 + 6 wt% NaCl) with H2 + CH4 ≤ 1 mol % [CH4/(H2+CH4) = 0.37-10] occur in vesuvianite veins that formed at P=0.2 GPa and T=375°C. We interpret them as the aqueous part of an immiscible reducing fluid produced during late Alpine serpentinization of the surrounding ultramafics. Interestingly, CH4-H2 gaseous fluids are never reported in rodingite, whereas early CH4-H2O-H2±graphite and CH4-H2±graphite fluid inclusions, with variable gas-water proportions, trapped in calcite at P≤1.0 GPa and T≤450°C, are recently reported from HP "graphitized" ophicarbonate from the Lanzo peridotite Massif (W Alps; Vitale Brovarone et al., 2017).Both HP ophiolites and partially-serpentinized peridotite massifs are, thus, efficient lithologies to produce CH4 during exhumation. The amount of released CH4 depends on the amount of water available during exhumation. However, when fluids immiscibility occurs, the gaseous-rich part (CH4-H2) of the immiscible fluid produced in ultramafics likely remains confined in the slab because it is less mobile with respect to the aqueous-rich part due to its high dihedral

  6. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  7. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  8. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  9. On Energy Inequality for the Problem on the Evolution of Two Fluids of Different Types Without Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Irina Vlad.

    2015-03-01

    The paper deals with the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids in a container, one of the fluids being compressible while another one being incompressible. The interface between the fluids is an unknown closed surface where surface tension is neglected. We assume the compressible fluid to be barotropic, the pressure being given by an arbitrary smooth increasing function. This problem is considered in anisotropic Sobolev-Slobodetskiǐ spaces. We show that the L 2-norms of the velocity and deviation of compressible fluid density from the mean value decay exponentially with respect to time. The proof is based on a local existence theorem (Denisova, Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000) and on the idea of constructing a function of generalized energy, proposed by Padula (J Math Fluid Mech 1:62-77, 1999). In addition, we eliminate the restrictions for the viscosities which appeared in Denisova (Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000).

  10. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  11. Modeling technique for optimal recovery of immiscible light hydrocarbons as free product from contaminated aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Grant S., Jr.; Peralta, R. C.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Contamination sites associated with light non-aqueous phase liquids {LNAPL) are numerous and represent difficult cleanup problems. Remediation methods for cleanup of LNAPL fluids in subsurface systems are continuously evolving with the development of various technologies for pump.-and~treat, soil venting, and in-situ bioremediation. Evaluating the effectiveness of remediation techniques as well as attempting to improve their efficiency has been a focus of many researchers, These efforts have ...

  12. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  13. Approximate model for calculating overall heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquid layers with bubble-induced liquid entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    In the event a commercial power reactor is subjected to a Class 9 accident resulting in gross core melting and reactor pressure vessel penetration, it has been shown that the containment integrity may subsequently be threatened by steam overpressurization, combustible gas reactions, and basemat penetration. A major contributor to these events would be the interaction of molten core debris with the structural concrete. Modeling of core-concrete interactions involves many poorly understood and complicated heat transfer phenomena for which there exists a sparse data base. One of these phenomena, which has been shown to have significant impact upon code calculations of core-concrete interactions, is the rate of heat transfer between overlying immiscible layers of core oxides and molten metals whose interface is agitated by transverse gas flow. A mathematical model is developed to analyze this heat transfer

  14. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Investigation of the impact of immiscible oils on direct evaporation of ammonia; Ermittlung der Rolle von nicht-mischbaren Oelen bei der Direktverdampfung von Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aecherli, P.; Boyman, T.

    2004-07-01

    The direct evaporation of the refrigerant inside the tubes allows an important minimisation of the plant refrigerant charge. The present research project summarises the experimental data on the flow boiling of ammonia inside smooth horizontal tubes and the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient due to the presence of an immiscible oil. The use of ammonia in direct expansion systems is limited due to its immiscibility with the conventional lubricating oils. The immiscible oil forms a layer with a poor conductivity, thus causing a strong reduction of the heat transfer coefficient. The present work is an experimental contribution to the direct evaporation of ammonia with the frequently used synthetic oil Mobil Gargoyle Arctic SHC 326 (viscosity grade ISO-VG 68) which is immiscible with ammonia. The results of the mean heat transfer coefficient measurements during the flow boiling are summarised with a short description of the visual observations at critical stages of the in-tube boiling. The tests have been carried out with plain tubes (with 14 mm inner diameter) at evaporation saturation temperatures from -10 {sup o}C to +10 {sup o}C for mass fluxes from G=40 to 170 kg/(m{sup 2}s) with heat fluxes from q{sub dot}=10 to 50 kW/m{sup 2}. Experiments run with a frequently used immiscible synthetic oil without any oil injection and then with oil contents from 0.1 to 3.5% (by weight) showed a significant decrease of the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient mainly at high mass fluxes. The decrease of the heat transfer coefficient is more significant in the sector of the evaporator where boiling with annular flow pattern occurs. (author)

  16. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  17. A free-surface lattice Boltzmann method for modelling the filling of expanding cavities by Bingham fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Steiner, Konrad

    2002-03-15

    The filling process of viscoplastic metal alloys and plastics in expanding cavities is modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method in two and three dimensions. These models combine the regularized Bingham model for viscoplastic fluids with a free-interface algorithm. The latter is based on a modified immiscible lattice Boltzmann model in which one species is the fluid and the other one is considered to be a vacuum. The boundary conditions at the curved liquid-vacuum interface are met without any geometrical front reconstruction from a first-order Chapman-Enskog expansion. The numerical results obtained with these models are found in good agreement with available theoretical and numerical analysis.

  18. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  19. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  20. Fluid Dynamics And Mass Transfer In Two-Fluid Taylor-Couette Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, G.; Graham, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Taylor-Couette instability of a single liquid phase can be used to enhance mass transfer processes such as filtration and membrane separations. We consider here the possibility of using this instability to enhance interphase transport in a two-fluid systems, with a view toward improved liquid-liquid extractions for biotechnology applications. We investigate the centrifugal instability of a pair of radially stratified immiscible liquids in the annular gap between concentric, corotating cylinders: two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow. Experiments show that a two-layer flow with a well-defined interface and Taylor vortices in each phase can be obtained. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions of inviscid arguments based on a two-phase extension of Rayleigh's criterion, as well as with detailed linear stability calculations. For a given geometry, the most stable configuration occurs for fluids of roughly (exactly in the inviscid limit) equal dynamic viscosities. A number of preliminary mass transfer experiments have also been performed, in the presence of axial counterflow. The onset of Taylor vortices coincides with a clear decrease in the extent of axial dispersion and an increase in the rate of interphase transport, thus suggesting that this flow geometry may provide an effective means for countercurrent chromatographic separations

  1. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...

  3. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J; Kang, Qinjun

    2012-04-01

    We present an improved three-dimensional 19-velocity lattice Boltzmann model for immisicible binary fluids with variable viscosity and density ratios. This model uses a perturbation step to generate the interfacial tension and a recoloring step to promote phase segregation and maintain surfaces. A generalized perturbation operator is derived using the concept of a continuum surface force together with the constraints of mass and momentum conservation. A theoretical expression for the interfacial tension is determined directly without any additional analysis and assumptions. The recoloring algorithm proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is applied for phase segregation, which minimizes the spurious velocities and removes lattice pinning. This model is first validated against the Laplace law for a stationary bubble. It is found that the interfacial tension is predicted well for density ratios up to 1000. The model is then used to simulate droplet deformation and breakup in simple shear flow. We compute droplet deformation at small capillary numbers in the Stokes regime and find excellent agreement with the theoretical Taylor relation for the segregation parameter β=0.7. In the limit of creeping flow, droplet breakup occurs at a critical capillary number 0.35fluids for a wide range of Eötvös and Morton numbers. Numerical results are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results, and satisfactory agreement is shown.

  4. Vortex-induced morphology on a two-fluid interface and the transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J-C; Tao, C-Y; Sun, Y-C; Lai, C-Y; Huang, K-H; Juan, W-T; Huang, J-R

    2015-09-01

    We investigate experimentally the steady flows in a cylinder containing two immiscible liquids, with the primary fluid being driven by the upper boundary rotating at constant speeds. The system exhibits interesting interplays between the flow fields and the morphology of the interface, with evidence showing that the remarkable flattop structure is a consequence of the vortex breakdown discovered decades ago, and that the deformability of the interface also feedbacks positively to the development of the vortices. Monitoring the topological structure of the flow fields defines the base states and transitions behind the morphology, whereas our survey over different aspect ratios also reveals rich phenomena of surface instabilities accompanying these steady states.

  5. Chemical studies on the distribution of some heavy metals between two immiscible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Separation and recovery of divalent zinc and cobalt ions from mixed sulphate and thiocyanate solutions have been carried out using CYANEX 921 (trioctylphosphine oxide), CYANEX 923 (a mixture of straight chain alkylated phosphine oxides) and CYANEX 925 (a mixture of branched chain alkylated phosphine oxides) in kerosene. Different parameters affecting the extraction equilibrium of Zn(II) and Co(II) in addition to temperature, were studied and the stoichiometry of the extracted Zn(II) and Co(II) species were postulated based on slope analysis method. The respective loaded organic phases were stripped with different mineral acids. The extraction percent of metal ions was found to increase with increasing ph and zinc was preferentially extracted over cobalt in the different investigated systems. The highest separation factor was obtained when using 0.015 M CYANEX 925 as extractant. Based on the obtained results, application of the method was tested to separate Zn(II) and Co(II) from Nickel Metal Hydride batteries (Ni-MH batteries) leached by 2.0 M H 2 SO 4 and good results were obtained. The extraction of Zn(II) and Co(II) from aqueous mixed sulphate and thiocyanate medium through supported liquid membrane (SLM) using CYANEX 925 in kerosene as carrier supported on cellulose nitrate membrane was studied. The influence of different parameters on the permeation of the investigated metals such as ph, extractant concentration, sulphuric acid concentration, thiocyanate concentration and strip solution concentration were also studied. The selectivity of the used system for Zn / Co separation is evaluated.

  6. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  7. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  8. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  9. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: n-heptane and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2018-06-01

    Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including, but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications, and liquid fuel reformation. Recently, we successfully developed a discharge using two immiscible liquids, having very different electrical permittivities, which could significantly intensify the electric field intensity. Here, we establish nanosecond discharges at the interface n-heptane-water (with respective relative dielectric permittivities of 2 and 80) to enable the synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials. A characterization of the as-synthesized material and the annealed (500 °C) material, using various techniques (Fourier-transform, infra-red, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, etc), shows that the as-synthesized material is a mixture of two carbon-based phases: a crystalline phase (graphite like) embedded into a phase of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. The existence of two-phases may be explained by the non-homogeneity of the discharge that induces various chemical reactions in the plasma channel.

  11. Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: n-heptane and water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2018-05-14

    Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications, and liquid fuel reformation. Recently, we successfully developed a discharge using two immiscible liquids, having very different electrical permittivities, which could significantly intensify the electric field intensity. Here, we establish nanosecond discharges at the interface n-heptane-water (with respective relative dielectric permittivities of 2 and 80) to enable the synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials. A characterization of the as-synthesized material and the annealed (500 °C) material, using various techniques (Fourier-Transform, Infra-Red, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopes, etc.), shows that the as-synthesized material is a mixture of two carbon-based phases: a crystalline phase (graphite like) embedded into a phase of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. The existence of two-phases may be explained by the non-homogeneity of the discharge that induces various chemical reactions in the plasma channel.

