WorldWideScience

Sample records for immigrant experience affect

  1. On the concept of vulnerability, identity and nostalgia affecting the immigrational experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkas, N

    2007-10-01

    Τhis paper focuses on the vicissitudes affecting the immigrational experience of Greeks in the United States. It is based on observations and insights emanating from psychotherapeutic work with Greek immigrants at the Transcultural Center of Human Relations in Chicago. These immigrants presented with specific symptomatologies including anxiety, depression, psychophysiologic manifestations and gross stress reactions sometimes culminating in transient psychotic episodes necessitating brief psychiatric hospitalization. This study proposes to elucidate the dynamic factors leading to specific psychopathologies observed including the feeling of increased vulnerability and helplessness felt by the immigrant in the new cultural environment in the host country along with feelings if alienation, the shattering of the sense of identity and the ensuing nostalgia motivating the quest to return to the homeland. The study also describes the treatment approaches including the psychotherapeutic interactions required to bring about significant operational changes to provide symptomatologic relief and stabilization towards an improved adaptation to the current life's circumstances. The presented three ongoing cases in point dramatically portray the intensity and complexity of the actual experiences of these immigrants and their response to the applicable therapeutic modalities.

  2. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...

  3. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  4. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    We propose and test a novel effect of immigration on wages. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, immigrants might also affect wage...... formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  5. Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2004-10-01

    Using the life stress model of psychological well-being, in this study we examined risks and resources predicting the occurrence of both positive and negative affect among older Asian Indian immigrants who experienced stressful life events. We collected data through a telephone survey of 226 respondents (aged 50 years and older) in the Southeastern United States. We used hierarchical, negative binomial regression analyses to examine correlates of positive and negative affect. Different coping resources influenced positive and negative affect when stressful life events were controlled for. Being female was a common risk factor for poorer positive and increased negative affect. Satisfaction with friendships and a cultural or ethnic identity that is either bicultural or more American were predictive of greater positive affect. Greater religiosity and increased mastery were resources predicting less negative affect. Cognitive and structural interventions that increase opportunities for social integration, increasing mastery, and addressing spiritual concerns are discussed as ways of coping with stress to improve the well-being of individuals in this immigrant community.

  6. To what extent does immigration affect inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-11-01

    The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.

  7. Contextualizing immigrants' lived experience: story of Taiwanese immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2003-01-01

    Immigration involves extensive changes in living environments. Nonetheless, the predominant approach in the health science literature has been to utilize individual characteristics (including ethnic background) to explain and predict immigrants' lived experiences and health outcomes. Contexts, particularly the larger societal contexts by which immigrants are constituted, are generally ignored. Data from a critical ethnography regarding immigrants' experiences with language, occupation, and economic survival in the United States are utilized to illustrate that immigrants' lives are inseparable from the larger societal contexts, such as immigration policy, Western imperialism, and structural discrimination. The implications for practice, education, and research are discussed.

  8. Immigrants as Active Citizens: Exploring the Volunteering Experience of Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…

  9. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.

  10. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

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    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  11. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  12. Immigrants' language skills: the immigrant experience in a longitudinal survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barry CHISWICK; Yew LEE; Paul W. MILLER

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants. It presents a model based on economic incentives, exposure, and efficiency in language acquisition, which it tests using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. Probit and bivariate probit analyses are employed. The hypotheses are supported by the data. The bivariate probit analysis across waves indicates a "regression to the mean" in the unobserved components of English language profic...

  13. Labor market integration, immigration experience, and psychological distress in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrants residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.

  14. Graphic Journeys: Graphic Novels' Representations of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how immigrant experiences are represented in the narratives of three graphic novels published in the last decade: Tan's (2007) "The Arrival," Kiyama's (1931/1999) "The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904-1924," and Yang's (2006) "American Born Chinese." Through a theoretical lens informed by…

  15. The colonial context of Filipino American immigrants' psychological experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L

    2013-07-01

    Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  17. Connecting the Immigrant Experience through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eliza G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3rd-grade teacher used literature to help her immigrant students grapple with some of the larger issues related to immigration. Through the story of one Latino student, the teacher shares the literature that she used and how one student responded.

  18. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life.

  19. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Ageing in an inconvenient paradise: the immigrant experiences of older Korean people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jae; Kim, Chang Gi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the immigrant experiences of older Korean people and their intergenerational family relationships in the New Zealand context. Data were collected from qualitative interviews with older people, community leaders and professionals in Christchurch and Auckland. Data analysis was conducted using concept mapping techniques in the cross-cultural context where two languages were simultaneously used. The findings of the study show that older Korean people in New Zealand were likely to face multiple challenges due to the combined effects of immigration and ageing in a new country. Some older people experienced difficulties in managing their immigrant lives and intergenerational relationships in the transnational family context in which their family members were dispersed across two or more nations. The immigrant experiences of older migrants might be affected by an 'invisible' source of isolation and exclusion at familial, community, societal and transnational levels. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  1. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  2. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

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    Gabriel Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people´s acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences.CONCLUSIONS: the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  3. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

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    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

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    Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.

  5. Immigrant families in historical perspective: the experiences of Polish pioneers in Winnipeg, 1896-1919

    OpenAIRE

    ŁUKASZ ALBAŃSKI

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on an early Polish family life in Winnipeg. The family often served as a mechanism to reduce a sense of dislocation and to facilitate immigrants' adaptation. The family was also the primary economic unit. The family relations were affected by gender. Both immigrant men and women found themselves reconsidering traditional roles. Somehow immigration tested their family roles in newways.

  6. Discrimination against Visible Minority Immigrants: The Role of Work Experience

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    Yoko Yoshida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two methods for estimating the earnings disadvantage of groups: the residual difference method and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Each method infers disadvantage from differences in earnings of visible minority immigrants and other Canadians, after controls for human capital and job characteristics. We: i summarize the logic of these methods; ii critically examine the character of the experience measures used in most of the research; iii apply the residual difference method to the Workplace and Employee Survey to show how a more thorough approach to the measurement of work experience modifies estimates of earnings disadvantage.

  7. Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women.

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    Waugh, Irma Morales

    2010-03-01

    This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.

  8. New-old discourses on immigration and its lived experience reflect of racism, xenophobia and xenophile in nowadays immigrant Spain

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    Mª Ángeles Cea D’Ancona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we deal with the first results of the qualitative phase of the MEXEES 3 Project that aims at the improvement of xenophobia measurement via survey. The more comprehensive research has been oriented by four specific objectives: 1. To develop more efficient indicators for registering the forms of xenophobia (and xenophile; 2. To analyze the factors affecting its manifestation or concealment; 3. To inquire about the main experiential axes of today’s xenophobic discourse and its correspondence with theoretical knowledge, 4. To test which survey design favors the declaration of xenophobic attitudes or attitudes against immigration. Although the qualitative study has provided some relevant materials for the first three objectives, here we focus mainly on the third. Together with the reflection over our methodological design and implementation, we highlight some of the concrete experiences of xenophobia and xenophile that arose whilst qualitatively interviewing natives and foreigners. Both the prevalence and actualization of the dimensions underlined in the literature are detected (the one of national-cultural identity, the one of competence for limited resources, and the one related with citizen security; to these is added the emergence of some variants related to the pre sent context of high immigration visibility in Spain, in daily life, in political discourses and the media

  9. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

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    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  10. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

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    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  11. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

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    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  12. Immigrant families in historical perspective: the experiences of Polish pioneers in Winnipeg, 1896-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŁUKASZ ALBAŃSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an early Polish family life in Winnipeg. The family often served as a mechanism to reduce a sense of dislocation and to facilitate immigrants' adaptation. The family was also the primary economic unit. The family relations were affected by gender. Both immigrant men and women found themselves reconsidering traditional roles. Somehow immigration tested their family roles in newways.

  13. When Social Class Meets Ethnicity: College-Going Experiences of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Students

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    Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…

  14. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

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    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  15. How Immigrant Children Affect the Academic Achievement of Native Dutch Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohinata, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational attainment of native Dutch children. Our analysis uses data from various sources, which allow us to characterize educational attainment in terms of reading literacy, mathematical skills and science

  16. Selective incivility: immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates.

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    Krings, Franciska; Johnston, Claire; Binggeli, Steve; Maggiori, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Immigrants play an increasingly important role in local labor markets. Not only do they grow steadily in number but also in cultural, educational, and skill diversity, underlining the necessity to distinguish between immigrant groups when studying discrimination against immigrants. We examined immigrant employees' subtle discrimination experiences in a representative sample in Switzerland, controlling for dispositional influences. Results showed that mainly members of highly competitive immigrant groups, from immediate neighbor countries, experienced workplace incivility and that these incivility experiences were related to higher likelihoods of perceived discrimination at work. This research confirms recent accounts that successful but disliked groups are particularly likely to experience subtle interpersonal discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands: Immigration Experience or Adverse Living Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroome, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969; Hooghe, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immigrants' levels of life satisfaction tend to be lower than among natives. We do not know, however, whether this is due to the immigration experience as such, or rather is a result of the fact that on average this group is faced with less prosperous living

  18. Refugee Immigrants' Experiences of Racism and Racial Discrimination at Australian TAFE Institutes: A Transformative Psychosocial Approach

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    Onsando, Gerald; Billett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences of racism and racial discrimination of seven refugee immigrants attending different courses at two Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in South East Queensland, Australia. In doing so, the paper draws from two studies that focused on resettlement of refugee immigrants in Australia. A transformative…

  19. Redefining "Immigrants" through Diaspora: Educational Experience of 1.5-Generation Chinese Youth in Cupertino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyan

    2017-01-01

    Through the intersection of diaspora and immigrant education, this article investigates how Chinese youth perceive their experience of being immigrant and 1.5-generation in and out of school. The fieldwork was conducted in Cupertino, California, in 2013-2014. In total, 11 students were chosen to participate in the research. It combines an…

  20. Exploring the Learning Experiences of Filipino Nurse Immigrants New to the U.S. Healthcare Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter L.

    2011-01-01

    Precepting, coaching, and mentoring are teaching methods used extensively in nursing education in U.S. healthcare facilities. Filipino nurse immigrants have cultural backgrounds that may influence their experience with and perspectives of these learning interventions. Although Filipino nurse immigrants comprise approximately 0.2% of the population…

  1. Art Therapy and Experiences of Acculturation and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linesch, Debra; Ojeda, Angelica; Fuster, Maria Elena; Moreno, Stephanie; Solis, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an expanded case study methodology that was used to explore the value that art therapy processes have in expression and understanding of the complications of immigration and acculturation. Data collected from two art therapy groups of Hispanic/Latino youth and immigrant women at an urban parish were analyzed to develop an…

  2. Health indicators and social gradient in adolescent immigrants' health risk and healthcare experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Goldblatt, Hadass; Dishon, Yael; Taychaw, Omer; Shadmi, Efrat

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have assessed healthcare experiences in apparently healthy adolescents, or whether healthcare attitudes are linked to the two leading adolescent health indicators, smoking and obesity. Even fewer have examined these relationships in adolescent immigrant groups or made comparisons to adolescent non-immigrants. Using a cross-sectional study, healthcare experiences were compared among three groups of adolescents (n = 589) including Russian immigrants (n = 154), Ethiopian immigrants (n = 54), and non-immigrants (n = 381). Bootstrap estimates indicated positive healthcare experiences were less common among Russian adolescent immigrants (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17, 0.86) compared to non-immigrants, unless the Russian adolescent immigrants reported above average socioeconomic status, in which case they were more likely than non-immigrant adolescents to report positive healthcare experiences (OR = 3.22, CI = 1.05, 9.85). Positive healthcare experiences were less likely among adolescents who were smokers (OR = 0.50, CI = 0.27, 0.91), and more likely for adolescents with a normal or low BMI (OR = 3.16, CI = 1.56, 6.40) and for those relying on parents for health information (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.05, 3.70). Findings suggest a social gradient in which positive healthcare experiences were more common among adolescence with higher socioeconomic status for some immigrants (Russian adolescents) but not for others. The two leading health indicators were related to healthcare experiences, but as adolescent smokers were less likely to have positive healthcare experiences, proactive efforts are needed to engage this group. What is Known: • Health indicators (such as obesity) and healthcare attitudes are linked to healthcare service use among adolescents sampled from outpatient and inpatient populations. What is New: • A social gradient involving socioeconomic status and being an adolescent immigrant was found regarding

  3. Legality, Racialization, and Immigrants' Experience of Ethnoracial Harassment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike. Regardless of legal status, however, the analyses reveal significant variations across the three migrant groups, with members of the group that is seen as racially most distinct from the host population having the highest odds of reporting harassment. The analysis of in-depth interviews confirms and expands on these patterns, providing additional insights into the complex expressions and interplay of legality and race in migrants' everyday experiences. The study findings are situated within the cross-national literature on migrants' legal and ethnoracial exclusion in receiving contexts.

