Ionela – Corina Chersan
Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.
Nazarova Karina O.
Full Text Available The main threats to business are: competitors; supervisory and investigative bodies; tax system; crisis developments; currency exchange rates and so on. However, the world experience of recent decades has shown that not only external phenomena but also own employees can be perceived as tangible threats to business. On the part of the staff, there are, for various reasons, provocations, errors, deception or fraud, which could infringe security of enterprise. The article examines the status and dynamics of corporate fraud in Ukraine and in the world, the most common ways of detecting fraud, the methods that are used to counter it, as well as preventive means. The need to counter fraud within the corporate organization has been substantiated, efficiency of the internal and the external audits in detecting and preventing deception and fraud of employees of enterprise has been proven. The existing ways of detecting fraud in Ukraine were analyzed.
Chunitska Iryna I.
Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent
Zamzami, Faiz; Nusa, Nabella Duta; Timur, Rudi Prasetya
Some cases of corruption have taken place in several universities in Indonesia. To prevent and handle the cases, internal auditors play pivotal roles in detecting and preventing fraud. Therefore, effective methods to detect and prevent fraud are needed. The methods are expected to set the appropriate measures to detect and prevent fraud effectively. This research proposed a question how the internal auditors perceive the effectiveness of fraud detection and prevention methods. The research ai...
Prompted by frequent media reports of school fraud and a lack of relevant K-12 literature, this research study was designed to investigate current fraud prevention practices in public school districts in New York State. Using a "fraud triangle" model, an analysis of existing legislation and professional practice guidelines reveals that…
Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...
Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection
Full Text Available A need for greater rigor, which is felt by insurance companies in order to guarantee the fundamental balance of their financial sources, led to intensification of the concerns for preventing and combating fraud. The scope of the controller's mission is variable and its limits are set by the control program which has been established. In assessing the fair price of the caused damage, the essential role of the controller is to put a stop to the fraud and to avoidearly damage coverage.But information is required in order to accomplish this.The predictive analytics, of those processes necessary to prevent and combat fraud, is a way of passing from a retroactive and intuitive process to a proactive one, that is oriented according to the information possessed. Based on this approach, insurance companies can build models, to predict the risk of fraud, in order to reduce their financial-cost impact.
Directors are expected to be entrepreneurial while at the same time exercising prudent control. Enterprise and control are two sides of the directorial coin. Considers whether risk management professionals should do more in support of creativity, innovation, enterprise and entrepreneurship before turning to some cyber security and fraud control issues and dilemmas relating to data security breaches, the internet of things, protecting customer communications, and data sharing with collaborator...
Stylianos S. Mamais
Full Text Available Service commissions, which are claimed by Ad-Networks and Publishers, are susceptible to forgery as non-human operators are able to artificially create fictitious traffic on digital platforms for the purpose of committing financial fraud. This places a significant strain on Advertisers who have no effective means of differentiating fabricated Ad-Reports from those which correspond to real consumer activity. To address this problem, we contribute an advert reporting system which utilizes opportunistic networking and a blockchain-inspired construction in order to identify authentic Ad-Reports by determining whether they were composed by honest or dishonest users. What constitutes a user’s honesty for our system is the manner in which they access adverts on their mobile device. Dishonest users submit multiple reports over a short period of time while honest users behave as consumers who view adverts at a balanced pace while engaging in typical social activities such as purchasing goods online, moving through space and interacting with other users. We argue that it is hard for dishonest users to fake honest behaviour and we exploit the behavioural patterns of users in order to classify Ad-Reports as real or fabricated. By determining the honesty of the user who submitted a particular report, our system offers a more secure reward-claiming model which protects against fraud while still preserving the user’s anonymity.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Measures To Protect the Integrity of the Compensation Program § 104.71 Procedures to...
Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.
Lateef Saheed Ademola
Full Text Available The study investigates the required skills and ethics of the forensic accountant in preventing fraudulent practices in the Nigerian public sector. The primary source of data was utilized for data collection. Using the simple random sampling (SRS, a total of 300 questionnaires were administered; 163 were retrieved. The data obtained was analyzed using SmartPLS - for measurement and structural model. One of the major findings revealed that skills requirement was significant predator of fraud prevention as well as ethics requirement. This means that the higher the skills and ethics of the forensic accountant, the better is the fraud prevention. It is thus, recommended that forensic accounting services should be made statutory in the Nigerian public sector to help in preventing fraudulent practices. Hence the need to create awareness and expand the application of forensic accounting services in Nigerian public sector.
Koenta Adji Koerniawan
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the effect of management perceptions in Regional Public Service Agency BLUD for Hospital in Malang regency Indonesia on the role of the Independent Auditor and their understanding towards Good Governance the General Audit Engagement and its implications for the prevention of corruption. This research is quantitative which placed latent variables General Audit Engagements as intervening variables. Partial Least Square PLS is used to confirm the model created in order to explain the relationship between variables. The results show that the perception of BLUD hospital management on the role of independent auditors and their understanding of good governance to give effect to the implementation of the audit engagement and the implications for the prevention of fraud in BLUDs hospital. This is consistent with the theory of auditing and fraud prevention concepts. JEL Classification M420 K420
The act of immigration brings with it numerous major life changes and requires considerable social readjustment. Immigrants are, however, seldom offered specific training in how to effectively interact in a new culture. This paper describes an initial preventive groupwork effort to help English-speaking immigrants living in an Israeli absorption center to adjust successfully to life in a new culture. Suggestions for future preventive interventions with immigrants are considered.
Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott
Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.
Full Text Available In this study, the ethical dimensions of accounting professionals related to accounting errors and frauds were examined. Firstly, general and technical information about accounting were provided. Then, some terminology on error, fraud and ethics in accounting were discussed. Study also included recent statistics about accounting errors and fraud as well as presenting a literature review. As the methodology of research, a questionnaire was distributed to 36 accounting professionals residing in Edirne city of Turkey. The collected data were then entered to the SPSS package program for analysis. The study revealed very important results. Accounting professionals think that, accounting chambers do not organize enough seminars/conferences on errors and fraud. They also believe that supervision and disciplinary boards of professional accounting chambers fulfill their responsibilities partially. Attitude of professional accounting chambers in terms of errors, fraud and ethics is considered neither strict nor lenient. But, most accounting professionals are aware of colleagues who had disciplinary penalties. Most important and effective tool to prevent errors and fraud is indicated as external audit, but internal audit and internal control are valued as well. According to accounting professionals, most errors occur due to incorrect data received from clients and as a result of recording. Fraud is generally made in order to get credit from banks and for providing benefits to the organization by not showing the real situation of the firm. Finally, accounting professionals state that being honest, trustworthy and impartial is the basis of accounting profession and accountants must adhere to ethical rules.
Neuhaus, Mathias; Wolff, Jörg; Zisky, Norbert
This paper describes a technology solution for preventing tax fraud in electronic cash registers (ECR) and point of sale (POS) systems. The solution is based on electronic signatures, and as a result, any alterations to protected data will be detected. The signed transaction data can be stored on various electronic memory devices. Technical provisions enable the estimation of transaction volumes, even after tampering or loss of data. In this way the solution presented here differs significantly from other fiscal solutions where a pattern of approvals for ECRs and permanent technical supervision of the market is necessary. This paper is focused on the architecture, the protocols and the usability of the proposed system.
Full Text Available The superior reconfigurability of software defined radio mobile devices has made it the most promising technology on the wireless network and in the communication industry. Despite several advantages, there are still a lot to discuss regarding security, for instance, the radio configuration data download, storage and installation, user's privacy, and cloning. The objective of this paper is to present a fraud-prevention framework for software defined radio mobile devices that enhances overall security through the use of new pieces of hardware, modules, and protocols. The framework offers security monitoring against malicious attacks and viruses, protects sensitive information, creates and protects an identity for the system, employs a secure protocol for radio configuration download, and finally, establishes an anticloning scheme, which besides guaranteeing that no units can be cloned over the air, also elevates the level of difficulty to clone units if the attacker has physical access to the mobile device. Even if cloned units exist, the anticloning scheme is able to identify and deny services to those units. Preliminary experiments and proofs that analyze the correctness of the fraud-prevention framework are also presented.
Full Text Available The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and company performance is improved through implementation of preventive methods by internal controls, and to indicate that a developed system of internal control represents a protective barrier against various kinds of data manipulation and fraud inside the companies. Special attention was paid to fraud in financial statements since it can cause the most serious damage leading to instability of the economic-financial environment.
Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie
The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…
In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy. The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud. CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...
Health fraud involves selling drugs, devices, foods, or cosmetics that have not been proven effective. Keep in ... you from getting the treatment you really need. Health fraud scams can be found everywhere, promising help ...
Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.
Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However,
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Secure. Secure. Server – Intruder prevention/detection; Network – Encryption, PKI; Client - Secure. Fraud detection based on audit trails. Automatic alerts like credit-card alerts based on suspicious patterns.
Fraudulent recruitment of authorized, temporary “guest workers” is a growing concern among international policy makers. Recruitment in many countries is regulated through a combination of immigration, criminal, and administrative laws. This paper will compare how two countries, Spain and the United States, regulate the recruitment of agricultural and low-skilled guest workers, a population generally vulnerable to fraud, based on a review of each country’s laws and relevant literature. The con...
Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken
Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.
Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Financial Management Div.
At the request of Senator William Roth, Jr., the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed Medicare and Medicaid fraud investigations that agency inspectors general referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution to identify characteristics of alleged fraud against the government and to determine actions taken against those caught defrauding…
Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.
Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This
張, 影; ZHANG, Ying
The public company audit is expected to detect frauds in the financial reporting of entity. But, if senior management of corporation want to perpetrate frauds, the auditors have a risk of material misstatement due to fraud. In this paper, I consider the history of public company auditing to improve the prevention and detection of material fraud and to educate financial statement users about frauds in financial statement of American corporation and Japanese corporation. The history also is sho...
Ovidiu Constantin Bunget; Alin Constantin Dumitrescu
Responsibility for preventing and detecting fraud rest with management entities.Although the auditor is not and cannot be held responsible for preventing fraud and errors, in yourwork, he can have a positive role in preventing fraud and errors by deterring their occurrence. Theauditor should plan and perform the audit with an attitude of professional skepticism, recognizingthat condition or events may be found that indicate that fraud or error may exist.Based on the audit risk assessment, aud...
... national security concerns, (2) detecting possible fraud and misuse of immigration information or position... Application Casework System (RNACS), Central Index System (CIS) and the Fraud Detection and National Security... fraud and national security concerns, (2) detecting possible fraud and misuse of immigration information...
Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.
In this week’s Bulletin (see here), you’ll read that fraudulent activities were uncovered last year by our Internal Audit Service. CERN has a very clearly defined policy in such cases: we base our efforts on prevention through education, we have a policy of protecting those reporting fraud from recrimination, and we have a zero-tolerance policy should fraud be uncovered. I don’t intend to enter into the details of what occurred, but I’d like to remind you that fraud is a very grave business, and something we take extremely seriously. What do we mean by fraud at CERN? Operational Circular No. 10 on “Principles and procedures governing the investigation of fraud” defines fraud in terms of any deception intended to benefit the perpetrator, or a third party, that results in a loss to the Organization. This loss can be to funds, property or reputation. Thankfully, fraud at CERN is a rare occurrence, but we should never be complacent. ...
Full Text Available Fraud present an immense problem for health insurance companies and the only way to fight fraud is by using specialized fraud management systems. The current research community focussed great efforts on different fraud detection techniques while neglecting other also important activities of fraud management. We propose a holistic approach that focuses on all 6 activities of fraud management, namely, (1 deterrence, (2 prevention, (3 detection, (4 investigation, (5 sanction and redress, and (6 monitoring. The main contribution of the paper are 15 key characteristics of a fraud management system, which enable construction of a fraud management system that provides effective and efficient support to all fraud management activities. We base our research on literature review, interviews with experts from different fields, and a case study. The case study provides additional confirmation to expert opinions, as it puts our holistic framework into practice.
Full Text Available Nowadays, globalisation and business internalisation have led to an increased number of frauds in organisations worldwide. The most affected are the multinational corporations because of the geographical distance, different fiscal systems and local factors that consist in tremendous opportunities for employees and/or managers to involve in fraud schemes. Starting from recent studies and prior efforts of international organisations or countries to stop fraud by imposing regulations to be respected for the economic environment, the purpose of the paper is finding the key factors for detecting and preventing fraud in the organisations. In our approach we use several proposals for a conceptual framework developed by two companies of “The big four”, KPMG and Deloitte. The results indicate that for the number of fraud to decrease, any organisation needs to develop and implement a strong anti-fraud plan, by covering all logical steps to be made in this matter.
Full Text Available TÜRKİYE’DE DÜZENLEYİCİ KURULUŞLAR AÇISINDAN MUHASEBE HİLELERİNİN ÖNLENMESİ VE ORTAYA ÇIKARILMASI SORUMLULUĞU: HUKUKÎ DURUM VE FİİLÎ UYGULAMAÖzet: Düzenleyici kuruluşların yaklaşımı ve uygulamaları muhasebe hilelerinin önlenmesi ve ortaya çıkarılması sorumluluğunun kapsamının açıklığa kavuşturulmasına yardımcı olabilmektedir. Bu kuruluşların kamunun büyük bir çoğunluğunu adîl ve yansız bir şekilde temsil edeceği varsayılmaktadır. Ayrıca aldıkları kararlar ve karar alma mantıkları hem araştırmacılara, hem de finansal bilgi kullanıcılarına olası hile şüphelileri, bu kuruluşların sorumlulardan özellikle önlemesi ve ortaya çıkarmasını istedikleri hile yöntemleri, hilelerin cezaî yönleri, hilelerin önlenmesi ve ortaya çıkarılmasında temel sorumluluklar ve denetim beklenti boşluğu konularında önemli ipuçları verebilmektedir. Yine bunlar ilgili standart, yasa ve diğer düzenlemelerin oluşturulması ve uygulanmasında önemli etki sahibi olmaktadır. Bu nedenle, bağımsız denetimle ilgili faktörleri de kapsayan bir dizi değişken ile muhasebe hileleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olup olmadığını sınayan bir çalışma yapılmış ve sonuç olarak Türkiye’deki düzenleyici kuruluşun muhasebe hilelerinin önlenmesi ve ortaya çıkarılması sorumluluğunu aynı tarafa, müşteri işletme ve yönetimine yüklediği bulunmuştur. Araştırmanın bulguları Türkiye’de bir denetim-beklenti boşluğu olmadığına da işaret etmektedir.THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PREVENTING AND DETECTING ACCOUNTING FRAUDS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF SELF-REGULATORY AGENCIES IN TURKEY: DE JURE STATUS AND DE FACTO APPLICATIONAbstract: Self-regulatory agencies’ way of understanding and practices can help clarify the scope of the responsibility for preventing and detecting frauds. They are assumed to represent a vast majority of the public in an unbiased and
Yesuf, Ahmed; Wolos, Lars Peter; Rannenberg, Kai
Telecom providers are losing tremendous amounts of money due to fraud risks posed to Telecom services and products. Currently, they are mainly focusing on fraud detection approaches to reduce the impact of fraud risks against their services. However, fraud prevention approaches should also...... be investigated in order to further reduce fraud risks and improve the revenue of Telecom providers. Fraud risk modelling is a fraud prevention approach aims at identifying the potential fraud risks, estimating the damage and setting up preventive mechanisms before the fraud risks lead to actual losses....... In this paper, we highlight the important requirements for a usable and context-aware fraud risk modelling approach for Telecom services. To do so, we have conducted two workshops with experts from a Telecom provider and experts from multi-disciplinary areas. In order to show and document the requirements, we...
Robert Courtney Smith
Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the belief and fear by mostly older, white voters, politicians, and poll workers that “illegal” Latino immigrants were seeking to vote in local elections led to stigmatization of and discrimination against some Latino citizen voters in Port Chester, New York. Stoked by and closely echoing national voter ID law rhetoric, this fear fueled an “illegal Latino voter threat” narrative. This article documents how Port Chester’s leaders and citizens repeated this narrative in public life, sometimes enacting it in politics, including in voting. The resultant stigma denies Latino voters the presumed legitimacy other citizens enjoy, discrediting them in one word: illegal. Such processes harm democracy in Port Chester and America, and were on display in the 2016 presidential election.
Prevenção a Fraudes em Empresas Industriais de Autopeças na Região do ABCFraud Prevention in the Auto Parts Industry in the ABC RegionPrevención de Fraudes en Empresas Industriales de Autopiezas en la Región del ABC
OLIVA, Eduardo de Camargo
Full Text Available RESUMONos últimos anos, os casos de fraudes têm ocupado os meios de comunicação. O que pode contribuir para esta situação é a velocidade das mudanças no ambiente organizacional e os controles internos não estarem conseguindo acompanhar a mesma velocidade, aumentando assim o potencial de práticas de atos ilícitos. Por outro lado, o avanço tecnológico contribui para a informatização, possibilitando melhoria na detecção das fraudes. Esta investigação se propôs a verificar como as empresas praticam a prevenção às fraudes e, para tanto, efetuou-se um levantamento de campo junto as empresas de auto-peças da região do ABC a partir de um critério de estratificação tendo por base a lista do Sindipeças. Como resultado verificou-se que são utilizados alguns controles internos. Porém, o assunto fraude ainda não é tratado com a transparência e cuidados necessários e as empresas necessitariam incorporá-lo como risco inerente ao negócio.ABSTRACTFor many years the fraud cases have been occupying the communication means. One fact that could contribute for this situation are the changes in the organizations are quick and the internal controls tend not follow the same quickness, increasing the practice potential of illicit acts. On the other hand, the technological improvement contributes for information technology, which improves the fraud detection. This investigation had as purpose to verify how the companies practice fraud prevents. For that, it was done a search in some automobile part companies in the ABC region. It was used the stratification criterion, using as basis the Sindipeças list. As result, it was verified that the companies use some internal For many years the fraud cases have been occupying the communication means. One fact that could contribute for this situation are that the changes in the organizations are quick and the internal controls tend not follow the same quickness, increasing the potential practice
Responsibility for preventing and detecting fraud rest with management entities. Although the auditor is not and cannot be held responsible for preventing fraud and errors, in your work, he can have a positive role in preventing fraud and errors by deterring their occurrence. The auditor should plan and perform the audit with an attitude of professional skepticism, recognizing that condition or events may be found that indicate that fraud or error may exist. Based on the audit risk asse...
Agud, J L
Between 0% and 94% of university students acknowledge having committed academic fraud. Its forms are varied: cheating on examinations, submitting someone else's work, plagiarism, false citations, false reporting on experiments, tests or findings in the medical history and physical examination, unfair behavior toward fellow students, and many others. The consequences of academic fraud include learning corruption, useless efforts by students and faculty, incorrect performance evaluations and unfair selection for jobs. Since this can be a prelude to future fraud as doctors or researches, the prevalence, risk factors, motivations, clinical appearances, detection and prevention of the disease of academic fraud are here reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fraud is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to grow annually. Many organisations are poorly prepared to prevent and detect fraud. Fraud detection strategies are intended to quickly and efficiently identify fraudulent activities that circumvent preventative measures. In this paper we adopt a Design-Science methodological framework to develop a model for detection of vendor fraud based on analysis of patterns or signatures identified in enterprise system audit trails. The concept is demonstrated be developing prototype software. Verification of the prototype is achieved by performing a series of experiments. Validation is achieved by independent reviews from auditing practitioners. Key findings of this study are: i automating routine data analytics improves auditor productivity and reduces time taken to identify potential fraud, and iiÂ visualisations assist in promptly identifying potentially fraudulent user activities. The study makes the following contributions: iÂ a model for proactive fraud detection, ii methods for visualising user activities in transaction data, iii a stand-alone MCL-based prototype.
Full Text Available This article aims to introduce to readers the topic of fraud management – detection of fraudulent behaviour. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents what is meant by fraud and fraudulent behaviour. In the second part a case study dealing with fraudulent behaviour detection in the procurement area is introduced.
Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.
High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)
might keep the organization from achieving its objectives and analyze risks , including fraud risk , so as to decide how the risk should be managed ( COSO ...internal control to adequately manage the risk ( COSO , 2013). Risk management involves developing the effective internal control targeted at a...structure and management . While the risk of fraud cannot be eliminated entirely, it can be greatly reduced with an appropriate procurement fraud prevention
Hawa, Roula N; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen H; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona
Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge. This study validated the legitimacy of listening to the voices of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV, who communicated 20 recommendations for researchers, educators, community organizations, and service providers to culturally-tailor HIV education programs.
Full Text Available The field of tax evasion has generally been the subject of research at different levels on a number of occasions. However, reality demonstrates that tax fraud today is far from being properly and completely perceived, so the mechanisms designed to prevent and combat it are far from being effective.Tax evasion is a very difficult concept to express, and there is no clear definition of tax fraud. When it comes to fraud, there is also talk of legal or legitimate fraud, illegal fraud, international evasion, legal and illegal evasion, tax havens or refugees, abuse of the right to flee to the tax, freedom to choose the least taxed way, or fiscal underestimation, law fraud or underground economy.
Flegel, Ulrich; Kerschbaum, Florian; Miseldine, Philip; Monakova, Ganna; Wacker, Richard; Leymann, Frank
One company by itself cannot detect all instances of fraud or insider attacks. An example is the simple case of buyer fraud: a fraudulent buyer colludes with a supplier creating fake orders for supplies that are never delivered. They circumvent internal controls in place to prevent this kind of fraud, such as a goods receipt, e.g., by ordering services instead of goods. Based on the evidence collected at one company, it is often extremely difficult to detect such fraud, but if companies collaborate and correlate their evidence, they could detect that the ordered services have never actually been provided.
Full Text Available With development of mobile internet and finance, fraud risk comes in all shapes and sizes. This paper is to introduce the Fraud Risk Management at Alibaba under big data. Alibaba has built a fraud risk monitoring and management system based on real-time big data processing and intelligent risk models. It captures fraud signals directly from huge amount data of user behaviors and network, analyzes them in real-time using machine learning, and accurately predicts the bad users and transactions. To extend the fraud risk prevention ability to external customers, Alibaba also built up a big data based fraud prevention product called AntBuckler. AntBuckler aims to identify and prevent all flavors of malicious behaviors with flexibility and intelligence for online merchants and banks. By combining large amount data of Alibaba and customers', AntBuckler uses the RAIN score engine to quantify risk levels of users or transactions for fraud prevention. It also has a user-friendly visualization UI with risk scores, top reasons and fraud connections.
Kang, Ezer; Chin, John J.; Behar, Elana
Ethnic churches attended by first generation Chinese immigrants are uniquely positioned to address emerging HIV prevention and care needs within the Chinese community at-large. Efforts to develop faith-based HIV programs necessitate identifying how HIV intersects with the sinicization of Christianity within Chinese churches. This paper will review the process of contextualizing HIV within theological and cultural frameworks that are meaningful for ethnic Chinese church leaders and members. The authors specifically propose two points of integration between public health and ecclesial functions: (1) HIV stigma-mitigation initiatives as informed by Christo-centric teachings of compassion and justice, and (2) HIV prevention and care reframed as social responsibility and informed by the Christian tradition of evangelism. Systems and practices that hinder and promote the involvement of Chinese churches in HIV prevention, care, and stigma-reduction will be discussed. PMID:23483037
Department of Veterans Affairs — Retrieves and updates data to indicate any award lines that have been reduced or terminated. The data is captured by the Fraud Decision screen (as part of the Awards...