  12. New field of actinides solution chemistry; electrochemical study on actinide ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Zenko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kudo, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Science, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kihara, Sorin [Kyoto Inst. of Technolgy, Dept. of Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A novel electrochemical method on the basis of a controlled electrolysis has been developed for the study of the ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). The controlled-potential electrolysis for ITIES (CPEITIES) was applied to the transfer of actinide ions, and Gibbs energies for the transfer of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Am{sup 3+} from aqueous solution (w) to nitrobenzene solution (nb) were determined to be 71.7 and 113 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The ion transfer potentials for the facilitated transfer of UO{sub 2{sup +}} and Am{sup 3+} from w to nb in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphoryl)methane were determined, from which the stability constants of UO{sub 2}(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Am(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 3+} complexes involved in the facilitated ion transfer reaction, were calculated to be 10{sup 23.9} and 10{sup 27.5}, respectively. On the basis of the results of CPEITIES, a feasibility of a new separation method, i.e., an electrolytic ion transfer separation, of actinide ions is evaluated. (author)

  13. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  14. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  15. Physics, mathematics and numerics of particle adsorption on fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2012-11-01

    We study two arbitrary immiscible fuids where one phase contains small particles of the size of the interface and smaller. We primarily focus on charge-free particles with wetting characteristics described by the contact angle formed at the interface between the two phases and the particles. Based on the experimental observation that particles are adsorbed on the interface to reduce the interfacial energy and hence the surface tension as well, we formulate a free-energy functional that accounts for these physical effects. Using elements from calculus of variations and formal gradient flow theory, we derive partial differential equations describing the location of the interface and the density of the particles in the fluid phases. Via numerical experiments we analyse the time evolution of the surface tension, the particle concentration, and the free energy over time and reflect basic experimentally observed phenomena.

  16. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  17. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  18. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  19. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  20. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  1. Conservative multigrid methods for Cahn-Hilliard fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junseok; Kang, Kyungkeun; Lowengrub, John

    2004-01-01

    We develop a conservative, second-order accurate fully implicit discretization of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and Cahn-Hilliard (CH) system that has an associated discrete energy functional. This system provides a diffuse-interface description of binary fluid flows with compressible or incompressible flow components [R. Soc. Lond. Proc. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 454 (1998) 2617]. In this work, we focus on the case of flows containing two immiscible, incompressible and density-matched components. The scheme, however, has a straightforward extension to multi-component systems. To efficiently solve the discrete system at the implicit time-level, we develop a nonlinear multigrid method to solve the CH equation which is then coupled to a projection method that is used to solve the NS equation. We demonstrate convergence of our scheme numerically in both the presence and absence of flow and perform simulations of phase separation via spinodal decomposition. We examine the separate effects of surface tension and external flow on the decomposition. We find surface tension driven flow alone increases coalescence rates through the retraction of interfaces. When there is an applied external shear, the evolution of the flow is nontrivial and the flow morphology repeats itself in time as multiple pinchoff and reconnection events occur. Eventually, the periodic motion ceases and the system relaxes to a global equilibrium. The equilibria we observe appears has a similar structure in all cases although the dynamics of the evolution is quite different. We view the work presented in this paper as preparatory for a detailed investigation of liquid-liquid interfaces with surface tension where the interfaces separate two immiscible fluids [On the pinchoff of liquid-liquid jets with surface tension, in preparation]. To this end, we also include a simulation of the pinchoff of a liquid thread under the Rayleigh instability at finite Reynolds number

  2. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  3. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  4. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  5. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  6. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  7. Conductivity and phase morphology of carbon black-filled immiscible polymer blends under creep: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yamin; Liu, Xianhu; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Schubert, Dirk W

    2016-11-30

    Blends of carbon black (CB)-filled co-continuous immiscible polystyrene/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) with a PS/PMMA ratio of 50/50 and CB selectively located in the PS phase have been prepared by melt blending. The simultaneous evolution of conductivity and phase morphology of blend composites was investigated under shear and in the quiescent state at 200 °C. It was found that shear deformation had a significant influence on the conductivity of the unfilled PS/PMMA blend and its composites, which was attributed to the change of phase morphology during shear. After the shear stress of 10 kPa, the conductivity of PS/PMMA blends filled with 2 vol% of CB decreased by about two orders of magnitude and the phase morphology transformed from a fine co-continuous structure into a highly elongated lamellar structure. The deformation of phase morphology and the decrease of conductivity were weakened upon decreasing the shear stress or increasing the CB concentration. During subsequent recovery, pronounced phase structure coarsening was observed in the mixture and the conductivity increased as well. A simple model describing the behavior of conductivity under shear deformation was derived and utilized for the description of the experimental data. For the first time, the Burgers model was used to describe the conductivity, and the viscoelastic and viscoplastic parameters were deduced by fitting the conductivity under shear. The results obtained in this study provide a deeper insight into the evolution of phase structure in the conductive polymer blend composite induced by shear deformation.

  8. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  9. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  11. Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellacherie, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified

  12. Analysis of a multicomponent gas absorption system with carrier gas coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, J.R.

    1975-03-01

    Conventional integrated versions of the packed gas absorber design equations do not account for significant coabsorption of the carrier gas along with the dilute transferring species. These equations, as a result, also neglect the relationship between dilute component transfer and carrier gas coabsorption. In the absorption of Kr and Xe from various carrier gases, using CCl 2 F 2 as the process solvent, carrier coabsorption is substantial. Consequently, a design package was developed to deal with multicomponent gas absorption in systems characterized by carrier gas coabsorption. Developed within the general film theory framework, the basic feature of this design approach is a view of dilute component mass-transfer as a conventional diffusive transfer superimposed on a net flux caused by carrier absorption. Other supporting elements of the design package include predictive techniques for various fluid properties, estimating procedures for carrier gas equilibrium constants, and correlations for carrier gas and dilute gas mass-transfer coefficients. When applied to systems using CCl 2 F 2 as the solvent; He, N 2 , air, or Ar as the carrier gas; and Kr or Xe as the dilute gas; the design approach gave good results, even when extended to conditions well beyond those of its development. (U.S.)

  13. Self-Assembling, Stable Photonic Bend-Gap Phases in Emulsions of Chiral Nematics with Isotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yueh; Petschek, R. G.

    1998-03-01

    We investigate the possible mesophases in emulsions of chiral nematic liquid crystals with immiscible isotropic fluids and surfactants. The interactions between the orientational fields of the chiral nematics and the surfactant membranes together with the topological constraints affect stability of micellar geometries and produce a new phase diagram. We compare the free energies of various candidate phases. Appropriate, likely realizable conditions on the surfactant and the pitch of the liquid crystal result in thermodynamically stable blue-phase like phases for a relatively wide range of parameters. Processing such emulsions may result in materials with photonic band gaps.

  14. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  15. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  16. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  17. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  18. Numerical Modelling of Three-Fluid Flow Using The Level-set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Shang, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a numerical model for simulation of three-fluid flow involving two different moving interfaces. These interfaces are captured using the level-set method via two different level-set functions. A combined formulation with only one set of conservation equations for the whole physical domain, consisting of the three different immiscible fluids, is employed. Numerical solution is performed on a fixed mesh using the finite volume method. Surface tension effect is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force model. Validation of the present model is made against available results for stratified flow and rising bubble in a container with a free surface. Applications of the present model are demonstrated by a variety of three-fluid flow systems including (1) three-fluid stratified flow, (2) two-fluid stratified flow carrying the third fluid in the form of drops and (3) simultaneous rising and settling of two drops in a stationary third fluid. The work is supported by a Thematic and Strategic Research from A*STAR, Singapore (Ref. #: 1021640075).

  19. Effect of seven different additives on the properties of MR fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J; Jing, Q [Department of Technical Support Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China)], E-mail: zhangjq63@yahoo.com.cn

    2009-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been developed for application in semi-active magnetorheological fluid dampers and other magnetorheological fluid devices. In order to prepare special MR fluids to satisfy the demands of tracked vehicle, two different carrier fluids were chose to prepare MR fluids. Preparation of MR fluids, which are based on carriers such as special shock absorption fluid and 45 transformer oil, was finished. And characteristics of these samples were tested and analyzed. Results indicate, Tween-80 and Span-80 can improve sedimentary stability. Using 45 transformer oil instead of special shock absorption fluid as a carrier, the shear yield stress remains nearly invariable but the viscosity and the sedimentary stability are reduced. MR fluids with diameter of 2.73{mu}m show better sedimentary stability than that of the MR fluids with diameter of 2.3{mu}m, or 4.02{mu}m. Stearic acid obviously improves sedimentary stability and off-state viscosity, but don't perform an obvious function on shear yield stress. In magnetic field of 237KA/m, the shear yield stress of MR fluid based on special shock absorption fluid and 45 transformer oil is 18.34KPa, 14.26KPa, respectively.

  20. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  1. Nano- and microparticles at fluid and biological interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Auth, T.; Gompper, G.

    2017-09-01

    Systems with interfaces are abundant in both technological applications and biology. While a fluid interface separates two fluids, membranes separate the inside of vesicles from the outside, the interior of biological cells from the environment, and compartmentalize cells into organelles. The physical properties of interfaces are characterized by interface tension, those of membranes are characterized by bending and stretching elasticity. Amphiphilic molecules like surfactants that are added to a system with two immiscible fluids decrease the interface tension and induce a bending rigidity. Lipid bilayer membranes of vesicles can be stretched or compressed by osmotic pressure; in biological cells, also the presence of a cytoskeleton can induce membrane tension. If the thickness of the interface or the membrane is small compared with its lateral extension, both can be described using two-dimensional mathematical surfaces embedded in three-dimensional space. We review recent work on the interaction of particles with interfaces and membranes. This can be micrometer-sized particles at interfaces that stabilise emulsions or form colloidosomes, as well as typically nanometer-sized particles at membranes, such as viruses, parasites, and engineered drug delivery systems. In both cases, we first discuss the interaction of single particles with interfaces and membranes, e.g. particles in external fields, non-spherical particles, and particles at curved interfaces, followed by interface-mediated interaction between two particles, many-particle interactions, interface and membrane curvature-induced phenomena, and applications.

  2. Reduced folate carrier polymorphism determines methotrexate uptake by B cells and CD4+ T cellsTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.; Gregers, J.; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells. METHODS: Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy persons. Real-time PCR was used to detect the RFC80 variants. FITC-labelled MTX was added to ...