  4. An examination of clinicians' experiences of collaborative culturally competent service delivery to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Melissa; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Although collaborative, culturally competent care has been shown to increase positive health outcomes and client satisfaction with services, little is known about the ways that clinicians implement service delivery models with immigrant families having a child with a disability. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of clinicians working with immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability and to examine the views and experiences of clinicians providing collaborative, culturally competent care to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. This study draws on in-depth interviews with 43 clinicians within two pediatric centers in Toronto and Quebec. Our findings show that clinicians remove or create barriers for immigrant families in different ways, which affect their ability to provide culturally competent care for immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. Our findings suggest that there is a need for more institutional support for collaborative, culturally competent care to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. There is a lack of formal processes in place to develop collaborative treatment plans and approaches that would benefit immigrant families. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians need greater institutional support and resources to spend more time with families and to provide more rehabilitative care in families' homes. Building rapport with families includes listening to and respecting families' views and experiences. Facilitate collaboration and culturally competent care by having team meetings with parents to formulate treatment plans.

  5. Immigration in a Changing Economy: California's Experience - Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... This three-year study, the first to take a 30-year perspective, profiles the changing character of recent immigrants and considers their contribution to the economy, their effects on other workers...

  6. Experience of elder abuse among older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the scope and nature of Asian American elder abuse conducted with older immigrants are extremely limited. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the extent and type of elder abuse among older Korean immigrants, and to investigate critical predictors of elder abuse in this population. The sample consisted of 200 older Korean immigrants aged 60 to 90 years who resided in Los Angeles County in 2008. One of the key findings indicated that 58.3% of respondents experienced one or more types of elder abuse. Logistic regression indicated that the victims' health status and educational level were statistically significant predictors of the likelihood of experiencing abuse. The present study, although limited in sample size, measures, sampling methods, and population representation, has contributed to this important area of knowledge. It is recommended that future studies conduct research on elder abuse with more representative national samples that can measure the extent of abuse and neglect more accurately.

  7. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  8. South Asian immigrant women's experiences of being respected within cancer treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Neufeld, Anne; Olson, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this focused ethnographic inquiry was to examine South Asian immigrant women's experiences and perceptions of respect within health professional-client relationships in the context of a Canadian outpatient treatment clinic. Characteristics of respect described by 11 women interviewed were the meaning of respect, health professional's way of being, their way of attending to the person, and their way of talking. Language, cultural values and beliefs, along with underlying societal, individual and institutional factors that coexist with health professionals' ability to create respect were some of the dimensions that influenced how immigrant women experienced respect. Health professionals' capacity to acknowledge South Asian immigrant women as individuals helped to formulate/construct respect for their individual identities. The need to be respected for 'my social identity' as an immigrant woman with cancer was woven throughout women's stories, illustrated by their personal experiences and perspectives.

  9. How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

    2013-10-01

    The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Experiences of Social and Structural Forms of Stigma Among Chinese Immigrant Consumers with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah; Tu, Ming-Che; Li, Vanessa A; Chang, Rachel W; Yang, Lawrence Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese immigrants tend to rely on family and close community for support given their vulnerable societal position. Yet stigma, especially from structural and familial sources, may have a particularly harmful impact upon Chinese immigrants with psychosis. Using a descriptive analysis based upon grounded theory, we examined stigma experiences of 50 Chinese immigrant consumers with psychosis, paying particular attention to frequency, sources, and themes of social and structural stigma. Although past research indicates that family is a recipient of stigma, we found instead that family members were common perpetuators of social forms of stigma. We also found that perceptions of work deficit underlie many forms of stigma, suggesting this is "what matters most" in this community. Lack of financial resources and language barriers comprised most frequent forms of structural stigma. Anti-stigma efforts should aim to improve consumer's actual and perceived employability to target what is most meaningful in Chinese immigrant communities.

  11. Immigrants from Mexico experience serious behavioral and psychiatric problems at far lower rates than US-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Goings, Trenette Clark

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of self-reported criminal and violent behavior, substance use disorders, and mental disorders among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis the US born. Study findings are based on national data collected between 2012 and 2013. Binomial logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and behavioral/psychiatric outcomes. Mexican immigrants report substantially lower levels of criminal and violent behaviors, substance use disorders, and mental disorders compared to US-born individuals. While some immigrants from Mexico have serious behavioral and psychiatric problems, Mexican immigrants in general experience such problems at far lower rates than US-born individuals.

  12. Immigration in a Changing Economy; California’s Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    34 Bracero ") program . The result was the conver- sion of a predominately legal and seasonal flow of Mexican immi- grants into a predominately illegal...1964 termination of the Bracero program and the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act. In combination, these federal laws reversed the national...were sub- sequently joined by their families, compounding the initial effect. Although the Bracero program operated nationwide, its effects were

  13. Survey Satisficing Inflates Stereotypical Responses in Online Experiment: The Case of Immigration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Though survey satisficing, grudging cognitive efforts required to provide optimal answers in the survey response process, poses a serious threat to the validity of online experiments, a detailed explanation of the mechanism has yet to be established. Focusing on attitudes toward immigrants, we examined the mechanism by which survey satisficing distorts treatment effect estimates in online experiments. We hypothesized that satisficers would display more stereotypical responses than non-satisficers would when presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about an immigrant. Results of two experiments largely supported our hypotheses. Satisficers, whom we identified through an instructional manipulation check (IMC), processed information about immigrants' personality traits congruently with the stereotype activated by information provided about nationality. The significantly shorter vignette reading time of satisficers corroborates their time-efficient impression formation based on stereotyping. However, the shallow information processing of satisficers can be rectified by alerting them to their inattentiveness through use of a repeated IMC. PMID:27803680

  14. Intersectionality in psychotherapy: The experiences of an AfroLatinx queer immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adames, Hector Y; Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y; Sharma, Shweta; La Roche, Martin J

    2018-03-01

    Culturally responsive and racially conscious psychotherapeutic work requires that therapists recognize the ways clients are impacted by their multiple marginalized identities and by systems of oppression (e.g., racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, heterosexism, and nativism). Attending exclusively to clients' marginalized identities (i.e., weak intersectionality) may drive therapists to only focus on internal, subjective, and emotional experiences, hence, missing the opportunity to consider and address how multiple sociostructural dimensions (i.e., strong intersectionality) may be impacting the client's presenting problems. Alternatively, focusing solely on the impact of sociostructural dimensions on the lives of clients may miss the more nuanced and variable individual personal experiences. In this article, we highlight the challenge of maintaining a culturally responsive and racially conscious stance when considering multiple marginalized identities, overlapping systemic inequities, and how both affect clients' lives and experiences. The case of an AfroLatinx queer immigrant is presented to illustrate some of the challenges and opportunities while simultaneously considering (a) the client's multiple marginalized identities, (b) the way clients are impacted by systemic oppression, and (c) integrating the client's personal experiences and narratives in psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Being Immigrant in their Own Country: Experiences of Bosnians Immigrants in Contact with Health Care System in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupic, Ferid; Krupic, Rasim; Jasarevic, Mahir; Sadic, Sahmir; Fatahi, Nabi

    2015-02-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina became an independent state (6(th) April 1992) after referendum for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina which was held on 29 February and 1 March 1992. On the referendum voted total 2,073,568 voters (63.6% turnout) and 99.7% were in favor of independence, and 0.3% against. According to the provisions of the peace agreement, particularly in Annex IV of the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country continues to exist as an independent state. Like all others institutions, even the health-care system was separated between Federation and the other part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The right to social and medical services in Bosnia and Herzegovina is realized entities level and regulated by entity laws on social and health-care. The aim was to explore how immigrants born in Bosnia and Herzegovina and living as refugees in their own country experience different institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the special focus on the health-care system. We also investigated the mental health of those immigrants. Focus-group interviews, with 21 respondents born in Bosnia and Herzegovina and living as refugees in their own country, were carried out. Content analysis was used for interpretation of the data. The analysis resulted in two categories: the health-care in pre-war period and the health-care system in post-war period. The health-care organization, insurance system, language differences, health-care professional's attitude and corruption in health-care system were experienced as negative by all respondents. None of the participants saw a way out of this difficult situation and saw no glimmer of light in the tunnel. None of the participants could see any bright future in the health-care system. Health-care system should be adjusted according to the needs of both the local population born as well as the immigrants. Health-care professionals must be aware of the difficulties of living as immigrants in one's own country. In order to

  16. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  17. Experiences of School Principals with Newcomers from War-Affected Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoko, Janet Mola

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an exploratory study of experiences of 2 urban school principals about leading schools with immigrants from war-affected countries in Africa. It examines how they perceived their preparation for multicultural leadership, and explores lessons that leadership development institutions can learn from their…

  18. Parenting their adolescents: the experiences of Jordanian immigrant women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattar-Pollara, M; Meleis, A I

    1995-01-01

    Having their children enter adolescence presents new demands on the role functions of Jordanian immigrant women in the United States. Such demands require modifications in traditional parenting approaches. The authors attempted to uncover and describe the experiences of Jordanian immigrant mothers (N = 30) in parenting their adolescents in the United States. Content and narrative analysis revealed the dynamic processes that the mothers used in raising their children. They continuously attempted to balance the need for their teens to maintain a Jordanian ethnic identity and the need for them to become integrated into the new community. Their parenting was driven by an attempt to avoid loss of honor and bad reputation. Four aspects of the maternal role emerged from the analysis: mothering through nurturing the adolescents and promoting cultural identity, disciplining for cultural adherence, advocacy and mediation, and vigilant parenting. The findings support a dynamic interplay between cultural and structural conditions in shaping the experiences of Jordanian immigrant women.

  19. A qualitative review of immigrant women's experiences of maternal adaptation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Tiffany; Roh, Eun Ha

    2016-08-01

    to synthesise the evidence of immigrant women's experiences of maternal adaptation in Korea. eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Korean electronic databases. Qualitative research studies, published in English and Korean addressing maternal adaptation experiences of immigrant women by marriage in Korea, were considered in the review. The suitability of the quality of articles was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for data analysis. Authors, purpose of the study, study design, theoretical framework, population (nationality and sample size), data collection (setting and method), and main study findings were extracted and summarised in a data extraction form for further narrative analysis and synthesis. A qualitative systematic review was performed by means of thematic synthesis. the literature search identified 7,628 articles, of which 15 studies, published between 2009 and 2014, were evaluated in the systematic review. Two overarching categories including five themes were identified in the qualitative studies related to maternal adaptation experiences; 'Experiences of motherhood transition' and 'Experiences of child-rearing'. these findings demonstrate the importance of understanding and improving maternal adaptation of immigrant women living in Korea. This can be achieved by enhancing social support, providing culturally sensitive maternal healthcare services, and expanding opportunities for immigrant women in education, job training, and economic independence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315

  1. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  2. Pushouts, Shutouts, and Holdouts: Educational Experiences of Latino Immigrant Young Adults in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines educational experiences of Latino immigrant young adult dropouts in New York City, along with pre- and postmigration factors that impact school participation. Due to age, interrupted schooling, and limited English proficiency, high schools view this population as hard to serve. Increasing numbers of these youth…

  3. Unheard Voices: Korean Immigrant Mothers' Experiences with the United States Special Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Korean immigrant mothers of children with special needs in the New York metropolitan area in the special education process (e.g., referral, evaluation, meetings, services), and to better understand how these mothers perceive special education, disability, and their relationships with…

  4. The Educational Experience and Performance of Immigrant and Minority Students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisikovits, Rivka A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the educational needs, experiences, and performances of Jewish and Arab primary and secondary school students in Israel's two separate and parallel educational systems. Emphasis is placed on emerging trends in the educational treatment of immigrant children and shifts in educational policy and practices in the Arab sector. (SLD)

  5. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  6. Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Latino Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  8. Immigrant women's experience of maternity services in Canada: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Hadziabdic, Emina; Yohani, Sophie; Paton, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    to synthesise data on immigrant women's experiences of maternity services in Canada. a qualitative systematic literature review using a meta-ethnographic approach a comprehensive search strategy of multiple databases was employed in consultation with an information librarian, to identify qualitative research studies published in English or French between 1990 and December 2011 on maternity care experiences of immigrant women in Canada. A modified version of Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic theoretical approach was undertaken to develop an inductive and interpretive form of knowledge synthesis. The seven-phase process involved comparative textual analysis of published qualitative studies, including the translation of key concepts and meanings from one study to another to derive second and third-order concepts encompassing more than that offered by any individual study. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software was used to store and manage the studies and synthesise their findings. the literature search identified 393 papers, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria and were synthesised. The literature contained seven key concepts related to maternity service experiences including social (professional and informal) support, communication, socio-economic barriers, organisational environment, knowledge about maternity services and health care, cultural beliefs and practices, and different expectations between health care staff and immigrant women. Three second-order interpretations served as the foundation for two third-order interpretations. Societal positioning of immigrant women resulted in difficulties receiving high quality maternity health care. Maternity services were an experience in which cultural knowledge and beliefs, and religious and traditional preferences were highly relevant as well but often overlooked in Canadian maternity settings. in order to implement woman-centered care, to enhance access to maternity services, and to promote immigrant women

  9. The Immigrant's University: A Study of Academic Performance and the Experiences of Recent Immigrant Groups at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John Aubrey; Thomson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of globalization is the large influx of immigrant groups moving largely from underdeveloped regions to developed economies. California offers one of the most robust examples of a large-scale, postmodern demographic transition that includes a great racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity of immigrant groups, many of…

  10. Sport as a context for integration:newly arrived immigrant children in Sweden drawing sporting experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hertting, Krister; Karlefors, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Sport is a global phenomenon, which can make sport an important arena for integration into new societies. However, sport is also an expression of national culture and identities. The aim of this study is to explore images and experiences that newly-arrived immigrant children in Sweden have about sport in their country of origin, and challenges that can arise in processes of integration through sport. We asked 20 newly arrived children aged 10 to 13 to make drawings about sporting experiences ...