Nagrecha, Saurabh; Johnson, Reid A; Chawla, Nitesh V
Nonstandard insurers suffer from a peculiar variant of fraud wherein an overwhelming majority of claims have the semblance of fraud. We show that state-of-the-art fraud detection performs poorly when deployed at underwriting. Our proposed framework "FraudBuster" represents a new paradigm in predicting segments of fraud at underwriting in an interpretable and regulation compliant manner. We show that the most actionable and generalizable profile of fraud is represented by market segments with high confidence of fraud and high loss ratio. We show how these segments can be reported in terms of their constituent policy traits, expected loss ratios, support, and confidence of fraud. Overall, our predictive models successfully identify fraud with an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.63 and an f-1 score of 0.769.
Madan Lal Bhasin
Full Text Available Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financial sector, money markets and growth of an economy. With the rapidly growing banking industry in India, frauds in banks are also increasing fast, and fraudsters have started using innovative methods. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 2013-14 among 345 bank employees to know their perception towards bank frauds, degree of their compliance level, and integration of technology to detect, control and prevent frauds. This study provides discussion of the attitudes, strategies, and the technology that bank specialists will need to combat frauds. Banks that can leverage advances in technology and analytics to improve fraud prevention will reduce their fraud losses. In 2015, the RBI introduced new mechanisms for banks to check loan frauds by taking pro-active steps by setting up a Central Fraud Registry, introduced the concept of Red Flagged Account, and Indian investigative agencies will soon start sharing their databases with banks.
... 3235-AK77 Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based... fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based... measured and reasonable means to prevent fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with security...
Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti Rozali
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on internal audit Inspection Office Bank BRI Bandung Region. The sample used by 18 internal auditors in Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region saturated sampling method. Based on calculation of simple regression analysis obtained result that every increase of implementation of risk based internal auditing (X will lead to increase fraud prevention (Y. It shows that there is a positive influence between the implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on the internal audit of Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region.
Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A.
Background Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. Objectives To gain better understanding of (i) Beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) Attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) Barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking program. Design An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64–90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8–11 participants. Methods Focus group audio tapes were transcribed and analyzed using standard content analysis methods. Results Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g., too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring ‘balance’ was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialization while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking program. Conclusions Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. Implications for practice A stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and
Artur Filipe Ewald Wuerges
Full Text Available Financial statement fraud (FSF is costly for investors and can damage the credibility of the audit profession. To prevent and detect fraud, it is helpful to know its causes. The binary choice models (e.g. logit and probit commonly used in the extant literature, however, fail to account for undetected cases of fraud and thus present unreliable hypotheses tests. Using a sample of 118 companies accused of fraud by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, we estimated a logit model that corrects the problems arising from undetected frauds in U.S. companies. To avoid multicollinearity problems, we extracted seven factors from 28 variables using the principal factors method. Our results indicate that only 1.43 percent of the instances of FSF were publicized by the SEC. Of the six significant variables included in the traditional, uncorrected logit model, three were found to be actually non-significant in the corrected model. The likelihood of FSF is 5.12 times higher when the firm’s auditor issues an adverse or qualified report.
Full Text Available Abstract: Determinans of Fraud of Social Assistance Expenditure in Local Government. This study aims to analyze the determinants of fraud of social assistance expenditures in Local Government. This study use Partial Least Square (PLS as method while Strcutural Equation Modeling (SEM used as analytical tool. The sample is all local governement in Central Java The data used in this study are Auditor Report of BPK.The results show that the determinant of the fraud of social assistance expenditure is internal control system weaknesses and non-compliance with laws and regulations. Therefore, these two factor need attention from local government, regulator and auditor in order to prevent social assistance expenditure in future period.
Gómez, C A; Hernández, M; Faigeles, B
In 1996, nearly 60% of U.S. AIDS cases among Latinas were attributed to unprotected sex with men. Economic disadvantage, language barriers, and strong cultural gender norms regarding sex exacerbate the risk for HIV infection among Latina immigrant women. Through a collaboration among scientists and providers, this study was designed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted empowerment program for Latina immigrant women on HIV risk behaviors. Women (N = 74) were followed for the first 6 months of their participation and attended up to nine distinct types of activities (e.g., information meetings, friendship circles, and workshops). Although the program was not developed to specifically target HIV risk behaviors, women showed significant increases in sexual communication comfort, were less likely to maintain traditional sexual gender norms, and reported changes in decision-making power. Targeting broader sociocultural issues may increase the necessary skills for Latina women to prevent HIV infection from their sexual partners. Successful collaborations between scientists and providers are critical in developing effective, community-relevant interventions.
Full Text Available Auditors have a key role in the formulation of an opinion on the effective functioning of management and control systems of the operational programs co-financed by ESIF. International Auditing Standards states that the primary responsibility for preventing and detecting fraud lies with both top management and those responsible for governance of the entity. On the other hand, the auditors also play a role in the fight against fraud and should help Member States fulfill their obligations to prevent, detect and correct irregularities and fraud.
Musau, Steve; Vian, Taryn
Hospitals are vulnerable to corruption. In the U.S., health care fraud has been stimated to cost $60 billion per year, or 3% of total health care expenditures - much of it in the hospital sector. Hospitals account for 50% or more of health care pending in many countries. Fraud and corruption in hospitals negatively affect access and quality, as public servants make off with resources which could have been used to reduce out-of-pocket expenditures for patients, or improve needed services. This...
frauds ENom 47.56% GMO Internet 17.48% Above 5.14% Go Daddy 4.11% Tucows 3.34% Key Systems 2.83% New Dream Network 1.54% Abdomainations 1.29% All...note that ENom is apparently much more victim of abuse than other top domain name registrars. Likewise, Above and GMO Internet rank highly with
Valentin – Stelian Bădescu
Full Text Available Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.. This component informational increasingly involves broader and more complex, with the technological advancement of computer science and globalization of human society, special measures to ensure the security of information. Cyber-crime is an illegal act committed by using a computer network (especially Internet. Cyber-crime is a subset of cybercrime.
Full Text Available The publication Corporate Fraud and Internal Control contains essential guidance for companies to examine and improve their fraud programs: Corporate governance legislation has become increasingly concerned with the ongoing resilience of organizations and, particularly, with their ability to resist corporate fraud from the lowest levels to the upper echelons of executive management. It has become unacceptable for those responsible for corporate governance to claim, "I didn't know". Corporate Fraud and Internal Control focuses on the appropriateness of the design of the system of internal controls in fraud risk mitigation, as well as the mechanisms to ensure effective implementation and monitoring on an ongoing basis.
Bruno Carneiro da Rocha; Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Júnior
This article aims to evaluate the use of techniques of decision trees, in conjunction with the managementmodel CRISP-DM, to help in the prevention of bank fraud. This article offers a study on decision trees, animportant concept in the field of artificial intelligence. The study is focused on discussing how these treesare able to assist in the decision making process of identifying frauds by the analysis of informationregarding bank transactions. This information is captured with the use of t...
The results showed that the influence of professionalism of internal auditor to fraud prevention is 40.07%, and the rest of 59.93% can be influenced by other variables that are not examined. And the amount of influence of professionalism of internal auditors to the detection of fraud is 37.33%, the rest of 62.67% can be influenced by other variables that are not examined.
Fraudulent misstatement or omission is deliberate amount or disclosures in financial statement. Perpetrators of fraud from people within the company can be from outside the company. Triggers fraud was caused by greed, needs, pressures, opportunities and rational.Financial statements contain material misstatements may result in financial statements are not presented fairly, in all material respects. Misstatement of financial statements may occur as a result of mistake or fraud. In order compan...
The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl
Badri, Parvaneh; Wolfe, Ruth; Farmer, Anna; Amin, Maryam
Barriers to accessing oral healthcare are public health concerns faced by minorities and immigrants due to socioeconomic marginalization. Therefore, we explored how immigrant parents in Alberta-Edmonton's Filipino community experience adherence to preventive dental attendance (PDA) for their preschool children and the psychosocial factors influencing parental adherence. We employed a qualitative focused ethnography design. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed verbatim and concurrent thematic data analysis was performed. Stressors, resources, paradox and structural barriers comprised emergent psychosocial themes. Upon arriving in Canada, most Filipino parents held low-priority attitudes and perceptions toward PDA. After migration, however, they embraced new knowledge about the importance of PDA for their children. Filipino parents were open to the Western model of preventive oral healthcare, with the duration of their time in Canada playing a key role in promoting regular dental visits for their children.
Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni
Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.
Full Text Available Accounting errors and fraud are common in most businesses, but there is a difference between fraud and misinterpretation of communication or accounting regulations. The role of management in preventing fraud becomes important in the last decades and the importance of auditing in curbing corruption is increasingly revealed. There is a strong connection between fraud and corruption, accelerated by electronic systems and modern platforms. The most recent developments tend to confirm that external auditing is curbing corruption, due to international accounting and auditing standards at national and regional levels. Thus, a better implementation of accounting standards and high quality of external control could prevent errors and fraud in accounting, and reduce corruption, as well. The aim of this paper is to present some particular aspects of errors and fraud in accounting, and how external audit could ensure accuracy and accountability in financial reporting.
Gunduz, Murat; Önder, Oytun
The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding about the internal fraud and corruption problem in the Turkish construction industry. The reasons behind the internal fraud and corruption problem as well as the types of prevention methods were investigated; and as a result various recommendations were made. To this end, a risk awareness questionnaire was used to understand the behavioral patterns of the construction industry, and to clarify possible proactive and reactive measures against internal fraud and corruption. The type of fraud experienced by Turkish construction companies was also surveyed in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 89 firms; and depending on the collected data, certain recommendations for construction industry professionals were provided.
Peterson, Bonita K.
Reports that limited fraud education takes place in accounting due to a crowded curriculum and misunderstanding of the extent of fraud. Suggests ways to develop content on the topic and provides a list of teaching materials (textbooks, workbooks, trade books, case materials, videos, and reference materials). (Contains 16 references.) (SK)
Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O
Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Tugwell, Peter; Pottie, Kevin; Welch, Vivian; Ueffing, Erin; Chambers, Andrea; Feightner, John
This article describes the evidence review and guideline development method developed for the Clinical Preventive Guidelines for Immigrants and Refugees in Canada by the Canadian Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health Guideline Committee. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) best-practice framework was combined with the recently developed Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to produce evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees in Canada. A systematic approach was designed to produce the evidence reviews and apply the GRADE approach, including building on evidence from previous systematic reviews, searching for and comparing evidence between general and specific immigrant populations, and applying the GRADE criteria for making recommendations. This method was used for priority health conditions that had been selected by practitioners caring for immigrants and refugees in Canada. This article outlines the 14-step method that was defined to standardize the guideline development process for each priority health condition.
Fragomen, A T
"On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures. excerpt
Raluca Georgiana POPA
Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.
Strong Internal Controls at Service Delivery Level Will Help Prevent CETA-Type Fraud and Abuse in Job Training Partnership Act Programs. Report to Senator Sam Nunn, Ranking Minority Member, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
The Government Accounting Office (GAO) conducted an examination of patterns and causes of fraud in Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs to determine how implementation of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs might be made less vulnerable to exploitation. GAO's investigation found that fraud and abuse in CETA programs…
Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel
Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.
Melendez, Rita M; Zepeda, Jorge; Samaniego, Rafael; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Alaniz, Gabriela
The objective of this study was to pilot test and evaluate a HIV prevention program that used a Freirean approach to engage Latino immigrant MSM (men who have sex with men) on issues of sexual orientation, family acceptance, stigma as well as HIV prevention and sexual risk behaviors. Participants were evaluated using a survey before and after participation in the program and compared to a control group. Focus groups where participants discussed their experiences in the program as well as perceptions of the program were held and analyzed. Survey results indicate that after their participation in the program, participants increased their safer sex behaviors, comfort disclosing their sexual orientation and support from friends. HIV prevention needs to incorporate cultural, social and structural factors.
Thornton, Dallas; van Capelleveen, Guido; Poel, Mannes; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Mueller, Roland
Fraud, waste, and abuse in the U.S. healthcare system are estimated at $700 billion annually. Predictive analytics offers government and private payers the opportunity to identify and prevent or recover such billings. This paper proposes a data-driven method for fraud detection based on comparative
Chung, Irene Wai Ming; Chu, Hsiao-Ching; Bloom, Scott
This article discusses a school and community collaborative initiative that targeted students of Chinese descent as a suicide at-risk population. Its main focus was to reach out to immigrant parents to help them strengthen communication and relationships with their adolescent children and to facilitate their access to mental health services in the…
Full Text Available Germany has a record of more than 40 years of below-replacement fertility and annual death surplus. Hence, it is commonly accepted that Germany’s population will decline considerably in the coming decades. Recent increases in immigration may, however, challenge the official long-term demographic projections for Germany. This paper assesses the impact of a permanent higher-than-expected level of net immigration to Germany as in the past three years on the projections for population, age structure and ethnic makeup by mid-century.The paper adds a higher immigration variant to the Federal Statistical Office’s latest Coordinated Population Projection and two variants of a (a constant or (b decreasing fertility rate among migrant women. It can be shown that with permanent net migration as high as in recent years (around 300,000 per annum, Germany’s population would not significantly decrease in the coming decades but would rather remain at 80 million until 2050. On the other hand, the sharp rise in the old-age dependency ratio is only mildly weakened by increased immigration rates. This issue is therefore probably best addressed by other (or additional means. The increase in retirees will level off after 2035 in any case. The ethnic makeup of society would be affected to a greater degree than its age composition: The share of first- and second-generation immigrants among the total population is projected to rise to about 35 percent in this scenario (and to above 40 percent if the third generation is also counted.
Wirtz, A L; Zelaya, C E; Peryshkina, A; Latkin, C; Mogilnyi, V; Galai, N; Dyakonov, K; Beyrer, C
Moscow has a large population of immigrants and migrants from across the Former Soviet Union. Little is studied about men who have sex with men (MSM) within these groups. Qualitative research methods were used to explore identities, practices, and factors affecting HIV prevention and risks among immigrant/migrant MSM in Moscow. Nine interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between April-June 2010 with immigrant/migrant MSM, analyzed as a subset of a larger population of MSM who participated in qualitative research (n=121). Participants were purposively selected men who reported same sex practices (last 12 months). Migrants were men residing in Moscow but from other Russian regions and immigrants from countries outside of Russia. A socioecological framework was used to describe distal to proximal factors that influenced risks for HIV acquisition. MSM ranged from heterosexual to gay-identified. Stigma and violence related to homophobia in homelands and concerns about xenophobia and distrust of migrants in Moscow were emerged as key themes. Participants reported greater sexual freedom in Moscow but feared relatives in homelands would learn of behaviors in Moscow, often avoiding members of their own ethnicity in Moscow. Internalized homophobia was prevalent and linked to traditional sexual views. Sexual risks included sex work, high numbers of partners, and inconsistent condom use. Avoidance of HIV testing or purchasing false results was related to reporting requirements in Russia, which may bar entry or expel those testing positive. HIV prevention for MSM should consider immigrant/migrant populations, the range of sexual identities, and risk factors among these men. The willingness of some men to socialize with immigrants/migrants of other countries may provide opportunities for peer-based prevention approaches. Immigrants/migrants comprised important proportions of the MSM population, yet are rarely acknowledged in research. Understanding their
Millard, Ann V; Graham, Margaret A; Wang, Xiaohui; Mier, Nelda; Sánchez, Esmeralda R; Flores, Isidore; Elizondo-Fournier, Marta
An immigrant Hispanic population in the Texas-Mexico border region urgently requested assistance with diabetes. The project team implemented an exploratory pilot intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in the general population through enhanced nutrition and physical activity. Social networks in low-income rural areas(colonias) participated in an adaptation of the Diabetes Empowerment Education Program. The program had a pre-post-test design with a comparison group. The intervention had a small but significant effect in lowering body mass index, the biological outcome variable. The process evaluation shows that the participants valued the pilot project and found it culturally and economically appropriate. This program was the first primary prevention program in diabetes to address a general population successfully. The study shows that low-income, rural Mexican American families will take ownership of a program that is participatory and tailored to their culture and economic situation.
Rashidian, Arash; Joudaki, Hossein; Vian, Taryn
Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan) were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. METHODS: The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. FINDINGS: The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. DISCUSSION: Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.
Full Text Available The paper explores forms of electronic fraud which are being perpetrated in the banking industry and the challenges being faced in an attempt to combat the risk. The paper is based on a descriptive study which studied the cyber fraud phenomenon using content analysis. To obtain the data questionnaires and interviews were administered to the selected informants from 22 banks. Convenience and judgemental sampling techniques were used. It was found out that most of the cited types of electronic fraud are perpetrated across the banking industry. Challenges like lack of resources (detection tools and technologies, inadequate cyber-crime laws and lack of knowledge through education and awareness were noted. It is recommended that the issue of cyber security should be addressed involving all the stakeholders so that technological systems are safeguarded from cyber-attacks
Full Text Available This article discussed a method that can be done by a company to minimize fraud action by applying Control Self Assessment (CSA. The study was conducted by studying literature on the topics discussed that were presented descriptively in a systematic manner through the review one by one from the initial problem to solve the problem. It can be concluded that CSA is one form of auditing practices that emphasizes anticipatory action (preventive of the act of detection (detective that the concept of modern internal audit which is carried more precise in application. It is one alternative that is most efficient and effective in reducing fraud.
In considering the implications of the varied nature of the potential targets, the paper identifies the view to develop effective intelligence analysis methodologies for network fraud detection and prevention by network administrators and stakeholders. The paper further notes that organizations are fighting an increasingly ...
Chien, Su-Chen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chun-Hsiu; Chang, Pei-Chi; Fang, Chiung-Hui; Yang, Hao-Jan
To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.
Full Text Available The paper investigates digital analytical tools and technologies used in electronic fraud prevention and detection, used in the banking industry. The paper is based on a descriptive study which studied digital forensics and cyber fraud phenomenon using content analysis. To obtain the data questionnaires and interviews were administered to the selected informants from 22 banks. Convenience and judgemental sampling techniques were used. It was found out that fraud detection and prevention tools and technologies would be most effective way of combating e-fraud if they can be utilized. It is concluded that banking institutions should reshape their anti-fraud strategies to be effective by considering fraud detection efforts using advanced analytics and related tools, software and application to get more efficient oversight
The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to define the underlying dimensions of psychosocial barriers to obtaining and providing dental care for young children among recent immigrants. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with 99 primary caregivers from African, South Asian, and Chinese recent immigrants. A secondary analysis of identified barriers using dimensional analysis methodology was performed to determine dimensions and properties of barriers. The analysis continued until irreducible properties were found or emerging dimensions were not relevant to the study. Identified dimensions were associated with barriers and individuals. Type, number, level, objectiveness, nature, and impact were barrier-related; awareness and controllability were individual-related dimensions. Type refers to barriers themselves. Number and level indicate the amount and location of barriers, respectively. Objectiveness refers to the extent that perceived barrier reflects reality and nature indicates its intrinsic characteristic. Impact concerns behaviors, goals, and outcomes compromised by barriers. Awareness alludes to the extent that individuals are aware of the barriers and controllability explains how much control people perceive to have over barriers. Identified dimensions are useful for better understanding and addressing existing barriers to children’s optimal oral health.
Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy
Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…
Griffioen, M.; Hel - van Dijk, van der E.C.J.M. (Lisette)
The Member States of the European Union (EU) are missing billions of Euros each year as a result of cross-border VAT fraud. After its introduction, the current VAT system appeared to contain flaws and proved to be vulnerable to fraud. Tackling VAT fraud since then has become serious business within
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms
Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not) for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms of ethnicity) and the use of
Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan
Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kobak, Dmitry; Shpilkin, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
Protests greeted the results of Russia's federal election in 2011, with accusations of vote-rigging and fraud. With the country heading to the polls again this September, Dmitry Kobak, Sergey Shpilkin and Maxim S. Pshenichnikov shine a light on several anomalies in the election data set.
The manual, intended for use by adults and not in the high school classroom situation, presents material directed toward assisting in the reduction of credit card crime. This teaching guide is organized in three sections which deal with the nature of and major reasons for credit card fraud, the types of hot card runners, and methods of reducing…
Gottfredson, Linda S.
Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…
Full Text Available The legislative bodies of the countries, members of the accounting and auditing profession, various associations have taken a number of preventive measures and mechanisms for combating corporate criminal activities and financial frauds, but unfortunately, the fact is that even today they often happen in both undeveloped and the most developed market economies. It is therefore essential to pay significant attention to corporate criminal activity and financial frauds that are happening in the business world. The aim of this paper is to show the presence of different forms of corporate criminal activity at a global level, and to display a conceptual framework of criminal activity and motives for their doing. Concluding remarks of this paper provide guidelines for further research and recommendations on how to improve the mechanisms for preventing and detecting criminal activity.
DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Fraud detection is an important application, since network operators lose a relevant portion of their revenue to fraud. ... testing the methods with data from real mobile communications networks. Keywords: Call data, fraud ...... Ph. D. thesis. Pur-.
a competing supplier or 20 contractor or engage in employment discussions with current or prospective contractors or suppliers (Kramer, 2012...contracts with competing firms and to disqualify themselves under appropriate circumstances (Edwards, 2006). Illegal bribes and gratuities are...crimes if offered to a federal employee or agent of the government, according to 18 U.S.C. § 201. Bribes are defined in 18 U.S.C. § 201(b) as an
Bermejo, I; Frank, F
In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud. 235.110 Section 235.110 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS § 235.110 Fraud. State plan requirements: A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act must provide: (a) That the State agency will establish and maintain: (1) Methods and...
Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea
The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.
Mu’azu Abdullahi Saulawa
Full Text Available The paper seeks to discuss an overview on the advanced fee fraud offences as well as cybercrime in Nigerian. The aims of the paper focus on discussing the advanced fee fraud under the related provisions of Advanced Fee Fraud Act 2006 on the success of the law in addressing the practices of crimes in relation to information technology. The paper also discusses the cybercrimes in Nigeria with a brief look out on the Cybercrime (Prohibition and Prevention Act 2015. Further, it also aims at examining the application of the law in the fraud offences which raises an issue of the regulatory framework of the cybercrime. The methodology adopted by the paper is doctrinal approach method wherein both primary and secondary sources of data were analysed, particularly the local laws and other relevant documents. The finding of the paper reveals that the relevant section of the in the Advanced Fee Fraud Act that deals with electronic communication has not been invoked. This is because the discussed relevant law under the advanced fee fraud did not in any away deal with cases concerning electronic communication under section 13. The paper recommends that there is a need to strengthen the adequacy of the legal framework on the Cybercrimes so as to checkmate such practices in Nigeria.