  3. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  5. Chaos analysis of viscoelastic chaotic flows of polymeric fluids in a micro-channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C. P.; Lam, Y. C., E-mail: myclam@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre, 138602 (Singapore); Han, J. [BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Many fluids, including biological fluids such as mucus and blood, are viscoelastic. Through the introduction of chaotic flows in a micro-channel and the construction of maps of characteristic chaos parameters, differences in viscoelastic properties of these fluids can be measured. This is demonstrated by creating viscoelastic chaotic flows induced in an H-shaped micro-channel through the steady infusion of a polymeric fluid of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and another immiscible fluid (silicone oil). A protocol for chaos analysis was established and demonstrated for the analysis of the chaotic flows generated by two polymeric fluids of different molecular weight but with similar relaxation times. The flows were shown to be chaotic through the computation of their correlation dimension (D{sub 2}) and the largest Lyapunov exponent (λ{sub 1}), with D{sub 2} being fractional and λ{sub 1} being positive. Contour maps of D{sub 2} and λ{sub 1} of the respective fluids in the operating space, which is defined by the combination of polymeric fluids and silicone oil flow rates, were constructed to represent the characteristic of the chaotic flows generated. It was observed that, albeit being similar, the fluids have generally distinct characteristic maps with some similar trends. The differences in the D{sub 2} and λ{sub 1} maps are indicative of the difference in the molecular weight of the polymers in the fluids because the driving force of the viscoelastic chaotic flows is of molecular origin. This approach in constructing the characteristic maps of chaos parameters can be employed as a diagnostic tool for biological fluids and, more generally, chaotic signals.

  6. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  7. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  8. Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Doughty, D.; Mahmood, S.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Madden, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed understanding of rock structure and its influence on fluid entrapment, storage capacity, and flow behavior can improve the effective utilization and design of methods to increase the recovery of oil and gas from petroleum reservoirs. The dynamics of fluid flow and trapping phenomena in porous media was investigated. Miscible and immiscible displacement experiments in heterogeneous Berea and Shannon sandstone samples were monitored using X-ray computed tomography (CT scanning) to determine the effect of heterogeneities on fluid flow and trapping. The statistical analysis of pore and pore throat sizes in thin sections cut from these sandstone samples enabled the delineation of small-scale spatial distributions of porosity and permeability. Multiphase displacement experiments were conducted with micromodels constructed using thin slabs of the sandstones. The combination of the CT scanning, thin section, and micromodel techniques enables the investigation of how variations in pore characteristics influence fluid front advancement, fluid distributions, and fluid trapping. Plugs cut from the sandstone samples were investigated using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging permitting the visualization of oil, water or both within individual pores. The application of these insights will aid in the proper interpretation of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical resistivity data obtained from whole core studies. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  10. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  11. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1966-11-15

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = {mu}{rho}/{sigma} x curlV and V -{mu}/({sigma}{mu}{sub 0}) x curlB (MKS units) where {rho}, {sigma} and {mu} denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given.

  12. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1966-11-01

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = μρ/σ x curlV and V -μ/(σμ 0 ) x curlB (MKS units) where ρ, σ and μ denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given

  13. Magnetically modified spent grain as a low-cost, biocompatible and smart carrier for enzyme immobilisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 7 (2013), s. 1598-1602 ISSN 0022-5142 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2263; GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : magnetic fluid * spent grain * lipase * magnetic carrier * immobilisation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2013

  14. Improving Dry Powder Inhaler Performance by Surface Roughening of Lactose Carrier Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of macro-scale carrier surface roughness on the performance of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Fluid-bed processing and roller compaction were explored as processing methods to increase the surface roughness (Ra) of lactose carrier particles. DPI formulations containing either (a) different concentrations of fine lactose at a fixed concentration of micronized drug (isoniazid) or (b) various concentrations of drug in the absence of fine lactose were prepared. The fine particle fraction (FPF) and aerodynamic particle size of micronized drug of all formulations were determined using the Next Generation Impactor. Fluid-bed processing resulted in a modest increase in the Ra from 562 to 907 nm while roller compaction led to significant increases in Ra > 1300 nm. The roller compacted carriers exhibited FPF > 35%, which were twice that of the smoothest carriers. The addition of up to 5%, w/w of fine lactose improved the FPF of smoother carriers by 60-200% whereas only lactose carrier particles by roller compaction was immensely beneficial to improving DPI performance, primarily due to increased surface roughness at the macro-scale.

  15. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  16. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  17. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  18. Genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several FMDV carrier cattle were identified in Vietnam by recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. This report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses isolated from a single carrier animal over the course of one year. Understanding within-host viral evolution...

  19. Efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers for the quantitative spectrographic analysis of Ag, Al, B, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, V and Zn in uranium-base materials is presented. The volatility behavior of the eighteen elements is verified by means of the moving plate technique and each of the mentioned carriers. The best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 , 6% AgCl and 5% NaF in a U 3 O 8 matrix. The sensitivities for some elements were extended to fractions of p.p.m. The precision, accuracy and acceptability of the method are calculated for all elements. The total error values as approximately in the range of 16-45% [pt

  20. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers. Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier. Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles. Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  1. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  2. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or...

  3. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under this...

  4. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4 Carrier costs. (a) The reasonable costs projected for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  5. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5 Carrier revenues. (a) The projected passenger revenue for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  6. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  7. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  8. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  9. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  10. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases the Board may determine in an adjudicatory... carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend... either carrier are performed in common with the other carrier or as part of a single system. In cases...

  11. Preliminary results on the petrology and fluid inclusions of the Rossing uraniferous alaskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    1980-01-01

    Petrography, radioactivity distribution and fluid inclusions have been studied in three samples of the Rossing alaskites from the S.H. anomaly outside of the Rossing deposit. After the crystallization of the alaskitic magma which involved oligoclase, biotite, orthoclase and quartz, a deuteric alteration produced a quartz, microcline, albite, muscovite, calcite plus minus chlorite mineral association similar to those observed in several French uraniferous granites. Uranium redistribution occurred during this alteration. From fluid inclusions data, the pressure at the time of the intrusion is estimated to have been at least 6kbar for a temperature of 625 degrees Celsius. Reaction of the magma with the marbles of the Rossing formation led to the boiling of the magma by an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure as well as to its crystallization. Immiscibility between a dense saline (more than 30 per cent NaCl) and CO 2 -rich fluid is proposed to have occurred simultaneously or after the fluid oversaturation of the magma. Part of uraninite is formed at the magmatic stage, another part crystallized from the magmatic fluids in the biotite-rich selvages of the alaskites or in the uraninite-fluorite veins. Uraninite crystallization appears to be mainly controlled by the oxygen fugacity prevailing in the magma and in the surrounding rocks

  12. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  13. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis...

  14. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  15. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  16. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  17. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  18. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  19. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  20. A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann method with dynamic grid refinement for immiscible two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhari, Abbas; Geier, Martin; Lee, Taehun

    2016-01-01

    A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows is presented in this paper. The proposed LBM improves a previous model (Lee and Liu, 2010 [21]) in terms of mass conservation, speed-up, and efficiency, and also extends its capabilities for implementation on non-uniform grids. The presented model consists of a phase-field lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for tracking the interface between different fluids and a pressure-evolution LBM for recovering the hydrodynamic properties. In addition to the mass conservation property and the simplicity of the algorithm, the advantages of the current phase-field LBE are that it is an order of magnitude faster than the previous interface tracking LBE proposed by Lee and Liu (2010) [21] and it requires less memory resources for data storage. Meanwhile, the pressure-evolution LBM is equipped with a multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to facilitate attainability of small relaxation rates thereby allowing simulation of multiphase flows at higher Reynolds numbers. Additionally, we reformulate the presented MRT-LBM on nonuniform grids within an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework. Various benchmark studies such as a rising bubble and a falling drop under buoyancy, droplet splashing on a wet surface, and droplet coalescence onto a fluid interface are conducted to examine the accuracy and versatility of the proposed AMR-LBM. The proposed model is further validated by comparing the results with other LB models on uniform grids. A factor of about 20 in savings of computational resources is achieved by using the proposed AMR-LBM. As a more demanding application, the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a shear-layer flow is investigated for both density-matched and density-stratified binary fluids. The KHI results of the density-matched fluids are shown to be in good agreement with the benchmark AMR results based on the sharp-interface approach. When a density contrast between the two fluids exists, a

  1. A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann method with dynamic grid refinement for immiscible two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhari, Abbas, E-mail: afakhari@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Geier, Martin [TU Braunschweig, Institute for Computational Modeling in Civil Engineering (iRMB), TU-Braunschweig, Pockelsstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Lee, Taehun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows is presented in this paper. The proposed LBM improves a previous model (Lee and Liu, 2010 [21]) in terms of mass conservation, speed-up, and efficiency, and also extends its capabilities for implementation on non-uniform grids. The presented model consists of a phase-field lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for tracking the interface between different fluids and a pressure-evolution LBM for recovering the hydrodynamic properties. In addition to the mass conservation property and the simplicity of the algorithm, the advantages of the current phase-field LBE are that it is an order of magnitude faster than the previous interface tracking LBE proposed by Lee and Liu (2010) [21] and it requires less memory resources for data storage. Meanwhile, the pressure-evolution LBM is equipped with a multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to facilitate attainability of small relaxation rates thereby allowing simulation of multiphase flows at higher Reynolds numbers. Additionally, we reformulate the presented MRT-LBM on nonuniform grids within an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework. Various benchmark studies such as a rising bubble and a falling drop under buoyancy, droplet splashing on a wet surface, and droplet coalescence onto a fluid interface are conducted to examine the accuracy and versatility of the proposed AMR-LBM. The proposed model is further validated by comparing the results with other LB models on uniform grids. A factor of about 20 in savings of computational resources is achieved by using the proposed AMR-LBM. As a more demanding application, the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a shear-layer flow is investigated for both density-matched and density-stratified binary fluids. The KHI results of the density-matched fluids are shown to be in good agreement with the benchmark AMR results based on the sharp-interface approach. When a density contrast between the two fluids exists, a

  2. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  3. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  4. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  5. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  6. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  7. Microscale fluid transport using optically controlled marangoni effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Passian, Ali [Knoxville, TN; Farahi, Rubye H [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-10

    Low energy light illumination and either a doped semiconductor surface or a surface-plasmon supporting surface are used in combination for manipulating a fluid on the surface in the absence of any applied electric fields or flow channels. Precise control of fluid flow is achieved by applying focused or tightly collimated low energy light to the surface-fluid interface. In the first embodiment, with an appropriate dopant level in the semiconductor substrate, optically excited charge carriers are made to move to the surface when illuminated. In a second embodiment, with a thin-film noble metal surface on a dispersive substrate, optically excited surface plasmons are created for fluid manipulation. This electrode-less optical control of the Marangoni effect provides re-configurable manipulations of fluid flow, thereby paving the way for reprogrammable microfluidic devices.

  8. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  9. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  10. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form

  11. Artificial oxygen carriers as a possible alternative to red cells in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available Fluid resuscitation is intended to eliminate microcirculatory disorders and restore adequate tissue oxygenation. The safety limits for a restrictive transfusion policy are given by patients' individual tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia. Artificial oxygen carriers based on perfluorocarbon or hemoglobin are attractive alternatives to allogenic red blood cells. There are many risks involved in allogenic blood transfusions and they include transmission of infections, delayed postoperative wound healing, transfusion reactions, immunomodulation and cancer recurrence. Regardless of whether artificial oxygen carriers are available for routine clinical use, further studies are needed in order to show the safety and efficacy of these substances for clinical practice.