  11. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...... approach holds potential to address important aspects of the design of such blended digital spaces, extending beyond traditional interaction design. And finally we argue for the importance of construction, i.e. actual interventions of consider-able scale....

  12. Afetividade e poder entre os imigrantes brasileiros no Porto Affection and power among brazilian immigrants in Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor José de Renó Machado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da relação entre imigração brasileira na cidade do Porto e a constituição de relações de poder através do controle de ofertas de possíveis relacionamentos afetivos por alguns imigrantes brasileiros em condições de atuar como intermediários entre as redes familiares portuguesas a que têm acesso e os imigrantes homens e pobres sobre os quais têm alguma influência.The article deals with the relation between Brazilian immigration in the city of Oporto, Portugal, and the constitution of power relations through the control of affective relationships. Such control is conducted by some Brazilian immigrants in conditions to act as brokers between Portuguese family nets and the poor immigrants on which they have some influence.

  13. A comparison of the education and work experiences of immigrant and the United States of America-trained nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, O; Gupte, G; Shan, G

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the education and work experience of immigrant and American-trained registered nurses from 1988 to 2008. The USA increasingly relies on immigrant nurses to fill a significant nursing shortage. These nurses receive their training overseas, but can obtain licenses to practice in different countries. Although immigrant nurses have been in the USA workforce for several decades, little is known about how their education and work experience compares with USA-trained nurses. Yet much is presumed by policy makers and administrators who perpetuate the stereotype that immigrant nurses are not as qualified. We analysed the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses datasets from 1988 to 2008 using the Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Our findings showed similar work experience and upward trends in education among both groups of nurses. However, American-trained nurses were more likely to further advance their education, whereas immigrant nurses were more likely to have more work experience and practice in a wider range of healthcare settings. Although we discovered differences between nurses trained in the USA and abroad, we theorize that these differences even out, as education and work experience each have their own distinct caregiving advantages. Immigrant nurses are not less qualified than their American-trained counterparts. However, healthcare providers should encourage them to further pursue their education and certifications. Even though immigrant nurses' education and work experience are comparable with their American counterparts, workforce development policies may be particularly beneficial for this group. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Immigration and psychotic experiences in the United States: Another example of the epidemiological paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Abe, Jennifer; Negi, Nalini; DeVylder, Jordan

    2015-10-30

    In Europe, it is widely established that immigration increases risk for psychotic disorder. However, research has yet to confirm this association in the United States, where immigrants paradoxically report better health status than their native-born counterparts. Further, few studies have examined this topic with respect to sub-threshold psychotic experiences, which are more common than psychotic disorders in the general population. This study analyzes the (1) National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, (2) the National Latino and Asian American Survey, and (3) the National Survey of American Life, in order to determine whether generation status had any impact on risk for lifetime and 12-month PE, and whether these associations vary across racial/ethnic groups, adjusting for demographic variables and socioeconomic status. We found an absence of an immigration effect on PE across various ethnic groups and across various geographic areas, and found that immigration is actually protective among Latinos, supporting the idea that the epidemiological paradox extends to the psychosis phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design. Recruitment was conducted through advertisement on the MissyUSA.com website, which is the largest online community for married Korean women who live in North America. A purposive sample of 15 Korean immigrant women who experienced childbirth in the United States within the past 5 years was recruited. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and were analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. During childbirth in the United States, participants faced multifaceted barriers in unfamiliar sociocultural contexts yet maintained their own cultural heritages. They navigated the unfamiliar health care system and developed their own strategies to overcome barriers to health care access. Korean immigrant women actively sought health information on the Internet and through social networking during childbirth. Korean immigrant women selectively accepted new cultural beliefs with some modifications from their own cultural contexts and developed their own distinct birth cultures. Understanding a particular culture and respecting women's traditions, beliefs, and practices about their childbirth could help nurses to provide culturally sensitive care. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Acculturation in Context: The Moderating Effects of Immigrant and Native Peer Orientations on the Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.

  17. [Clinical Work Experience of Korean Immigrant Nurses in U.S. Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kumsook; Kim, Miyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of the experience of Korean immigrant nurses working in US hospitals. Purposive sampling yielded 15 Korean immigrant nurses who had more than one year of clinical experience in US hospitals. Data were collected from March to August 2012 through in-depth interviews and thematic analysis was conducted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The findings were classified into eight themes: 'struggling from staff at workplace being territorial to outsiders', 'feeling oppressed due to language barrier', 'accepting rational and horizontal relationships at work', 'staying alert in the environment where lawsuits are rife', 'feeling a sense of stability from the social system that values human dignity', 'maintaining self-confidence from prominent nursing practices and senior Korean nurses' professional reputation', 'performing essential comprehensive nursing care', 'promoting self-development to be equipped with professionalism.' The findings indicate that the Korean immigrant nurses were able to excel in their workplace when their clinical experience at US hospitals was combined with the lived space in US politics and environment, lived time of patience, lived body to be alert, and lived others with multi cultural characteristics.

  18. Experiences and challenges of informal caregiving for Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Ra; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Kim B

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study designed to explore the caregiving experiences of Korean Americans. Increasing numbers of older people in the Asian population place important long-term care demands on Asian caregivers, yet minimal attention has been given to the issue of caregiving in this group. The current study attempts to fill the gap by describing Korean American caregivers' unique caregiving experiences from their perspectives. A qualitative research design using a focus group approach was employed to discuss caregiving experiences in a cultural context. Data were collected over an 8-month period in 2005. Twenty-four informants, mostly women, at varying points surrounding caregiving participated in a focus group interview. Each focus group lasted about 1 (1/2)-2 hours. Thematic analysis was conducted by two bilingual researchers. Three key themes were identified: the caregiver role - competing priorities and beliefs, the extent and impact of caregiving, and the need for education and culturally-tailored support systems. Ten subthemes were identified within the three major themes: (1) facing double challenges; (2) changing attitudes about filial piety (Hyo); (3) providing care; (4) feeling out of control; (5) going through changing family dynamics; (6) being connected vs. providing connection; (7) paying back; (8) learning by themselves; (9) recognizing differences and (10) reconsidering geriatric care systems. The caregiving experiences described by Korean American families point to the need to identify and develop more focused outreach programmes as well as more culturally appropriate support services for this rapidly increasing population.

  19. Experiences and challenges of informal caregiving for Korean immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Ra; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Miyong T.; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Kim B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a study designed to explore the caregiving experiences of Korean Americans. Background Increasing numbers of older people in the Asian population place important long-term care demands on Asian caregivers, yet minimal attention has been given to the issue of caregiving in this group. The current study attempts to fill the gap by describing Korean American caregivers’ unique caregiving experiences from their perspectives. Method A qualitative research design using a focus group approach was employed to discuss caregiving experiences in a cultural context. Data were collected over an 8-month period in 2005. Twenty-four informants, mostly women, at varying points surrounding caregiving participated in a focus group interview. Each focus group lasted about 1 ½-2 hours. Thematic analysis was conducted by two bilingual researchers. Findings Three key themes were identified: the caregiver role – competing priorities and beliefs, the extent and impact of caregiving, and the need for education and culturally-tailored support systems. Ten subthemes were identified within the three major themes: (1) facing double challenges; (2) changing attitudes about filial piety (Hyo); (3) providing care; (4) feeling out of control; (5) going through changing family dynamics; (6) being connected vs. providing connection; (7) paying back; (8) learning by themselves; (9) recognizing differences and (10) reconsidering geriatric care systems. Conclusion The caregiving experiences described by Korean American families point to the need to identify and develop more focused outreach programmes as well as more culturally appropriate support services for this rapidly increasing population. PMID:18727754

  20. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  1. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  2. Does Culture Affect Divorce Decisions? Evidence from European Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla-Sanz, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of culture in determining divorce decisions by examining country of origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of US laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home country variables including average church at...

  3. Does Culture Affect Divorce Decisions? Evidence from European Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Sevilla-Sanz; Delia Furtado and Miriam Marcen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of culture in determining divorce decisions by examining differences in divorce rates by country of origin of immigrants in the United States. Because immigrants who arrived in the US at a young age are all exposed to a common set of American laws and institutions, we interpret cross-ancestry differences in divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. The quantitatively significant estimated effects of culture are robust to controlling for a large number of...

  4. The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

  5. Perceptions of legal status: Associations with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cory L; Meca, Alan; Xie, Dong; Schwartz, Seth J; Moise, Rhoda K

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we used a mixed-method design to examine perceptions of legal status and their association with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants in the United States Participants were asked to compare their perceived social experiences with those of documented Latinos/as in order to determine whether differences in such perceptions might emerge and whether such perceptions might differentially impact well-being. A community sample of 140 self-reported undocumented Latino/a immigrants completed questionnaires measuring perceptions of legal status, well-being (global and psychological), perceived context of reception, and experiences of discrimination. Results indicated that individuals who perceived their experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to an unauthorized legal status reported less social equality as evidenced by lower well-being, increased experiences of discrimination, and a more adverse context of reception. Moreover, individuals who perceived their social experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to their legal status reported issues centering on 2 domains: limited opportunity/restricted social mobility and discrimination/unfair treatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of advancing theory and from a multicultural counseling perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Affective loop experiences: designing for interactional embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höök, Kristina

    2009-12-12

    Involving our corporeal bodies in interaction can create strong affective experiences. Systems that both can be influenced by and influence users corporeally exhibit a use quality we name an affective loop experience. In an affective loop experience, (i) emotions are seen as processes, constructed in the interaction, starting from everyday bodily, cognitive or social experiences; (ii) the system responds in ways that pull the user into the interaction, touching upon end users' physical experiences; and (iii) throughout the interaction the user is an active, meaning-making individual choosing how to express themselves-the interpretation responsibility does not lie with the system. We have built several systems that attempt to create affective loop experiences with more or less successful results. For example, eMoto lets users send text messages between mobile phones, but in addition to text, the messages also have colourful and animated shapes in the background chosen through emotion-gestures with a sensor-enabled stylus pen. Affective Diary is a digital diary with which users can scribble their notes, but it also allows for bodily memorabilia to be recorded from body sensors mapping to users' movement and arousal and placed along a timeline. Users can see patterns in their bodily reactions and relate them to various events going on in their lives. The experiences of building and deploying these systems gave us insights into design requirements for addressing affective loop experiences, such as how to design for turn-taking between user and system, how to create for 'open' surfaces in the design that can carry users' own meaning-making processes, how to combine modalities to create for a 'unity' of expression, and the importance of mirroring user experience in familiar ways that touch upon their everyday social and corporeal experiences. But a more important lesson gained from deploying the systems is how emotion processes are co-constructed and experienced

  7. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  8. The Danish Dispersal Policy on Refugee Immigrants 1986-1998: A Natural Experiment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper investigates whether the Danish Dispersal Policy on new refugee immigrants carried out from 1986 to 1998 can be regarded as a natural experiment. Were refugees randomly assigned to a location? The main findings are as follows. First, around 90% of new refugees were assigned to a location....... Second, the dispersal policy successfully distributed new refugees equally across locations relative to the number of inhabitants in a location. Third, the actual settlement may have been influenced by six refugee characteristics. I conclude that the initial location of new refugees 1986-1998 may...