Madan Lal BHASIN
Full Text Available Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financialsector, money markets and growth of an economy. With the rapidly growingbanking industry in India, frauds in banks are also increasing very fast, andfraudsters have started using innovative methods. As part of the study, a questionnaire-basedsurvey was conducted in 2013-14 among 345 bank employees to know theirperception towards bank frauds and evaluate the factors that influence thedegree of their compliance level. This study provides a frank discussion of theattitudes, strategies and technology that specialists will need to combatfrauds in banks. In the modern era, there is “no silver bullet for fraudprotection; the double-edged sword of technology is getting sharper,day-in-day-out.” The use of neural network-based behavior models in real-timehas changed the face of fraud management all over the world. Banks that canleverage advances in technology and analytics to improve fraud prevention willreduce their fraud losses. Recently, forensic accounting has come into limelightdue to rapid increase in financial frauds or white-collar crimes.
Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negligence or fraud. 276.3 Section 276.3 Agriculture... Negligence or fraud. (a) General. If FNS determines that there has been negligence or fraud on the part of..., pay to FNS a sum equal to the amount of coupons issued as a result of such negligence or fraud. (b...
Painter, Thomas M
Hispanic/Latino migrants and immigrants are vulnerable to infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Participation in social support networks helps them cope with circumstances in the U.S. Studies of Hispanic/Latino migrants suggest that participation may also be protective against HIV/STD infection. However the studies do not satisfactorily explain how participation leads to protective actions, and recommend externally-induced interventions for HIV/STD prevention rather than incorporating the spontaneously occurring forms of social support they describe. Given the potential protective effects of support networks, a database search was conducted to ascertain the extent to which published HIV/STD prevention interventions for these populations incorporate their support networks. Very few interventions were identified and fewer still incorporate support networks. This commentary calls for research to understand more fully how support networks affect HIV/STD risks among Hispanic/Latino migrants and immigrants and identifies potential benefits of incorporating these networks in HIV/STD prevention for these vulnerable populations.
Full Text Available The rampant absorption of Bitcoin as a cryptographic currency, along with rising cybercrime activities, warrants utilization of anomaly detection to identify potential fraud. Anomaly detection plays a pivotal role in data mining since most outlying...
... a Glance Pre-Conference Programs Conference Sessions Registration Hotel & Travel Information Conference Tracks Credit Opportunities Anti-Fraud Expo Sponsors Programs Budget Adequately for 2018 Trainings NETS Webinars Launch Webinar ...
Braud, Chloé Elodie; Søgaard, Anders
The problem of detecting scientific fraud using machine learning was recently introduced, with initial, positive results from a model taking into account various general indicators. The results seem to suggest that writing style is predictive of scientific fraud. We revisit these initial experime......The problem of detecting scientific fraud using machine learning was recently introduced, with initial, positive results from a model taking into account various general indicators. The results seem to suggest that writing style is predictive of scientific fraud. We revisit these initial...... experiments, and show that the leave-one-out testing procedure they used likely leads to a slight over-estimate of the predictability, but also that simple models can outperform their proposed model by some margin. We go on to explore more abstract linguistic features, such as linguistic complexity...
Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill
Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...
Full Text Available This paper focuses on detailing the general coordinates regarding tax evasion and the necessity of creating a common unitary European legal framework. Accounting information might mirror erroneously in a certain measure the micro to macroeconomic tendency of fraud by showing a gross image of available resources. It is of the utmost importance to become fully aware of causes for illicit practices, ways to fight any fraud attempts and to evaluate the accounting mechanism that both creates and identifies tax evasion.
Edward Wong Sek Khin
Full Text Available Internet fraud is increasing on a daily basis with new methods for extracting funds from government, corporations, businesses in general, and persons appearing almost hourly. The increases in on-line purchasing and the constant vigilance of both seller and buyer have meant that the criminal seems to be one-step ahead at all times. To pre-empt or to stop fraud before it can happen occurs in the non-computer based daily transactions of today because of the natural intelligence of the players, both seller and buyer. Currently, even with advances in computing techniques, intelligence is not the current strength of any computing system of today, yet techniques are available which may reduce the occurrences of fraud, and are usually referred to as artificial intelligence systems.This paper provides an overview of the use of current artificial intelligence (AI techniques as a means of combating fraud.Initially the paper describes how artificial intelligence techniques are employed in systems for detecting credit card fraud (online and offline fraud and insider trading.Following this, an attempt is made to propose the using of MonITARS (Monitoring Insider Trading and Regulatory Surveillance Systems framework which use a combination of genetic algorithms, neural nets and statistical analysis in detecting insider dealing. Finally, the paper discusses future research agenda to the role of using MonITARS system.
Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.
Thornton, Dallas; Mueller, Roland; Schoutsen, Paulus; van Hillegersberg, Jos
It is estimated that approximately $700 billion is lost due to fraud, waste, and abuse in the US healthcare system. Medicaid has been particularly susceptible target for fraud in recent years, with a distributed management model, limited cross- program communications, and a difficult-to-track
K. R. Seeja
Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.
Seeja, K R; Zareapoor, Masoumeh
This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced) and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers.
Pressure to conform to a sustainability agenda is coming from customers, investors, employees, industry bodies and the media. This agenda is evolving into a critical part of an organisation's business model, and their relationships, opening up new market opportunities and supporting cost efficiencies. But all changes in business activities also raise the risk of fraud and abuse. Sustainability is no exception. The potential for fraud tends to be greater in new markets, when information is imperfect, standards of measurement and verification are not harmonised and governance is weak. The sustainability marketplace, taken as a whole, is all of these things. To a large extent, the types of fraud appearing are not new. They represent the application of tried and tested fraudulent practices to the sustainability arena. A comprehensive and robust design, rather than an ad hoc, piecemeal approach, is essential for a successful sustainability strategy. An awareness of the risk of potential fraud and the need to incorporate measures to protect against it are part of that process. Sustainable business practices, including a company's mitigation and carbon markets activities, are disclosed as either financial or non-financial data. In this paper, PwC examines some of the green fraud risks that companies face when engaged in such activities and the steps they can take to mitigate or eliminate them.
Edo, Galaxy Samson
Electronic-authentication methods, no matter how sophisticated they are in preventing fraud, must be able to identify people to a reasonable degree of certainty before any credentials are assured (Personix, 2006). User authentication is different from identity verification, and both are separate but vital steps in the process of securing…
Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy
To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care access. Participants were selected by ethnic encoding from consumer databases. California's northern, southern, and Central Valley regions. Nine hundred and five adult Hispanic, Chinese, Vietnamese, Hmong, and Korean Californians from households Media usage, food stamp participation, health insurance, health problems, access and availability of fruits and vegetables (FVs) and physical activity, beliefs about overweight, and related regulation and policy change. Descriptive statistics and percentages for all questions. Latinos reported receiving most information from television; Hmong from radio. Hispanics, Koreans, and Vietnamese thought diabetes was the greatest health issue in California. Among Hmong, 83% thought FVs were too expensive, and 49% of Vietnamese thought good quality, affordable fresh FVs were too hard to find. Identifying characteristics and opinions that distinguish these ethnic immigrant populations better enables the Network for a Healthy California to develop culturally relevant social marketing campaigns and materials. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leung, ManChui R; Chin, John J; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna
Immigrant religious organizations in the United States are uniquely positioned to address critical issues beyond religion because of their moral, social and cultural prominence in community life. Increasingly, religious organizations have taken on a leadership role around health issues such as decreasing HIV/AIDS stigma and misinformation. However, there are barriers for some religious leaders and organizations in adopting new health programs, especially if the issue is seen as controversial. Our study examines how social network structures among religious members influence organizational acceptance of new information or controversial ideas, like HIV/AIDS. Using social network analysis methods on data from 2841 contacts in 20 immigrant Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches in New York City, we tested whether an immigrant religious organization's likelihood of being involved in HIV/AIDS activities was associated with the presence of bonding or bridging social capital. These two forms of social capital have been found to mediate the levels of exposure and openness to new ideas. We found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have lower levels of bonding social capital as indicated by members having fewer ties and fewer demographic attributes in common. We also found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have higher levels of bridging social capital as indicated by members having significantly more ties to people outside of their organization. Our study highlights the importance of looking beyond religion type and leadership attributes to social network structures among members in order to better explain organization-level receptiveness to HIV/AIDS involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferrara, Pietro; Zenzeri, Letizia; Fabrizio, Giovanna C; Gatto, Antonio; Pio, Liberatore; Gargiullo, Luisa; Ianniello, Francesca; Valentini, Piero; Ranno, Orazio
In recent years the total number of foreigners taking up residence in Italy is increasing: the number of children born in Italy to foreign parents currently account for 15% of all babies born in the country. This population is generally referred to as "second-generation immigrants". We evaluated the health conditions of this particular population by investigating the vaccination coverage and auxological data in a group of foreign children living in a foster care setting and by comparing them to those regarding a group of foreign children living with their own parents. This study was conducted in a foster care association in Rome. The Pediatric Unit of "A. Gemelli" Hospital, Rome, provided all data for comparison. Two groups of children (group 1: 60 children from a foster care association; group 2: 91 children living with their parents; group 3: 112 healthy controls) with similar characteristics were taken into consideration. There were statistical differences between groups: the administration rate of hexavalent vaccine was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (84.6% vs. 65.0%) (P0.05), although the administration rate of serogroup C meningococcal vaccine was lower in group 1 (10/60; 16.7%) compared to group 2 (17/91; 18.7%) (P>0.05). As for auxological parameters, there were no statistical differences between groups. The data presented in this study seem to suggest the need for a special health programme to be promoted by the Italian National Health System in order to address the needs of the particular risk group of second-generation immigrant children. Vaccination coverage should be especially boosted, and pediatricians should have a key role in terms of awareness raising and education of immigrant families.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Fraud Control Units (MFCU or Unit) investigate and prosecute Medicaid fraud as well as patient abuse and neglect in health care facilities. OIG certifies,...
Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a Malaysian ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Various reports on the involvement of government officials in fraud cases indicate the lacking of ethical systems.
Maria Victoria Zunzunegui
Conclusion: The results suggest that financial fraud is detrimental to health. Further research should examine the mechanisms through which financial fraud impacts health. If our results are confirmed psychological and medical care should be provided, in addition to financial compensation.
S. van den Braak; R. Choenni; M.S. Bargh
Legal persons (i.e., entities such as corporations, companies, partnerships, firms, associations, and foundations) may commit financial crimes or employ fraudulent activities like money laundering, tax fraud, or bankruptcy fraud. Therefore, in the Netherlands legal persons are automatically screened
Cai, Yuanfeng; Zhu, Dan
Background: The reputation system has been designed as an effective mechanism to reduce risks associated with online shopping for customers. However, it is vulnerable to rating fraud. Some raters may inject unfairly high or low ratings to the system so as to promote their own products or demote their competitors. Method: This study explores the rating fraud by differentiating the subjective fraud from objective fraud. Then it discusses the effectiveness of blockchain technology in objective f...
Chen, Jidong; Tao, Ye; Wang, Haoran; Chen, Tao
With development of mobile internet and finance, fraud risk comes in all shapes and sizes. This paper is to introduce the Fraud Risk Management at Alibaba under big data. Alibaba has built a fraud risk monitoring and management system based on real-time big data processing and intelligent risk models. It captures fraud signals directly from huge amount data of user behaviors and network, analyzes them in real-time using machine learning, and accurately predicts the bad users and transactions....
Helton, Jeffrey R
Fraud associated with electronic health records (EHRs) generally falls into two categories: inappropriate billing by healthcare providers and inappropriate access by a system's users. A provider's EHR system requires controls to be of any significant help in detecting such fraudulent activity, or in gathering transactional evidence should such activity be identified. To protect against potential EHR-related healthcare fraud, providers should follow the recommendations established in 2007 by RTI International for the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Silvis, I.C.J.; Ruth, van S.M.; Fels, van der Ine; Luning, P.A.
Recent scandals have increased the need to strengthen companies’ ability to combat fraud within their own organizations and across their supply chain. Vulnerability assessments are a first step towards the inventory of fraud vulnerability and fraud mitigation plans. Spices are reported frequently
Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can
Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of
..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Forfeiture § 3.901 Fraud. (a) Definition. An act... death benefit payable. (2) Amount of compensation payable but for the forfeiture. No benefits are... affidavit, declaration, certificate, statement, voucher, or paper, concerning any claim for benefits under...
Porkess, Roger; Mason, Stephen
This article, written jointly by a mathematician and a barrister, looks at some of the statistical issues raised by court cases based on fraud involving chip and PIN cards. It provides examples and insights that statistics teachers should find helpful. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
Linke, Kristina Gisela Babette
Verslaggevingsfraude is het manipuleren van de boekhouding om betere cijfers te laten zien. Kristina Linke onderzocht deze vorm van fraude, waarbij zij vooral keek naar de rol van de controller. Dat gebeurde aan de hand van 244 aanklachten in de periode 2000-2006 in de Verenigde Staten. Uit het
Leemann, Lucas; Bochsler, Daniel
, we propose a more encompassing approach, testing for several empirical implications of different possible forms of fraud. To illustrate this approach we rely on a case of electoral irregularities in one of the oldest democracies: In a Swiss referendum in 2011, one in twelve municipalities irregularly...
Baker, C. Richard
Examines the issue of fraud on the Internet and discusses three areas with significant potential for misleading and fraudulent practices: securities sales and trading; electronic commerce, including privacy and information protection; and the rapid growth of Internet companies, including advertising issues. (Author/LRW)
Owolabi, S. A. - Accounting Department, Babcock University, Nigeria. E-mail: ... Abstract. The paper reviews the various forms of fraudulent practice their impact and ... legislations targeted at reducing fraud and introducing some forms of control .... money market and treasury, risk assets, information technology, financial.
Nkotagu, Gabriel Hudson
Internet fraud takes a number of forms with the responsible individuals changing tactics rapidly to avoid detection. The perpetrators rely on telemarketing, emails, as well as presenting themselves personally to unsuspecting people. The evolution of internet marketing as well as ecommerce and the ease of connectivity create increasing…
Ethics CPD Supplement: Ethics in health care: Healthcare Fraud. S10. Vol 56 No 1 Supplement 1. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Introduction. Vintage images are easily found depicting a virtuous doctor with a look of honesty and compassion on his or her face bending over a patient, stethoscope in hand, ready to perform a clinical ...
Full Text Available This study attempts to integrate ethical values into the fraud triangle theory in the context of Malaysian banking industry. Primary data were collected through the survey of 108 questionnaires administered to the employees of the top three largest banks in Malaysia. The findings revealed that ethical values were negatively related to employee fraud, and two elements of fraud triangle theory, namely, opportunity and rationalization, were positively related to employee fraud. This implies that high ethical value is crucial to mitigate employee fraud. To minimize employee fraud, the banking industry should reduce opportunities and employee negative rationalization through strong internal control. This study contributes to literature on the occurrences of employee fraud, which is not widely discussed, especially in the context of the banking industry in developing countries.
... employment cases. 68.15 Section 68.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING... FRAUD § 68.15 Intervenor in unfair immigration-related employment cases. The Special Counsel, or any...
Full Text Available During the last year we had observed different types of misconduct in the submitted manuscripts into the editorial office. Those are included attempted theft of data, presence of ghost authors, gift authorship, dual submissions, salami publications, falsification and some other types of fraud. Our analysis in the editorial office led us to conclude that research fraud is an important issue and should be discussed clearly. The emphasis on competition and pressure to produce published materials, while internal intention to discover the scientific truth may foster a conflict between personal career goals and human intellectual motivation; finally may induce research misconduct. Having accurate and good knowledge in this field is mandatory for researchers especially the younger ones. In the first part of this article we will discuss a short but important part of the history of this problem and in the second part definition and editorial response will be reviewed
Park, R. L.
Ancient beliefs in demons and magic still sweep across the modern landscape, but they are now dressed in the language and symbols of science. This is pseudoscience. At least in the beginning, its practitioners may believe it to be science, just as witches and faith healers may truly believe they can call forth supernatural powers. What may begin as honest error, however, has a way of evolving through almost imperceptible steps from self-delusion to fraud.
Emilia Cornelia STOICA
Full Text Available Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial flows to tax havens highlight the far-reaching unprecedented evasion and tax fraud, both in the amounts involved - trillions of dollars - and sophisticated assemblies used primarily by multinational companies to the detriment of the public finances of Member territory headquarters and branches which are located and, therefore, detrimental economic and social life of those countries. Tax evasion is based on legal mechanisms which, combined together in the montages of increasingly complex, allowing operators, mostly multinational legal entities to circumvent national tax law and not pay the taxes due. The border between tax optimization, tax evasion and fraud is very thin, optimization using various legal methods to reduce the tax owed, whereas tax evasion using illegal means, which covered crime. Tax evasion reveals either optimize or fraud. There is a significant international dimension of tax evasion because it is favored by multinational corporations operating conditions.
Joshua Onome Imoniana
Full Text Available This study is aimed at analyzing the characteristics of forensic accounting services performed by the accounting firms in Brazil, using an exploratory approach. At the end, performs a discourse analysis on a speech proffered by the CEO of one of the key players of forensic accounting service provider (Kroll in Brazil. In order to orientate this reflection, we pose the following question: what is the characteristic of forensic accounting that substantiates it as professional accountants’ innovation to curb corporate accounting malpractices? In this intent, we accept the premise that the bone of contention in some unhealthy business environment is the inability of auditor to track frauds. We used the icons (categories and/or nodes that dynamically represent formalism in the theory of self re-production to explain the patterns met in the speech. Our finding makes us to conclude that the idea that frauds have been least detected by auditors begins to gain shape as auditors are more adequately trained to detect fraud instead of emphasizing the traditional segregation of duties and safeguard of assets.
Full Text Available We have appreciated that this paper can be structured in four chapters that will explain the inevitable negative effects generated by tax and fiscal fraud, which are felt in the level of fiscal revenue, determining major malfunctions in the mechanism of the markets. In the economic reality and in the rise of the tax fraud phenomenon, in the contemporary fiscal doctrine it is stated that the public desiderate of “loyal collaboration between the tax payer and the revenue agency” with the purpose of correctly setting taxes and tariffs and other required fund needed for creating public interest monetary funds. The economic, social and political globalization tendencies of the last decade have stimulated and supported actions relating to eluding the fiscal dispositions, actions which have moved more and more from the center of the national fiscal system towards the exterior, outside the field of action of the national fiscal law. In this regard show that reducing fiscal evasion, allows the creation of budgetary resources, necessary for funds allocation for economical growth. In Romania, one of the basic economic problems is the lack of investment resources allocated, these being the main contributor to economic growth, in which the reduction of fraud and tax evasion is the solution to increase this allocation which can be rated as one of the priority tasks of the state.
the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...
Full Text Available In the last decades, tax fraud has grown, being catalogued as a serious impediment in the way of economic development. The paper aims to make contributions on two levels: a Theoretical level - by synthesis methodologies for estimating tax fraud and b Empirical level - by analyzing fraud mechanisms and dynamics of this phenomenon, properly established methodologies. To achieve the objective, we have appealed to the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Whatever the context that generates tax fraud mechanisms, the ultimate goal of fraudsters is the same: total or partial avoidance of taxation, respectively obtaining public funds unduly. The increasing complexity of business (regarded as a tax base and failure to adapt prompt of legal regulations to new contexts have allowed diversification and “improving” the mechanisms of fraud, creating additional risks for accuracy estimates of tax fraud.
Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta
Women from high-mortality settings in sub-Saharan Africa can remain at risk for adverse maternal outcomes even after migrating to low-mortality settings. To conceptualise underlying socio-cultural factors, we assume a 'maternal migration effect' as pre-migration influences on pregnant women's post-migration care-seeking and consistent utilisation of available care. We apply the 'three delays' framework, developed for low-income African contexts, to a high-income western scenario, and aim to identify delay-causing influences on the pathway to optimal facility treatment. We also compare factors influencing the expectations of women and maternal health providers during care encounters. In 2005-2006, we interviewed 54 immigrant African women and 62 maternal providers in greater London, United Kingdom. Participants were recruited by snowball and purposive sampling. We used a hermeneutic, naturalistic study design to create a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were triangulated to the framework and to the national health system maternity care guidelines. This maintained the original three phases of (1) care-seeking, (2) facility accessibility, and (3) receipt of optimal care, but modified the framework for a migration context. Delays to reciprocal care encounters in Phase 3 result from Phase 1 factors of 'broken trust, which can be mutually held between women and providers. An additional factor is women's 'negative responses to future care', which include rationalisations made during non-emergency situations about future late-booking, low-adherence or refusal of treatment. The greatest potential for delay was found during the care encounter, suggesting that perceived Phase 1 factors have stronger influence on Phase 3 than in the original framework. Phase 2 'language discordance' can lead to a 'reliance on interpreter service', which can cause delays in Phase 3, when 'reciprocal incongruent language ability' is worsened by suboptimal interpreter systems
Horvat Ivan; Pejić Bach Mirjana; Merkač Skok Marjana
Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow mo...
Sithic, H. Lookman; Balasubramanian, T.
With an increase in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection has become an emerging topics of great importance for academics, research and industries. Financial fraud is a deliberate act that is contrary to law, rule or policy with intent to obtain unauthorized financial benefit and intentional misstatements or omission of amounts by deceiving users of financial statements, especially investors and creditors. Data mining tec...
Rahman, Mizanur; Recabarren, Ruben; Carbunar, Bogdan; Lee, Dongwon
The profitability of fraud in online systems such as app markets and social networks marks the failure of existing defense mechanisms. In this paper, we propose FraudSys, a real-time fraud preemption approach that imposes Bitcoin-inspired computational puzzles on the devices that post online system activities, such as reviews and likes. We introduce and leverage several novel concepts that include (i) stateless, verifiable computational puzzles, that impose minimal performance overhead, but e...
Economic crime is always actual theme, even more when economy finds itself in crisis. It is a well-known fact, that in such times fraud risk increases even inside organizations. This thesis is dealing with economic crime from the perspective of auditor and fraud examiner and likewise in the terms of Czech criminal law. Fraud, as both professions call economic criminality, implies higher costs for organizations, that's why both private and government sector organizations strives to fight it. S...
Jiwon Seo; Mendelevitch, Ofer
Healthcare industry is growing at a rapid rate to reach a market value of $7 trillion dollars world wide. At the same time, fraud in healthcare is becoming a serious problem, amounting to 5% of the total healthcare spending, or $100 billion dollars each year in US. Manually detecting healthcare fraud requires much effort. Recently, machine learning and data mining techniques are applied to automatically detect healthcare frauds. This paper proposes a novel PageRank-based algorithm to detect healthcare frauds and anomalies. We apply the algorithm to Medicare-B dataset, a real-life data with 10 million healthcare insurance claims. The algorithm successfully identifies tens of previously unreported anomalies.
Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.