  12. Numerical modeling of frozen wave instability in fluids with high viscosity contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubimov, D V; Ivantsov, A O; Lyubimova, T P [Theoretical Physics Department, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Khilko, G L, E-mail: lyubimovat@mail.ru [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    This paper deals with the direct numerical simulation of quasi-stationary (frozen) wave formation at the interface of two immiscible fluids with large viscosity contrast, in a rectangular container subjected to the horizontal vibrations of finite frequency and amplitude. The critical conditions for the origination of a frozen wave as well as the dependences of the frozen wave height and wavelength on the vibration intensity are obtained. The time-evolution of the interface shape during the vibration period is analyzed. Numerical results are found to be in a good agreement with known experimental and linear stability results. The average deformation of the interface and the structure of average flows are calculated for different vibration intensities. It is shown that a change in the dependencies of the frozen wave characteristics on the vibration intensity follows a change in average flow structure. (paper)

  13. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  14. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  15. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  16. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  19. Principles of fluid management and stewardship in septic shock: it is time to consider the four D's and the four phases of fluid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Van Regenmortel, Niels; Saugel, Bernd; De Tavernier, Brecht; Van Gaal, Pieter-Jan; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Rice, Todd W; Mythen, Monty; Monnet, Xavier

    2018-05-22

    In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition. In this paradigm-shifting review, we discuss different fluid management strategies including early adequate goal-directed fluid management, late conservative fluid management and late goal-directed fluid removal. In addition, we expand on the concept of the "four D's" of fluid therapy, namely drug, dosing, duration and de-escalation. During the treatment of patients with septic shock, four phases of fluid therapy should be considered in order to provide answers to four basic questions. These four phases are the resuscitation phase, the optimization phase, the stabilization phase and the evacuation phase. The four questions are "When to start intravenous fluids?", "When to stop intravenous fluids?", "When to start de-resuscitation or active fluid removal?" and finally "When to stop de-resuscitation?" In analogy to the way we handle antibiotics in critically ill patients, it is time for fluid stewardship.

  20. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk

    1999-06-01

    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  2. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  3. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  4. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  5. Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening

  6. Cyclodextrins in drug carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekama, K; Otagiri, M

    1987-01-01

    One of the important characteristics of cyclodextrins is the formation of an inclusion complex with a variety of drug molecules in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of intensive basic research, exhaustive toxic studies, and realization of industrial production during the past decade, there seem to be no more barriers for the practical application of natural cyclodextrins in the biomedical field. Recently, a number of cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclodextrin polymers have been prepared to obtain better inclusion abilities than parent cyclodextrins. The natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been successfully utilized to improve various drug properties, such as solubility, dissolution and release rates, stability, or bioavailability. In addition, the enhancement of drug activity, selective transfer, or the reduction of side effects has been achieved by means of inclusion complexation. The drug-cyclodextrin complex is generally formed outside of the body and, after administration, it dissociates, releasing the drug into the organism in a fast and nearly uniform manner. In the biomedical application of cyclodextrins, therefore, particular attention should be directed to the magnitude of the stability constant of the inclusion complex. In the case of parenteral application, a rather limited amount of work has been done because the cyclodextrins in the drug carrier systems have to be more effectively designed to compete with various biological components in the circulatory system. However, the works published thus far apparently indicate that the inclusion phenomena of cyclodextrin analogs may allow the rational design of drug formulation and that the combination of molecular encapsulation with other carrier systems will become a very effective and valuable method for the development of a new drug delivery system in the near future.

  7. Development of precipitator of fluid film type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yupu

    1987-01-01

    The precipitator of fluid film type is developed for the determination of fuel element cladding failure of water-cooled reactor. It integrates the scrubber, precipitator and detector. The jet of element cooling water automatically circulates carrier gas and the flow water film transfers precipitates onto the surface of centre electrode. Three different types are designed. On the special test loop, the uranium sample pellets of simulating cladding failure is measured. The sensitivity of precipitators, saturated precipitation voltage, incremental speed of signal, speed of driving out precipitates and the contents of the precipitates are determined. The test shows that the precipitators are highly sensitive, reliable, cheap and easy to operate

  8. The Dynamics of Current Carriers In Standing Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. N.; Allan, W.; Ruderman, M. S.; Elphic, R. C.

    The acceleration of current carriers in an Alfvén wave current system is considered. The model incorporates a dipole magnetic field geometry, and we present an analyt- ical solution of the two-fluid equations by successive approximations. The leading solution corresponds to the familiar single-fluid toroidal oscillations. The next order describes the nonlinear dynamics of electrons responsible for carrying a few µAm-2 field aligned current into the ionosphere. The solution shows how most of the elec- tron acceleration in the magnetosphere occurs within 1 RE of the ionosphere, and that a parallel electric field of the order of 1 mVm-1 is reponsible for energising the electrons to 1 keV. The limitations of the electron fluid approximation are considered, and a qualitative solution including electron beams and a modified E is developed in accord with observations. We find that the electron acceleration can be nonlinear, (ve )ve > ve , as a result of our nonuniform equilibrium field geometry even when ve is less than the Alfvén speed. Our calculation also elucidates the processes through which E is generated and supported.

  9. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  10. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  11. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  12. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  13. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  14. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  15. Method and apparatus for information carrier authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of enabling authentication of an information carrier, the information carrier comprising a writeable part and a physical token arranged to supply a response upon receiving a challenge, the method comprising the following steps; applying a first challenge to

  16. Immobilisation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using natural carriers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-02

    Apr 2, 2005 ... and Cloete, 1995) or ceramic (Kariminiaae-Hamedaani et al.,. 2003) carriers. Besides the synthetic carriers, natural zeolite. (NZ) has been shown as a .... ing 9 mℓ of sterile distilled water, crushed with a sterile glass rod and dispersed by mixing (2 700 r/min for 10 min using the test tube shaker Kartell TK3S) ...

  17. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2009-01-01

    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  18. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  19. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  20. Safety requirements for the Pu carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ministry of Transport of Japan has now set about studying requirements for Pu carriers to ensure safety. It was first studied what the basic concept of safe carriage of Pu should be, and the basic ideas have been worked out. Next the requirements for the Pu carriers were studied based on the above. There are at present no international requirements of construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers, but MOT of Japan has so far required special construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers which carry a large amount of radioactive material, such as spent fuel or low level radioactive waste, corresponding to the level of the respective potential hazard. The requirements of construction and equipment of the Pu carriers have been established considering the difference in heat generation between Pu and spent fuel, physical protection, and so forth, in addition to the above basic concept. (J.P.N.)

  1. Immobilization of Colloidal Monolayers at Fluid–Fluid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Bähler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolayers of colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two immiscible fluids play a pivotal role in many applications and act as essential models in fundamental studies. One of the main advantages of these systems is that non-close packed monolayers with tunable inter-particle spacing can be formed, as required, for instance, in surface patterning and sensing applications. At the same time, the immobilization of particles locked into desired structures to be transferred to solid substrates remains challenging. Here, we describe three different strategies to immobilize monolayers of polystyrene microparticles at water–decane interfaces. The first route is based on the leaking of polystyrene oligomers from the particles themselves, which leads to the formation of a rigid interfacial film. The other two rely on in situ interfacial polymerization routes that embed the particles into a polymer membrane. By tracking the motion of the colloids at the interface, we can follow in real-time the formation of the polymer membranes and we interestingly find that the onset of the polymerization reaction is accompanied by an increase in particle mobility determined by Marangoni flows at the interface. These results pave the way for future developments in the realization of thin tailored composite polymer-particle membranes.

  2. Double-layer optical fiber coating analysis in MHD flow of an elastico-viscous fluid using wet-on-wet coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    Full Text Available Modern optical fibers require a double-layer coating on the glass fiber in order to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low and high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE, nylon and Polysulfone. One of the most important things which affect the final product after processing is the design of the coating die. In the present study, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a pressure type die with the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD. Wet-on-wet coating process is applied for double-layer optical fiber coating. The coating process in the coating die is modeled as a simple two-layer Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in an annulus with an assigned pressure gradient. Based on the assumptions of fully developed laminar and MHD flow, the Oldroyd 8-constant model of non-Newtonian fluid of two immiscible resin layers is modeled. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the new technique of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The effect of important parameters such as magnetic parameter Mi, the dilatant constant α, the Pseodoplastic constant β, the radii ratio δ, the pressure gradient Ω, the speed of fiber optics V, and the viscosity ratio κ on the velocity profiles, thickness of coated fiber optics, volume flow rate, and shear stress on the fiber optics are investigated. At the end the result of the present work is also compared with the experimental results already available in the literature by taking non-Newtonian parameters tends to zero. Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Oldroyd 8-constant fluid, MHD flow, Double-layer fiber coating, OHAM, ADM, Wet-on-wet coating process

  3. Numerical Investigation on the Effects of a Precursor Wetting Film on the Displacement of Two Immiscible Phases Along a Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    A set of numerical experiments has been conducted to study the effect of a precursor fluid layer on the motion of two phase system in a channel. This system is characterized by coupled Cahn-Hillard and Navier-Stokes system together with slip boundary conditions. The solution of the governing equation involves first the solution of Cahn-Hillard equation with semi-implicit and Mixed finite element discritization with a convex splitting scheme. The Navier-Stokes equations are then solved with a P2-P0 mixed finite element method. Three cases have been investigated; in the first the effect of different wettability scenarios with no precursor layer has been investigated. In the second scenario, the effect of the precursor layer for different wettability conditions is investigated. In the third case, the effect of the thickness of the precursor layer is investigated. It is found that, wettability conditions have considerable effect on the flow of the considered two-phase system. Furthermore the existence of the precursor layer has additional influence on the breakthrough of the phases.

  4. Numerical Investigation on the Effects of a Precursor Wetting Film on the Displacement of Two Immiscible Phases Along a Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2015-10-08

    A set of numerical experiments has been conducted to study the effect of a precursor fluid layer on the motion of two phase system in a channel. This system is characterized by coupled Cahn-Hillard and Navier-Stokes system together with slip boundary conditions. The solution of the governing equation involves first the solution of Cahn-Hillard equation with semi-implicit and Mixed finite element discritization with a convex splitting scheme. The Navier-Stokes equations are then solved with a P2-P0 mixed finite element method. Three cases have been investigated; in the first the effect of different wettability scenarios with no precursor layer has been investigated. In the second scenario, the effect of the precursor layer for different wettability conditions is investigated. In the third case, the effect of the thickness of the precursor layer is investigated. It is found that, wettability conditions have considerable effect on the flow of the considered two-phase system. Furthermore the existence of the precursor layer has additional influence on the breakthrough of the phases.