  9. Violence in the massage parlor industry: experiences of Canadian-born and immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Caitlin; Patrick, David M

    2012-01-01

    We examined and contrasted 129 Canadian-born and immigrant women's experiences of violence and associated structural and interpersonal factors within indoor commercial sex venues. The majority experienced at least one form of structural, interpersonal, or both types of violence, with the attempted removal of a condom during sexual services being cited most frequently. Canadian-born women reported more frequent violent assaults in the survey data. The women's qualitative narratives illustrated that perceptions of violence differed significantly among Canadian versus non-Canadian born women. Findings concerning racialization and gendered relations of power have important implications for prevention and interventions to support victims of abuse.

  10. How Critical Thinking, Multicultural Education and Teacher Qualification Affect Anti-Immigrant Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerm, Mikael; Johansson Sevä, Ingemar; Werner, Lena

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies identify a relationship between education and anti-immigrant attitudes. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the underlying explanations linking education to attitudes. In this article, we examine whether a relationship exists between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (measured as…

  11. Assessing the burden of intestinal parasites affecting newly arrived immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Ismail, Ahmed; Boughattas, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar. Overall prevalence of helminths was 7.0% and that of protozoa was 11.7%. Prevalence of combined helminths was highest among the western Asians and the highest prevalence of combined protozoan parasites was among workers from North to Saharan Africa. Analysis of temporal changes showed an increasing trend of protozoan infections over the investigated 3 years. A major contribution to this temporal change in prevalence came from Blastocystis hominis as well as from other protozoan species: Giardia duodenalis and Endolimax nana. Analysis of the temporal trend in species richness of the protozoan species showed a significant increase in the mean number of species harboured per subject across this period. The increase of protozoan infections over recent years raises some concerns. It suggests that screening protocols for applicants for visas/work permits needs to be revised giving more careful attention to the intestinal protozoan infections that potential immigrants may harbor.

  12. From Tramp to Traveller: V.S. Naipaul Mirrors Immigrant Experiences in In a Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Misra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a scene in ‘One out of Many’ in In A Free State where Santosh, a character from the foothills of Himalaya, looks at himself in the mirror and realises that he is an individual. He takes the step of breaking away from his employer and seeks his own identity in the big city of Washington DC. What does the mirror stand for in the the scene? Is the mirror symptomatic of colonial subservience, or economic servility, or caste demarcations that he must transcend to achieve individuality? Or is the mirror the medium to bridge the gaps between tradition and modernity, community and individuality, faith and rationality? Ironically, Lewis Carroll uses the mirror in Through the Looking Glass to invert the everyday world and reflect on reality. The article compares the text to Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass in a bid to read Naipaul’s mirroring of immigrant experiences by presenting various personas from and in different parts of the world. Their immigrant experiences differ in specifics but all of them sense alienation from their environment and their communities. The same is reflected in the narrator’s experiences in the Prologue and the Epilogue with the tramp and the traveller being eternally alienated from their fellow travellers.

  13. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Lived Experiences of Bulgarian Immigrants in the Chicagoland Area: Their Perceptions of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Iva Ventzislavova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Bulgarian immigrants' narratives with respect to their perceptions of immigrant work challenges; learning at work; work or occupational preferences; immigrant careers, including job transitions and professional development; strategies with respect to work; support at work; satisfaction gained from work; and…

  15. Lived Experiences of Diversity Visa Lottery Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tekleab Elos; Mendoza, Bernadette M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.; Richard, Veronica M.

    2012-01-01

    Every year approximately 50,000 people immigrate to the United States through the avenue referred to as the Diversity Visa (DV) Lottery. In this article, the authors present a literature review of immigration to the U.S. through the DV Lottery, reflect on their own immigration histories, and utilize phenomenology to investigate and describe…

  16. Does Cultural Heritage affect Employment decisions – Empirical Evidence for Second Generation Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Koebrich Leon

    2013-01-01

    The participation rate of women in the labor market shows a sizeable variation across countries and across time. Following studies conducted for North America, this section tests the hypothesis whether, next to structural conditions, cultural norms with regard to existing role models within society about working women influence a woman's participation decision. While using the epidemiological approach to economics, which aims to compare economic outcomes between immigrant groups to assess the...

  17. Learning to Work with Immigrant Families: An Experiment in Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrunnisa A. Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined what students in three professional programs – Nursing, Social Work, and Early Childhood Studies – could learn about working with immigrant families using narrative inquiry as a heuristic device. Data collected from the students in focus groups demonstrated their capacity for ethical caring by recognizing individual characteristics of immigrant families, becoming more self-aware in interactions with them, and noticing institutional practices from the families’ perspectives. The students also began to realize the uncertainties of professional practice, which could help promote the habit of reflection. Findings suggest that the experiment was worthwhile, albeit limited by self-reported data, a small sample, and a short duration. Dans cette étude, nous examinons ce que les étudiants inscrits dans trois programmes professionnels – soins infirmiers, travail social et études de la petite enfance – pourraient apprendre sur le travail avec des familles d’immigrants par le biais de l’enquête narrative en tant qu’instrument heuristique. Les données recueillies auprès des étudiants réunis en groupes de discussion ont indiqué que ceux-ci avaient prouvé leur aptitude à l’empathie éthique en reconnaissant les caractéristiques individuelles des familles d’immigrants, en devenant davantage conscients de leurs interactions avec ces familles et en prenant conscience des pratiques institutionnelles à partir du point de vue de ces familles. Les étudiants ont également commencé à comprendre les incertitudes de la pratique professionnelle, ce qui pourrait favoriser de meilleures habitudes de réflexion. Les résultats suggèrent que l’expérience était appréciable, bien qu’elle ait été limitée par des données auto-déclarées, un échantillon limité et une courte durée.

  18. Family care: an exploratory study of experience and expectations among older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Meihan; Russell, Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Family caregiving in East Asian cultures is traditionally based on the Confucian ethic of filial piety that mandates total, holistic care for elders. While research suggests changes in 'family care' are occurring in Asian countries themselves, remarkably little is known about immigrant Asian families in Australia. The study aimed to explore the experience of 'family care' among Chinese-speaking older people who have migrated to Australia in later life. In-depth interviews were conducted in Cantonese with a convenience sample of five cases, including six older Chinese and analysed inductively for dominant themes. Although no single model of 'family care' emerged, findings reveal significant departures from the norms of filial piety and an overall 'westernisation' of care practices, both in relation to what families actually do for their parents and what the older people themselves expect. Transformation of filial culture has implications for policy, service planning and professional practice. It cannot be assumed that elderly Chinese immigrants' needs are being met through traditional family structures.

  19. A Person-Centered Exploration of Children of Immigrants' Social Experiences and Their School-Based Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieloch, Kerrie A.; Marks, Amy K.; García Coll, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore commonalities among discrimination, stereotyping, and peer-related social experiences of children of immigrants, and to see if these experiences might relate to children's school-based well-being. Two age-based cohorts of 294 children and their immigrant parents from Portugal, the Dominican Republic, and Cambodia were…

  20. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants.

  1. Immigrant women's experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a systematic review using a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alexandre, Mirande; Chiu, Yvonne; Forgeron, Joan; Kocay, Deb; Barolia, Rubina

    2015-02-11

    Canada's diverse society and its statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that a synthesis of knowledge related to the healthcare experiences of immigrants is essential to realise the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for the tailoring of services to user needs. We therefore assessed the experiences of immigrant women accessing maternity-care services in Canada. In particular, we investigated the experiences of immigrant women in Canada in accessing and navigating maternity and related healthcare services from conception to 6 months postpartum in Canada. Our focus was on (a) the accessibility and acceptability of maternity-care services for immigrant women and (b) the effects of the perceptions and experiences of these women on their birth and postnatal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review using a systematic search and narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed reports of empirical research, with the aim of providing stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. We partnered with key stakeholders ('integrated knowledge users') to ensure the relevancy of topics and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy, practice and programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process for published and grey literature were conducted prior to appraisal of literature quality and narrative synthesis of the findings. Our knowledge synthesis of maternity care among immigrants to Canada provided a coherent evidence base for (a) eliciting a better understanding of the factors that generate disparities in accessibility, acceptability and outcomes during maternity care; and (b) improving culturally based competency in maternity care. Our synthesis also identified pertinent issues in multiple sectors that should be addressed to

  2. Professional Immigrant Women's Experiences of Managing Work and Family Conflicts: The Case of Chinese and Taiwanese Faculty in Research Intensive Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates first-generation Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women faculty's workplace experiences and their strategies for managing work and family demands. By looking at how immigration, ethnicity, gender, and work processes shape these women's ideology and practices, this study addresses the following questions: How do married Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women in research-intensive universities handle work and family conflicts? How do they negotiate their gender-role expect...

  3. Career Development of Foreign Trained Immigrants from Regulated Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Lydia; Chen, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we aim to examine and understand the career development experiences of foreign-trained immigrants from regulated professions (FTIRPs) in Canada. To provide some background on immigration in a Canadian context, we focus on a myriad of factors that affect the vocational well-being of FTIRPs. We apply key concepts from several major…

  4. My American Dream: The Interplay Between Structure and Agency in West African Immigrants' Educational Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…

  5. With an Open Mind: Openness to Experience Moderates the Effect of Interethnic Encounters on Support for Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    to new experiences, react more positively/less negatively to interethnic encounters. We test this conjecture on two surveys collected in Denmark and Canada. In line with our expectations, the analyses suggest that openness positively moderates the effect of interethnic encounters on immigration attitudes...

  6. Latino Immigrant Students' School Experiences in the United States: The Importance of Family- School-Community Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Erin; Brabeck, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the educational experiences of Latino immigrant students in the United States, from early childhood through postsecondary educational attainment. Utilizing a developmental-contextual perspective, we explain the various environmental, political, structural, and psychological challenges these students face, while…

  7. Diabetes affects everything: Type 2 diabetes self-management among Spanish-speaking hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Miller, Cheryl A; Berry, Diane C; Miller, Cass T

    2017-12-01

    This article is a report of qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study of the relationships among knowledge, self-efficacy, health promoting behaviors, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management among limited-english-proficient recent Hispanic immigrants, a population with increased incidence of T2DM and barriers to successful T2DM management. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants, and physiological and demographic data also were collected. The participants generally attributed developing the disease to strong emotions and viewed T2DM as a serious disease. Although a majority understood the importance of exercise and diet in T2DM self-management, other aspects such as medication adherence were not well-understood. Obstacles to effective T2DM self-management were negative interactions and communications with health care providers and other personnel, cultural stigma related to the disease, financial constraints, immigration status, and the complexity of the disease. Suggested interventions to improve the care and self-management of this at-risk population are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Measuring and Mismeasuring Discrimination against Visible Minority Immigrants: The Role of Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThere are two methods for estimating the earnings disadvantage of groups: the residual differencemethod and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Each method infers disadvantage fromdifferences in earnings of visible minority immigrants and other Canadians, after controlsfor human capital and job characteristics. We: i summarize the logic of these methods; iicritically examine the character of the experience measures used in most of the research; iiiapply the residual difference method to the Workplace and Employee Survey to show how amore thorough approach to the measurement of work experience modifies estimates of earningsdisadvantage.FrenchDeux méthodes sont utilisées pour estimer le désavantage salarial de groupes : la ‘méthode dedifference résiduelle’ et la ‘décomposition Oaxaca-Blinder’. Selon la logique de ces méthodes,après avoir contrôlé pour les différences du capital humain, le désavantage des immigrants deminorités visibles relatifs aux autres Canadiens est la différence nette du salaire. Dans cettearticle nous : i décrivons la logique de ces méthodes ; ii examinons la qualité des indicateursd’expérience utilisés ; iii analysons les données de l’Enquête sur le milieu du travail et lesemployés. Notre conclusion est que le fait d’inclure d’indicateurs améliorés de l’expérience apour effet de modifier l’estimation du désavantage.

  9. Global contexts, social capital, and acculturative stress: experiences of Indian immigrant men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2011-08-01

    Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.