Marvin, Hans J P; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Janssen, Esmée M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Asselt, Esther D; Kleter, Gijs A
Production of sufficient, safe and nutritious food is a global challenge faced by the actors operating in the food production chain. The performance of food-producing systems from farm to fork is directly and indirectly influenced by major changes in, for example, climate, demographics, and the economy. Many of these major trends will also drive the development of food safety risks and thus will have an effect on human health, local societies and economies. It is advocated that a holistic or system approach taking into account the influence of multiple "drivers" on food safety is followed to predict the increased likelihood of occurrence of safety incidents so as to be better prepared to prevent, mitigate and manage associated risks. The value of using a Bayesian Network (BN) modelling approach for this purpose is demonstrated in this paper using food fraud as an example. Possible links between food fraud cases retrieved from the RASFF (EU) and EMA (USA) databases and features of these cases provided by both the records themselves and additional data obtained from other sources are demonstrated. The BN model was developed from 1393 food fraud cases and 15 different data sources. With this model applied to these collected data on food fraud cases, the product categories that thus showed the highest probabilities of being fraudulent were "fish and seafood" (20.6%), "meat" (13.4%) and "fruits and vegetables" (10.4%). Features of the country of origin appeared to be important factors in identifying the possible hazards associated with a product. The model had a predictive accuracy of 91.5% for the fraud type and demonstrates how expert knowledge and data can be combined within a model to assist risk managers to better understand the factors and their interrelationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erim, Yesim; Morawa, Eva
In view of the growing proportion of immigrants and refugees in the population of Germany the knowledge on the influence of culture and migration on identity, and mental health presents a substantial basis for effective therapy. This article addresses important topics of psychotherapy with immigrants in general and with refugees in particular. Following issues selected according to their relevance and actuality are highlighted: definition of persons with migration background, migrants and refugees, facts on immigration to Germany, main results and theories on mental health of immigrants, social psychological aspects of intercultural psychotherapy (individualism vs. collectivism, stereotypes, discrimination etc.), psychosomatic diagnostics in intercultural context, diversity management in institutions, language and use of translators, living conditions of immigrants - stress and protective factors in immigrant mental health, post traumatic stress disorders among refugees: their prevalence, risk factors, diagnostics, course, multimodal psychosocial interventions in consulting centers, trauma focused interventions, trauma pedagogics, education and prevention of the volunteers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard
Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.
Pracha P. Eamranond
Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.
Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew
Horse meat in your beef burger. Melamine in milk powder. Dilution of your superior-quality honey, whiskey, fruit juice or rice with inferior substitutes. Reports of food fraud make regular headlines in the media, but how big is the problem? It is very difficult to say because one of the objectives of the deception perpetrated on consumers is to avoid detection, but an estimate by the World Customs Organisation puts the cost of food fraud at US $49 billion annually. There are many different types of food fraud, but two have particular food safety implications; economically motivated adulteration (EMA), and substitution. A Federal Register Notice 2 of a 2009 FDA Open Meeting defines EMA as “The fraudulent, intentional substitution or addition of a substance in a product for the purpose of increasing the apparent value of the product or reducing the cost of its production, i.e., for economic gain. EMA includes dilution of products with increased quantities of an already-present substance (e.g., increasing inactive ingredients of a drug with a resulting reduction in strength of the finished product, or watering down of juice) to the extent that such dilution poses a known or possible health risk to consumers, as well as the addition or substitution of substances in order to mask dilution.” The investment by producers in technology to ensure safety and quality should result in higher prices and greater market access for their produce. The higher prices, however, provide the motivation for fraudsters. When a fraudster puts a genuine producer’s label on a cheaper product to pass it off as the higher quality article the result is, at the very least, a loss of sale for the genuine producer. If the consumer has a bad experience with the item, brand damage will result and possibly even liability for recall or response
Written and edited by known experts in the field, the content is indeed of high quality and very informative. The logical structure and writing style are excellent, which is a challenging task when there are so many contributors. The book is a must-read for several reader categories. I strongly recommend some of the technical chapters to advanced undergraduate and graduate computer science students. Law students can use the book to grasp the necessary technical background material for investigating cyber fraud. Finally, it is also for readers who wish to learn about the current state of
Aranda de Miguel, Jorge
RESUMEN: En la actualidad, el fraude académico constituye un serio problema para toda la comunidad universitaria. Herramientas de detección automatizadas pueden ser de gran utilidad para los docentes a la hora de detectar estos casos. El objeto de estudio de este proyecto es tratar de conocer la mejor manera de resolver el problema de la detección del plagio, así como conocer y explicar las diversas técnicas conocidas que existen para analizar el lenguaje humano y lenguajes de programación...
Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey
Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Thornton, Dallas; Brinkhuis, Michel; Amrit, Chintan; Aly, Robin
Today, the over $2 trillion US healthcare system is ravaged by fraud, waste, and abuse, with an estimated one-third of all these costs frivolously spent in such ways. Sun Tzu wrote, "Every battle is won or lost before it's ever fought." To combat healthcare fraud, we must understand it and the forms
... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE BONDING REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Scope of the Bond § 453.12 Meaning of fraud or dishonesty. The term “fraud or dishonesty” shall be deemed to encompass all those risks of loss that might arise through dishonest or...
The paper reviews the various forms of fraudulent practice their impact and inducement for various reforms in banking industry. It also mentions various legislations targeted at reducing fraud and introducing some forms of control and reporting systems. Various theories of fraud are examined and detailed analysis of various ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for fraud. 410.699a Section 410.699a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.699a Penalties for fraud. The penalty...
Internet fraud is one of the most rapidly increasing forms of cybercrime. It has become rampant among students generally because they make use of different Internet devices in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors responsible for students' involvement in Internet fraud as expressed by tertiary ...
Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.
Full Text Available Along with the great increase of internet and e-commerce, the use of credit card is an unavoidable one. Due to the increase of credit card usage, the frauds associated with this have also increased. There are a lot of approaches used to detect the frauds. In this paper, behavior based classification approach using Support Vector Machines are employed and efficient feature extraction method also adopted. If any discrepancies occur in the behaviors transaction pattern then it is predicted as suspicious and taken for further consideration to find the frauds. Generally credit card fraud detection problem suffers from a large amount of data, which is rectified by the proposed method. Achieving finest accuracy, high fraud catching rate and low false alarms are the main tasks of this approach.
Yunsen; Chen; Song; Zhu; Yutao; Wang
Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank,as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment By focusing on Chinese firms’borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud,we find that firms’bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower,but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms.In addition,loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before,but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts.In addition,we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the"performance-bank loan"relationship.Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing,which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.
Peter J. Best
Full Text Available Enterprise systems, real time recording and real time reporting pose new and significant challenges to the accounting and auditing professions. This includes developing methods and tools for continuous assurance and fraud detection. In this paper we propose a methodology for continuous fraud detection that exploits security audit logs, changes in master records and accounting audit trails in enterprise systems. The steps in this process are: (1 threat monitoring-surveillance of security audit logs for â€˜red flagsâ€™, (2 automated extraction and analysis of data from audit trails, and (3 using forensic investigation techniques to determine whether a fraud has actually occurred. We demonstrate how mySAP, an enterprise system, can be used for audit trail analysis in detecting financial frauds; afterwards we use a case study of a suspected fraud to illustrate how to implement the methodology.
Full Text Available Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank, as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment. By focusing on Chinese firms’ borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud, we find that firms’ bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower, but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms. In addition, loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before, but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts. In addition, we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the “performance-bank loan” relationship. Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing, which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.
Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Henrik Mäkinen, Ilkka
Little research has focused on the relation of immigration and suicidal behaviour in youth. Nevertheless, the impact of migration on the mental health of youth is an issue of increasing societal importance. This review aimed to present studies on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in various countries and to provide possible explanations for suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth, especially regarding acculturation. The review included a literature search to locate articles on the subject of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in the context of acculturation. Studies on suicidal behaviour in culturally diverse youth are few and most of the existing research does not differentiate ethnic minorities from immigrants. Studies on epidemiology and on specific risk factors were found regarding various immigrant youth including Hispanics in the United States, Asians in North America and Europe, as well as comparative studies between different immigrant groups in specific countries. The relation between immigration status and suicidal behaviours in youth appears to vary by ethnicity and country of settlement. Time spent in the new country as well as intergenerational communication and conflicts with parents have, in many of the studies, been related to suicidality in immigrant youth. Summing up, there is a clear and urgent need to further pursue the work in this field, to develop targeted public health interventions as well as psychosocial treatment for preventing suicide in these youth.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of economic fraud and the role of Internal Audit as a tool for preventing it. As the economic downturn intensifies, the possibility of disputes and other difficulties arises more frequently. More often employees and contracting parties try to shift their own losses on to other economic entities. When internal rules are broken or either are not established, organizations are exposed to risks and problems that they are often not used to dealing with. As the analyzed case study showed threats of an economic fraud can come also from inside the company. Embezzlement concerning expense reimbursement is one of the most “popular” ways to steal money from inside the company. To prevent such situations from happening Internal Audit Unit has to perform assurance and consulting actions to deter this particular and any other type of fraud. When the actual fraud occurs an important element, is the properly divide roles between an internal auditor and the forensic specialist who is adequately prepared to lead the investigation, find evidence, and bring fraudsters to justice.
Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles
In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…
Burnes, David; Henderson, Charles R; Sheppard, Christine; Zhao, Rebecca; Pillemer, Karl; Lachs, Mark S
The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers. A valid estimate of elder financial fraud-scam prevalence is necessary as a foundation for research and prevention efforts. To estimate the prevalence of elder financial fraud-scam victimization in the United States based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Multiple investigators independently screened titles and abstracts and reviewed relevant full-text records from PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and AgeLine databases. To maximize the validity and generalizability of prevalence estimation, we restricted eligibility to general population-based studies (English speaking, 1990 onward) using state- or national-level probability sampling and collecting data directly from older adults. Information on elder financial fraud-scam prevalence and study-level characteristics was extracted independently by 2 investigators. Meta-analysis of elder financial fraud-scam prevalence used generalized mixed models with individual studies as levels of a random classification factor. We included 12 studies involving a total of 41 711 individuals in the meta-analysis. Overall pooled elder financial fraud-scam prevalence (up to 5-year period) across studies was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0%, 7.8%), with a 1-year period prevalence of 5.4% (95% CI = 3.2%, 7.6%). Studies using a series of questions describing specific fraud-scam events to measure victimization found a significantly higher prevalence (7.1%; 95% CI = 4.8%, 9.4%) than studies
Dorronsoro, J R; Ginel, F; Sgnchez, C; Cruz, C S
This paper presents an online system for fraud detection of credit card operations based on a neural classifier. Since it is installed in a transactional hub for operation distribution, and not on a card-issuing institution, it acts solely on the information of the operation to be rated and of its immediate previous history, and not on historic databases of past cardholder activities. Among the main characteristics of credit card traffic are the great imbalance between proper and fraudulent operations, and a great degree of mixing between both. To ensure proper model construction, a nonlinear version of Fisher's discriminant analysis, which adequately separates a good proportion of fraudulent operations away from other closer to normal traffic, has been used. The system is fully operational and currently handles more than 12 million operations per year with very satisfactory results.
Full Text Available This paper provides an effective tool «fraud risk map« for organizations and auditors in mathematic assessment procedures, with real, tangible results, regarding the organization’s fraud risk exposure. Overcoming the fade and purely theoretical risk assessment methods («based on professional judgement – risk: high, medium, low«, the paper presents risk indicators as warning signals and quantitative and qualitative methods for risk assessment. Illustrating scalability methods and developping a practical tools for material misstatement of the economic entity financial statements, the case study presented, on sales operations, brigs added value to auditors work in the fraud risk assessment procedures.
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine a number of factors that affect the accounting fraud. This study used the variables consisting of information asymmetry, organizational commitment and individual morality. Theauthors study surveyed the employees at the Office for Management of Regional Revenue, Finance and Assets (Dinas Pendapatan Pengelolaan Keuangan Aset, Yogyakarta Province. This study uses convenience sampling technique method. The data from 96 respondents revealed that the variables of information asymmetry and organizational commitment significantly enhanced the accounting fraud while the individual morality significantly diminished the accounting fraud.
Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody
Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…
Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.
M. C. Campagna
Full Text Available The present study reports a case of food fraud occurred in the Lazio region. Using the Isoelectrofocusing we revealed the substitution of tub-gurnard, with the less valuable commercial fish, pangasius.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on implementing Data Mining methods for card fraud detection. The approach to classification and prediction tasks for detection of unauthorized transactions is considered.
Gendered alternative to cyber fraud participation: an assessment of technological driven crime in Lagos State, Nigeria. Ajibade Ebenezer Jegede, Ayotunde Oluwadamilola Elegbeleye, Elizabeth Ibunkunoluwa Olowookere, Bankole Roberts Olorunyomi ...
Software agent Technology: A Framework for Minimizing Fraud in Postpaid Billing Systems. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... to the traditional Object-oriented Software engineering methodology was used to come up with this ...
To discuss the significance of "identity fraud"-a term that encompasses a broad range of illegal activities based on fraudulent use of identifying information of a real person or of a fictitious person...
Albrecht, Chad; Holland, Daniel; Malagueño, Ricardo; Dolan, Simon; Tzafrir, Shay
In this paper, we investigate a large-scale financial statement fraud to better understand the process by which individuals are recruited to participate in financial statement fraud schemes. The case reveals that perpetrators often use power to recruit others to participate in fraudulent acts. To illustrate how power is used, we propose a model, based upon the classical French and Raven taxonomy of power, that explains how one individual influences another individual to participate in financi...
Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie
PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...
Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau; Arno Riedl; Marie Claire Villeval
En période de crise économique, les besoins de l’Etat augmentent et l’assiette fiscale se réduit ; il est alors courant de voir resurgir dans le débat public la lutte contre les diverses formes de fraude qui reduisent les recettes publiques. Dans ce contexte, on oppose régulièrement fraude fiscale à fraude sociale et la discussion porte souvent sur l’importance relative de l’une et de l’autre. On entend par fraude fiscale le détournement illégal d’un système fiscal afin de ne pas contribuer a...
Wilson, Fernando A; Wang, Yang; Stimpson, Jim P
natives. Immigrant patients may need targeted interventions that reduce barriers to care and change their perceptions so that regular eye care services are viewed as necessary and preventative.
Full Text Available The 2014 ‘Report to the Nations on Occupational Fraud and Abuse’ released by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners estimates that the potential projected losses from occupational fraud globally could run as high as US$3.7 trillion every year. In Australia, several studies have found that the Australian public sector entities are also significantly exposed to fraud. This article considers the case of the Australian City of Joondalup and asks whether its management accounting function can provide city management with the necessary data to enable effective control over occupational fraud and whether fraud control activities specifically directed towards fraud control can be a regular feature thereof. It is concluded that although aspects of fraud control are encompassed within the broader strategies of the City, it can significantly enhance its ability to control occupational fraud by leveraging its regular management reporting and analysis function.
Andrade, E L; Evans, W D; Barrett, N D; Cleary, S D; Edberg, M C; Alvayero, R D; Kierstead, E C; Beltran, A
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence. Building on prior research, we conducted a four-phase formative research process, and planned the Adelante social marketing campaign based on findings from one group interview and ongoing consultation with Adelante staff (n=8) and four focus groups with youth (n=35). Participants identified four overarching campaign themes, and suggested portrayal of resilient, proud youth who achieved goals despite adversity. Youth guided selection of campaign features and engagement strategies, including message/visual content, stylistic elements, and a mixed language approach. We developed a 12-month campaign to be delivered via print ads, multi-platform social media promotion, contests, youth-generated videos, blog posts, and text messaging. We describe the process and outcome of campaign development and make recommendations for future campaigns.
Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong
The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...
Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...
Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso
We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...
Full Text Available This study examines accounting fraud in relation to the characteristics of company executives. The study portrays the degree to which company as well as personal motives could urge an executive to commit fraud. Subsequently, we attempt to identify the degree to which certain socio-economic factors and the existence of strong internal audit mechanisms act as deterrence agents. Furthermore, we investigate the personal financial gain in relation to annual income as a motivator to commit fraud. Finally, we examine the optimal imprisonment duration as a deterrent and the overall probability to commit fraud. The research method was based in the distribution of a questionnaire and took place in the city of Thessaloniki and the region of West Macedonia and Thessaly. The participants were executives in the banking, financial and insurance sector. Our findings show that it is mostly personal factors that motivate an executive to commit fraud, but the fear of immediate legal sanctions and the existence of strong internal audit mechanisms are effective deterrence agents.
Full Text Available Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow models for fraud detection in leasing. The decision tree method was used for creating a classification model, and the CHAID algorithm was deployed. Results: The decision tree model has indicated that the object of the leasing agreement had the strongest impact on the probability of fraud. Conclusions: In order to enhance the probability of the developed model, it would be necessary to develop software that would enable automated, quick and transparent retrieval of data from the system, processing according to the rules and displaying the results in multiple categories.
Tri Ramaraya Koroy
Full Text Available Objectives of this paper are to identify and describe the problems in detecting the financial statement fraud in auditing financial statements by external auditors. Although detection of fraud is important to enhance the value of auditing, there are many problems that impede the appropriate implementation of detection. Based on review of related research that have bee done, there are four factors that identified in this paper. First, the characteristic of fraud occurence made it difficult for detection process. Second, auditing standards is not sufficiently supporst the proper detection. Third, work environment of audit may reduce the quality and the last, audit methods and procedures are not enough for efective detection. Based on this identified problems, the improvement of implementation was suggested. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Tujuan makalah ini adalah mengidentifikasi dan menguraikan permasalahan dalam pendeteksian kecurangan dalam audit atas laporan keuangan oleh auditor eksternal. Meskipun pendeteksian kecurangan penting untuk meningkatkan nilai pengauditan, namun terdapat banyak masalah yang dapat menghalangi implementasi dari pendeteksian yang tepat. Berdasarkan telaah atas berbagai penelitian yang telah dilakukan, ada terdapat empat faktor penyebab besar yang diidentifikasikan melalui makalah ini. Pertama, karakteristik terjadinya kecurangan sehingga menyulitkan proses pendeteksian. Kedua, standar pengauditan belum cukup memadai untuk menunjang pendeteksian yang sepantasnya. Ketiga, lingkungan kerja audit dapat mengurangi kualitas audit dan keempat metode dan prosedur audit yang ada tidak cukup efektif untuk melakukan pendeteksian kecurangan. Berdasarkan permasalahan ini, perbaikan yang perlu disarankan untuk diterapkan. Kata kunci: auditing, fraud, financial statement fraud
Robertson, Robert E.
The Child and Adult Care Food Program provides over $1.5 billion in benefits annually to children and adults in day care. In order to address the longstanding problems of fraud and abuse present in the program, state agencies have been charged with the responsibility for implementing Food and Nutrition Service's (FNS) regulations to prevent and…
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
... corruption. 6701.107 Section 6701.107 Administrative Personnel GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL..., fraud, abuse and corruption. GSA employees shall disclose immediately any waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities, such as the Office of Inspector General. ...
...) is using new and innovative techniques for fraud detection. Their primary techniques for fraud detection are the data mining tools of classification trees and neural networks as well as methods for pooling the results of multiple model fits...
... contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL CONTRACTING... finding of fraud. ...
Full Text Available In the current economical situation, fraud cannot be regarded as an exception with random occurrence and limited effects on credit institution. Major fraud scandals that shook the financial markets required a rethinking of the organization and control of the banks to keep intact the trust of customers. Identifying and assessing risks is a concern not only for managers, but also for internal and external auditors. Management may implement programs or measures to limit the risks or deciding to accept some risks. In order to identify the main causes generating fraud risk and increasing the quality of banking activity we used a quantitative research method that was based on a questionnaire administered individually, using SPSS.
Stefani Lily Indarto
Full Text Available The accounting scandal became one of the reasons for analyzing financial statements in order to minimize fraud against the financial reporting. Therefore, companies use the services of a public accountant to audit the financial statements of companies that are expected to limit the fraudulent practices that increase the public’s confidence in the company’s financial statements. This study aims to detect fraud by using analysis of fraud diamond . This study takes banking companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2009-2014, with a total sample of 149 banks. Based on the results the external pressure, financial stability and capability have influence on fraudulent financial reporting. While target financial, ineffective monitoring and rationalization does not affect the fraudulent financial reporting
Zheng, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Han; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Xue, Yu; Chen, Sheng-Yong
Recently telecom fraud has become a serious problem especially in developing countries such as China. At present, it can be very difficult to coordinate different agencies to prevent fraud completely. In this paper we study how to detect large transfers that are sent from victims deceived by fraudsters at the receiving bank. We propose a new generative adversarial network (GAN) based model to calculate for each large transfer a probability that it is fraudulent, such that the bank can take appropriate measures to prevent potential fraudsters to take the money if the probability exceeds a threshold. The inference model uses a deep denoising autoencoder to effectively learn the complex probabilistic relationship among the input features, and employs adversarial training that establishes a minimax game between a discriminator and a generator to accurately discriminate between positive samples and negative samples in the data distribution. We show that the model outperforms a set of well-known classification methods in experiments, and its applications in two commercial banks have reduced losses of about 10 million RMB in twelve weeks and significantly improved their business reputation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the framework of CERN’s anti-fraud policy and in accordance with Operational Circular No. 10, entitled “Principles and procedures governing investigation of fraud”, published in January 2013, a number of fraudulent activities involving several members of the personnel, suppliers and contractors’ staff were investigated by the Internal Audit Service between April and August 2013. In August 2013, the facts established by the Internal Audit Service were reported to the Director-General, who decided to pursue disciplinary action, for which the Joint Advisory Disciplinary Board (JADB) was consulted. The JADB heard all impugned members of the personnel, thoroughly examined each individual case, analysed the findings and made recommendations to the Director-General in March 2014. It found, in particular, conflicts of interest and fraudulent activities in violation of CERN's Procurement Rules. Sanctions were recommended by the JADB in all cases, rangi...
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali persepsi pegawai di instansi pemerintahan mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi fraud. Faktor-faktor tersebut antara lain sistem pengendalian internal, asimetri informasi, keadilan distributif, keadilan prosedural, kultur organisasi, penegakan hukum dan moralitas individu.Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS yang bekerja pada bagian keuangan di SKPD Kabupaten Temanggung sebanyak 95 responden. Metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode kuesioner dengan skala likert 1-5. Penelitian ini menggunakan alat analisis data regresi berganda.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh negatif sistem pengendalian internal terhadap fraud, terdapat pengaruh positif asimetri informasi terhadap fraud, tidak terdapat pengaruh keadilan distributif terhadap fraud, tidak terdapat pengaruh keadilan prosedural terhadap fraud, tidak terdapat pengaruh kultur organisasi terhadap fraud, tidak terdapat pengaruh penegakan hukum terhadap fraud, terdapat pengaruh negatif moralitas individu terhadap fraud. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of employees in government agencies about the factors that influence fraud. These factors include the internal control system, the asymmetry of information, distributive justice, procedural justice, organizational culture, law enforcement and individual morality. The population in this study is were employees of SKPD in Temanggung Regencyas many as 95 respondents. Methods of data collection is done by using questionnaires with Likert scale 1-5. This study uses multiple regression data analysis tools. The results showed that there was a negative effect of the internal control system against fraud, there is a positive effect of information asymmetry against fraud, there is no influence of distributive justice against fraud, there is no influence procedural justice against fraud, there is no influence of organizational
The topic of this thesis is fraud detection in mobile communications networks by means of user profiling and classification techniques. The goal is to first identify relevant user groups based on call data and then to assign a user to a relevant group. Fraud may be defined as a dishonest or illegal use of services, with the intention to avoid service charges. Fraud detection is an important application, since network operators lose a relevant portion of their revenue to fraud. Whereas the int...