  5. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  6. Fullerol ionic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  7. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  9. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) I: Gel/dose curves, mathematical expectation theorem and thermal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, W.; Zhang, W.; Chen, G.; Liu, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the radiation properties of the immiscible blend of nylon1010 and HIPS. The gel fraction increased with increasing radiation dose. The network was found mostly in nylon1010, the networks were also found in both nylon1010 and HIPS when the dose reaches 0.85 MGy or more. We used the equation and the modified Zhang-Sun-Qian equation to simulate the relationship with the dose and the sol fraction. The latter equation fits well with these polymer blends and the relationship used by it showed better linearity than the one by the equation. We also studied the conditions of formation of the network by the mathematical expectation theorem for the binary system. Thermal properties of polymer blend were observed by DSC curves. The crystallization temperature decreases with increasing dose because the cross-linking reaction inhibited the crystallization procession and destroyed the crystals. The melting temperature also reduced with increasing radiation dose. The dual melting peak gradually shifted to single peak and the high melting peak disappeared at high radiation dose. However, the radiation-induced crystallization was observed by the heat of fusion increasing at low radiation dose. On the other hand, the crystal will be damaged by radiation. A similar conclusion may be drawn by the DSC traces when the polymer blends were crystallized. When the radiation dose increases, the heat of fusion reduces dramatically and so does the heat of crystallization. (author)

  10. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  11. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  12. Parallel simulation of two-phase incompressible and immiscible flows in porous media using a finite volume formulation and a modified IMPES approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, R S; De Carvalho, D K E; Antunes, A R E; Lyra, P R M; Willmersdorf, R B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a finite volume method with a 'Modified Implicit Pressure, Explicit Saturation' (MIMPES) approach is used to model the 3-D incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow of water and oil in heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media. A vertex centered finite volume method with an edge-based data structure is adopted to discretize both the elliptic pressure and the hyperbolic saturation equations using parallel computers with distributed memory. Due to the explicit solution of the saturation equation in the IMPES method, severe time step restrictions are imposed on the simulation. In order to circumvent this problem, an edge-based implementation of the MIMPES method was used. In this method, the pressure equation is solved and the velocity field is computed much less frequently than the saturation field. Following the work of Hurtado, a mean relative variation of the velocity field throughout the simulation is used to automatically control the updating process, allowing for much larger time-steps in a very simple way. In order to run large scale problems, we have developed a parallel implementation using clusters of PC's. The simulator uses open source parallel libraries like FMDB, ParMetis and PETSc. Results of speed-up and efficiency are presented to validate the performance of the parallel simulator.

  13. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water:TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, x ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  14. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  15. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  16. Study of immiscibilities in the trilaurylamine - dodecane - nitric acid - plutonium system; Etude des immiscibilites dans le systeme trilaurylamine - dodecane - acide nitrique - plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saey, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Phase equilibrium in systems made up of trilaurylamine, dodecane, nitric acid tetravalent plutonium is shown by drawing the triangular diagrams. the study of these diagrams provides informations concerning the causes of immiscibility. Heterogeneity of the organic mixtures can be related to some characteristics of the components- dipole moment, molecular polarizability and hydrogen bond exchanging ability-Depending on these, some rules may be established which can be used to make a proper choice of an additive in order to improve the miscibility. As an application a study on the partial substitution of dodecane with decalin, in plutonium extraction experiments, has been done showing a possible improvement of the extraction process. (author) [French] L equilibre des phases dans les systemes formes a partir de trilaurylamine, de dodecane, d'acide nitrique et de plutonium tetravalent est represente en tracant les diagrammes triangulaires. L'examen de ces diagrammes permet d'apporter certaines precisions en ce qui concerne l'origine des immiscibilites. Celles ci sont ensuite reliees a certaines caracteristiques des constituants: le moment dipolaire, la polarisabilite moleculaire et la tendance a former des liaisons hydrogene. Sur les memes bases, il est possible d'etablir un certain nombre de regles pouvant servir a guider le choix d'un additif ameliorant la miscibilite. En application, une etude sur le remplacement partiel du dodecane par la decaline montre l'interet de l'emploi de ce compose dans le procede de purification du plutonium. (auteur)

  17. Numerical investigation of the deformation mechanism of a bubble or a drop rising or falling in another fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Han; Yang Yongming; Hu Yüe; Zhang Huisheng; Zhang Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating the motion and deformation of an axisymmetric bubble or drop rising or falling in another infinite and initially stationary fluid is developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the frame of two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids under the action of gravity, taking into consideration of surface tension effects. A comparison of the numerical results by this method with those by other works indicates the validity of the method. In the frame of inviscid and incompressible fluids without taking into consideration of surface tension effects, the mechanisms of the generation of the liquid jet and the transition from spherical shape to toroidal shape during the bubble or drop deformation, the increase of the ring diameter of the toroidal bubble or drop and the decrease of its cross-section area during its motion, and the effects of the density ratio of the two fluids on the deformation of the bubble or drop are analysed both theoretically and numerically. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  18. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  19. Magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids in rotating seal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbath, T; Borbath, I; Boros, T; Bica, D; Vekas, L; Potencz, I

    2010-01-01

    Recent results are presented concerning the development of magnetofluidic leakage-free rotating seals for vacuum and high pressure gases, evidencing significant advantages compared to mechanical seals. The micro-pilot scale production of various types of magnetizable sealing fluids is shortly reviewed, in particular the main steps of the chemical synthesis of magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids with light hydrocarbon, mineral oil and synthetic oil carrier liquids. The behavior of different types of magnetizable fluids in the rotating sealing systems is analyzed. Design concepts, some constructive details and testing procedures of magnetofluidic rotating seals are presented such as the testing equipment. The main characteristics of several magnetofluidic sealing systems and their applications will be presented: vacuum deposition systems and liquefied gas pumps applications, mechanical and magnetic nanofluid combined seals, gas valves up to 40 bar equipped by rotating seal with magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids.

  20. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  1. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  2. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  3. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  4. Self-assembling bubble carriers for oral protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Er-Yuan; Lin, Kun-Ju; Lin, Po-Yen; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Mi, Fwu-Long; Hsiao, Hsu-Chan; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Successful oral delivery of therapeutic proteins such as insulin can greatly improve the quality of life of patients. This study develops a bubble carrier system by loading diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride, a foaming agent (sodium bicarbonate; SBC), a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), and a protein drug (insulin) in an enteric-coated gelatin capsule. Following oral administration to diabetic rats, the intestinal fluid that has passed through the gelatin capsule saturates the mixture; concomitantly, DTPA dianhydride produces an acidic environment, while SBC decomposes to form CO2 bubbles at acidic pH. The gas bubbles grow among the surfactant molecules (SDS) owing to the expansion of the generated CO2. The walls of the CO2 bubbles consist of a self-assembled film of water that is in nanoscale and may serve as a colloidal carrier to transport insulin and DTPA. The grown gas bubbles continue to expand until they bump into the wall and burst, releasing their transported insulin, DTPA, and SDS into the mucosal layer. The released DTPA and SDS function as protease inhibitors to protect the insulin molecules as well as absorption enhancers to augment their epithelial permeability and eventual absorption into systemic circulation, exerting their hypoglycemic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  6. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO2 will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO2 and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO2-H2O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO2. The basic problem of CO2 injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO2 injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO2 injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO2. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO2 into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO2) the viscosity of carbon

  7. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  9. Pleural fluid smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  10. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  11. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  12. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  13. Time Independent Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  14. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  15. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  16. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  17. Part B Carrier Summary Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data sets are summarized at the carrier level by meaningful Healthcare Common Procedure Coding-Current Procedural Terminology, (HCPC-CPT), code ranges. The data set...

  18. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  19. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  20. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  1. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Yong; Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Zhou, Feng; Song, Yinglin

    2016-02-01

    The dependence of the carrier distribution on photoexcited carrier dynamics in a p-type Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) wafer were systematically measured by femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the carrier distribution was modified by tuning the wavelength of the UV pulse excitation around the band gap of GaN:Mg. The TA kinetics appeared to be biexponential for all carrier distributions, and only the slower component decayed faster as the inhomogeneity of the carrier distribution increased. It was concluded that the faster component (50-70 ps) corresponded to the trap process of holes by the Mg acceptors, and the slower component (150-600 ps) corresponded to the combination of non-radiative surface recombination and intrinsic carrier recombination via dislocations. Moreover, the slower component increased gradually with the incident fluence due to the saturation of surface states.

  2. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  3. A review on the magnetorheological fluid preparation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtiani, M.; Hashemabadi, S.H., E-mail: hashemabadi@iust.ac.ir; Ghaffari, A.

    2015-01-15

    Magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) are one of the categories of smart materials, whose viscosity increases considerably in the presence of a magnetic field. These fluids are prepared by dispersing magnetizable micro-size particles into a carrier fluid with stabilizer additives. The main feature of these fluids is their ability to change from liquid to semi-solid state with controllable yield stress just a few milliseconds after applying a magnetic field. Low magnetorheological effect and instability of MRFs are the most important problems against the extensive application of MRFs technology in modern industries. Various methods have been proposed and used by researchers to improve the magnetorheological effect and also the stability of these fluids. The main focus of this study is to present a comprehensive review on different methods of preparation and stabilization of MR fluids. Furthermore, rheological models and application of MR fluids are discussed briefly in this study. - Highlights: • MRF synthesis was studied with respect to their stability and the MR effect. • Stabilization of magnetic suspensions as the main challenge still need to investigate. • Carbonyl iron particles are the most appropriate candidates for MRF synthesis.

  4. Laser Welding-Brazing of Immiscible AZ31B Mg and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Using an Electrodeposited Cu Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zequn; Tan, Caiwang; Wang, Gang; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Hongyun; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai

    2018-03-01

    Metallurgical bonding between immiscible system AZ31B magnesium (Mg) and Ti-6Al-4V titanium (Ti) was achieved by adding Cu interlayer using laser welding-brazing process. Effect of the laser power on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joints was studied. Visually acceptable joints were obtained at the range of 1300 to 1500 W. The brazed interface was divided into three parts due to temperature gradient: direct irradiation zone, intermediate zone and seam head zone. Ti3Al phase was produced along the interface at the direct irradiation zone. Ti-Al reaction layer grew slightly with the increase in laser power. A small amount of Ti2(Cu,Al) interfacial compounds formed at the intermediate zone and the ( α-Mg + Mg2Cu) eutectic structure dispersed in the fusion zone instead of gathering when increasing the laser power at this zone. At the seam head zone, Mg-Cu eutectic structure was produced in large quantities under all cases. Joint strength first increased and then decreased with the variation of the laser power. The maximum fracture load of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joint reached 2314 N at the laser power of 1300 W, representing 85.7% joint efficiency when compared with Mg base metal. All specimens fractured at the interface. The feature of fracture surface at the laser power of 1100 W was characterized by overall smooth surface. Obvious tear ridge and Ti3Al particles were observed at the fracture surface with increase in laser power. It suggested atomic diffusion was accelerated with more heat input giving rise to the enhanced interfacial reaction and metallurgical bonding in direct irradiation zone, which determined the mechanical properties of the joint.

  5. Effect of Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelets on Rheological, Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Immiscible Polypropylene/Polystyrene (PP/PS Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin/polystyrene blends, prepared by mechanical mixing, were immiscible blends having two-phase structure with weak interface. An improvement in compatibility of PP and PS led to their enhanced blend properties and applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP on the compatibility of PP/PS (80:20 blend by their rheological and mechanical behaviors. Samples of the blends were prepared using an internal mixer through simultaneous feeding of the components into the mixing chamber. The properties of blends were evaluated by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and mechanical tests. Rheological results showed that addition of xGnP, led to an increase in storage modulus and complex viscosity, especially at low frequencies, probably due to the confinement of polymer chain motions. SEM observations on the morphology of blends revealed that increasing the xGnP content obviously reduced the domain diameter of the dispersed PS phase, indicating a good compatibilizing effect for xGnP. The addition of xGnP into the PP/PS blend increased the tensile modulus and decreased the elongation-at-break, resulting from the rigidity and intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the grapheme nanoplatelets. Crystallinity of the samples also increased with higher xGnP content, which could be assigned to the nucleating effect of graphene platelets. Moreover, thermal stability of the blends were improved by increasing the xGnP level because xGnP as an efficient compatibilizing agent with high thermal conductivity provided a more uniform heat distribution profile.

  6. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  7. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.

    1980-01-01

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  8. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  9. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  10. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  11. Low-temperature susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnikov, Alexander F.; Lebedev, Alexander V.