  10. Immigrant and refugee women's post-partum depression help-seeking experiences and access to care: a review and analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, J; Donnelly, T

    2010-12-01

    • This literature review on post-partum depression (PPD) presents an analysis of the literature about PPD and the positive and negative factors, which may influence immigrant and refugee women's health seeking behaviour and decision making about post-partum care. • A critical review of English language peer-reviewed publications from 1988 to 2008 was done by the researchers as part of a qualitative research study conducted in a western province of Canada. The overall goal of the study is to raise awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health needs of the immigrant and refugee women during the post-partum period. • Several online databases were searched: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. • Review of the literature suggests: 1 Needs, issues and specific risk factors for PPD among immigrant and refugee women have been limited. 2 Descriptive accounts regarding culture and PPD are found in the literature but impact of cultural factors upon PPD has not been well studied. 3 Few studies look at how social support, gender, and larger institutions or organizational structures may affect immigrant and refugee women's help-seeking and access to mental health care services. 4 More research is needed to hear the immigrant and refugee women's ideas about their social support needs, the difficulties they experience and their preferred ways of getting help with PPD. This review and analysis of the literature is about the phenomenon of post-partum depression (PPD) and the barriers and facilitators, which may influence immigrant and refugee women's health seeking behaviour and decision making about post-partum care. As part of a qualitative research study conducted in a western province of Canada a critical review of English language peer-reviewed publications from 1988 to 2008 was undertaken by the researchers. The overall goal

  11. Vitamin D supplementation does not affect serum lipids and lipoproteins in Pakistani immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, Christine; Mejborn, Heddie

    2009-01-01

    Potential long-term negative effects of increased vitamin D consumption are not thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A 1-year long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled interve......Potential long-term negative effects of increased vitamin D consumption are not thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A 1-year long randomised double-blinded placebo......-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol after daily supplementation with 10 or 20 g vitamin D for 1 year. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake by 10–20 g per day for 1 year is safe for Pakistani immigrants with regards to serum lipids and lipoproteins....

  12. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; van den Broek, Egon; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  13. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  14. Finding a Civic Voice: Latino Immigrant Youths' Experiences in High School Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Obenchain, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Socialization into the dominant civic and political discourse lies at the heart of social studies. As they become proficient in the discourse of home and school, Latino immigrant youth demonstrate the potential to uniquely benefit from this socialization. This qualitative study explores ten Latino immigrant young adults' perceptions of how their…

  15. Prejudice and Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...

  16. Does an Immigrant Background Affect the Indication, Incidence or Outcome of Emergency Cesarean Section? Results of the Prospective Data Collection of 111 Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matthias; Scherer, Katrin Alexandra; Henrich, Wolfgang; Breckenkamp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Does the incidence and/or indication(s) for emergency cesarean section differ if the pregnant woman has an immigrant background (IB)? Does a lack of language proficiency (communication problems) and a low acculturation level result in a longer decision-to-delivery interval (D-D interval)? Are neonates born to women with IB by emergency cesarean section in a poorer condition post delivery? Standardized interviews were carried out before or immediately after delivery in three Berlin obstetric hospitals. Questions were asked about the sociodemographic background and care aspects as well as about immigration and level of acculturation. Collected data were linked to information obtained from the expectant mother's antenatal records and to care data and perinatal data routinely recorded by the hospitals. Data was analyzed using regression models which adjusted for age, parity, and socio-economic status. The total patient population consisted of 7100 women (rate of response: 89.6%); of these women, 111 required emergency cesarean section (50 women without IB, 61 immigrant women). Risk factors such as late first antenatal check-up, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal macrosomia, smoking, and weight gain were similar in both patient cohorts. The incidence of and indications for emergency cesarean section and the D-D interval were similar for both groups. Limited German language proficiency and low levels of acculturation among immigrant women did not prolong the D-D interval. There were no statistically relevant differences between immigrant and non-immigrant cohorts with regard to adverse neonatal conditions (5-minute Apgar score ≤ 7, umbilical cord arterial pH cesarean section. The factor "immigrant background" did not affect the indication or obstetric outcome following emergency cesarean section.

  17. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker's needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers.

  18. [Experience of knowledge translation in the ITSAL (immigration, work and health) research project with representatives of the target population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Elena; López-Jacob, M José; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; López, Pilar; Boix, Pere; García, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the experience of knowledge translation between researchers of the ITSAL (immigration, work and health) project and representatives of organizations working with immigrants to discuss the results obtained in the project and future research lines. A meeting was held, attended by three researchers and 18 representatives from 11 institutions. Following a presentation of the methodology and results of the project, the participants discussed the results presented and research areas of interest, thus confirming matches between the two sides and obtaining proposals of interest for the ITSAL project. We understand the process described as an approach to social validation of some of the main results of this project. This experience has allowed us to open a channel of communication with the target population of the study, in line with the necessary two-way interaction between researchers and users. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Entry Class and the Early Employment Experience of Immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters, David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite its policy importance, research related to the economic performance ofimmigrants by entry class is sorely lacking. It is generally presumed thatimmigrants selected on the basis of human capital will have better economicoutcomes than unscreened immigrants; however, there is speculation that thesocial networks of family immigrants provide access to employment resourcesnot available to others. Both arguments have merit, yet there is little research tosupport either claim. This study utilizes data from the Longitudinal Survey ofImmigrants to Canada to investigate the association between entry class andemployment status of immigrants six months after arrival. Findings reveal littledifference between skilled workers and family immigrants, while businessimmigrants and refugees are much less likely to be employed. Policyimplications are discussed.RésuméEn dépit de son importance sur les politiques, la recherche sur la performanceéconomique des immigrants selon leur classe d’entrée fait sérieusement défaut.Il est généralement présumé que les immigrants choisis pour leur capitalhumain auront une meilleure situation économique que ceux issus d’uneimmigration non-contrôlée ; il est aussi conjecturé que les réseaux sociaux desimmigrants de regroupement familial offrent des possibilités de travail qui nesont pas à la portée des autres immigrants. Les deux arguments ont du mérite,mais il existe peu de recherche pour valider l’une ou l’autre de ces propositions.Cet article s’appuie sur l’Enquête longitudinale auprès des immigrants duCanada pour examiner le lien entre la classe d’entrée et la situationprofessionnelle six mois après l’arrivée au pays. Les constatations de l’enquêterévèlent peu de différence entre les travailleurs qualifiés et les immigrants deregroupement familial, bien que les gens d’affaires immigrants et les réfugiésaient beaucoup moins de chance d’avoir un emploi. Les

  20. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  1. Immigrant general practitioners in Norway: a special resource? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Esperanza; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2011-05-01

    To explore whether and how immigrant general practitioners (GPs) in two major cities in Norway think that their own ethnic background affects their practices and their work. Qualitative focus group and individual interviews with seven immigrant GPs, five men and two women, age 36-65 years. Their clinical experience in Norwegian primary health care ranged from four to 30 years. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation. First, immigrant GPs described a gradual process of becoming bicultural: the GPs communicate with immigrant patients on their own terms and draw upon their special knowledge from abroad to help selected patients, while also adapting to Norwegian cultural expectations of the GP's role. Second, the GPs described being aware of cultural issues in consultations with immigrant and Norwegian patients, but rarely making these issues explicit. The GPs ventured that cultural awareness, together with their personal experience in their own countries and as immigrants in Norway, made them able to sometimes help immigrant patients better than Norwegian GPs. Third, immigrant GPs experienced a big workload related to immigrant patients, but they accepted this as a natural part of their work. Fourth, immigrant GPs felt that they had to work harder and be more careful than their Norwegian colleagues in order to avoid complaints from patients, and to be accepted by colleagues. Immigrant GPs express broad cultural competence and keen cultural awareness in their consultations. The immigrant background of these GPs could be considered as a special resource for clinical practice.

  2. [Perceptions and experiences of access to health services and their utilization among the immigrant population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Albar-Marín, M A Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To identify and describe the needs and problems of the immigrant population related to access and utilization of health services. A descriptive, qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted using focus groups. The study area was the county of Campo de Gibraltar (Spain), which represents the gateway to Europe for immigration from Africa. The final sample size (51 immigrants from 11 countries) was determined by theoretical saturation. A narrative analysis was conducted with QSR NVivo9 software. Immigrants' discourse showed four categories of analysis: response to a health problem, system access, knowledge of social and health resources, and health literacy needs. Responses to health problems and the route of access to the health care system differed according to some sociodemographic characteristics (nationality/culture of origin, length of residence, and economic status). In general, immigrants primarily used emergency services, hampering health promotion and prevention. The health literacy needs identified concerned language proficiency and the functioning of the health system. There is a need to promote interventions to enhance health literacy among immigrants. These interventions should take into account diversity and length of residence, and should be based on an action-participation methodology. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 32989 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...

  4. Partisan embedding of liberalism: how trade, investment, and immigration affect party support for the welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2012-01-01

    Political scientists have long debated how economic globalization influences national social policies, but they have so far not explored the political demands of political parties implicitly underlying such influence. This article explores such demands to see how globalization affects

  5. Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.

  6. Family-centred care: a qualitative study of Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of care in paediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, L; Dix, D; Gulati, S; Sung, L; Klaassen, R J; Shaw, N T; Klassen, A F

    2013-03-01

    Over the past two decades, there is increasing emphasis being placed upon providing family-centred care (FCC) in paediatric oncology settings. However, there is a lack of knowledge of FCC in paediatric oncology from the perspectives of immigrant parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of FCC in paediatric oncology settings in Canada. This study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fifty first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian paediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi, and transcribed into English. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and the use of the constant comparison method. Findings indicated that overall parents were highly satisfied with the care and services they received, and their experiences were reflective of the key elements of FCC. However, there were some areas of concern identified by participants: parents not perceiving themselves as a member of the medical team; inconsistency in the quality and co-ordination of services among healthcare providers; disrespectful and mechanical manner of a few healthcare providers; and parents' discomfort with healthcare providers communicating sensitive health-related information directly with their child. In order to successfully provide family-centred services to immigrant parents of children with cancer, better communication of the elements of FCC between healthcare staff and families is needed to negotiate a clear role for the parents as partners of the healthcare team. Moreover, a better understanding of how family relationships are structured in immigrant families will assist healthcare providers to balance the best interests of the child with that of the family as a unit. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Affective Experience of Novice Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Novice students (N = 99) participated in a lab study in which they learned the fundamentals of computer programming in Python using a self-paced computerized learning environment involving a 25-min scaffolded learning phase and a 10-min unscaffolded fadeout phase. Students provided affect judgments at approximately 100 points (every 15 s) over the…

  8. How the Social Construction of “Child Abuse” Affect Immigrant Parents: Policy Changes That Protect Children and Families

    OpenAIRE

    REISIG, Jennifer A.; MILLER, Monica K.

    2009-01-01

    Immigrants who move to the United States often face the challenge of interpreting new laws and social norms (e.g., parenting norms), which may vary greatly from their native culture. Acceptable parenting practices are socially constructed beliefs, rooted in cultural context. What is acceptable in one culture may be labeled as child abuse in another. Thus, immigrant parents are at risk for having their parenting practices defined as child abuse by mainstream culture. Defining child abuse in a ...

  9. Older Chinese women immigrants and their leisure experiences: before and after emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Hua Ho; Jaclyn A. Card

    2002-01-01

    The concept of leisure has generally focused on men. This is especially true in Chinese society where women seldom have the right to speak about leisure or mention leisure activities. For many Chinese women, the integration of household and leisure has been necessary to find meaning in life. Based on this concept, we explored older Chinese women immigrants'...

  10. Sex Education and Cultural Values: Experiences and Attitudes of Latina Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…

  11. Critical Stories of Experience: Preservice Teachers Learning to Teach Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappeck, Marco; Moss, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    For this creative scholarly project, preservice teachers were invited to participate with two instructors by offering their sociopolitical autobiographies and reflective-reflexive reading responses for group discussion and analysis to explore the journal's theme "Immigration and Teacher Education: The Crisis and the Opportunity." The goal was to…

  12. "Just Like Me": How Immigrant Students Experience a U.S. High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Using a qualitative bricolage approach (Kincheloe, 2008, 2010), this study explores the school life of immigrant students enrolled in an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom in a high school. The overarching objective of this study is to examine how these students--five from Mexico, three from Honduras, and one from…

  13. A comparison of health access between permanent residents, undocumented immigrants and refugee claimants in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation

  14. The U.S. immigration crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, G P; Lutton, W

    1985-01-01

    A review of the factors affecting immigration to the United States is presented. The authors develop the argument that present levels of immigration, particularly illegal immigration, are detrimental to U.S. interests, and that current global population trends will make this situation progressively worse. Stricter controls on immigration are considered.