Fraud and corruption are strongly connected in the private sector and the level of corruption in the last few years remains very high, despite the efforts of governments to reduce it. It is well known that local and multinational companies are paying bribes in order to win public contracts or benefits. The level of fraud became very high during the economic crunch, due to the globalization and expansion of computer systems. All the data is on-line on the computer systems and has became very vulnerable. Thus, the governments are becoming more interested in securing the computer information and financial data.
Andrean Hutama Koosasi
Full Text Available Model Markov Tersembunyi merupakan sebuah metode statistik berdasarkan Model Markov sederhana yang memodelkan sistem serta membaginya dalam 2 (dua state, state tersembunyi dan state observasi. Dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir ini, penulis mengusulkan penggunaan metode Model Markov Tersembunyi untuk menemukan fraud didalam sebuah pelaksanaan proses bisnis. Dengan penggunaan metode Model Markov Tersembunyi ini, maka pengamatan terhadap elemen penyusun sebuah kasus/kejadian, yakni beberapa aktivitas, akan diperoleh sebuah nilai peluang, yang sekaligus memberikan prediksi terhadap kasus/kejadian tersebut, sebuah fraud atau tidak. Hasil ekpserimen ini menunjukkan bahwa metode yang diusulkan mampu memberikan prediksi akhir dengan evaluasi TPR sebesar 87,5% dan TNR sebesar 99,4%.
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Overseas cases of fraud or corruption. 516.67... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.67 Overseas cases of fraud or corruption. (a) Commanders of overseas major commands will establish procedures...
... part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or to any debt involving fraud, the presentation of... whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account...
... of the antitrust laws or to any debt involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or... whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antitrust, fraud, and tax...
van Keulen, Maurice
Governmental organizations responsible for keeping certain types of fraud under control, often use data-driven methods for both immediate detection of fraud, or for fraud risk analysis aimed at more effectively targeting inspections. A blind spot in such methods, is that the source data often
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts...
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-121-N...
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-122-N...
payloads and instead began distributing Bitcoin miners and click fraud modules.3 From a technical perspective, the primary click fraud malware used in...this era operated in the indiscriminate “auto-clicking” fashion we describe in Section 5. Alongside the click fraud and Bitcoin payloads, ZeroAccess
Full Text Available Abstrak: Model Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan dengan Analisis Fraud Triangle. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel fraud triangle dan auditor spesialis industri dengan kecurangan laporan keuangan. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 perusahaan fraud dan 30 perusahaan non-fraudyang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI serta terkena sanksi dan kasus oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan financial targetsdapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, sedangkan financial stabililty tidak dapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Abstract: Financial Statement Fraud Detection Model with Fraud Triangle Analysis. The research purposes is to create a model to detect financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. Samples were 30 companies of fraud and 30 non-fraud companies that were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and sanctioned by the Financial Services Authority (FSA. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units... Detection and Investigation Program § 455.21 Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units. In a State with a Medicaid fraud control unit established and certified under subpart C of this part, (a) The...
Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.
Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...
...] State Medicaid Fraud Control Units; Data Mining AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... and analyzing State Medicaid claims data, known as data mining. To support and modernize MFCU efforts... (FFP) in the costs of defined data mining activities under specified conditions. In addition, we...
Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.
Questions addressed in this project included:What are the existing control mechanisms and how do they operate? What public bodies are responsible for the fight against Value Added Tax (VAT) fraud and what are their competencies? What are the possibilities to exchange information between member
This study explored patterns of fraud and abuse that exist in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) claims in the Awutu-Effutu-Senya District using data mining techniques, with a specific focus on malaria-related claims. The study employed quantitative research approach with survey design as a strategy of enquiry.
... pursue Medicaid provider fraud, we finalize proposals to permit Federal financial participation (FFP) in... general approach to data mining by MFCUs is to give each MFCU the autonomy to choose how to operate its...) to read as follows: Sec. 1007.19 Federal financial participation (FFP). * * * * * (e) * * * (2...
This understanding gave birth to the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) which holds a lot of promises in the area of time-series prediction and anomaly detection problems. This paper demonstrates the behaviour of an HTM model with respect to its learning and prediction of online credit card fraud. The model was ...
Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.
Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…
Tesliuc, Emil Daniel; Milazzo, Annamaria
Social Protection (SP) and Social Safety Net (SSN) programs channel a large amount of public resources, it is important to make sure that these reach the intended beneficiaries. Error, fraud, or corruption (EFC) reduces the economic efficiency of these interventions by decreasing the amount of money that goes to the intended beneficiaries, and erodes the political support for the program. ...
work fraud dynamics by network administrators and stakeholders. In considering ... cyber crime within the last two years. How- ever, two-thirds of the ... ˆ increased exposure to unpredictable fi- nancial losses ... The intentions of the customers are reflected ..... 'There is a 95% confidence that the differ- ence between the ...
David Bordelon identifies himself as one of the majority of Americans who voted to keep Trump out of office. In this article he discusses his confusion by the Tea Party's fixation on welfare fraud, and inability to recognize it in President Trump's behavior. The author says that he can only hope that his confusion will be shared, and progress to…
The law requires that plaintiffs in fraud cases be 'justified' in relying on a misrepresentation. I deploy the accumulated intuitions of the law to defend externalist accounts of epistemic justification and knowledge against Laurence BonJour's counterexamples involving clairvoyance. I suggest that the law can offer a ...
If someone used check as a tool to fraud and looting of property of others, should they just be subject to check law, and according to the provisions of the law are prosecuted? Are crook people the same as honorable merchants that due to some unwanted changes and fluctuations in the market and social conditions
Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...
Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta
We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...
Full Text Available In our paper we shall try to present two mechanisms of fiscal fraud used by economical agents and also found in the control actions performed by the fiscal organs at different commercial societies from Romania. The presented mechanisms refer to the fiscal fraud resulted from fictitious acquisitions of goods and services done by Romanian firms which have as beneficiaries other commercial societies which are fiscally registered in Romania. Being empirically examined, the fiscal fraud will be presented through the use of some figures which will describe the detailed operations step by step.For the cases we have chosen to present we will describe the real circuit of goods and money according to the documents. We will also refer to the possibility of identifying the risk of fiscal fraud that results from the reports provided by the economic agents for different state institutions. We will also consider the information provide by the books of prime entry and bookkeeping, documents which have to be written by the commercial societies according to the Law accountancy nr. 82/199, with further modifications and completions. The mechanisms of fiscal fraud in use can be identical with the ones presented in this paper or they can be different as „new elements” can appear; these „new elements” depend on the type of activity performed, the modifications the legislative framework, the performers’ creativity or other external or internal factors which are not identified by the fiscal organs. By identifying the fiscal fraud mechanisms and the way in which they function, the fiscal organs will be given the opportunity to take the necessary measures so that the fiscal resources of the state consolidated budget should not be affected by such operations. It is will known that we can speak of fiscal fraud and shadow economy in any country but ,according to the reports and statistics published by different international institutions, Romania’s shadow
Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J
To compare functional health literacy (HL) levels in three immigrant groups to those of the German- and Italian-speaking non-immigrant population in Switzerland. Moreover, to investigate whether language-independent, respectively language-dependent, functional HL and variables of acculturation were associated with self-reported health status among immigrants. Language-independent HL was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) in the respective native languages. Language-dependent HL was measured using Brief Health Literacy Screeners (BHLS) asking about participants' confidence in understanding medical information in the language of the host country. Measures of acculturation included length of stay and age when taking residency in Switzerland. In particular Albanian- and Portuguese-speaking immigrants had lower levels of functional HL. In unadjusted analysis "age when taking residency in Switzerland" was associated with the BHLS. Adjusted analysis showed that the BHLS were significantly associated with self-reported health among all immigrant groups (p≤0.01). Functional HL that is dependent on understanding of medical information in the language of the new host country is a better predictor for self-reported health status among immigrants than language-independent HL. In the clinical setting limited functional HL might be a significant obstacle to successful disease treatment and prevention in immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;
Wenk, Robert E; Shao, Alison
Older and younger siblings occasionally attempt to impersonate parent and child to expedite immigration under US family-based visa policies. The rate with which full siblings escape detection by current relationship tests is unknown. Retrospective study of full-sibling immigrant pairs was undertaken to determine the proportion that show insufficient genetic evidence to exclude parentage. Sibship and parentage indices (SI and PI) were compared/case in unexcluded sibling cases and true parent-child cases. Alleles shared per short-tandem-repeat locus were compared in sibling and parent-child pairs. The proportion of successful parentage fraud by siblings was estimated from the parentage exclusion rate among immigrants and the proportion of sibships without genetic inconsistencies (GIs). When 11 to 25 independent loci were tested per two-sibling case to verify or refute parentage, tests failed to demonstrate any GI in 9% and PI was greater than SI in seven of 10 of these cases. Another 29% of full-sibling pairs demonstrated insufficient evidence (fewer than two GIs) to exclude parentage. Thus, 0.4% of sibling pairs could falsely claim a parent-child relationship and show no GIs. Another 1.4% could make that false claim and not present sufficient evidence to be excluded. At present, with no evidence of parentage exclusion in a full-sibling pair, the relative magnitudes of PI and SI are misleading relationship indicators because too few loci are examined and rates of sharing one and two alleles/locus vary greatly in parentage and sibling pairs. Only evidence of exclusion ascertains false parentage claims by siblings. Nevertheless, the expected rate of successful fraud is quite low. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…
Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth
Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452
Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...
From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and
Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.
This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.
The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...
In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…
Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire
Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…
Jimenez, Rosa M.
Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…
Amaro, Andreia Ramos
Versão final (Esta versão contém as críticas e sugestões dos elementos do júri) Ao longo das últimas décadas e com a crescente globalização, os infratores têm adotado novos e sofisticados métodos de ocultação de capitais ilícitos, nomeadamente, provenientes da droga. Perante isto, o presente trabalho foca-se na temática do branqueamento de capitais e da fraude no mercado da droga, sendo o seu grande objetivo o estudo da relação entre branqueamento de capitais, fraude e o mercado da drog...
Gulati, Aman; Dubey, Prakash; MdFuzail, C.; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.
The most acknowledged payment mode is credit card for both disconnected and online mediums in today's day and age. It facilitates cashless shopping everywhere in the world. It is the most widespread and reasonable approach with regards to web based shopping, paying bills, what's more, performing other related errands. Thus danger of fraud exchanges utilizing credit card has likewise been expanding. In the Current Fraud Detection framework, false exchange is recognized after the transaction is completed. As opposed to the current system, the proposed system presents a methodology which facilitates the detection of fraudulent exchanges while they are being processed, this is achieved by means of Behaviour and Locational Analysis(Neural Logic) which considers a cardholder's way of managing money and spending pattern. A deviation from such a pattern will then lead to the system classifying it as suspicious transaction and will then be handled accordingly.
Full Text Available The History of world bussiness is full of ethics violation cases and financial scandals. Public can even see clearly the various economic crimes such as corruption, financial engineering and money laundering. These issues are always interesting since it involves tricks in information presentation which indicates a fraud. The application of forensic accounting and investigative audits is a solution to the anxiety of financial world. Forensic accounting and investigative audits in its simplest form is a blend between the disciplines of accounting, auditing and law. Forensic accounting is the use of accounting skills combined with the ability to solve a problem or alleged fraud. The investigative audit is an attempt to prove a mistake in accordance with the provisions of applicable law.
Online advertisers face substantial difficulty in selecting and supervising small advertising partners: Fraud can be well-hidden, and limited reputation systems reduce accountability. But partners are not paid until after their work is complete, and advertisers can extend this delay both to improve detection of improper partner practices and to punish partners who turn out to be rule-breakers. I capture these relationships in a screening model with delayed payments and probabilistic delayed observation of agents’ types. I derive conditions in which an advertising principal can set its payment delay to deter rogue agents and to attract solely or primarily good-type agents. Through the savings from excluding rogue agents, the principal can increase its profits while offering increased payments to good-type agents. I estimate that a leading affiliate network could have invoked an optimal payment delay to eliminate 71% of fraud without decreasing profit.
Full Text Available Fraud occurs both in the public and private sectors and is practiced most often in collusion with those around us, with colleagues, customers and suppliers targeting both material goods and goods from other categories. The consequences of fraud are enormous for the company and may threaten its existence and there is the possibility of putting its reputation at risk. Generally speaking, financial control acts and operations consist of documentary and factual verifications, written records of findings, appraisals and conclusions, as well as decisions on actions and possible coercions necessary to restore the compliance of controlled subjects’ financial activity with the law. Internal Auditing is a support function because it enables business managers and organizations to better manage their activities.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui budaya yang memicu terjadinya fraud pada realisasi keuangan negara. Penelitian dilakukan pada instansi pemerintah daerah di Provinsi ABC. Metode etnografi ala Spradley dipilih untuk menemukan budaya pemicu tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budaya yang memicu terjadinya fraud adalah budaya cari untung, yang terlihat dari kebiasaan “memanfaatkan” kebutuhan instansi, kebiasaan menyalahgunakan kewenangan yang dimiliki, dan kebiasaan menyiasati beberapa ketentuan keuangan negara pada PMK 113/PMK.05/2012 dan PMK 65/PMK.02/2015 untuk kepentingan pribadi maupun kelompok. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi berupa bentuk-bentuk penyiasatan yang dilakukan, sehingga dapat dijadikan dasar sebagai bahan pertimbangan untuk perubahan atau perbaikan kebijakan dan peraturan yang disiasati tersebut
Setiani, N.; Huda, S. N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.
E-procurement has been applied in Indonesia since 2008 through the adoption of Electronic Procurement System (SPSE). The purpose of the use of SPSE in the procurement process is to improve the efficiency of goods or services procurement. In the bidding process, intensive communication and data exchange between providers and organizers are urgently needed. Through SPSE, the frequency of face to face meetings between providers and the committee can be reduced. This is expected to minimize potential fraud behaviors in the goods or services procurement conducted through the tender process. There exists a transformation of activities in the procurement through SPSE from the tender process that was previously done manually. In this paper, we analyze this transformation between manual procurement process and SPSE-based procurement process. The result of the analysis is exploited for investigating the possibility of fraud behavior transformations in every phase of e-procurement activities.
Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil
The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....
entails the tone at the top. Management’s integrity and ethical behavior sets the tone for the organization (COSO, 2013). A weak control environment can...the collusion category of fraud schemes are kickbacks, bribery , and deliberate split purchases. Kickbacks involve government officials receiving...something of value such as money from a contractor for personal gain in exchange for providing a favor such as submitting false invoices. Bribery
Hooi, Bryan; Shah, Neil; Beutel, Alex; Gunnemann, Stephan; Akoglu, Leman; Kumar, Mohit; Makhija, Disha; Faloutsos, Christos
Review fraud is a pervasive problem in online commerce, in which fraudulent sellers write or purchase fake reviews to manipulate perception of their products and services. Fake reviews are often detected based on several signs, including 1) they occur in short bursts of time; 2) fraudulent user accounts have skewed rating distributions. However, these may both be true in any given dataset. Hence, in this paper, we propose an approach for detecting fraudulent reviews which combines these 2 app...
FRANCISCA NONYELUM OGWUELEKA
Full Text Available Data mining is popularly used to combat frauds because of its effectiveness. It is a well-defined procedure that takes data as input and produces models or patterns as output. Neural network, a data mining technique was used in this study. The design of the neural network (NN architecture for the credit card detection system was based on unsupervised method, which was applied to the transactions data to generate four clusters of low, high, risky and high-risk clusters. The self-organizing map neural network (SOMNN technique was used for solving the problem of carrying out optimal classification of each transaction into its associated group, since a prior output is unknown. The receiver-operating curve (ROC for credit card fraud (CCF detection watch detected over 95% of fraud cases without causing false alarms unlike other statistical models and the two-stage clusters. This shows that the performance of CCF detection watch is in agreement with other detection software, but performs better.
Rao, S A; Singh, N; Kumar, R; Thomas, A M
Digital photographs play a substantial role in the presentation and validation of clinical cases for documentation and research purposes in esthetically oriented professions such as dentistry. The introduction of sophisticated cameras and "easy to use" computer software readily available on today's market has enabled digital fraud to emerge as a common and widely used practice. Hence, it is essential that both dentists and editorial circles are aware and cautious with regard to the possibility of digital fraud. A set of 10 routine "pre-" and "post" treatment dental procedure photographs were taken and randomly manipulated using standard desktop software. A team of 10 dental professionals were selected and each one of them was individually requested to review and evaluate the authenticity of the photographs. An assessment of expert opinion revealed an overall sensitivity of 60% and a sensitivity of 15% in correctly identifying a manipulated photograph, which is considered low. Furthermore, there was poor interobserver agreement. Advanced technology that is easily available has resulted in adept digital fraud that is difficult to detect. There is a need for awareness among both dental practitioners and the editorial circle regarding misrepresentation due to image manipulation. It is therefore necessary to follow a skeptical approach in the assessment of digitalized photos used in research and as a part of clinical dentistry.
Basri Siti Aisyah
Full Text Available Whistleblowing is an internal control system that be a way to reduce or eradicate fraud. This paper focuses on investigating the reasons for whistleblowing is not a preferred method to eradicate fraud. This paper starts with defining the term “whistleblowing”. In its simplest form, whistleblowing involves the act of reporting improper conduct within an organisation to internal or external parties. This paper explains the issues and effects concerning whistleblowing. One of the issues is the violation of public trust. Lastly, this paper will describe the reasons for resistance of people to blow the whistle. Among the reasons is the fear of reprisal. This is a concept paper and it aims to conduct interview session with the Head for every local authority in Melaka. The findings of this paper can be used by the Government to create a new model related to whistleblowing to eradicate fraud in public sector. The Government could use this paper as the support to enhance the achievement of National Key Result Areas (NKRAs Against Corruption.
George J. Borjas
Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...
For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was examining the factors affecting the government procurement fraud. Based on the fraud triangle and the theory of planned behavior, this study proposed seven hypothesis, those are tested by regression analysis. This study used primary data gathered by surveys to members of The Boards of the Republic Indonesia- Financial Auditors, who act as external auditors for the Government. They were asked to assess factors influencing the government procurement of goods and services fraud. There were 297 auditors of the Boards that participated in this survey. The result showed that the procurement frauds were influenced by the lack of procurement committee quality, the weakness of procurement control, and the intentions to engage fraud. The intentions to engage fraud were significantly influenced by the attitude toward fraud, subjective norms, and the perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, other elements of fraud triangle, the financial pressure, did not influence to the procurement fraud.
Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....
Pellegrini, Pablo A
Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan has been reconstructed through diverse sources. Thus, by analyzing those cases, the social basis of scientific fraud and the most relevant aspects of Japanese cultural values and traditions, as well as the concept of honour which is deeply involved in the way Japanese scientists react when they are accused of and publicly exposed in scientific fraud situations is examined.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the forms, methods and causes of fraud that are perpetrated to the detriment of the budget of the European Union. The forms in which EU fraud appears are shown according to the criterion of kind of budgetary resource. Crime affecting the budgetary revenue of the EU tends to appear in the form of customs duty-evasion and false declarations concerning the customs-relevant information about goods. Crime adversely affecting the expenditure side of the EU budget appears in the form of subsidy fraud in the area of the Common Agricultural Policy, and subsidy fraud in the area of the structural policies. The methods used for the EU fraud committed and considered in the paper are document forgery, concealment of goods, corruption, violence and fictional business and evasion of the laws. In conclusion an explanation is given of the main exogenous criminogenic factors that lead to the EU frauds commonly perpetrated.
Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S
Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.
A One-Size-Fits-All HIV Prevention and Education Approach?: Interpreting Divergent HIV Risk Perceptions Between African American and East African Immigrant Women in Washington, DC Using the Proximate-Determinants Conceptual Framework.
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women's perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the United States. Forty in-depth, semistructured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semistructured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Adopting Boerma and Weir's Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. Although African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered to resonate with these different audiences.
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
Background To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born Black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women’s perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the US. Methods Forty in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semi-structured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Results Adopting Boerma and Weir’s Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. While African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Conclusions Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among Black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered in order to resonate with these different audiences. PMID:26766523
Button, Mark; McNaughton Nicholls, Carol; Kerr, Jane; Owen, Rachael
Online frauds have become a major problem in many countries with millions of victims from a wide diversity of scams committed in full or part online. This paper explores the extent and nature of this problem. Using data from depth interviews with 15 online fraud victims, 6 focus groups with a further 48 online fraud victims and interviews with 9 professional stakeholders involved in combating this problem. The paper explores why victims fall for online scams. It identifies a range of reasons ...
Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)
Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...
Diana Virginia Todea
Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.
Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni
Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...
Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.
Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...
Full Text Available This research aims to determine whether there is a simultaneous and partial influence between the pressure, opportunity, rationalization, capability, greed, need and exposure of academic fraud on students competency accounting expertise SMK Negeri 1 Kendal. Population in this research are students of accounting expertise skill SMK Negeri 1 Kendal a number of 319 students. Sampling technique in this research is saturated sample. Data collection methods using questionnaires and documentation. The method of analysis used is descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that there was a positive and significant influence simultaneously to academik farud of 59.4%, there is a positive and significant influence pressure on academic fraud by 2.4%, there is a positive and significant influence opportunity on academic fraud by 1.46%, there is a positif and significant influence rationalization on academik fraud by 1.54%, there is a positie and significant influence capability on academic fraud by 4.28%, there is a positive and significant influence greed on academic fraud by 2.96%, there is a positive and significant influence need on academic fraud by 1.59%, and there is a negative and siignificant exposure on academic fraud by -11,8%. The conclusion in this research is that pressure, opportunity, rationalization, capability, greed, need and exposure have positive and significant influence to academik fraud. Suggestions for futher researchers are expected to use analytical tools other than SPSS.
Reinstein, A; Dery, R J
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.
Matt S. Whitt
Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...
Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Sergei V. Arzhenovskii
Full Text Available Modern economic development is accompanied by the increasing complexity of the relationship structure, intercompany transactions, the requirements for information disclosure on the entity’s activities. It leads to the opportunities growth of fraudulent representation public companies reporting. The external audit is considered as an institution that resists to negative processes. The issues of improving the tools that assessing the risk of material misstatement of the financial statements due to fraud from the standpoint the fraud theory have been examined here. Determining potential areas in which methodology for risk assessment of material misstatement of the financial statements due to fraud in an audit are based on the modern fraud theory interpretations will be develop. Functional and structural, comparative, logical and historical, deductive and inductive analyst methods have been used. Retrospective analysis on research areas in the fraud theory field has been performed. Perspective directions for improving methodology and methods for risk assessment of material misstatement of the financial statements in an audit have been identified. Methodology development for fraud risk assessment procedures in an audit of financial statements is based on “fraud diamond” theory. Creating new interpretations the fraud theory during last fifteen years is a consequence the expansion opportunities for corporate fraud, one of the most common species which is the financial statements falsification. Changing the list of factors that could initiate the fraud in the company's public reporting requires that the methods of its identification during the audit should be improved. Methodology and methods risk assessment of intentional material misstatement of the financial statements need to be improved in the direction both the modern modification of fraud theory.