    2004-09-01

    The initial susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids (ferrocolloids) has been experimentally investigated at low temperatures. The results obtained indicate that the interparticle dipole-dipole interactions can increase the susceptibility by several times as compared to the Langevin value. It is shown that good agreement between recent theoretical models and experimental observations can be achieved by introducing a correction for coefficients in the series expansion of susceptibility in powers of density and aggregation parameter. A modified equation for equilibrium susceptibility is offered to sum over corrections made by Kalikmanov (Statistical Physics of Fluids, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001) and by B. Huke and M. Lücke (Phys. Rev. E 67, 051403, 2003). The equation gives good quantitative agreement with the experimental data in the wide range of temperature and magnetic particles concentration. It has been found that in some cases the magnetic fluid solidification occurs at temperature several tens of kelvins higher than the crystallization temperature of the carrier liquid. The solidification temperature of magnetic fluids is independent of particle concentration (i.e., magneto-dipole interparticle interactions) and dependent on the surfactant type and carrier liquid. This finding allows us to suggest that molecular interactions and generation of some large-scale structure from colloidal particles in magnetic fluids are responsible for magnetic fluid solidification. If the magnetic fluid contains the particles with the Brownian relaxation mechanism of the magnetic moment, the solidification manifests itself as the peak on the "susceptibility-temperature" curve. This fact proves the dynamic nature of the observed peak: it arises from blocking the Brownian mechanism of the magnetization relaxation.

  12. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. E.

    1995-08-01

    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  13. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1984-01-01

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  14. Interface behavior of a multi-layer fluid configuration subject to acceleration in a microgravity environment, supplement 1. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, M. J.; Roh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    With the increasing opportunities for research in a microgravity environment, there arises a need for understanding fluid mechanics under such conditions. In particular, a number of material processing configurations involve fluid-fluid interfaces which may experience instabilities in the presence of external forcing. In a microgravity environment, these accelerations may be periodic or impulse-type in nature. This research investigates the behavior of a multi-layer idealized fluid configuration which is infinite in extent. The analysis is linear, and each fluid region is considered inviscid, incompressible, and immiscible. An initial parametric study of confiquration stability in the presence of a constant acceleration field is performed. The zero mean gravity limit case serves as the base state for the subsequent time-dependent forcing cases. A stability analysis of the multi-layer fluid system in the presence of periodic forcing is investigated. Floquet theory is utilized. A parameter study is performed, and regions of stability are identified. For the impulse-type forcing case, asymptotic stability is established for the configuration. Using numerical integration, the time response of the interfaces is determined.

  15. Fluids of the lower crust and upper mantle: deep is different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Deep fluids are important for the evolution and properties of the lower crust and upper mantle in tectonically active settings. Uncertainty about their chemistry has led past workers to use upper crustal fluids as analogues. However, recent results show that fluids at >15 km differ fundamentally from shallow fluids and help explain high-pressure metasomatism and resistivity patterns. Deep fluids are comprised of four components: H2O, non-polar gases (chiefly CO2), salts (mostly alkali chlorides), and rock-derived solutes (dominated by aluminosilicates and related components). The first three generally define the solvent properties of the fluid, and models must account for observations that H2O activity may be quite low. The contrasting behavior of H2O-gas and H2O-salt mixtures yields immiscibility in the ternary system, which can lead to separation of two phases with fundamentally different chemical and transport properties. Thermodynamic modeling of equilibrium between rocks and H2O using simple ionic species known from shallow-crustal systems yields solutions possessing total dissolved solids and ionic strength that are too low to be consistent with experiments and resistivity surveys. Addition of CO2 further lowers bulk solubility and conductivity. Therefore, additional species must be present in H2O, and H2O-salt solutions likely explain much of the evidence for fluid action in high-P settings. At low salinity, H2O-rich fluids are powerful solvents for aluminosilicate rock components that are dissolved as previously unrecognized polymerized clusters. Experiments show that, near H2O-saturated melting, Al-Si polymers comprise >80% of solutes. The stability of these species facilitates critical critical mixing in rock-H2O systems. Addition of salt (e.g., NaCl) changes solubility patterns, but aluminosilicate contents remain high. Thermodynamic models indicate that the ionic strength of fluids with Xsalt = 0.05 to 0.4 and equilibrated with model crustal rocks have

  16. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    from drill cores DH01, DH02, DH06, and DH07, and outcrop samples. Microthermometric data were obtained by freezing and heating of fluid inclusions on a Linkam THMSG600 mounted on an Olympus microscope at Lorestan University. Results 1 Five main veintypes were identified, belonging to three stages of mineralization:type (I: barren quartz, type (II: quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± bornite ± chalcocite ± covelite, type (III: quartz + magnetite ± chalcopyrite, type (IV: K-feldspar± quartz ± chalcopyrite, type (V: chlorite + biotite. 2 Seven groups of fluid inclusionswere observed: (IA liquid-rich mono-phase, (IB vapor-rich mono-phase, (IIA liquid-rich two-phase (liquid + vapor, (IIB vapor-rich two-phase (vapor + liquid, (IIIA high salinity simple fluids (liquid + vapor + halite, (IIIB high salinity opaque mineral-bearing fluids (liquid + vapor + halite + pyrite + chalcopyrite + hematite, (IIIAB multi-phase fluids (liquid + vapor + halite + sylvite + hematite + magnetite + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± erythrosiderite 3 Multiphase fluid inclusions with predominant homogenization temperatures 420 to 620˚C and predominant salinities 70 to 75 wt.%NaCl, are thought to be the early fluids involved in mineralization. 4 The coexistence of high saline liquid and vapor rich fluid inclusions (IIIAB, IIIB, IIIA and IIA types resulted either from fluid entrapment during the boiling process or the co-presence of two immiscible fluids generated from the magma. 5 Dalliporphyry Cu-Au deposit was formed in a magmatic-meteoric system. Discussion Two conventional thermometric procedures, freezing and heating, were employed for the measurement of temperature of homogenization and approximate salinity. Freezing was conducted mainly for halite-under saturated inclusions (types IIA and IIB, to measure the initial melting temperature (Te and the last melting point (Tmice, whereas heating was carried out on the halite-bearing inclusions (types IIIA, IIIB and IIIAB. Based on the microthermometric

  17. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  18. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  19. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  20. Phoresis in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  1. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  2. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  3. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  4. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  6. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.

    1992-03-01

    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  7. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  8. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  9. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  10. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  11. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: effects of carrier density and electric field [refereed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solns. of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility

  12. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers : effects of carrier density and electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solutions of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier

  13. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  15. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carri...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions.......This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  16. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  17. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  18. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  19. Fluid therapy in neurotrauma: basic and clinical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various therapeutic strategies to provide support in the prehospital and perioperative are essential for optimal care. Rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure quickly is now the standard treatment for patients with combined TBI and HS The fluid in patients with brain and especially in the carrier of brain injury is a critical topic; we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regard the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i1.636

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  1. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced......Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...

  2. Interface recombination influence on carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konin, A

    2013-01-01

    A theory of interface recombination in the semiconductor–semiconductor junction is developed. The interface recombination rate dependence on the nonequilibrium carrier densities is derived on the basis of a model in which the interface recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. The general relation between the interface recombination parameters at small carrier density deviation from the equilibrium ones is obtained. The validity of this relation is proved considering the generation of the Hall electric field in the extrinsic semiconductor sample. The anomalous Hall electromotive force in a weak magnetic field was investigated and interpreted by means of a new interface recombination model. The experimental data corroborate the developed theory. (paper)

  3. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  4. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  5. Deformation of a 3D granular media caused by fluid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, M. J.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that the competition between capillary and friction forces can lead to different regimes of deformation, from frictional fingering to hydro-capillary fracturing (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011, Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a fully 3D granular bed and measure the fluid pressure while controlling the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We extract the deformation the whole granular bulk as well as at the particle level. Our results show the existence of different regimes of invasion patterns depending on key dimensionless groups that control the system.

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  8. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  9. Fluid structure coupling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D

  10. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  11. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  12. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  13. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  14. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  15. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, E.; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  16. On safety of radioactive waste carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The waste generated by reprocessing the spent fuel from Japanese nuclear power stations in France and U.K. is to be returned to Japan. The first return transport was carried out from February to April when the waste management facility in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, was completed. Most of this return transport was the sea transport using the exclusively used carrier, Pacific Pintail, from Cherbourg, France, to Mutsu Ogawara, Japan. Ministry of Transport carried out the examination on the safety of this method of transport including the safety of the carrier based on the rule for the sea transport and storage of dangerous substances. The international rule on the sea transport of high level radioactive waste, the course of adopting the INF code and its outline, and the Japanese safety standard for the carriers exclusively used for high level radioactive waste are explained. The Pacific Pintail is the ship of 5087 GT, which was built in 1987 as the carrier exclusively used for radioactive substances, owned by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. of U.K. The main features related to the safety of the Pacific Pintail are explained, and the sufficient countermeasures are taken. (K.I.)

  17. Calm water resistance prediction of a bulk carrier using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes based solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, Hafizul; Islam, Md. Tariqul; Khondoker, Md. Reaz Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Maneuverability and resistance prediction with suitable accuracy is essential for optimum ship design and propulsion power prediction. This paper aims at providing some of the maneuverability characteristics of a Japanese bulk carrier model, JBC in calm water using a computational fluid dynamics solver named SHIP Motion and OpenFOAM. The solvers are based on the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes method (RaNS) and solves structured grid using the Finite Volume Method (FVM). This paper comprises the numerical results of calm water test for the JBC model with available experimental results. The calm water test results include the total drag co-efficient, average sinkage, and trim data. Visualization data for pressure distribution on the hull surface and free water surface have also been included. The paper concludes that the presented solvers predict the resistance and maneuverability characteristics of the bulk carrier with reasonable accuracy utilizing minimum computational resources.

  18. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  19. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  1. Thermal and particle size distribution effects on the ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.N.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal and particle size distribution effects on the ferromagnetic resonance of magnetic fluids were theoretically investigated, assuming negligible interparticle interactions and neglecting the viscosity of the carrier liquid. The model is based on the usual approach for the ferromagnetic resonance description of single-domain magnetic particle systems, which was amended in order to take into account the finite particle size effect, the particle size distribution and the orientation mobility of the particles within the magnetic fluid. Under these circumstances the shape of the resonance line, the resonance field and the line width are found to be strongly affected by the temperature and by the particle size distribution of magnetic fluids

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujanas, V.