  15. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J E; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African Surinamese and 16 Hindustani Surinamese). Interviews were recorded and transcripts were analysed and coded into themes using principles of grounded theory and MAXQDA software. Surinamese food was eaten regularly by all respondents. Most participants were aware of the need to change their diet but reported difficulty with changing their dietary behaviour to meet dietary guidelines. Many perceived these guidelines to be based on Dutch eating habits, making it difficult to reconcile them with Surinamese cooking and eating practices. Firstly, respondents indicated that they did not choose foods based on their nutritional qualities. Instead, choices were based on Surinamese beliefs regarding 'good' (e.g., bitter vegetables) or 'bad' (e.g., spicy dishes) foods for diabetes. Secondly, respondents often perceived recommendations such as eating at fixed times as interfering with traditional values, for example hospitality. Above all, the maintenance of Surinamese cooking and eating practices was regarded as extremely important since the respondents perceived these to be a core element of their identity as Surinamese. For Surinamese diabetes patients, cooking and eating practices are related to deeply rooted cultural beliefs and values. The wish to maintain one's Surinamese identity may pose difficulty for patients' adherence to dietary guidelines, as these are perceived as being based on 'Dutch' habits. This suggests that immigrants with a long duration of residence in the host country like the Surinamese, who are seen as well integrated might benefit from culturally sensitive diabetes education that is adapted at surface and deep structure.

  16. Model (Undocumented) Minorities and "Illegal" Immigrants: Centering Asian Americans and US Carcerality in Undocumented Student Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachica Buenavista, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    As the numbers of immigrant apprehensions, detentions, and deportations increase, and in context of anti-immigrant sentiment, education scholars must better contend with the way that carcerality affects undocumented student experiences. Carcerality refers to social and political systems that formally and informally promote discipline, punishment,…

  17. Exploring the Borderlands: Elementary School Teachers' Navigation of Immigration Practices in a New Latino Diaspora Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Drawing primarily on interview data from a 5-year ethnography on the school experiences of Mexican immigrant children in a New Latino Diaspora community, we explore how their teachers understood and responded to increasing deportation-based immigration practices affecting children's lives. We illustrate how teachers fell along a continuum…

  18. CAPTCHA – Security affecting User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruti Gafni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CAPTCHA - Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart - is a test with the aim to distinguish between malicious automatic software and real users in the era of Cyber security threats. Various types of CAPTCHA tests were developed, in order to address accessibility while implementing security. This research focuses on the users’ attitudes and experiences related to use of the different kinds of tests. A questionnaire accompanied by experiencing five different CAPTCHA tests was performed among 212 users. Response times for each test and rate of success were collected automatically. The findings demonstrate that none of the existing tests are ideal. Although the participants were familiar with the Text-based test, they found it the most frustrating and non-enjoyable. Half of the participants failed in the Arithmetic-based test. While most of the participants found the picture and game based test enjoyable, their response time for those tests was the largest. The age factor was encountered as influencing both the attitude of the user and the performance, while younger users are more tolerant, have a better success rate, and are faster, the elder users found the tests annoying and time-consuming.

  19. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent PTSD in a sample of undocumented immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Barry; Reeves, Kim; Keller, Allen S

    2007-02-01

    Although a subjective component of trauma is commonly recognized in diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few studies that specifically address Criterion A2, and none addressing this issue among undocumented immigrants. We assessed 212 arriving undocumented immigrants with diverse trauma histories to investigate concordance between objective and subjective factors of trauma (Criteria A1 and A2) and across different types of trauma and PTSD. Concordance between Criteria A1 and A2 varied, with highest rates found for political violence. Interpersonal violence in general was associated with higher rates of PTSD. We identified a dose-response effect for PTSD, but this was not dependent on other events (i.e., other doses) meeting Criterion A2. Discussion focuses on Criterion A within the phenomenology of PTSD and the need to gauge subjective interpretations of trauma events among this population.

  20. His or her work-life Balance? Experiences of self-employed immigrant parents

    OpenAIRE

    Munkejord, Mai Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The question of how to achieve ‘work–life balance’ has been a central debate for several decades. Hitherto, this subject has primarily been explored in organizational contexts; less is known in the context of self-employment. This article advances our understanding of work–life balance by analysing the everyday stories of self-employed immigrant parents in Norway. In this study, work– life balance is constructed in contrasting ways between mothers and fathers on the individual lev...

  1. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  2. Ideal affect in daily life: implications for affective experience, health, and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L

    2017-10-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have increasingly demonstrated that ideal affect-the affective states that people value and ideally want to feel-shapes different aspects of daily life. Here I briefly review Affect Valuation Theory (AVT), which integrates ideal affect into existing models of affect and emotion by identifying the causes and consequences of variation in ideal affect. I then describe recent research that applies AVT to the valuation of negative states as well as more complex states, examines how ideal affect shapes momentary affective experience, suggests that ideal affect has both direct and indirect effects on health, and illustrates that people's ideal affect shapes how they judge and respond to others. Finally, I discuss the implications of cultural and individual differences in ideal affect for clinical, educational, work, and leisure settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Should culture affect practice? A comparison of prognostic discussions in consultations with immigrant versus native-born cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis N; Sze, Ming; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Bell, Melaine L; Aldridge, Lynley J; Abdo, Sarah; Tanious, Michelle; Dong, Skye; Iedema, Rick; Vardy, Janette; Hui, Rina; Boyle, Francis; Liauw, Winston; Goldstein, David

    2013-08-01

    Poor prognosis is difficult to impart, particularly across a cultural divide. This study compared prognostic communication with immigrants (with and without interpreters) versus native-born patients in audio-taped oncology consultations. Ten oncologists, 78 patients (31 Australian-born, 47 immigrants) and 115 family members participated. The first two consultations after diagnosis of incurable disease were audiotaped, transcribed and coded. 142 consultations were included in the analysis. Fifty percent of doctor and 59% of patient prognostic speech units were not interpreted or interpreted non-equivalently when an interpreter was present. Immigrant status predicted few prognostic facts, and oncologist characteristics no prognostic facts, disclosed. Oncologists were significantly less likely to convey hope to immigrants (p=0.0004), and more likely to use medical jargon (p=0.009) than with Australian-born patients. Incurable disease status and a limited life span were commonly acknowledged, generally with no timeframe provided. Physical issues were discussed more commonly than emotional aspects. While culture did not appear to influence doctor speech, interpreters filtered or blocked much prognostic communication. Initiatives to empower all patients to attain needed information, optimise communication when an interpreter is present and train cancer health professionals in culturally appropriate care, are urgently required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shaping the Re-Training and Re-Education Experiences of Immigrant Women: The Credential and Certificate Regime in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia

    2009-01-01

    Research has extensively documented the employment barriers facing immigrants in Canada. Less attention is paid to the employment strategies that immigrants deploy in the host labour market. To address this gap in the literature, two projects are conducted to examine how immigrant women learn to optimize their labour market outcomes. Both projects…

  5. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  6. Immigration and the distribution of incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    We review research on the impact of immigration on income distribution. We discuss routes through which immigration can affect income distribution in the host and source countries, including compositional effects and effects on native incomes. Immigration may affect the composition of skills among the residents of a country. Moreover, immigrants can, by changing relative factor supplies, affect native wage and employment rates and the return to capital. We then provide evidence on the level a...

  7. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  8. Does helping them benefit me? Examining the emotional cost and benefit of immigrants' pecuniary remittance behaviour in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyaw, Jonathan Anim; Abada, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The existing literature has largely focused on how immigrants' pre/post-migration experiences affect their health in destination societies. Hence, little is known about the extent to which immigrants' choice to maintain transnational ties to their family and friends abroad influences their health. This study makes a theoretical and empirical contribution to the sociology of health literature by examining how immigrants' pecuniary remittance behaviour affects their emotional health using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC, 2001-2005). Our weighted logistic regression analyses demonstrate that sending remittances within the first six months of arrival predisposes immigrants to emotional health problems. However, remitting after six months of arrival provides an "emotional advantage" for immigrants, but this advantage is greater for female immigrants compared to their male counterparts. The study clearly shows that immigrants' remittance behaviour has far reaching gendered implications on their emotional health, which underscores the importance of including transnational theory and gender in the conceptual toolbox for explaining immigrants' health transitions. Admittedly, insights from this study can help professional healthcare staff, and immigrant settlement and integration agency workers better understand and address the mental health needs of immigrants in order to enhance their contribution to the Canadian economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  10. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  11. The Ethics of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Matt S. Whitt

    2014-01-01

    Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...

  12. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, S.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto

  13. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Toet, Alexander; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto

  14. [How is the implementation of the new legal framework for health care affecting HIV-infected immigrants in an irregular situation in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Pulido, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The entry into force of Royal Decree (RD) 16/2012 in Spain in September 2012 led to the exclusion of the group of irregular immigrants from the National Healthcare System. With this work, GESIDA attempts to measure the impact of the entry into force of the RD in relation to its application by the Autonomous Communities (CCAA), and how it has affected the health care of irregular immigrants infected with HIV. Information was requested from the 17 CCAA of the existence of measures to ensure the care and treatment of people with HIV infection that were left unprotected because of the implementation of the RD. Likewise, a survey was conducted on health professionals and NGOs involved in the care of these people, to find out how it has affected the implementation of the RD to their daily healthcare work and the availability of information on regulations to implement it. The response of the CCAA was variable, hardly contributing, in some cases, to mitigate the negative effect of the RD. To this is added a complex bureaucracy to access the benefits offered by some regions, often inaccessible to the most vulnerable subjects. Lack of information for health-care professionals and NGOs involved in the care of immigrants, hinders access of this population to health care and the establishment of control measures for diseases with an impact on the public health. The RD 16/2012 has had a negative impact on daily healthcare working, generating the appearance of deep inequities throughout the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant asian nurses working in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Nurses from Asian countries make up the majority of immigrant nurses globally. Although there are a limited number of studies on the lived experiences of Asian nurses working in Western countries, the development of nursing science will be impeded if the rich understanding gleaned from these studies is not synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's (Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1988) procedures, a metasynthesis was conducted on 14 studies that met preset selection criteria. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) communication as a daunting challenge; (b) differences in nursing practice; (c) marginalization, discrimination, and exploitation; and (d) cultural differences. Based on the metasynthesis, a large narrative and expanded interpretation was constructed and implications for nursing knowledge development, clinical practice, and policy making are elaborated.

  16. "If Only I Did Not Have That Label Attached to Me": Foregrounding Self-Positioning and Intersectionality in the Experiences of Immigrant and Refugee Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruja Amthor, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In order to bring forth the specific intricacies of the migration experience among comparatively understudied immigrant and refugee youth, this article bridges an intersectionality framework with multicultural education scholars' calls to flexibility and fluidity in conceptualizing culture and identity. Drawing on in-depth interviews, the analysis…

  17. News for Assimilation or Integration? Examining the Functions of News in Shaping Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Paz Alencar (Amanda); M. Deuze (Mark)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the functions of news media in shaping acculturation experiences of new economic and refugee immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain. Focus group data revealed that consumption of host country news media was mainly connected to immigrants’ deliberate strategies

  18. News for assimilation or integration? : Examining the functions of news in shaping acculturation experiences of immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alencar, A.; Deuze, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the functions of news media in shaping acculturation experiences of new economic and refugee immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain. Focus group data revealed that consumption of host country news media was mainly connected to immigrants’ deliberate strategies to assimilate

  19. Applying Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to the Vocational Training of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Training and learning are the personal process in which individuals interact with social and cultural contexts. Immigrant trainees bring their early educational and life experiences into training classrooms, and their learning is strongly affected by their prior socialization and socio-cultural experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to provide…

  20. Occupational health and safety experiences among self-identified immigrant workers living or working in Somerville, MA by ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M

    2012-12-06

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.

  1. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  2. Affective methodologies and experimenting with affirmative critiques of educational leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    concerns suitable methodologies for researching and experiments with affirmative critique of these new forms of educational leadership. In order not to just to ‘quote’, celebrate or reject this affective agenda, I ask how post-human, intra-active and performative approaches developed in Nordic feminist...... and anti-racist education studies may assist in experimenting with concepts and research formats, interrogate the (unforeseen) effects of affects and affective economies intertwined with new forms of educational leadership, and thereby formulate affirmative critiques of these new types of psy-leadership.......This paper will focus upon the identification of suitable and experimental methodologies for interrogating ‘the affective turn’ in European educational leadership. As an answer to the global GERM and the plea for improving learning outcomes, educational leadership in countries like Denmark seems...