Hein, J; Zobrist, R; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G
Data from natural sources show counter-intuitive distribution patterns for the leading digits to the left of the decimal point and the digit 1 is observed more frequently than all other numbers. This pattern, which was first described by Newcomb and later confirmed by Benford, is used in financial and tax auditing to detect fraud. Deviations from the pattern indicate possible falsifications. Anesthesiology journals are affected not only by ghostwriting and plagiarism but also by counterfeiting. In the present study 20 publications in anesthesiology known to be falsified by an author were investigated for irregularities with respect to Benford's law using the χ(2)-test and the Z-test. In the 20 retracted publications an average first-digit frequency of 243.1 (standard deviation SD ± 118.2, range: 30-592) and an average second-digit frequency of 132.3 (SD ± 72.2, range: 15-383) were found. The observed distribution of the first and second digits to the left of the decimal point differed significantly (panalysis of each paper 17 out of 20 studies differed significantly from the expected value for the first digit and 18 out of 20 studies varied significantly from the expected value of the second digit. Only one paper did not vary significantly from expected values for the digits to the left of the decimal. For comparison, a meta-analysis using complex mathematical procedures was chosen as a control. The analysis showed a first-digit distribution consistent with the Benford distribution. Thus, the method used in the present study seems to be sensitive for detecting fraud. Additional statements of specificity cannot yet be made as this requires further analysis of data that is definitely not falsified. Future studies exploring conformity might help prevent falsified studies from being published.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Vissman, Aaron T; Eng, Eugenia; Aronson, Robert E; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime; Rhodes, Scott D
HoMBReS was a lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to reduce sexual risk among recently arrived, nonEnglish-speaking Latino men who were members of a multicounty soccer league in central NC. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership collected, analyzed, and interpreted qualitative life-story narratives to characterize the roles of male LHAs known as Navegantes. Nine Navegantes were interviewed. Their mean age was 39 years (range: 26-62 years); six were from Mexico and three from El Salvador. Navegantes described the function and facilitators of serving as LHAs and identified leverage points for future HIV and STD prevention strategies. They highlighted psychosocial and sociocultural influences on HIV risk, settings for risky behavior, and personal changes from serving as Navegantes. This study provides preliminary evidence that an LHA approach is feasible and appropriate for Latino men, and can be effective in reaching men who might otherwise be difficult to reach.
Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820
Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A
Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.
Raluca – Ionela Radu
Full Text Available According to international auditing standards, fraud is an intentionally action realised by one or more persons as management, employees or third parties, action that generate erroneous interpretation of financial statements. The real intention is to cheat. However, there can be involved some erroneous calculus generated by creative accounting. The concept of “error” refers to unintentionally mistakes that could appear in financial statements. We think there could be mathematical or accounting mistakes, unintentionally omission, or wrong interpretation of certain facts, accounting policies wrong application. All these actions are unwittingly. It is very important to identify situations cause and take necessary measures to eliminate them
De Cristofaro, E.; Friedman, A.; Jourjon, G.; Kaafar, M. A.; Shafiq, M. Z.
Facebook pages offer an easy way to reach out to a very large audience as they can easily be promoted using Facebook's advertising platform. Recently, the number of likes of a Facebook page has become a measure of its popularity and profitability, and an underground market of services boosting page likes, aka like farms, has emerged. Some reports have suggested that like farms use a network of profiles that also like other pages to elude fraud protection algorithms, however, to the best of ou...
De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Friedman, Arik; Jourjon, Guillaume; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Shafiq, M. Zubair
Facebook pages offer an easy way to reach out to a very large audience as they can easily be promoted using Facebook's advertising platform. Recently, the number of likes of a Facebook page has become a measure of its popularity and profitability, and an underground market of services boosting page likes, aka like farms, has emerged. Some reports have suggested that like farms use a network of profiles that also like other pages to elude fraud protection algorithms, however, to the best of ou...
Full Text Available The article is a brief overview of tax evasion as a complex social and economicphenomenon, of utmost importance, that today’s states confront with; its consequences seek to limitas much as possible, by legal and fiscal means, the eradication, which, at this point, is virtuallyimpossible. Tax evasion can be analysed from two points of view, the legal and the illegal aspect ofthe phenomenon or the fiscal fraud. The “fiscal paradises” had a very important role in the last years’activity.
In 1995, the French taxation authorities have identified 1849 violations of law concerning the petroleum products, which correspond to a 53% increase with respect to 1994. The discovery of these frauds has permitted the recovery of 85 millions of French Francs (MFF) of taxes and rights, from which 61.1 MFF correspond to the internal tax on petroleum products (TIPP). In France, the TIPP represents 65% of the customs receipts and about 10% of the gross fiscal receipt of the general budget of the nation. Such delinquency actions can exist at any step of the petroleum file from the production to the storage of petroleum products. (J.S.)
Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado
Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure, opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future. In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences. In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud. We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers AGENCY: Office of Inspector...) 205-0007. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In our publication of the OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on...
Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting fraud in the procurement of government’s goods and services from the independent auditor’s point of view. Based on fraud triangles and theory of planned behavior, this study proposes seven hypotheses which were tested using structural equation model (SEM-partial least square. This study used primary data gathered by survey to auditors of Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia in its head office and several selected representative offices. Respondents were asked to provide their answer/perception for questions in questionnaire regarding factors influencing the procurement fraud of government’s goods and services. The results show that the procurement frauds are significantly influenced by weaknesses in procurement system, lack of procurement committee's quality, and the intention to engage fraud. Furthermore, the intention to engage fraud are influenced by attitude, subjective norms, and the perceived behavioral control. These findings suggest that procurement frauds are associated with individual factors as rationalization and opportunities. These factors could be considered when designing internal control structure to restrain fraud behavior.
... activity do not apply to any debt based in whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws... in whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antitrust, fraud, and tax and...
Pickett, Justin T; Roche, Sean Patrick
Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions. Legal scholars emphasize that to maintain legitimacy, social control policies must be developed with some consideration given to the public's moral intuitions. Although there is a large literature on popular attitudes toward science, there is no existing evidence about public opinion on data fraud or selective reporting. We conducted two studies-a survey experiment with a nationwide convenience sample (N = 821), and a follow-up survey with a representative sample of US adults (N = 964)-to explore community members' judgments about the morality of data fraud and selective reporting in science. The findings show that community members make a moral distinction between data fraud and selective reporting, but overwhelmingly judge both behaviors to be immoral and deserving of punishment. Community members believe that scientists who commit data fraud or selective reporting should be fired and banned from receiving funding. For data fraud, most Americans support criminal penalties. Results from an ordered logistic regression analysis reveal few demographic and no significant partisan differences in punitiveness toward data fraud.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud or false statement in a Government matter. 700.541... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.541 Fraud or false statement in a Government..., applications for employment, personnel security forms, requests for travel reimbursement, client certification...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud and intentional falsification of records...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SECURITY RULES FOR ALL MODES OF TRANSPORTATION TSA-APPROVED VALIDATION FIRMS AND VALIDATORS General § 1522.3 Fraud and intentional falsification...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with commodity...
...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Responsibilities of Passengers and Other Individuals and Persons § 1540.103 Fraud... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud and intentional falsification of records...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation. 240.15c1-2 Section 240.15c1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud in...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud and intentional falsification of records...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY GENERAL RULES § 1570.5 Fraud and intentional falsification of records. No person may make, cause to be...
Gold, A.H.; Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.
We investigate how the strictness of a requirement to consult on potential client fraud affects auditors' propensity to consult with firm experts. We consider two specific forms of guidance about fraud consultations: (1) strict, i.e., mandatory and binding; and (2) lenient, i.e., advisory and
Sharma, Anuj; Kumar Panigrahi, Prabin
With an upsurge in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection (FAFD) has become an emerging topic of great importance for academic, research and industries. The failure of internal auditing system of the organization in identifying the accounting frauds has lead to use of specialized procedures to detect financial accounting fraud, collective known as forensic accounting. Data mining techniques are providing great aid in financial accounting fraud detection, since dealing with the large data volumes and complexities of financial data are big challenges for forensic accounting. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the application of data mining techniques for the detection of financial accounting fraud and proposes a framework for data mining techniques based accounting fraud detection. The systematic and comprehensive literature review of the data mining techniques applicable to financial accounting fraud detection may provide a foundation to future research in this field. The findings of this review show that data mining techniques like logistic models, neural networks, Bayesian belief network, and decision trees have been applied most extensively to provide primary solutions to the problems inherent in the detection and classification of fraudulent data.
In an effort to provide you with tools to identify areas that may be of concern or worth looking into, this booklet was designed to provide an overview of general fraud indicators as well as highlight some specific indicators related to contract fraud.
In an effort to provide you with tools to identify areas that may be of concern or worth looking into, this booklet was designed to provide an overview of general fraud indicators as well as highlight some specific indicators related to grant fraud.
van der Meulen, N.S.
This contribution provides a critical analysis of the treatment of consumer liability in cases of Internet banking fraud. Whereas generally banks refund the financial losses associated with Internet banking fraud to the individual victim, exceptions do occur, at least in certain EU jurisdictions.
Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....
... Fault. 149.41 Section 149.41 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS... Eligible Employment-Based Plans § 149.41 Consequences of Non-Compliance, Fraud, or Similar Fault. Upon failure to comply with the requirements of this part, or if fraud, waste, and abuse, or similar fault are...
Full Text Available European VAT fraud has been growing at an alarming rate . The level of VAT losses for one year is between €60bn and €100bn for all member states. This level of fraud has created an urgent need for Europe to address the issue of the reform of the VAT system.
Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montaño, Jaime
Background Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot, lay health advisor (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Methods Fifteen LHAs (mean age=35.6; range 23–60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Results Data were collected from 222 men (mean age=29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; P<.001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio=2.3; CI=1.2–4.3) and HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio=2.5; CI=1.5–4.3). Conclusions LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:19824838
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime
Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.
Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer
This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...
Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah
The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723
Full Text Available There are many theories which seek to explain fraud victimisation. In particular, older victims find themselves at the intersection of various discourses which account for victimisation, primarily from a deficit model. This article examines two discourses relevant to older fraud victims. The first positions older victims of crime as weak and vulnerable and the second positions fraud victims generally as greedy and gullible. Using interviews with twenty-one Canadian volunteers who provide telephone support to older fraud victims (all seniors themselves, this article analyses the extent to which these two discourses are evident in the understandings of these volunteers. It finds that volunteers overwhelmingly perceive fraud to occur out of loneliness and isolation of the victim, and actively resist victim blaming narratives towards these individuals. While neither discourse is overly positive, the article discusses the implications of these discourses for the victims themselves and for their ability to access support.
Financial statement audits are still comparatively poor in fraud detection. Forensic specialists can play a significant role in increasing audit quality. In this paper, based on prior academic research, I develop a model of fraud detection and the incorporation of forensic specialists in the audit...... process. The intention of the model is to identify the reasons why the audit is weak in fraud detection and to provide the analytical framework to assess whether the incorporation of forensic specialists can help to improve it. The results show that such specialists can potentially improve the fraud...... detection in the audit, but might also cause some negative implications. Overall, even though fraud detection is one of the main topics in research there are very few studies done on the subject of how auditors co-operate with forensic specialists. Thus, the paper concludes with suggestions for further...
Luiz Carlos Jacob Perera
Full Text Available Este estudio investigó la eficacia del sistema de control interno (SCI en la lucha contra el fraude corporativo. Con el apoyo de una encuesta respondida por 156 profesionales de la auditoría fue posible tener ámbito nacional. Entre los principales resultados, se encontró que las actividade s relacionadas con SCI han desempeñado sus funciones de manera eficiente para combatir el fraude corporativo. Considerando las tres ramas del Árbol de Fraude : " la corrupción y la malversación de activos, son fraudes que se abordan de manera más eficaz por el canal de denuncias, los controles internos y el compliance; ocurrencia de fraudes en las "declaraciones financieros", por lo general vinculados al alto escalon de las empresas, se perciben con mayor precisión mediante una auditoría externa.
..., Washington, DC 22202-2884. (ii) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster identified in... _________ _________ _________ _________ (Contracting Officer shall insert-- (i) Title of applicable Department of Homeland Security fraud hotline...-AG98 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Display of DoD Inspector General Fraud Hotline...
... the title of the applicable Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fraud hotline poster and Web site(s... General Fraud Hotline Posters AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require contractors to display the DoD fraud hotline poster in common work...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....
Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim
Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication.
Pollyanna Gomes dos Santos
Full Text Available A partir da diferenciação entre plágio, fraude e estratégia ficcional, objetiva-se, neste ensaio, analisar a construção de textos literários que tenham uma possível conotação entre escrita e crime. Como afirma Anatol Rosenfeld, a fraude literária é tão antiga quanto a própria literatura. Um dos títulos escolhidos para esta pesquisa é Fragmentos: memórias de uma infância 1939-1948, de Binjamin Wilkomirski. No livro, o autor-narrador relata que foi prisioneiro de campos de concentração e sobrevivente da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Após o enorme sucesso que o livro alcançou e apreciações positivas por parte de críticos literários em todo o mundo, descobriu-se, enfim, que sua história não era verdadeira.
More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome). Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.
Full Text Available More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.
Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.
Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.
Damm, Anna Piil
This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...
Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig
were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...
Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia
Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...
In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016
Shield, Andrew DJ
In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...
Sasi, Sreela; Tamhane, Kirti C.; Rajappa, Mahesh B.
Passengers with immigrant Visa's are a major concern to the International Airports due to the various fraud operations identified. To curb tampering of genuine Visa, the Visa's should contain human identification information. Biometric characteristic is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of an individual . A Multimodal Biometric Human Identification System (MBHIS) that integrates iris code, DNA fingerprint, and the passport number on the Visa photograph using digital watermarking scheme is presented. Digital Watermarking technique is well suited for any system requiring high security . Ophthalmologists , ,  suggested that iris scan is an accurate and nonintrusive optical fingerprint. DNA sequence can be used as a genetic barcode , . While issuing Visa at the US consulates, the DNA sequence isolated from saliva, the iris code and passport number shall be digitally watermarked in the Visa photograph. This information is also recorded in the 'immigrant database'. A 'forward watermarking phase' combines a 2-D DWT transformed digital photograph with the personal identification information. A 'detection phase' extracts the watermarked information from this VISA photograph at the port of entry, from which iris code can be used for identification and DNA biometric for authentication, if an anomaly arises.
Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.
Faunce, Thomas A; Urbas, Gregor; Skillen, Lesley
This article critically analyses the prospects for introducing United States anti-fraud (or anti-false claims) laws in the Australian health care setting. Australian governments spend billions of dollars each year on medicines and health care. A recent report estimates that the money lost to corporate fraud in Australia is growing at an annual rate of 7%, but that only a third of the losses are currently being detected. In the US, qui tam provisions - the component of anti-fraud or anti-false claims laws involving payments to whistleblowers - have been particularly successful in providing critical evidence allowing public prosecutors to recover damages for fraud and false claims made by corporations in relation to federal and state health care programs. The US continues to strengthen such anti-fraud measures and to successfully apply them to a widening range of areas involving large public investment. Australia still suffers from the absence of any comprehensive scheme that not only allows treble damages recovery for fraud on the public purse, but crucially supports such actions by providing financial encouragement for whistleblowing corporate insiders to expose evidence of fraud. Potential areas of application could include direct and indirect government expenditure on health care service provision, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, defence, carbon emissions compensation and tobacco-related illness. The creation in Australia of an equivalent to US anti-false claims legislation should be a policy priority, particularly in a period of financial stringency.
Dal Pozzolo, Andrea; Boracchi, Giacomo; Caelen, Olivier; Alippi, Cesare; Bontempi, Gianluca
Detecting frauds in credit card transactions is perhaps one of the best testbeds for computational intelligence algorithms. In fact, this problem involves a number of relevant challenges, namely: concept drift (customers' habits evolve and fraudsters change their strategies over time), class imbalance (genuine transactions far outnumber frauds), and verification latency (only a small set of transactions are timely checked by investigators). However, the vast majority of learning algorithms that have been proposed for fraud detection rely on assumptions that hardly hold in a real-world fraud-detection system (FDS). This lack of realism concerns two main aspects: 1) the way and timing with which supervised information is provided and 2) the measures used to assess fraud-detection performance. This paper has three major contributions. First, we propose, with the help of our industrial partner, a formalization of the fraud-detection problem that realistically describes the operating conditions of FDSs that everyday analyze massive streams of credit card transactions. We also illustrate the most appropriate performance measures to be used for fraud-detection purposes. Second, we design and assess a novel learning strategy that effectively addresses class imbalance, concept drift, and verification latency. Third, in our experiments, we demonstrate the impact of class unbalance and concept drift in a real-world data stream containing more than 75 million transactions, authorized over a time window of three years.
Washington's WNP-2 nuclear plant faces a securities fraud investigation just as it is ready to start operating on schedule. The investigation's outcome and WNP-2's performance will determine whether WNP-1 and WNP-3 will be financed. Angry bondholders who did not receive interest on their investments in January prompted Congressional hearings, at which it was learned that institutional buyers had pulled out of the Washington Public Power Supply System project and unloaded the bonds on thousands of unsuspecting individuals for whom tax-free municipal bonds are inappropriate. Securities Exchange Commission investigators will focus on the initial offering and disclosure by the issuer to determine if the Wall Street unloading was legal
Cozort, L A
A May 2000 U.S. Supreme Court decision determining when a Federal bribery statute can be used to fight Medicare fraud has ramifications for healthcare providers. In Fischer v. United States, the Court concluded that healthcare providers that participate in Medicare are considered to receive benefits as set forth in the bribery statute and thus can be prosecuted for fraudulent activities against the government under the statute. The statute mandates a fine, imprisonment for up to 10 years, or both for anyone convicted under it. Provider organizations that receive Medicare payments and business associates of such organizations should be aware that the government may step up its use of the bribery law in prosecuting fraudulent activity. In addition, although the case pertained specifically to healthcare providers that participate in Medicare, providers that do not participate in Medicare may wish to evaluate the advisability of accepting other Federal funding because of the possible reach of the bribery statute.
Kusumo, A. H.; Chi, C.-F.; Dewi, R. S.
The current study analyzed 125 successful fraud cases happened in Taiwan, China, and Indonesia from 2008 to 2012 published in the English online newspapers. Each of the case report was coded in terms of scam principle, information media (information exchange between fraudsters and victim), money media (media used by fraudsters to obtain unauthorized financial benefit) and other additional information which was judged to be relevant. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of information, scam principle and money media to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications. A series of flow diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of information (scam) travelling from information media to money media.
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...
Caldas, Lucas Soares
A fraude é uma prática comum em todo o mundo, sempre envolvendo um agente que usa meios escusos para enganar e obter benefícios à custa de outros. Em grande parte subnotificado devido ao constrangimento social, fraudes são difíceis de prevenir porque mudam rapidamente. No entanto, os processos de influência social por trás deste fenômeno mudam pouco. Pessoas são vítimas de golpes e fraudes contra o consumidor diariamente, no entanto, na maioria dos casos, a vítima poderia ter detectado a frau...
Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.
Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin
Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....
Shield, Andrew DJ
newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....
Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan
Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...
Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N
We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...
... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.68 Program... the capability of the government to deter and recover losses from false, fictitious or fraudulent...
Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti R
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out how the influence of forensic accountant's experience and professionalism on the quality of audit evidence to reveal fraud. Hypothesis in this research is experience of forensic accountant have positive effect to quality of audit evidence to reveal fraud and professionalism of forensic accountant have positive effect to quality of audit evidence to reveal fraud. The research method used is associative method. While the technique of data analysis using correlation coefficient analysis and coefficient of determination analysis. Quantitative data is the primary data. Primary data in the form of questionnaires collected from forensic accountants at the Representative Board of Finance and Development of West Java Province. The results showed that forensic accountant experience and forensic accountant professionalism positively influence the quality of audit evidence to reveal fraud
Claudia Lucía Ordóñez
Full Text Available The present article gives information about the findings of the third stage of a research project on academic fraud that has been conducted by the Centro de Investigación y Formación en Educación, CIFE, from the Andes University, Bogotá, with the purpose of developing interventions to fight it. Facing upsetting findings in the first two stages about the frequency of fraudulent behaviors and the reasons given by the students to justify academic fraud, we conducted a detailed qualitative study that analyzes these reasons. From the results we propose a cultural explanation for students' decisions on academic fraud, instead of one that only takes into account factors related to individual moral development. Then we use constructivist learning principles and their possible applications to support the need to fight against academic fraud from pedagogical change.
Full Text Available The objectives of this research is to analyze and provide empirical proves about the influences of dishonesty behavior dan moral competence towards academic fraud of accounting students. The variable used in the research are dishonesty behavior and moral competence. The population of the research is the accounting students from Trisakti University, Bina Nusantara University, and Indonesia Banking School. 242 respondents has been involved as sampels in the research. Data used in the research consist of primary data collected using a questionaire. Multiple regression analysis will be used in the data analysis to test the hypotheses, and the data will be tested using the 20 version of SPSS The result of the test shows us that dishonesty behavior is proven to have an effect on the academic fraud of accounting students. While moral competence has not shown an effect on the academic fraud of accounting students. Key words : Dishonesty Behavior, Moral Competence, Academic Fraud
... familiar with, and adhere to, policies and procedures. To determine whether a Unit meets this standard, OIG... provide training on the elements of successful fraud referrals and receive training on the role and...
The EPA OIG hotline receives complaints of fraud, waste, and abuse in EPA and U.S. Chemical Safety Board programs and operations including mismanagement or violations of law, rules, or regulations by EPA employees or program participants.
Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa
The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J
Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt
Thomson, Maria D; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie
Changing population demographics and immigration patterns have resulted in increasing numbers of Canadians who report speaking a language other than French or English. Inclusion of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) immigrants in cancer education research is critical if disparities in access and use of preventive health care services are to be addressed. This article describes the challenges experienced recruiting and interviewing older ESL immigrant women for a colon cancer prevention study. Factors influencing the recruitment and interview of ESL immigrant women were identified through regular team meetings, interviews, and reflective practice notes. Issues included the importance of community contacts, language barriers, and the motivations of the women for participating. Recommendations for recruitment and inclusion of ESL immigrants in cancer education research are provided.
George J. Borjas
Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...
Fischer, Andreas M.
Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...
Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...
Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...
Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels
Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.