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of radionuclides ( 7 Be 32,33 P and 35 S) and stable sulfur and phosphorus forms was based on the Tessier sequential extraction method. The properties of radionuclide carriers can be transformed in the atmosphere in a very short time (days, hours), in contrast to soil and the hydrosphere. Oxidation processes proceeding in the atmosphere induce changes in the aerosol carrier properties. The aerosol can be characterized by low pH and high Eh values corresponding to high 7Be solubility. The unexpectedly high negative Eh values obtained in dry summer period indicate that the 7 Be 32,33 P aerosol is bound to insoluble carriers. 137 Cs solubility does not depend on changes in pH. This can be explained by the fact that in contrast to 7 Be, 137 Cs is associated with the exchangeable fraction. Cs ions can be replaced not only by H + but also by NH 4 + and other ions. 7 Be aerosols collected at the seaside of the Baltic sea (Preila) were found to be more soluble than those in Vilnius, their solubility was up to 50-90 % and clear dependence between 7 Be solubility, pH and Eh was not observed. It can be attributed to differences in the atmospheric aerosol composition (e.g. soluble chlorides) in Vilnius and Preila. A great variety of 7 Be carriers properties as well as their dependence on the season and the existence of admixtures in the atmosphere require great caution in applying this isotope in tracer investigations. Soluble carriers are removed faster from the atmosphere by precipitation. The significance of this fact is confirmed by the ratio of 7 Be/ 32 P in the air and precipitation. Both soluble and insoluble aerosols can be formed depending on the environmental conditions

  3. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Comparison of protocols and RNA carriers for plasma miRNA isolation. Unraveling RNA carrier influence on miRNA isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Laura; Fernández-Pardo, Álvaro; Oto, Julia; Medina, Pilar; España, Francisco; Navarro, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs are promising biomarkers in biological fluids in several diseases. Different plasma RNA isolation protocols and carriers are available, but their efficiencies have been scarcely compared. Plasma microRNAs were isolated using a phenol and column-based procedure and a column-based procedure, in the presence or absence of two RNA carriers (yeast RNA and MS2 RNA). We evaluated the presence of PCR inhibitors and the relative abundance of certain microRNAs by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the association between different isolation protocols, the relative abundance of the miRNAs in the sample, the GC content and the free energy of microRNAs. In all microRNAs analyzed, the addition of yeast RNA as a carrier in the different isolation protocols used gave lower raw Cq values, indicating higher microRNA recovery. Moreover, this increase in microRNAs recovery was dependent on their own relative abundance in the sample, their GC content and the free-energy of their own most stable secondary structure. Furthermore, the normalization of microRNA levels by an endogenous microRNA is more reliable than the normalization by plasma volume, as it reduced the difference in microRNA fold abundance between the different isolation protocols evaluated. Our thorough study indicates that a standardization of pre- and analytical conditions is necessary to obtain reproducible inter-laboratory results in plasma microRNA studies. PMID:29077772

  5. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.H. Meeter (Lieke H.H.); Patzke, H. (Holger); Loewen, G. (Gordon); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); A.S. Thornton (Andrew); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN

  6. ECMOR 4. 4th European conference on the mathematics of oil recovery. Topic D: Simulation of fluid flow. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The report with collected proceedings from a conference, deals with mathematics of oil recovery with the focus on simulation of fluid flow. Topics of proceedings are as follow: Validity of macroscopic viscous fingering models for 2D and 3D-flows; pressure equation for fluid flow in a stochastic medium; predicting multicomponent, multiphase flow in heterogeneous systems using streamtubes; analytic techniques in pressure transient testing; global triangular structure in four-component conservation laws; exact solution of the problem on hydrodynamic interaction between noncommunicating layers under conditions of their joint development; fluid rate in flowing granular medium with moving boundary; complex variable boundary element method for tracking streamlines across fractures; transport equations for miscible displacements in heterogeneous porous media - a streamtube approach; mathematical modelling of condensate film flow by gravity drainage; effect of capillary forces on immiscible two-phase flow in strongly heterogeneous porous media; multidomain direct method and local time steps in reservoir simulation; adaptive methods for chemical flooding; flux continuous for the full tensor equation; discretization on non-orthogonal, curvilinear grids for multi-phase flow; blending finite elements and finite volumes for the solution of miscible incompressible flow. 16 papers are prepared. 240 refs., 122 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Ko; Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki

    2016-11-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. To be published as, Y. Yahashi, N. Kimoto and K. Okumura, Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell, Sci. Rep.(CC BY 4.0). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan).

  8. Eclogite-associated potassic silicate melts and chloride-rich fluids in the mantle: a possible connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, O.; Butvina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Relics of potassium-rich (4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) melts are a specific features of some partially molten diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites worldwide [1, 2]. In addition, potassic silicic melt inclusions with up to 16 wt. % of K2O are associated with eclogite phases in kimberlitic diamonds (O. Navon, pers. comm.). According to available experimental data, no such potassium contents can be reached by "dry" and hydrous melting of eclogite. These data point to close connection between infiltration of essentially potassic fluids, partial melting and diamond formation in mantle eclogites [2]. Among specific components of these fluids, alkali chlorides, apparently, play an important role. This conclusion follows from assemblages of the melt relics with chlorine-bearing phases in eclogite xenoliths [1], findings of KCl-rich inclusions in diamonds from the xenoliths [3], and concentration of Cl up to 0.5-1.5 wt. % in the melt inclusions in diamonds. In this presentation, we review our experimental data on reactions of KCl melts and KCl-bearing fluids with model and natural eclogite-related minerals and assemblages. Experiments in the model system jadeite(±diopside)-KCl(±H2O) at 4-7 GPa showed that, being immiscible, chloride liquids provoke a strong K-Na exchange with silicates (jadeite). As a result, low-temperature ultrapotassic chlorine-bearing (up to 3 wt. % of Cl) aluminosilicate melts form. These melts is able to produce sanidine, which is characteristic phase in some partially molten eclogites. In addition, in presence of water Si-rich Cl-bearing mica (Al-celadonite-phlogopite) crystallizes in equilibrium with sanidine and/or potassic melt and immiscible chloride liquid. This mica is similar to that observed in some eclogitic diamonds bearing chloride-rich fluid inclusions [4], as well as in diamonds in partially molten eclogites [2]. Interaction of KCl melt with pyrope garnet also produce potassic aluminosilicate melt because of high

  9. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/ N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers. (paper)

  10. Incompressible ionized fluid mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2006), s. 493-509 ISSN 0935-1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chemically reacting fluids * Navier-Stokes * Nernst-Planck * Possion equation s * heat equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2006

  11. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  12. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  13. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  14. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  15. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  16. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; van Foreest, N.D.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a Markov process' with

  17. A field application of nanoparticle-based invert emulsion drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alexey S.; Husein, Maen, E-mail: mhusein@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering (Canada); Hareland, Geir [Oklahoma State University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Application of nanotechnology in drilling fluids for the oil and gas industry has been a focus of several recent studies. A process for the in situ synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) into drilling fluids has been developed previously in our group and showed that calcium-based NPs (CNPs) and iron-based NPs (INPs), respectively, with concentrations of 0.5–2.0 wt% can dramatically improve filtration properties of commercial drilling fluids in a laboratory environment. In this work, a modified process for the emulsion-based synthesis of NPs on a 20 m{sup 3} volume and its subsequent full-scale field testing are presented. Comparison between NP carrier fluids prepared under controlled environment in the laboratory and those prepared on a large scale in a mixing facility revealed very little variation in the main characteristics of the drilling fluid; including the size of the solid constituents. Transmission electron microscopy photographs suggest an average CNP particle size in the carrier fluid of 51 ± 11 nm. Results from the full-scale field test showed that total mud losses while drilling with CNP-based invert emulsion were on average 27 % lower than in the case of conventional fluids. This loss prevention falls within the range observed in the laboratory.

  18. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A drug carrier system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are a type of nanoparticles. They are submicron colloidal carriers which are composed of physiological lipids, dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solutions. SLN have wide range of advantages over other types of nanoparticles. These include availability of large-scale production methods and no signs of cytotoxicity, which are main hindrances in the application of other types of nanoparticles. Hot and cold homogenization techniques are mainly employed for its production. They are mainly evaluated on the basis of their drug release profile and particle internal structure. The products based on SLN are under development. They have a very wide range of applications in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They can be applied for any purpose, for which nanoparticles have a distinct advantage. Thus, SLN can be used extensively as an alternative to the existing drug carrier systems, providing more flexibility with respect to the area of applications and also aspects for commercialization.

  20. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  1. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  2. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  3. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, R.; Chaput, M.

    1961-01-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [fr

  4. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  5. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana contains selected papers from two conferences related to fluid mechanics held in India recently, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power conference at NIT, Hamirpur, and an International Union of Theoretical ... A simple, well thought out, flow visualization experiment or a computation can sometimes ...

  6. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jö rg; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  7. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  8. The fluid mechanics of channel fracturing flows: experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedi, Ahmadreza; Tucker, Zachery; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    We show our preliminary experimental results on the role of fluid mechanics in channel fracturing flows, particularly yield stress fracturing fluids. Recent trends in the oil industry have included the use of cyclic pumping of a proppant slurry interspersed with a yield stress fracturing fluid, which is found to increase wells productivity, if particles disperse in a certain fashion. Our experimental study aims to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for dispersing the particles (proppant) within a yield stress carrier fluid, and to measure the dispersion of proppant slugs in various fracturing regimes. To this end we have designed and built a unique experimental setup that resembles a fracture configuration coupled with a particle image/tracking velocimetry setup operating at micro to macro dimensions. Moreover, we have designed optically engineered suspensions of complex fluids with tunable yield stress and consistency, well controlled density match-mismatch properties and refractive indices for both X-rays and visible lights. We present our experimental system and preliminary results. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044- CAREER), ACS PRF (Grant No. 55661-DNI9).

  9. Evaluation of the interface-capturing algorithm of OpenFoam for the simulation of incompressible immiscible two-phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raees, F.; Van der Heul, D.R.; Vuik, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Mass-Conserving Level-Set method combines the efficiency of a Level-Set algorithm with the mass conserving properties of the Volume Of Fluid method. It avoids the work intensive interface construction of the former method and imposes a mass-conserving correction to the distance function of the

  10. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  11. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  12. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  13. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  14. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and...

  15. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  16. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  17. 14 CFR 271.3 - Carrier subsidy need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.3 Carrier subsidy need. In establishing the subsidy for an air carrier providing essential air service at an...

  18. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  19. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  20. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  1. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  2. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  3. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  4. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  5. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  6. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  7. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  8. Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Frank

    2017-12-28

    The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically

  9. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  10. Recording fluid currents by holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Convection in fluids can be studied with aid of holographic apparatus that reveals three-dimensional motion of liquid. Apparatus eliminates images of fixed particles such as dust on windows and lenses, which might mask behavior of moving fluid particles. Holographic apparatus was developed for experiments on fluid convection cells under zero gravity. Principle is adaptable to study of fluid processes-for example, electrochemical plating and combustion in automotive engines.

  11. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  12. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathi, Ramon; Sage, Michael; Slavotinek, John; Hanieh, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    A case of an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is reported to illustrate this known but rare complication. In the setting of a VP shunt, the frequency of abdominal CSF pseudocyst formation is approximately 3.2%, often being precipitated by a recent inflammatory or infective process or recent surgery. Larger pseudocysts tend to be sterile, whereas smaller pseudocysts are more often infected. Ultrasound and CTeach have characteristic findings Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  13. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  14. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  15. Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.; Moffatt, H. K.; Worster, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    With applications ranging from modelling the environment to automotive design and physiology to astrophysics, conventional textbooks cannot hope to give students much information on what topics in fluid dynamics are currently being researched, or how to choose between them. This book rectifies matters. It consists of eleven chapters that introduce and review different branches of the subject for graduate-level courses, or for specialists seeking introductions to other areas. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-78061-6

  16. Fluid circulation control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Henri; Henocque, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontal fluid circulation control device, of the type having a pivoting flap. This device is intended for being fitted in the pipes of hydraulic installation, particularly in a bleed and venting system of a nuclear power station shifting radioactive or contaminated liquids. The characteristic of this device is the cut-out at the top of the flap to allow the air contained in the pipes to flow freely [fr

  17. Problems in fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasch, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and mineral engineering students require texts which give guidance to problem solving to complement their main theoretical texts. This book has a broad coverage of the fluid flow problems which these students may encounter. The fundamental concepts and the application of the behaviour of liquids and gases in unit operation are dealt with. The book is intended to give numerical practice; development of theory is undertaken only when elaboration of treatments available in theoretical texts is absolutely necessary

  18. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation.......Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  19. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  20. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  1. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  2. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  3. Dynamics of radiating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Weaver, R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is essential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations, and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved is presented

  4. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  5. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  6. Microstructural Fluids and Simple Fluids at Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlinska, Ewa Z.