  3. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  4. The impact of language barriers and immigration status on the care experience for Spanish-speaking caregivers of patients with pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Eduardo R; Kaul, Sapna; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Gwilliam, Vannina; Jimenez, Ornella A; Morreall, Deborah K; Montenegro, Roberto E; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark N

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of pediatric cancer patients in the United States are Latino and many have Spanish-speaking immigrant parents with limited English proficiency (LEP). Little is known about how language or undocumented immigration status impacts their care experience. A cross-sectional survey was administered to English (N = 310) and Spanish-speaking LEP (N = 56) caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. To assess differences in healthcare experiences between the language groups, t-tests and chi-square statistics were used. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated associations between primary language and knowledge of clinical trial status. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to report higher rates of quitting or changing jobs as a direct result of their child's cancer, and their children were more likely to experience a delay in education. Although Spanish-speaking caregivers reported higher satisfaction with care, 32% reported feeling that their child would have received better care if English was their primary language. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to incorrectly identify whether their child was on a clinical trial compared with English-speaking caregivers. The majority of Spanish-speaking caregivers reported at least one undocumented caregiver in the household and 11% of them avoided or delayed medical care for their child due to concerns over their undocumented immigration status. Language barriers and undocumented immigration status may negatively impact the quality of informed decision-making and the care experience for Spanish-speaking LEP caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. These families may benefit from culturally appropriate Spanish language resources to improve communication and open a dialogue regarding undocumented immigration status. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Colour of Skill: Contesting a Racialised Regime of Skill from the Experience of Recent Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This article contests a racialised skills regime in Canada. Canadian studies of the labour market transitions of skilled immigrants are analysed through the lens of critical race theory. The analysis shows that knowledge and skills of recent immigrants in Canada are racialised and materialised on the basis of ethnic and national origins. Skin…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Digital Immigrants in a Fully Online Master's Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieschnick, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to investigate the challenges encountered and support systems needed by digital immigrants enrolled in an online master's degree program. Participants were digital immigrants who were born before 1980 and enrolled or recently graduated from an online master's degree program. Survey data and demographic data were…

  7. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  8. Experience affects the outcome of agonistic contests without affecting the selective advantage of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Elias, Damian O; Punzalan, David; Mason, Andrew C; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2009-06-01

    In the field, phenotypic determinants of competitive success are not always absolute. For example, contest experience may alter future competitive performance. As future contests are not determined solely on phenotypic attributes, prior experience could also potentially alter phenotype-fitness associations. In this study, we examined the influence of single and multiple experiences on contest outcomes in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We also examined whether phenotype-fitness associations altered as individuals gained more experience. Using both size-matched contests and a tournament design, we found that both winning and losing experience affected future contest success; males with prior winning experience were more likely to win subsequent contests. Although experience was a significant determinant of success in future contests, male weight was approximately 1.3 times more important than experience in predicting contest outcomes. Despite the importance of experience in determining contest outcomes, patterns of selection did not change between rounds. Overall, our results show that experience can be an important determinant in contest outcomes, even in short-lived invertebrates, and that experience alone is unlikely to alter phenotype-fitness associations.

  9. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  10. Luso-brazilian mediations Roberto Leal’s affective journey and some issues on immigrant identity in the film Miracle, the power of faith (1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Lemos Monteiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the brazilian feature film Miracle, the power of faith (1979, directed by Hércules Breseghelo and starring the portuguese singer and songwriter Roberto Leal as the main character. Its autobiographical plot tells the story of a humble portuguese imigrant whose dream of becoming a famous singer leads him through a journey in which certain values are celebrated, such as self-denied labour, to sacrifice in the name of family, and redemption by faith. My hipothesis is that Miracle takes its place on a lineage of several films and, mainly, musical works which are adressed to the immigrant portuguese community living in Brazil. I also discuss the role of mediator played by Roberto Leal, in its cultural and affective dimensions.

  11. BLACK AND HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS' RESILIENCE AGAINST NEGATIVE ABILITY RACIAL STEREOTYPES AT SELECTIVE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Lynch, Scott M

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat is a widely supported theory for understanding the racial achievement gap in college grade performance. However, today's minority college students are increasingly of immigrant origins, and it is unclear whether two dispositional mechanisms that may increase susceptibility to stereotype threat are applicable to immigrants. We use survey data to examine whether and how negative ability stereotypes affect the grades of 1,865 first, second, and third generation or higher (domestic) minority students at 28 selective American colleges. Structural equation model results indicate that first generation immigrants are highly-resistant to both dispositional identity threat mechanisms we consider. Second generation immigrants experience only certain dispositional elements of identity threat. Drawing on research in social psychology, we suggest immigrants tend to resist stereotype threat in part due to the primacy of their immigrant identities and their connectedness to the opportunity structure of mainstream society.

  12. The educational legacy of unauthorized migration: comparisons across U.S.-immigrant groups in how parents' status affects their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Frank D; Leach, Mark A; Brown, Susan K; Bachmeier, James D; Hipp, John R

    2011-01-01

    This research compares several national-origin groups in terms of how parents’ entry, legalization and naturalization (i.e., membership) statuses relate to their children’s educational attainment. In the case of Asian groups, the members of which predominantly come to the United States as permanent legal migrants, we hypothesize (1) that father’s and mother’s statuses will be relatively homogenous and few in number and (2) that these will exert minimal net effects on second-generation attainment. For Mexicans, many of whom initially come as temporary unauthorized migrants, we hypothesize (1) that parental status combinations will be heterogeneous and greater in number and (2) that marginal membership statuses will exert negative net effects on education in the second generation. To assess these ideas, we analyze unique intergenerational data from Los Angeles on the young adult members of second-generation national-origin groups and their parents. The findings show that Asian immigrant groups almost universally exhibit similar father–mother migration statuses and high educational attainment among children. By contrast, Mexicans manifest more numerous discrepant father–mother combinations, with those in which the mother remains unauthorized carrying negative implications for children’s schooling. The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of the delays in incorporation that result from Mexican Americans needing extra time and resources compared to the members of other groups to overcome their handicap of marginal membership status (i.e., being more likely to enter and remain unauthorized).

  13. Access to Institutional Resources as a Measure of Social Exclusion: Relations with Family Process and Cognitive Development in the Context of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Godfrey, Erin B.; Rivera, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined how experiences associated with being an undocumented immigrant parent affects children's development. In this article, the authors apply social exclusion theory to examine how access to institutional resources that require identification may matter for parents and children in immigrant families. As hypothesized, groups…

  14. The impact of sensorimotor experience on affective evaluation of dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eKirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrates that we are more likely to positively evaluate a stimulus if we have had previous experience with that stimulus. This has been shown for judgement of faces, architecture, artworks and body movements. In contrast, other evidence suggests that this relationship can also work in the inverse direction, at least in the domain of watching dance. Specifically, it has been shown that in certain contexts, people derive greater pleasure from watching unfamiliar movements they would not be able to physically reproduce compared to simpler, familiar actions they could physically reproduce. It remains unknown, however, how different kinds of experience with complex actions, such as dance, might change observers’ affective judgements of these movements. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between experience and affective evaluation of whole body movements. In a between-subjects design, participants received either physical dance training with a video game system, visual and auditory experience or auditory experience only. Participants’ aesthetic preferences for dance stimuli were measured before and after the training sessions. Results show that participants from the physical training group not only improved their physical performance of the dance sequences, but also reported higher enjoyment and interest in the stimuli after training. This suggests that physically learning particular movements leads to greater enjoyment while observing them. These effects are not simply due to increased familiarity with audio or visual elements of the stimuli, as the other two training groups showed no increase in aesthetic ratings post-training. We suggest these results support an embodied simulation account of aesthetics, and discuss how the present findings contribute to a better understanding of the shaping of preferences by sensorimotor experience.

  15. In Search of the Invisible Roots: Immigrant Experiences in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Unaccustomed Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogobete Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of the metaphorical strategies Jhumpa Lahiri uses in her 2008 collection of short stories Unaccustomed Earth in order to explore and comment on the intricate relations and the complex web of feelings and resentments, longing and attachment that make up the essence of family life as shaped by the diasporic experience. In this volume, Lahiri particularly focuses on the conflicting emotions engendered by migration, on the articulation of displacement and reintegration, and on the capacity to fully assume the diasporic experience and turn it into a meaningful assertion of one’s identity.

  16. Vicarious experience affects patients' treatment preferences for depression.

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    Seth A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available Depression is common in primary care but often under-treated. Personal experiences with depression can affect adherence to therapy, but the effect of vicarious experience is unstudied. We sought to evaluate the association between a patient's vicarious experiences with depression (those of friends or family and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms.We sampled 1054 English and/or Spanish speaking adult subjects from July through December 2008, randomly selected from the 2008 California Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System, regarding depressive symptoms and treatment preferences. We then constructed a unidimensional scale using item analysis that reflects attitudes about antidepressant pharmacotherapy. This became the dependent variable in linear regression analyses to examine the association between vicarious experiences and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms.Our sample was 68% female, 91% white, and 13% Hispanic. Age ranged from 18-94 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 4.3; 14.5% of respondents had a PHQ-9 score >9.0, consistent with active depressive symptoms. Analyses controlling for current depression symptoms and socio-demographic factors found that in patients both with (coefficient 1.08, p = 0.03 and without (coefficient 0.77, p = 0.03 a personal history of depression, having a vicarious experience (family and friend, respectively with depression is associated with a more favorable attitude towards antidepressant medications.Patients with vicarious experiences of depression express more acceptance of pharmacotherapy. Conversely, patients lacking vicarious experiences of depression have more negative attitudes towards antidepressants. When discussing treatment with patients, clinicians should inquire about vicarious experiences of depression. This information may identify patients at greater risk for non-adherence and lead to more tailored patient-specific education about treatment.

  17. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  18. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  19. The importance of heterogeneity when examining immigrant education-occupation mismatch: evidence from New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Poot; Steven Stillman

    2010-01-01

    Many immigrants are overqualified in their first job after arrival in the host country. Education-occupation mismatch can affect the economic integration of immigrants and the returns to education and experience. The extent of this problem has been measured in recent years by means of micro level data in Australia, North America and Europe. However, these papers have typically ignored the importance of allowing for heterogeneity, in particular by qualification level and years in the destinati...

  20. Factors affecting the use of prenatal and postnatal care by women of non-western immigrant origin in industrialized western countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.; Wiegers, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In many industrialized western countries immigrants constitute a substantial part of the population, which is also seen in the prenatal and postnatal care client population. Research in several industrialized western countries has shown that women of non-western immigrant origin make

  1. Legalization Programs and the Integration of Unauthorized Immigrants: A Comparison of S. 744 and IRCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Enchautegui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiences under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA may prove to be a poor guide for understanding how smoothly today’s unauthorized immigrants will integrate into the economy under reform proposals such as the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S. 744. While IRCA provided a relatively quick path to legal permanent resident status, S. 744 proposes a decade long process with much attendant uncertainty.  This and other provisions in S. 744 may adversely affect immigrants’ integration and economic mobility. 

  2. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Erk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video can (1 enhance recovery from sadness, (2 enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3 increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble, which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses and subjective (questionnaires data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was

  3. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  4. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  5. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  6. Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.

  7. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher brain regions. Such findings suggest

  8. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  9. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  10. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J. E.; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African

  11. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, M.J.E.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.; Haafkens, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured

  12. Immigrant-Native Substitutability: The Role of Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan G. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Wage evidence suggests that immigrant workers are imperfectly substitutable for native-born workers with similar education and experience. Using U.S. Censuses and recent American Community Survey data, I ask to what extent differences in language skills drive this. I find they are important. I estimate that the response of immigrants' relative wages to immigration is concentrated among immigrants with poor English skills. Similarly, immigrants who arrive at young ages, as adults, both have st...