Kwon, Hyuk Il; Lee, Young Gun; Lim, Nam Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
In the years 2004 and 2005, Korea became a prospective nation noteworthy in the world through the epochal development of genetic engineering in our country. Obstinate or incurable diseases were expected to be healed in a few years by a Korean geneticist. So many worldwide patients of obstinate or incurable diseases took notice of the research outcomes and organized an aid association to collect supporting funds. World renowned journals such as 'Nature' and 'Science' published Dr. Hwang's theses. A long and distant way remedy to obstinate diseases seemed to be closer at hand so early. However, a stem cell fraud case emerged throughout the world in late 2005, the pride of the Korean people was destroyed. With this as a momentum, voices of self reflection by scientific circles were raised. The purpose of this study is not in finding the truth of the stem cell research but to propose an effective management and control measures for the future in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating large scale national R and D projects in order to prevent a recurrence of this kind of failure.
Kwon, Hyuk Il; Lee, Young Gun; Lim, Nam Jin
In the years 2004 and 2005, Korea became a prospective nation noteworthy in the world through the epochal development of genetic engineering in our country. Obstinate or incurable diseases were expected to be healed in a few years by a Korean geneticist. So many worldwide patients of obstinate or incurable diseases took notice of the research outcomes and organized an aid association to collect supporting funds. World renowned journals such as 'Nature' and 'Science' published Dr. Hwang's theses. A long and distant way remedy to obstinate diseases seemed to be closer at hand so early. However, a stem cell fraud case emerged throughout the world in late 2005, the pride of the Korean people was destroyed. With this as a momentum, voices of self reflection by scientific circles were raised. The purpose of this study is not in finding the truth of the stem cell research but to propose an effective management and control measures for the future in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating large scale national R and D projects in order to prevent a recurrence of this kind of failure
Kanapickienė, Rasa; Grundienė, Živilė
Analysis of financial ratios is one of those simple methods to identify frauds. Theoretical survey revealed that, in scientific literature, financial ratios are analysed in order to designate which ratios of the financial statements are the most sensitive in relation with the motifs of executive managers and employees of companies to commit frauds. Empirical study included the analysis of the following: 1) 40 sets of fraudulent financial statements and 2) 125 sets of non-fraudulent financ...
Smith Rotabi, K.
This report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the past 30 years; force, fraud, and coercion have been identified in a small but important component of the literature. However, this knowledge in intercountry adoption has not yet truly bridged into research in glo...
Smith Rotabi, Karen; Cheney, Kristen
textabstractThis report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the past 30 years; force, fraud, and coercion have been identified in a small but important component of the literature. However, this knowledge in intercountry adoption has not yet truly bridged into res...
revised is submitted for inclusion in that year’s edition of the manual. In addition, new information can be submitted from SMEs in the field. The...justify the inclusion of additional fraud knowledge competencies into mandatory follow- on training for all individuals selected to fill the role of fraud...committee. Revista Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa [European Journal of Management and Business Economics], 19(3): 89–112, 173
After a long history of electoral fraud, Mexicana entered the 1990s with deep skepticism towardspolitical elections. Subsequent electoral reforma succeeded to bring fraud under control. How did Mexican citizens react to these institutional changes f Did they hibernate under theprotectivecover of un unchanging "culture ofdistrust"? Or did they adapt their expectations to thenew realities? Thearticlesupports the hypothesis ofchange. Analyzing a set of formerly disperse opinwn poli data, it arri...
Holm, Claus; Langsted, Lars Bo; Seehausen, Jesper
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the intricate relationship between audit regulation and developments in audit practice in relation to the fraud issue. The extent and exact nature of the responsibilities of the auditor to detect fraud in relation to audit engageme......The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the intricate relationship between audit regulation and developments in audit practice in relation to the fraud issue. The extent and exact nature of the responsibilities of the auditor to detect fraud in relation to audit...... engagements has been widely discussed over the years. In this paper we classify actual cases, where the responsibilities of auditors have been established by the court system and/or by the auditors own professional organizations in Denmark. The dataset includes all publicized cases raised against Danish...... auditors within the time period 1909-2006. The information provided in the cases provides a basis for identifying the actual responsibilities pertaining to fraud during the audit. The overall finding of the historical analysis is that the responsibilities of the auditor in relation to fraud should...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between internal audit effectiveness, internal auditor’s responsibility, training and fraud detection. During the last decade internal auditing has become an integral part of modern businesses since it is capable of detecting errors or offences which lead to fraud. In order to investigate the above relationship, we conducted a survey of companies listed in the Athens Stock Exchange. We used factor analysis to validate the survey instrument and to construct our variables measuring fraud detection, internal audit effectiveness, auditor responsibility and training. We used regression analysis to test for significance between the constructed variables. Our analysis shows that audit effectiveness, auditor responsibility and auditor training affect positively and significantly the detection of fraud. Our results highlight the importance of internal audit in detecting accounting fraud and the need of companies to invest on internal audit processes and training in order to achieve enhanced corporate performance. Finally, our research stresses the importance of internal audit and fraud detection for companies which operate in countries which are in a period of economic crisis.
Holm, Claus; Langsted, Lars Bo; Seehausen, Jesper
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the intricate relationship between audit regulation and developments in audit practice in relation to the fraud issue. The extent and exact nature of the responsibilities of the auditor to detect fraud in relation to audit engageme......The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the intricate relationship between audit regulation and developments in audit practice in relation to the fraud issue. The extent and exact nature of the responsibilities of the auditor to detect fraud in relation to audit...... engagements has been widely discussed over the years. In this paper we classify actual cases, where the responsibilities of auditors have been established by the court system and/or by the auditors own professional organizations in Denmark. The dataset includes all publicized cases raised against Danish...... auditors within the time period 1909-2006. The information provided in the cases provides a basis for identifying the actual responsibilities pertaining to fraud during the audit. The overall finding of the historical analysis is that the responsibilities of the auditor in relation to fraud should...
Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva
with length of residence, or that the health status of immigrants with a residence duration of less than 5 to 10 years is statistically significantly better than immigrants who have resided in the Czech Republic for 10 years or more. We conclude that, by increasing the education levels of immigrants, or actively selecting qualified foreign workers (according to set criteria), the number of people in the Czech Republic who positively assess their health status will surge. In terms of prevention, it is essential to focus on manual laborers and to differentiate specific methods to improve their health status (e.g. awareness-raising campaigns in large plants and factories), given that they comprise the weakest group in this regard.
Full Text Available In this article, the authors seek to emphasize the risk factors that may occur due to not implementing or faultyimplementation of corporate governance for credit institutions, and its role in fraud prevention and detection. To avoidinappropriate governance, top management should have special preoccupations for the development of strategies,developing internal control policies by which to determine and evaluate the risks of the organization. Corporategovernance starts with a broad range of beneficiaries (stakeholders who contribute with resources to an organization(investments, taxes, charitable contributions, etc. Those members are the direct and indirect beneficiaries of theorganizational unit to be regulated. Corporate governance involving several parties: the leadership board, the internalauditors or those of the external environment. In some cases, regulatory authorities or professional associations,contribute to this process.
Professionals working with immigrant and refugee youth in schools, mental health clinics, hospitals, and adolescent-serving organizations are better equipped to offer culturally appropriate interventions and prevention strategies if they understand their clients' migration journeys and legal status. Professionals who understand the cultural…
van Bergen, Diana D.; Heredia-Montesinos, Amanda; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam
Leading experts examine suicidal behavior and its prevention in immigrants and their descendants – the fastest expanding proportion of the population in many European countries. Nearly half of the inhabitants of several large European cities, such as London, Berlin, or Amsterdam, and a rising
Healthy migrant effect (HME) of immigrants has been evidenced in various heath aspects. However, few studies have explored the applicability of HME on Asian immigrants' health risk behavior-smoking. This study used three waves of Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement data, 1998-1999, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011, to compare the rates of being a current smoker among Asian immigrants and United States born citizens. Further, the odds ratios of gender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, years of migration, and citizenship status on the likelihood of being a current smoker were examined. Across the three waves, Asian immigrants smoked at a much lower rate than their native-born counterparts. The gender gap of being a current smoker was much wider among Asian immigrants. The longer the Asian immigrants stayed in the United States, the more likely they were to become current smokers. These data confirmed the association of HME and Asian immigrants' smoking behavior, and also provided strong evidence of the importance of smoking prevention among Asian immigrants. This study also implied the possibility of a decline in the effectiveness of HME on Asian immigrants as the time they spent in the United States increased.
An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...
Aleman, Steven R.
This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…
Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov
Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…
Mihaela Narcisa Stoicu
Full Text Available Bankruptcy is a legal concept that emerged and developed in the business environment, along with other concepts such as: insolvency, debtor, creditor, etc. Simple bankruptcy or bankruptcy fraud do not have a legal definition, but their analysis cannot be made without considering the legal norms governing the procedure of insolvency. The legal regime applicable to insolvent debtors is of general interest, due to the economic and financial effects manifested upon the business environment, with direct influences on the national economy. The insolvency procedure is regulated by Law 85/2006 and aims to establish a collective procedure for covering the liabilities of insolvent debtors. Insolvency is the state of the debtor's assets that is characterized by lack of available funds for the payment of certain, liquid and exigible debt. Therefore, non-payment of debt on maturity must be the effect of the debtor’s incapacity to pay the debt with the available sums of money, incapacity which must be caused by an external and objective situation, namely the cessation of payments.
Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.
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Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.
Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.
analysis, and vests the executive with appropriate discretion in administering the law. The paper also argues that the United States should anticipate and accommodate the needs of persons compelled to migrate by its military, trade, development, and other commitments. In addition, the US immigration system needs to be able to distinguish between undocumented immigrants, and refugees and asylum seekers, and to treat these two populations differently. The paper assumes that there will be continued bipartisan support for immigration enforcement. However, even with a strong enforcement apparatus in place and an adaptable, coherent, evidence-based legal immigration system that closely aligns with US interests, some (reduced level of illegal migration will persist. The paper offers a sweeping, historical analysis of how this population emerged, why it has grown and contracted, and how estimates of its size have been politically exploited. Legalization is often viewed as the third rail of immigration reform. Yet, Congress has regularly legalized discrete undocumented populations, and the combination of a well-structured legalization program, strengthened legal immigration system, and strong enforcement policies can prevent the reemergence of a large-scale undocumented population. In contrast, the immense US enforcement apparatus will work at cross-purposes to US interests and values, absent broader reform. The paper ends with a series of recommendations to reform the legal immigration system, downsize the current undocumented population, and ensure its permanent reduction. It proposes that the United States “reissue” (or reuse the visas of persons who emigrate, as a way to promote legal immigration reform without significantly increasing annual visa numbers.  Effective legal immigration policies constitute the cornerstone of reform because, without them, the immigration enforcement system and any eventual legalization program will not be able to deliver on their promises
Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.
Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.
... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...
Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia
The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.
Kristy A. Bolton
hypothesis This study will provide evidence of the potential modifiable feeding practices and risk of overweight faced by Chinese-born immigrants living in Australia. This is important to help identify groups at risk of rapid growth and subsequent risk of obesity, to identify opportunities for intervention, and to be able to tailor prevention initiatives appropriately.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...
Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…
Stacey, G P; Lutton, W
A review of the factors affecting immigration to the United States is presented. The authors develop the argument that present levels of immigration, particularly illegal immigration, are detrimental to U.S. interests, and that current global population trends will make this situation progressively worse. Stricter controls on immigration are considered.
Full Text Available Successful implementation of any broad-scale immigrant legalization program requires an adequately funded infrastructure of immigrant-serving organizations. In 2014, President Obama announced an expanded Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program, as well as the Deferred Action for Parents of Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA program, which would make it possible for approximately five million people to attain lawful, albeit temporary, status and employment authorization. As the initial DACA program instituted in 2012 has already stretched the capacity of immigrant-serving organizations to their limits or even beyond them, the possibility of full implementation of DAPA and the expanded DACA programs presents a formidable challenge for these organizations.In this paper, the Human Resources Working Group of the Committee for Immigration Reform Implementation (CIRI draws on the lessons of the Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA, DACA, and other initiatives to provide a roadmap for immigrant service delivery agencies and their partners in planning for implementation of the expanded DACA and the DAPA programs, with an eye (ultimately to broad legislative reform. In particular, this paper focuses on the funding and human resources that the immigrant service delivery field, writ large, would require to implement these programs.If expanded DACA and DAPA were implemented, the CIRI Working Group estimates that, of the total of five million that may be eligible, 1.08 million individuals will require extensive application assistance, generating the need for approximately three times more full-time staff than are currently in the field. Moreover, without additional funding and staff, agencies will likely not be able to shift a portion of staff time to accommodate any new program, even taking the typical fee-for-service model into account. Thus, the paper identifies a pressing need for “upfront” funding as early in the
Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani
This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...
"This article speaks to the conceptual and methodological issues in research on the making of an immigrant niche through a case study of immigrant professionals in New York City government." The author argues that "the growth of this immigrant niche resulted from changes in the relative supply of native workers and in the structure of employment, which opened the bureaucracy to immigrants and reduced native/immigrant competition. These shifts opened hiring portals; given the advantages of network hiring for workers and managers, and an immigrant propensity for government employment, network recruitment led to a rapid buildup in immigrant ranks." excerpt
Thacher, Tom D; Pludowski, Pawel; Shaw, Nick J; Mughal, M Zulf; Munns, Craig F; Högler, Wolfgang
Immigrant and refugee populations bring public health challenges to host nations. In the current global refugee crisis, children are the most vulnerable subpopulation. Diseases that were considered rare in the host nation may be highly prevalent among immigrant children. The prevalence of nutritional rickets is increasing in high-income countries, largely driven by an influx of immigrant populations. Nutritional rickets is a bone disease in early childhood resulting in bone pain, delayed motor development, and bending of the bones, caused by vitamin D deficiency and/or inadequate dietary calcium intake. The consequences of nutritional rickets include stunted growth, developmental delay, lifelong bone deformities, seizures, cardiomyopathy, and even death. Nutritional rickets is most commonly seen in children from the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia in high-income countries. Dark skin pigmentation, sun avoidance, covering the skin, and prolonged breast feeding without vitamin D supplementation, are important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and combined with a lack of dairy products in the diet, these deficiencies can result in insufficient calcium supply for bone mineralization. We recommend screening all immigrant and refugee children under 5 years of age from these ethnic groups for nutritional rickets, based on clinical features, and confirming the diagnosis with radiographs of the wrists and knees. Because nutritional rickets is entirely preventable, public health policies must address the need for universal vitamin D supplementation and adequate dietary calcium to protect children from this scourge. Vitamin D supplementation of all infants and children with 400 IU/d during the first year of life and dietary or supplemental intakes of at least 600 IU/d of vitamin D and 500 mg/d of calcium thereafter, will effectively prevent nutritional rickets. We call on national health authorities of host countries to implement health check lists and prevention
Gotsens, Mercè; Malmusi, Davide; Villarroel, Nazmy; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Hernando, Cristina; Borrell, Carme
The immigrant population living in Spain grew exponentially in the early 2000s but has been particularly affected by the economic crisis. This study aims to analyse health inequalities between immigrants born in middle- or low-income countries and natives in Spain, in 2006 and 2012, taking into account gender, year of arrival and socioeconomic exposures. Study of trends using two cross-sections, the 2006 and 2012 editions of the Spanish National Health Survey, including residents in Spain aged 15-64 years (20 810 natives and 2950 immigrants in 2006, 14 291 natives and 2448 immigrants in 2012). Fair/poor self-rated health, poor mental health (GHQ-12 > 2), chronic activity limitation and use of psychotropic drugs were compared between natives and immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006, adjusting robust Poisson regression models for age and socioeconomic variables to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Inequalities in poor self-rated health between immigrants and natives tend to increase among women (age-adjusted PR2006 = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, PR2012 = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.33-1.82). Among men, there is a new onset of inequalities in poor mental health (PR2006 = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.86-1.40, PR2012 = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06-1.69) and an equalization of the previously lower use of psychotropic drugs (PR2006 = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.11-0.43, PR2012 = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.73-2.01). Between 2006 and 2012, immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006 appeared to worsen their health status when compared with natives. The loss of the healthy immigrant effect in the context of a worse impact of the economic crisis on immigrants appears as potential explanation. Employment, social protection and re-universalization of healthcare would prevent further deterioration of immigrants' health status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines, first, data about perceptions and attitudes in Latin-American immigrants and the Spanish population towards intimate partner violence against women. Secondly, it explores correlates of attitudes towards reporting cases of partner violence against women in a sample of Latin-American immigrants. Three data sources, which include two representative samples of the Spanish population and a sample of Latin-American immigrants, are used. Results show significant differences between Spanish and immigrant perceptions and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women. Analyses also show that positive attitudes among Latin-American immigrants towards reporting cases of partner violence were more frequent among those who were less tolerant, who perceived it as a major problem in society, and tended not to blame the victims. These results underline the importance of public attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women for the understanding and prevention of this social problem.
Leandro dos Santos Coelho
Full Text Available A prevenção de fraude em cartão de crédito é uma importante aplicação comercial para aplicação de abordagens de métodos de previsão e inteligência computacional. A inteligência computacional é uma associação de metodologias bio-inspiradas que incluem, como principais membros, as redes neurais, sistemas nebulosos, computação evolutiva, inteligência coletiva e computação probabilística. Recentemente, a aplicação de técnicas da inteligência computacional no suporte de tarefas de serviço, tais como detecção e identificação de anomalia, classificação de padrão, diagnóstico, prognóstico, estimação e controle, tem emergido nos ambientes industrial e comercial. Este artigo apresenta um sistema computacional eficiente baseado em metodologias da inteligência computacional para detecção de fraude em operações reais de dados de cartão de crédito em transações de comércio eletrônico. O novo método proposto é denominado FControl® de detecção de fraude e classificação integra conceitos de sistemas inteligentes híbridos baseado em abordagens de redes neurais, sistemas nebulosos e computação evolutiva. O método proposto gera soluções de qualidade em termos de eficiência e sucesso de previsão. O programa computacional do FControl® está atualmente instalado em um Intel Pentium IV 2.4 MHz (bi-processador e RAM de 4 Gbytes na companhia Ciashop E-Commerce e está correntemente em uso para detecção de fraude para 250 companhias com serviços de comércio eletrônico.The prevention of credit card fraud is an important commercial application for prediction methods and computational intelligence of pattern recognition approaches. Computational intelligence is an association of bio-inspired computational methodologies which are founded principally on neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, and probabilistic computation. The application of computational intelligence
Card, David Edward
This paper reviews the recent evidence on U.S. immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labor market opportunities of less-skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act successfully assimilated? Looking across major cities, differential immigrant inflows are strongly correlated with the relative supply of high school dropouts. Nevertheless, data from the 2000 Census shows that relative wages of native dropouts are unc...
De laatste jaren is er binnen sociale diensten in Nederland veel aandacht geweest voor een strikt handhavingsbeleid ten aanzien van bijstandsuitkering. Het hanteren van een risicoprofiel is hierbij een veel gebruikte methode. Een risicoprofiel is opgebouwd uit factoren waarvan wordt verwacht dat zij voorspellen of een uitkeringsgerechtigde zich in zal laten met fraude. Bij Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid (SoZaWe in Rotterdam is onderzoek gedaan in hoeverre gegevens die zijn opgeslagen in de bestanden van de dienst in relatie staan met fraude. Daarnaast is een onderzoek gedaan in hoeverre factoren die vanuit een theoretisch standpunt in relatie met fraude zouden kunnen staan tot een verbetering van een risicoprofiel kunnen leiden. Uit de beide onderzoeken blijkt dat de gegevens uit de bestanden van SoZaWe een geringe voorspellende waarde hebben. Deze kan iets verbeterd worden door er factoren aan toe te voegen als de attitude van de klant tegenover fraude en beoordeling van de kansen om gecontroleerd te worden en gepakt te worden voor fraude. Het gebruik van risicoprofielen, waarbij alleen van gegevens uit de bestanden van de Sociale Diensten wordt uitgegegaan moet met de grootst mogelijke terughoudendheid gebeuren.
Full Text Available En años recientes la importancia del control de alimentos, en cuanto a la identificación de sus componentes para evitar fraudes, ha crecido tanto en interés en las organizaciones estatales como en las empresas y en las industrias. La globalización, el aumento de las importaciones y exportaciones, y los tratados de libre comercio han propiciado un mayor intercambio y acceso de los alimentos a nivel mundial; junto con ello los problemas asociados a los fraudes tales como la adulteración, sustitución, la intencionalidad, y falsificación se han incrementado. Por ello, se han reportado varios trabajos asociados al fraude alimentario, donde en la mayoría de ellas se muestran aplicaciones de nuevas técnicas de identificación. Sin embargo, una discusión acerca de los tipos de fraude y su impacto sobre la sociedad, el bioterrorismo y la religión, ha sido poco abordada. Esta revisión se enfoca básicamente en describir los tipos de fraude en alimentos más comunes. Así como, se mencionan las recientes técnicas disponibles para detectar una adulteración en carnes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine factors that may affect fraud on financial statements that could encourage the emergence of corruption by management. This research uses banks as an industry sample because the banking industry is highly regulated and should report their financial statement to a central bank. Meanwhile, banks still frequently have fraudulent financial statements. Good corporate governance mechanisms indicated that banks have the capability to detect fraud in financial statements. This research focuses on testing factors that may affect the financial statements fraud which lead to the corruption of management. The data used in this research is financial statement data. Corporate governance mechanisms tested in this study are the number of commissioners, percentage of independent directors, number of commissioners meeting, percentage of largest share ownership, managerial ownership, long tenure of commissioners, and type of auditor. This research found that the number of commissioners and managerial ownership affects management's fraud, while the number of independent directors, the number of commissioners meeting, a long tenure managing director, large share ownership, and the type of auditor has no effect on fraud.
The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [Dutch] Het systeem van emissiehandel is een complex samengesteld geheel met aan de ene kant een belangrijke milieucomponent en aan de andere kant een financiele wereld die ingehaakt heeft op dit instrument. In hoofdstuk 2 wordt een introductie gegeven op het systeem van emissiehandel. In de volgende hoofdstukken wordt dieper ingegaan op Fraudevormen (hoofdstuk 3), Bevoegdheden (hoofdstuk 4), en Instrumentarium (hoofdstuk 5). Uit het rapport blijkt dat verschillende vormen van fraude zijn optreden bij de handel in emissierechten, zoals BTW-fraude en identiteitsfraude.
Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Desai, Mayur M
Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents' immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.
Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon
This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts that are specific to the state of New York from the "Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants" report, which exposes systemic barriers that prevent immigrants from entering college and/or completing bachelor's degrees…
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup
for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...