    1992-09-01

    In the first part of this work the self-assembly structure of three amphiphilic Systems is studied using various experimental techniques. After a general introduction given in Chapter 2, the theoretical and practical aspects of the experimental methods are outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In Chapter 5 the nature of spontaneously formed aggregates in the binary DDAOH/water system is explored quantitatively by classical and dynamic light scattering as well as electron microscopy. It is shown that these solutions self-assemble into dilute monodisperse unilamellar vesicles in equilibrium with micelles. The experimental data are explained in terms of a model in which most of the micelles are confined to the interior of the vesicles, indicating the existence of a supra-self-assembly mechanism. In Chapter 6 the phase diagram of binary didodecyldimethylammonium acetate/ water system is studied using classical and dynamic light scattering and electrical conductivity measurements. These data are supplemented by SANS studies in the region of high surfactant concentration. The existence of a dilute vesicular phase is demonstrated at concentrations below 0.005 surfactant volume fraction. With increased concentration of surfactant the isotropic sponge (L3) phase and lamellar phase are observed separated by a two phase region. Analysis of the light scattering results indicates the existence of a second order phase transition between the asymmetric and symmetric sponge phase. In the sponge phase region SANS data are consistent with the membrane thickness of 25 A and electrical conductivity results are in agreement with theoretical predictions for charge carriers scattering on large oblate objects. For surfactant concentrations larger than 0.03 volume fraction a mixture of L3 and lamellar phase is observed. In Chapter 7 the thermodynamic consequences of the structure of ternary DDAB/water/cyclohexane system in the microemulsion region (L2) and cubic phase region are

  7. Do methicillin resistant staphylococcus (MRSA) carrier patients influence MRSA infection more than MRSA-carrier medical officers and MRSA-carrier family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilogo, Ismail H; Arya, Abikara; Phedy; Loho, Tony

    2013-07-01

    to determine the rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family members and health care providers, and the association between MRSA-carrier family members and health care providers on MRSA infection patient after orthopaedic surgery. this is a cross-sectional analytical study. Samples were taken consecutively during December 2010 to December 2011, consisting of postoperative patients infected with MRSA, attending family members, and the medical officers with history of contact with the patient. Swab culture were taken from nasal and axilla of all subjects. The incidence of MRSA infection, and MRSA-carrier on the patient, family members and medical officers were presented descriptively, while their association with MRSA infection was statistically tested using Fischer exact test. during the study period, there were 759 surgeries, with 4 (0.5%) patients were identified to have MRSA infection. Of these four cases, 48 subjects were enrolled. The rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family and health care providers were 50%, 25% and 0% respectively. There were no significant association between MRSA and the rates of MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers. the incidence of MRSA infection, MRSA-carrier patient, MRSA-carrier health care providers, and family member carrier were 0.5%, 50%, 0%, and 25% respectively. No significant association found between MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers and MRSA infection patient. There were no MRSA infection found on the health care provider.

  8. Apparent stress-strain relationships in experimental equipment where magnetorheological fluids operate under compression mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, S A; Ekreem, N B; Olabi, A G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of two different magnetorheological (MR) fluids, namely, water-based and hydrocarbon-based MR fluids in compression mode under various applied currents. Finite element method magnetics was used to predict the magnetic field distribution inside the MR fluids generated by a coil. A test rig was constructed where the MR fluid was sandwiched between two flat surfaces. During the compression, the upper surface was moved towards the lower surface in a vertical direction. Stress-strain relationships were obtained for arrangements of equipment where each type of fluid was involved, using compression test equipment. The apparent compressive stress was found to be increased with the increase in magnetic field strength. In addition, the apparent compressive stress of the water-based MR fluid showed a response to the compressive strain of greater magnitude. However, during the compression process, the hydrocarbon-based MR fluid appeared to show a unique behaviour where an abrupt pressure drop was discovered in a region where the apparent compressive stress would be expected to increase steadily. The conclusion is drawn that the apparent compressive stress of MR fluids is influenced strongly by the nature of the carrier fluid and by the magnitude of the applied current

  9. Carrier dynamics in graphene. Ultrafast many-particle phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, E.; Brem, S.; Jago, R. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Winzer, T.; Wendler, F.; Knorr, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Mittendorff, M.; Koenig-Otto, J.C.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ploetzing, T.; Neumaier, D. [Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen, AMO GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene is an ideal material to study fundamental Coulomb- and phonon-induced carrier scattering processes. Its remarkable gapless and linear band structure opens up new carrier relaxation channels. In particular, Auger scattering bridging the valence and the conduction band changes the number of charge carriers and gives rise to a significant carrier multiplication - an ultrafast many-particle phenomenon that is promising for the design of highly efficient photodetectors. Furthermore, the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point combined with ultrafast phonon-induced intraband scattering results in an accumulation of carriers and a population inversion suggesting the design of graphene-based terahertz lasers. Here, we review our work on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene and Landau-quantized graphene is presented providing a microscopic view on the appearance of carrier multiplication and population inversion. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  11. Hazards of organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, S.

    1977-08-01

    We present several brief reviews on working fluids proposed for use in organic Rankine and bi-phase bottoming cycles. There are several general problems with many organic working fluids: flammability, toxicity, and a tendency to leak through seals. Besides, two of the proposed working fluids are to be used at temperatures above the manufacturer's maximum recommended temperature, and one is to be used in a way different from its customary usage. It may, in some cases, be more profitable to first seek alternative working fluids before committing large amounts of time and money to research projects on unsafe working fluids

  12. No differences in brain microstructure between young KIBRA-C carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Xu, Qunxing; Li, Jizhen; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Xinghua; Sun, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiangxing; Liu, Yong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Dawei

    2018-01-02

    KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism is associated with variations in memory function and the microstructure of related brain areas. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) as an extension of diffusion tensor imaging that can provide more information about changes in microstructure, based on the idea that water diffusion in biological tissues is heterogeneous due to structural hindrance and restriction. We used DKI to explore the relationship between KIBRA gene polymorphism and brain microstructure in young adults. We recruited 100 healthy young volunteers, including 53 TT carriers and 47 C allele carriers. No differences were detected between the TT homozygotes and C-allele carriers for any diffusion and kurtosis parameter. These results indicate KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism likely has little or no effect on brain microstructure in young adults.

  13. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  14. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  15. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety...

  16. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory...

  17. The Use of an Acellular Oxygen Carrier in a Human Liver Model of Normothermic Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Richard W; Bhogal, Ricky H; Wallace, Lorraine; Boteon, Yuri; Neil, Desley A H; Smith, Amanda; Stephenson, Barney T F; Schlegel, Andrea; Hübscher, Stefan G; Mirza, Darius F; Afford, Simon C; Mergental, Hynek

    2017-11-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions while maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers. Perfusion parameters, oxygen extraction, metabolic activity, and histological features were compared during 6 hours of NMP-L. The cytotoxicity of Hemopure was also tested on human hepatic primary cell line cultures using an in vitro model of ischemia reperfusion injury. The vascular flow parameters and the perfusate lactate clearance were similar in both groups. The HBOC-perfused livers extracted more oxygen than those perfused with RBCs (O2 extraction ratio 13.75 vs 9.43 % ×10 per gram of tissue, P = 0.001). In vitro exposure to Hemopure did not alter intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and there was no increase in apoptosis or necrosis observed in any of the tested cell lines. Histological findings were comparable between groups. There was no evidence of histological damage caused by Hemopure. Hemopure can be used as an alternative oxygen carrier to packed red cells in NMP-L perfusion fluid.

  18. Magnetically modified bacterial cellulose: A promising carrier for immobilization of affinity ligands, enzymes, and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldikova, Eva [Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Pospiskova, Kristyna [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kookos, Ioannis K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Rio (Greece); Koutinas, Apostolis A. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Athens 11855 (Greece); Safarikova, Mirka [Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: safarik@nh.cas.cz [Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans was magnetically modified using perchloric acid stabilized magnetic fluid. Magnetic bacterial cellulose (MBC) was used as a carrier for the immobilization of affinity ligands, enzymes and cells. MBC with immobilized reactive copper phthalocyanine dye was an efficient adsorbent for crystal violet removal; the maximum adsorption capacity was 388 mg/g. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also determined. Model biocatalysts, namely bovine pancreas trypsin and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized on MBC using several strategies including adsorption with subsequent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and covalent binding on previously activated MBC using sodium periodate or 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. Immobilized yeast cells retained approximately 90% of their initial activity after 6 repeated cycles of sucrose solution hydrolysis. Trypsin covalently bound after MBC periodate activation was very stable during operational stability testing; it could be repeatedly used for ten cycles of low molecular weight substrate hydrolysis without loss of its initial activity. - Highlights: • Bacterial cellulose was magnetically modified with magnetic fluid. • Magnetic cellulose is an efficient carrier for affinity ligands. • Enzymes and cells can be efficiently immobilized to magnetic cellulose.

  19. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    the macrocell or the picocell using simple cell range expansion (RE). Extensive system-level simulations have been conducted to investigate the performance gains that can be achieved with inter-site CA under different traffic models and user distributions. Results show that using inter-site CA between......) or picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either...

  20. Energy carriers within Europe: electricity and SNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.

    1977-03-01

    The general aim of this paper is to make a case for substitute natural gas as an energy carrier with prospects for growth that are at least as good as those of electricity and a life expectancy as long as one can reasonably plan for. The bulk of the paper analyzes the determinants of commercial competition between SNG and electricity. Space heat is treated in detail because this is generally seen as the area in which rapid expansion of electricity sales is possible. The provision of process heat to industry is dealt with superficially. The principal conclusion is that, for space heating and some industrial process heating and over a wide range of future costs for fossil and nuclear fuels, SNG from the marginal source of bulk fuel will be of lower cost than electricity from an integrated system of nuclear generating stations and fossil-fired stations using the same marginal source of fossil fuel. This conclusion may be difficult to accept because it conflicts with intuition. In Europe now there is a good case for installing more nuclear plants if what is wanted is base-load power. There are also mines producing coal at higher cost than imported oil. The short-term economic pressure, therefore, is to install nuclear plants and retreat from coal. Moreover, natural gas from the North Sea and even LNG from distant sources is cheaper than SNG from indigenous coal is likely to be. If one believes that indigenous oil and gas will be available in large quantities, or if one believes it will be possible to import oil without difficulty or political risk, then it is right to ignore SNG as an energy carrier; but the fashionable perception of the future is that indigenous production and/or imports will be restricted by physical shortage or political constraint so that, at the margin, heat will be supplied from nuclear fuel. In these circumstances SNG appears a better carrier of energy for heat than electricity. (MCW)