Diaz, Esperanza; Kumar, Bernadette N; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Poblador-Pou, Beatriz; Prados-Torres, Alexandra
International migration is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the health status of migrants differs across groups. Information regarding health at arrival and subsequent periodic follow-up in the host country is necessary to develop equitable health care to immigrants. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the length of stay in Norway and other sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of multimorbidity across immigrant groups (refugees, labour immigrants, family reunification immigrants and education immigrants). This is a register-based study merging data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration database. Sociodemographic variables and multimorbidity across the immigrant groups were compared using Persons' chi-square test and anova as appropriate. Several binary logistic regression models were conducted. Multimorbidity was significantly lower among labour immigrants (OR (95% CI) 0.23 (0.21-0.26) and 0.45 (0.40-0.50) for men and women, respectively) and education immigrants (OR (95% CI) 0.40 (0.32-0.50) and 0.38 (0.33-0.43)) and higher among refugees (OR (95% CI) 1.67 (1.57-1.78) and 1.83 (1.75-1.92)), compared to family reunification immigrants. For all groups, multimorbidity doubled after a five-year stay in Norway. Effect modifications between multimorbidity and sociodemographic characteristics across the different reasons for migration were observed. Multimorbidity was highest among refugees at arrival but increased rapidly among labour immigrants, especially females. Health providers need to ensure tailor-made preventive and management strategies that take into account pre-migration and post-migration experiences for immigrants in order to address their needs. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fuertes Goñi, Maria Carmen; Elizalde, L; De Andrés, M R; García Castellano, P; Urmeneta, S; Uribe, J M; Bustince, P
To describe utilisation of health care services and motives for consultation in Primary Care in the native and the immigrant population, and compare this with the perception of primary care professionals. Data was collected on health care activity during the year 2006 for all people registered (N=86,966) in the 6 basic health care zones with the highest proportion of immigrants (14.4%) and on the following variables: country of origin, age, sex, year of inscription in the public health service. The health card and OMI-AP programme databases were used. A qualitative methodology of focus groups and in-depth interviews was employed. Seventy-two point four percent of immigrants requested care from the primary care professionals in 2006, of whom 50% proceeded from Ecuador and 70% were between 25 and 44 years old. Eighty-two percent of the natives made consultations and required more referrals to specialised care than the immigrants of the same age group. The most frequent consultation with natives and with immigrants was "acute respiratory infections" (7 to 23% according to age group). The second most frequent with immigrants was "administrative problems". The consultations with immigrants were not related to preventive aspects such as smoking and there were more consultations (p>0.001) for gynaeco-obstetric episodes (10.7%) and those related to work (19%) or psychosomatic problems (8.5%). The perception of the primary care professionals was that the immigrants carry out more consultations than the natives and generate a certain "disorder" in the clinic. Immigrants use healthcare services less than the native population. Nonetheless, this fact is not perceived in this way by the primary care professionals. Fewer preventive activities are carried out with immigrants, who suffer from more labour and psychosomatic problems.
Barry CHISWICK; Yew LEE; Paul W. MILLER
This paper is concerned with the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants. It presents a model based on economic incentives, exposure, and efficiency in language acquisition, which it tests using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. Probit and bivariate probit analyses are employed. The hypotheses are supported by the data. The bivariate probit analysis across waves indicates a "regression to the mean" in the unobserved components of English language profic...
Meshefedjian, Garbis A; Leaune, Viviane; Simoneau, Marie-Ève; Drouin, Mylène
Study disparities in lifestyle habits and health characteristics of Canadian born population and immigrants with different duration of residence. Data are extracted from 2009 to 2010 public use micro-data files of Canadian Community Health Survey representing about 1.5 million people. Sixty-one percent of the study sample was born in Canada; 49 % males and 59 % below age 50. Amongst lifestyle habits, recent immigrants were less likely to be regular smokers, RR (95 % CI) 0.56 (0.36-0.88) and frequent consumers of alcohol 0.49 (0.27-0.89), but more likely to consume less fruits and vegetables 1.26 (1.04-1.53) than those born in Canada. Amongst health related factors, recent immigrants were less likely to be overweight 0.79 (0.62-0.99) and suffer from chronic diseases 0.59 (0.44-0.80), but more likely to have limited access to family medicine 1.24 (1.04-1.47) than Canada-born population. Immigration status is an important population characteristic which influenced distribution of health indicators. Prevention and promotion strategies should consider immigration status as an exposure variable in the development and implementation of public health programs.
Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M
Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Operational Circular No. 10 entitled “Principles and procedures governing investigation of Fraud”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 4 December 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. This circular is applicable to all persons working at or on behalf of CERN. The purpose of this new operational circular is to specify the definition of fraud and to lay down the Organization’s fraud investigation process pursuant to the CERN Anti-fraud Policy and in accordance with the principles of due process. Department Head Office HR Department
Gary G. Huang
Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born childrenpresumably children of indigenous groupsthan among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.
... apply to any debt based in whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or to any debt... antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax...
Full Text Available This article examines how worldwide governance, global competiveness, and other institutional determinants have influenced the number of accounting fraud cases in several countries. The researchers have focused more closely on the importance of ‘good governance’ as one of the indicators of development objectives in itself. The institutional perspective is employed to explain the complexity of frauds in different societies which can be compatible for the purposes of international judgments in order to increase the effectiveness of previous forensic accounting theories. In this paper, a linear regression model is tested where governance, competitiveness, and other institutional variables are associated with a measure of accounting fraud cases. From our results, we can merely claim that an increased level of controlled corruption and political stability might reduce the number of fraud cases in various countries, while more effective and independent governance services with a higher freedom of expression seemed to increase them. The existence of accounting crimes also appeared to be a suitable proxy of better competitiveness. Anglo-Saxon countries have more stated fraud cases than other countries, attributed, perhaps, to the finest commercial courts with the most professional and least corrupt judges in the world, with centuries of precedent cases and experience in dealing with fraud. Moreover, we believe that a better understanding of fraud detection is a potentially important element in forensic accounting analytics in the success of governance policies to enhance development and reduce the risk of bankruptcies related to the reported fraud cases of enterprises.
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization. 39.7 Section 39.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.7 Fraud in connection...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in or in connection with... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1 Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to the...
... of antitrust laws, or to any debt involving fraud, presentation of a false claim, or... violation or fraud, a false claim, misrepresentation, or other criminal activity or misconduct, the Secretary shall refer the debt to the Office of the Inspector General for review. (3) Upon the determination...
Bouzembrak, Y.; Marvin, H.J.P.
Because food fraud can harm human health and erode consumer trust, it is imperative that it is detected at an early stage. Therefore the aim of this study was to predict the expected food fraud type for imported products for which the product category and country of origin are known in order to
Been, Henry; van Keulen, Maurice
Fraud risk analysis on data from formal information sources, being a ‘paper reality', suffers from blindness to false information. Moreover, the very act of providing false information is a strong indicator for fraud. The technology presented in this paper provides one step towards the vision of
Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...
Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca
In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...
David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston
Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...
Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian
Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737
Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian
Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.
Lisa A Keister
Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.
For over a century, a foreign national seeking permission to immigrate to the U.S. could have her application for immigration denied on the ground that she suffers from a serious contagious disease. For just under two decades, a foreign national seeking permission to immigrate could also have her application denied on the ground that she has not been vaccinated against each of a list of vaccination-preventable diseases. Two recently developed moral justifications for the use of such "vaccination-related exclusion criteria" have focused on (a) the right and need of a society to prevent the spread of disease to others and (b) the public good of developing and protecting herd immunity. Herein I accept these two general justifications-especially as they are developed by Mark Navin-and explore their limits. In particular, with a focus on the recently developed vaccine against several strains of HPV, as well the short-lived requirement by the CDC that it, too, be required of prospective immigrants, I argue that neither of the two main justifications for the use of vaccination-related exclusion criteria support their use for diseases such as HPV (or even HIV), the transmission of which, unlike airborne diseases such as measles, pertussis and polio, is subject to a considerable degree of individual control.
Full Text Available After a long history of electoral fraud, Mexicana entered the 1990s with deep skepticism towardspolitical elections. Subsequent electoral reforma succeeded to bring fraud under control. How did Mexican citizens react to these institutional changes f Did they hibernate under theprotectivecover of un unchanging "culture ofdistrust"? Or did they adapt their expectations to thenew realities? Thearticlesupports the hypothesis ofchange. Analyzing a set of formerly disperse opinwn poli data, it arrives at an optimisticpicture: Trust in elections has steadily increased since 1988.
La primera de las tres conclusiones de este estudio es que el fraude puede adoptar una amplia gama de formas, desde las violaciones de procedimiento a la ley electoral (con o sin la intención de alterar los resultados) hasta el abierto uso de la violencia en contra de los votantes. Segunda, aun cuando la manipulación del voto es parte integral de la competencia electoral, rara vez desempeña un papel decisivo. En todo caso, el fraude debilita la estabilidad política, ya que puede ser crucial c...
Ponce de León Atria, Macarena
Este artículo busca comprender las complejidades de la competencia electoral por el poder político en Chile en los inicios de su institucionalización. El fraude, sobre todo el cohecho, junto a la rotativa ministerial durante la llamada República Parlamentaria (1891-1925) han sido argumentos recurrentes en la historiografía para probar la crisis política del período. Este artículo cambia el foco sobre el parlamentarismo y el tipo de fraude, e intenta probar que, entre las diversas estrategias ...
Antonius Maria Laot Kian
Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.
Cristianne Maria Famer Rocha
Full Text Available A saúde sexual e reprodutiva representa uma das principais preocupações da Saúde Pública, pois afeta a saúde e o bem-estar dos indivíduos e compromete o nível social e econômico das sociedades. Muitos problemas relacionados à saúde sexual e reprodutiva são acentuados em grupos socialmente desfavorecidos, como os imigrantes. Esta investigação aprofunda o conhecimento de alguns aspectos sobre a saúde sexual e reprodutiva de imigrantes brasileiras e africanas em Portugal, particularmente em relação ao uso de métodos contraceptivos, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e uso do preservativo. A coleta de dados se deu a partir da realização de grupos focais com mulheres imigrantes, em idade fértil, residentes em Portugal e provenientes do Brasil ou de Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa. Os resultados permitem compreender as percepções e conhecimentos das participantes em relação às temáticas abordadas e determinar os aspectos a serem levados em conta para melhor atender suas necessidades de saúde sexual e reprodutiva.Sexual and reproductive health is a major public health concern, since it involves individual health and wellbeing and affects the socioeconomic level of societies. Socially underprivileged groups like immigrants may be more exposed to sexual and reproductive health problems. The current study examines key aspects of sexual and reproductive health among Brazilian and African immigrant women in Portugal, particularly contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use. Data were collected through focus groups with childbearing-age immigrant women living in Portugal and originally from Brazil or Portuguese-speaking African countries. The results highlight the participants' perceptions and knowledge concerning the respective issues and identify aspects to be considered in order to better meet their sexual and reproductive health needs.
Lai, Daniel W L; Li, Lun; Daoust, Gabrielle D
This paper reviews recent literature on factors influencing suicide behaviours, including thoughts, plans, and attempts, in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups, to inform a more comprehensive understanding of suicide behaviours in increasingly culturally diverse populations. Thirty-three studies published between 2002 and 2013 were identified through digital databases searches and included in this review. Analysis of study findings focused on impacts of ethno-cultural identity and acculturation, other cultural and immigration influences, and family and community supports on suicide behaviours. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are identified, to inform relevant suicide prevention efforts and enhance mental health supports for immigrant and ethno-cultural minority populations.
Synthia Madya Kusumawati; Ancella A. Hermawan
Financial statement fraud has cost market participants, including investors, employees, creditors, and pensioners. Capital market participants expect active and vigilant corporate governance to ensure the quality, integrity, and transparency of financial information. Financial statement fraud is a serious threat to market participants’ confidence in published audited financial statements. Financial statement fraud has recently received considerable attention from the business community, accou...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.3 Fraud... fraud or deceit upon any person, in, or in connection with (1) an offer to make or the making of, any...
... executive agency suspects violations of 40 U.S.C. 559, fraud, bribery, or criminal collusion in connection... an executive agency suspects violations of 40 U.S.C. 559, fraud, bribery, or criminal collusion in.... 559, fraud, bribery, or criminal collusion in connection with the disposal of personal property, the...
"Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt
Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe
I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....
Epstein, Gil S
This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.
Epstein, Gil S.
This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.
Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.
Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...
Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole
In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemen...
Cortinois, Andrea A; Glazier, Richard H; Caidi, Nadia; Andrews, Gavin; Herbert-Copley, Mary; Jadad, Alejandro R
Although access to information on health services is particularly important for recent immigrants, numerous studies have shown that their use of information and referral services is limited. This study explores the role played by 2-1-1 Toronto in supporting recent immigrants. The study objectives were to (1) understand whether 2-1-1 Toronto is reaching and supporting recent immigrants and (2) gain a better appreciation of the information needs of this population group. A phone survey was conducted in 2005-2006 to collect information on 2-1-1 users' characteristics and levels of satisfaction. Survey data were compared (in 2006) with census data to assess their representativeness. To achieve Objective 2, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted and analyzed in 2006-2007, with a subset of Spanish-speaking callers. Recent immigrants were overrepresented among 2-1-1 callers. However, the survey population was substantially younger and had higher levels of formal education than the general population. Health-related queries represented almost one third of the total. The survey showed very high levels of satisfaction with the service. Many interviewees described their first experiences with the Canadian healthcare system negatively. Most of them had relied on disjointed, low-quality information sources. They trusted 2-1-1 but had discovered it late. Results are mixed in terms of 2-1-1's support to immigrants. A significant percentage of users do not take full advantage of the service. The service could become the information "entry point" for recent immigrants if it was able to reach them early in the resettlement process. Proactive, community-oriented work and a more creative use of technology could help. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula
, both personal and communal. The lack of social and cultural networks for recent immigrants prevents their involvement in the cultural systems that traditionally support breastfeeding. With this in mind, healthcare professionals should deliver services in a culturally appropriate and sensitive manner where women feel supported as well as empowered.
Gardner, Robert W.
Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.
... Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... method of recording an alien's entitlement to an immigrant visa classification. Due to the availability of automated systems at all immigrant visa-issuing posts, this entitlement is now recorded...
Feb 4, 2015 ... respect to economic and sanitary issues. ... products with Tsp509I and AluI restriction enzymes. .... specific PCR assay was found to be rapid and cost ... produced specific fragments of about 195 bp for ruminant ... industries. ... Fraud identification in industrial meat ... Application of an indirect ELISA and a.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify and analyze the main correlations and implications offraud and error in the business environment and in the financial scandals occurred in the last decade. Theapproach envisages a synthesis and antithesis of the ideas found on this subject in the specialty literature, ofthe regulations issued by various international bodies. To achieve the established objectives, we used aconstructive methodology to identify criticism, presentations and developed a speech with view to a moreefficient and effective fraud and error risk management. The results of the study show that the major financialscandals and hence the global economic crisis are based largely on fraudulent maneuvers of significantproportions. By using "creative accounting" in fraud and error, famous companies have managed to distortreality for their performance and market position, misleading the users’ perception. This study is a theoreticalhaving implications for a future empirical study.The study contributes to auditing literature diversification inthe field of risk of fraud and error. An additional perspective is gained by addressing the financial crisis andsome famous bankruptcies by way of the financial auditors activity and the fraud and error risk.
Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A.J.; Daniels, Hennie
Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are
Wang, Shu-Li; Pai, Hao-Ting; Wu, Mei-Fang; Wu, Fan; Li, Chen-Lin
According to the investigations of the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), health insurance fraud has caused an enormous pecuniary loss in the U.S. In Taiwan, in dentistry the problem is getting worse if dentists (authorized entities) file fraudulent claims. Several methods have been developed to solve health insurance fraud; however, these methods are like a rule-based mechanism. Without exploring the behavior patterns, these methods are time-consuming and ineffective; in addition, they are inadequate for managing the fraudulent dentists. Based on social network theory, we develop an evaluation approach to solve the problem of cross-dentist fraud. The trustworthiness score of a dentist is calculated based upon the amount and type of dental operations performed on the same patient and the same tooth by that dentist and other dentists. The simulation provides the following evidence. (1) This specific type of fraud can be identified effectively using our evaluation approach. (2) A retrospective study for the claims is also performed. (3) The proposed method is effective in identifying the fraudulent dentists. We provide a new direction for investigating the genuineness of claims data. If the insurer can detect fraudulent dentists using the traditional method and the proposed method simultaneously, the detection will be more transparent and ultimately reduce the losses caused by fraudulent claims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
Sep 1, 2013 ... processes. Fraud is a million dollar business that ... unexpected risks and proactively respond to such . ... task using normal audit procedures . Firstly ... model that emulates a biological system. .... stimulate human decision-making ... Transport Planning", International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC),.
... initiated unless the State agency has sufficient documentary evidence to substantiate fraud. The final... taken to an ADH or prosecuted without sufficient documentary evidence--which is gathered during the... determined to be not significant and was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in conformance...
... initiated unless the State agency has sufficient documentary evidence to substantiate fraud. The final... taken to an ADH or prosecuted without sufficient documentary evidence--which is gathered during the... determined to be not significant and was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in conformance...
..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees, contractors...
fielding, contracting, interoperability, organizational behavior, risk management , cost estimating, and many others. Approaches range from... COSO ), (Whittington & Pany, 2012). In addition, the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996 identified internal control as an...fraud indicators within the DoD Government Purchase Card Programs and provides recommendations for improving the management of Government Purchase
The 419 codes as business unusual: the advance fee fraud online discourse. A Adogame. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Humanistic Studies Vol. 5 2006: pp. 54-72. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...
van Capelleveen, Guido Cornelis; Poel, Mannes; Mueller, Roland; Thornton, Dallas; van Hillegersberg, Jos
Health care insurance fraud is a pressing problem, causing substantial and increasing costs in medical insurance programs. Due to large amounts of claims submitted, estimated at 5 billion per day, review of individual claims or providers is a difficult task. This encourages the employment of
Cristian Baú Dal Magro
Full Text Available Purpose – Red flags are mechanisms that can be used by internal auditors for early detection of possible fraud. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the relevance credit unions’ internal auditors attribute to red flags in assessing fraud risk. Design/methodology/approach – This article is characterized as descriptive concerning its goals, as a survey as to is procedures, and as quantitative in reference to its approach to the problem. The sample onsists of 51 internal auditors working in Credit Union Centers in southern Brazil. Findings – Results indicate that, in the assessment of fraud risk, internal auditors attribute greater importance to red flags referring to operational activities and internal control procedures. In addition, it is suggested that internal auditors are not impartial concerning their perception of relevance of most of the warning signs of the possibility of fraud. Originality/value – The findings contribute by demonstrating to internal auditors the need for greater attention to the use of red flags as auditing tools.
K. Smith Rotabi (Karen); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)
textabstractThis report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the
... case-based Reasoning, genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic. Its derivable benefits were x-rayed. It has been concluded that there is need for an IT-driven approach to fraud detection and control as a workable alternative to curb the increase and sophistication of fraudsters. KEYWORD: Data Mining, Artificial Neural Network, ...
J.E. Fisch (Jill); J.B. Gelbach (Jonah); J.M. Klick (Jonathan)
markdownabstractEvent studies have become increasingly important in securities fraud litigation after the Supreme Court’s decision in Halliburton II. Litigants have used event study methodology, which empirically analyzes the relationship between the disclosure of corporate information and the
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of fraud or dishonesty. 2580.412-9 Section 2580.412-9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974...
..., the auditor must design the audit to provide reasonable assurance of detecting fraud that is material... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Audit... statements, auditors should apply audit procedures specifically directed to ascertaining whether an illegal...
Fissette, Marcia Valentine Maria
The research described in this thesis examined the contribution of text analysis to detecting indications of fraud in the annual reports of companies worldwide. A total of 1,727 annual reports have been collected, of which 402 are of the years and companies in which fraudulent activities took place,
Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A. F.; Daniels, Hennie
Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are
... schemes that are used to obtain money from these programs and, when appropriate, issues Special Fraud... Dallas TX, LA, AR, OK, NM 214-767-8406 Kansas City MO, ND, SD, MT, KS, IA, CO, NE, 816-426-4000 UT, WY...
Full Text Available -1 Asian Conference on Intelligent Information and Database Systems, 3-5 April 2017, Kanazawa, Japan Increasing the detection of minority class instances in financial statement fraud Stephen Obakeng Moepya1,2(B), Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo1...
Travaille, Peter; Mueller, Roland; Thornton, Dallas; van Hillegersberg, Jos
It is estimated that between $600 and $850 billion annually is lost to fraud, waste, and abuse in the US healthcare system,with $125 to $175 billion of this due to fraudulent activity (Kelley 2009). Medicaid, a state-run, federally-matchedgovernment program which accounts for roughly one-quarter of
Full Text Available In this paper an innovative tool is applied for the detection of electoral fraud by analyzing statistical distributions of the official results. With this aim a computational model is developed to describe the dynamics of an electoral campaign that conditions the individuals' political preferences. The agent–based model is built assuming that in a clean process the electoral outcome depends, essentially, on preferences subjected to the influence of social interaction and global information. In contrast, in order to simulate an electoral fraud the model is modified such that the voting behavior of the citizens is manipulated on election–day. The model is calibrated with data form the 2006 Mexican electoral campaign for the presidency, and the presence or absence of fraud is validated using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, a non–parametric procedure. With information aggregated at the electoral district level, the simulation model rejects the existence of a large scale fraud where at least 5–6% of the total vote tally is manipulated in favor of a particular candidate.
This study investigated the extent of use of forensic accounting techniques in the detection of fraud in tertiary institutions in Anambra State, Nigeria. One research question guided the study and one null hypothesis was tested. Related literature pertinent to the study was reviewed which exposed the need for the study.
-, č. 420 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : election * voting * fraud * learning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp420.pdf
Mills, Whitney L.; Roush, Robert E.; Moye, Jennifer; Kunik, Mark E.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Taffet, George E.; Naik, Aanand D.
Due to age-related factors and illnesses, older adults may become vulnerable to elder investment fraud and financial exploitation (EIFFE). The authors describe the development and preliminary evaluation of an educational program to raise awareness and assist clinicians in identifying older adults at risk. Participants (n = 127) gave high ratings…
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Raley, M.; Dean, M.; Clark, B.; Stolz, H.; Home, R.; Chan, M. Y.; Zhong, Q.; Brereton, P.; Frewer, L. J.
Background/Aims Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns. Methods A two-stage mixed method design research design was adopted. First, qualitative research (focus groups n = 7) was conducted in three Chinese cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu to explore concerns held by Chinese consumers in relation to food fraud. A subsequent quantitative survey (n = 850) tested hypotheses derived from the qualitative research and theoretical literature regarding the relationship between attitudinal measures (including risk perceptions, social trust, and perceptions of benefit associated with demonstrating authenticity), and behavioral intention to purchase “authentic” European products using structural equation modelling. Results Chinese consumers perceive food fraud to be a hazard that represents a food safety risk. Food hazard concern was identified to be geographically influenced. Consumers in Chengdu (tier 2 city) possessed higher levels of hazard concern compared to consumers in Beijing and Guangzhou (tier 1). Structural trust (i.e. trust in actors and the governance of the food supply chain) was not a significant predictor of attitude and intention to purchase authenticated food products. Consumers were shown to have developed ‘risk-relieving’ strategies to compensate for the lack of trust in Chinese food and the dissonance experienced as a consequence of food fraud. Indexical and iconic authenticity cues provided by food manufacturers and regulators were important elements of product evaluations, although geographical differences in their perceived importance were observed. Conclusions Targeted communication of authenticity assurance measures, including; regulations