  13. Immigrant patients' experiences and reflections pertaining to the consultation: a study on patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey in primary health care in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, Eivor; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of the immigrant patient's experiences and reflections regarding consultations in primary health care where interpreters are used is limited. Thus, the primary aim was to explore these experiences and reflections. The second aim was to study whether demographic and migration-related factors are associated with the patient's satisfaction with the consultation and feeling of consolation given by the general practitioner (GP). The third aim was to analyse whether these feelings are related to the time from the booking to the consultation, to self-reported health, symptoms and the patient's experiences. A questionnaire was distributed to 78 consecutive immigrant patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey at 12 primary healthcare centres around Stockholm. The respondents were asked about their background and health status, while open-ended questions focused on their experiences and comments regarding the consultation and cross-cultural communication in general. Ethical approval was obtained. The respondents consisted of 52 patients, 16 from Chile, nine from Iran and 27 from Turkey. Most of the answers concerned communication problems because of language and cultural differences between the GP and the patient and the GP's ability to listen. Therefore, the importance of having a competent interpreter for a satisfactory consultation was stressed. Many of the respondents also felt that the GP's ability to listen to them and understand them is crucial in the consultation. Background facts, including demographic and migration-related factors, health status and factors related to the consultation, did not seem to be associated with the patient's satisfaction and the feeling of consolation. One limitation is that the sample is small and not equally distributed. The use of authorized interpreters during the consultation is essential. The consultation must be based on a patient-centred strategy and adjusted to the patient's educational level. Cultural competence is needed

  14. Exploring the Training and Experiences of School-Based Mental Health Professionals Who Work with Latino Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baazova Fields, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Within the California K-12 education setting, Latino students make up 53% of the child population, totaling over 3.3 million students (California Department of Education, 2016). Many of these Latino immigrant youth face challenges, including living in poverty, exposure to violence, and acculturation stress, all of which lead to a need for mental…

  15. Countering Deficit Thinking: Agency, Capabilities and the Early Learning Experiences of Children of Latina/o Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2014-01-01

    This article documents what happened in a first grade classroom when young Latina/o children of immigrants had consistent classroom-based opportunities to use their agency in their learning. Applying theoretical constructs from development economics to data from the Agency and Young Children ethnographic project, we explore three forms of agency…

  16. "The Land of Opportunity Doesn't Apply to Everyone": The Immigrant Experience, Race, and Asian American Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, OiYan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…

  17. Life events and hopelessness depression: The influence of affective experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhou

    Full Text Available This study explored the association of the affective experience (AE of life events on hopelessness depression (HD. Undergraduates (N = 301 participating in a 12-week prospective study completed measures of HD, cognitive style, and psychological stress. The results indicate AE is an underlying mechanism influencing the longitudinal link between life events and HD. Negative life events with clear negative AE directly promoted the development of HD. Positive life events with clear positive AE directly impeded the development of HD. Neutral life events with mixed AE directly and interacting with negative cognitive style promoted the development of HD. The results should increase understanding of the hopelessness theory of depression, and suggest that neutral life events should be important elements in depression therapy.

  18. Met expectations and the wellbeing of diaspora immigrants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Leinonen, Elina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the importance of expectations for the adaptation of immigrants. However, most studies have been methodologically retrospective with only limited possibilities to show the optimal relationship between migrants' expectations and actual acculturation experiences for their wellbeing and other aspects of psychological adaptation. Moreover, previous research has been conducted mostly among sojourners and students. This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between premigration expectations and postmigration experiences of diaspora immigrants from Russia to Finland (N = 153). We examined how the fulfillment of premigration expectations in social (i.e., family relations, friendships, and free time) and economic (i.e., occupational position, working conditions, and economic and career situation) domains affects immigrants' wellbeing (i.e., satisfaction with life and general mood) after migration. Three alternative models of expectation confirmation (i.e., disconfirmation model, ideal point model, and the importance of experiences only) derived from previous organizational psychological research were tested with polynomial regression and response surface analysis. In the economic domain, immigrants' expectations, experiences, and their interrelationship did not affect wellbeing in the postmigration stage. However, in the social domain, the more expectations were exceeded by actual experiences, the better were life satisfaction and the general mood of immigrants. The results underline the importance of social relationships and the context-dependent nature of immigrants' wellbeing. Interventions in the preacculturation stage should create positive but realistic expectations for diaspora immigrants and other groups of voluntary (re)migrants. Furthermore, policies concerning the postmigration stage should facilitate the fulfillment of these expectations and support the social adaptation of immigrants.

  19. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.

  20. Local policy proposals can bridge Latino and (most) white Americans' response to immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuen J; Dovidio, John F; Jiménez, Tomás R; Schildkraut, Deborah J

    2018-01-30

    In the past 15 years, the adoption of subnational immigration policies in the United States, such as those established by individual states, has gone from nearly zero to over 300 per year. These include welcoming policies aimed at attracting and incorporating immigrants, as well as unwelcoming policies directed at denying immigrants access to public resources and services. Using data from a 2016 random digit-dialing telephone survey with an embedded experiment, we examine whether institutional support for policies that are either welcoming or hostile toward immigrants differentially shape Latinos' and whites' feelings of belonging in their state (Arizona/New Mexico, adjacent states with contrasting immigration policies). We randomly assigned individuals from the representative sample ( n = 1,903) of Latinos (US and foreign born) and whites (all US born) to consider policies that were either welcoming of or hostile toward immigrants. Across both states of residence, Latinos, especially those foreign born, regardless of citizenship, expressed more positive affect and greater belonging when primed with a welcoming (vs. hostile) policy. Demonstrating the importance of local norms, these patterns held among US-born whites, except among self-identified politically conservative whites, who showed more negative affect and lower levels of belonging in response to welcoming policies. Thus, welcoming immigration policies, supported by institutional authorities, can create a sense of belonging not only among newcomers that is vital to successful integration but also among a large segment of the population that is not a direct beneficiary of such policies-US-born whites.

  1. The Challenge of Joining Theory and Practice Across Collaborative Research: The Experience of the Group "School, Diversity and Immigration" from the University of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Oliver Vera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to share our experience in the constitution of an interdisciplinary and collaborative research group on the relationship between school, diversity and immigration in Catalunya, Spain. Our main purpose is to relate the perceptions and experiences based on our different educational experiences. Firstly teachers who work at the so called "aulas de acogida"—special resources directed to students of immigrant parents; secondly university researchers from pedagogy and psychology fields, thirdly, administrative staff who are mediating between educational policies and the practical reality of the schools, and finally the university and PhD students involved in our project. These different voices allow us to interlace theoretical analyses with more practical others, as well as to delimit what kind of needs emerge from professional practice, and what tools seem to usefully facilititate our process. We believe that establishing bridges between university and schools is a fundamental aspect to promote a fruitful dialectical exchange. Therefore, we want to report our group's process and share our experiences in the analysis of these questions. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901469

  2. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  3. Immigrant Enhoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...

  4. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Panksepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1 It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB; these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2 These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3 All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4 Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5 Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1, which are regulated by

  5. Correlates of Social Support Among Latino Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Mary L

    2018-04-01

    Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors. Females, immigrants who are not married/cohabitating, and those who reported experiencing a greater number of discrete stressors in the USA each reported lower levels of social support. Implications for practice include an increased emphasis on assessing levels of social support and designing services to strengthen support for the most vulnerable immigrants. Future research should consider a longitudinal analysis and specific types of social support.

  6. Immigrant women's experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Morgan, Myfanwy; O'Mahony, Joyce; Chiu, Yvonne; Kocay, Deb; Alexandre, Mirande; Forgeron, Joan; Young, Marilyn

    2013-08-21

    Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women's reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada? Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al. (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and community sectors. The

  7. Immigrant women’s experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women’s reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada? Methods/design Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al. (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and

  8. “Reffos, Wogs and Dagoes:” The Immigration Experience in Post-World War II Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Jacobowitz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p77 This article seeks to analyze the ways in which immigrants experienced Australia in the years following World War II, when the makeup of Australian society changed. In The Voyage of Their Life: The Story of the SS Derna and Its Passengers, Diane Armstrong – a child immigrant to Australia – writes, “Homogenous, conservative and almost entirely Anglo-Saxon in its origin, Australians were about to awake from there illusion of perfection” (274. Focusing on memoir, poetry and short stories, this article analyzes Andra Kins’ memoir Coming and Going: A Family Quest; Serge Liberman’s short stories “Home,” “Greetings, Australia!  To You I Have Come,” “The Fortress” and “Two Years in Exile;” Peter Skrzynecki’s The Sparrow Garden; Lily Brett’s poetry; and Susan Varga’s memoir Heddy and Me.  Jewish and non-Jewish immigrants from Russia, Poland, Latvia, Hungary and Ukriane struggled with trying to build new lives in a new land in the face of prejudice and “anti-refo” feeling. Measures were introduced to limit severely the number of Jewish refugees allowed to travel to Australia. Despite these obstacles, Australia was transformed.  According to Mark Wyman, “Eventually, 182,159 DPs emigrated to Australia, led by 60,000 Poles and 36,000 Balts.  Enough of an Eastern European mixture was admitted through Australian gates to constitute a small revolution in the nation’s much-publicized homogeneity.  The long tradition of allowing only British stock down under was broken.  By 1966 almost one in five Australians was a postwar immigrant or the child of one, and 60 percent of this group had non-British ethnic backgrounds” (191.

  9. Immigrant Women and Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    KUUSELA, HANNA

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...

  10. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  11. Being "in a Limbo": Perceptions of Immigration, Identity and Adaptation of Immigrant Students in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Fox, Jill; Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2016-01-01

    Much research is available that details student experiences of immigration and adaptation to receiving countries and schools, but few studies analyze the metaphors used by immigrant students (IS) when talking about the immigration experience, or offer a comparative lens through which to view identity negotiation in two very different contexts. The…

  12. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  13. Survival and Transcendence of Transnational Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Machado-Casas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in the home for cultural survival, and also outside the home (external identities for physical and social survival, often in hostile environments. In addition, it raises questions about the ways multilingualism affects border mobility and transnationality as well as how indigenous Latina immigrants become Camaleónas guerreras (Chameleon Warriors who use “critical survival tools” as a transnational bridge to facilitate their survival in a hostile US environment, the community, and in schools.

  14. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  15. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  16. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman

    2008-03-01

    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  17. Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytan, Francisco X.; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve…

  18. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2013-12-18

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women's lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women's homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked to acculturation and identity construction

  19. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. APOE ε4, Rated Life Experiences, and Affect among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Davey, Adam; Green, Robert; MacDonald, Maurice; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Arnold, Jonathan; Woodard, John; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kim, Sangkyu; Dai, Jianliang; Li, Li; Batzer, Mark A.; Poon, Leonard W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between APOE, life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. One hundred and ninety six centenarians and near centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. APOE, positive and negative affect, number of recent (last two years) and life-long (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of life engagement tasks were assessed. Results suggested that centenarians carrying the APOE ε4 allele rated lower in positive affect, number of life-long events, and in engaged lifestyle when compared to centenarians without the APOE ε4 allele (t = 3.43, p < .01, t = 3.19, p < .01, and t = 2.33, p < .05, respectively). Blockwise multiple regressions indicated that APOE ε4 predicted positive but not negative affect after controlling for demographics. Gene-environment interactions were obtained for APOE ε4 and life-long events, suggesting that carriers of the APOE ε4 allele had higher scores of negative affect after having experienced more events, whereas non-carriers had reduced negative affect levels after having experienced more events. PMID:23998924

  1. Evolutionary history, immigration history, and the extent of diversification in community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Matthew L; Forde, Samantha E; Fukami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    During community assembly, species may accumulate not only by immigration, but also by in situ diversification. Diversification has intrigued biologists because its extent varies even among closely related lineages under similar ecological conditions. Recent research has suggested that some of this puzzling variation may be caused by stochastic differences in the history of immigration (relative timing and order of immigration by founding populations), indicating that immigration and diversification may affect community assembly interactively. However, the conditions under which immigration history affects diversification remain unclear. Here we propose the hypothesis that whether or not immigration history influences the extent of diversification depends on the founding populations' prior evolutionary history, using evidence from a bacterial experiment. To create genotypes with different evolutionary histories, replicate populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens were allowed to adapt to a novel environment for a short or long period of time (approximately 10 or 100 bacterial generations) with or without exploiters (viral parasites). Each evolved genotype was then introduced to a new habitat either before or after a standard competitor genotype. Most genotypes diversified to a greater extent when introduced before, rather than after, the competitor. However, introduction order did not affect the extent of diversification when the evolved genotype had previously adapted to the environment for a long period of time without exploiters. Diversification of these populations was low regardless of introduction order. These results suggest that the importance of immigration history in diversification can be predicted by the immigrants' evolutionary past. The hypothesis proposed here may be generally applicable in both micro- and macro-organisms.

  2. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Affective Beliefs Influence the Experience of Eating Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    People believe they experience the world objectively, but research continually demonstrates that beliefs influence perception. Emerging research indicates that beliefs influence the experience of eating. In three studies, we test whether beliefs about how animals are raised can influence the experience of eating meat. Samples of meat were paired with descriptions of animals raised on factory farms or raised on humane farms. Importantly, the meat samples in both conditions were identical. Howe...

  4. Do immigrants improve the health of native workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntella, Osea

    2014-01-01

    Public debate on immigration focuses on its effects on wages and employment, yet the discussion typically fails to consider the effects of immigration on working conditions that affect workers' health. There is growing evidence that immigrants are more likely than natives to work in risky jobs, as they are more inclined to take on physically intensive tasks. Recent studies show that as immigration rises, native workers are pushed into less demanding jobs. Such market adjustments have positive...

  5. Determinants of Recent Immigrants' Location Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a Danish spatial dispersal policy on refugees which can be regarded a natural experiment to investigate the influence of regional factors on recent immigrants' locational choices. The main push factors are lack of co-ethnics and presence of immigrants. Additional push factors...

  6. Children of Immigration. The Developing Child Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This book offers an interdisciplinary perspective on who the children of immigrants are, considering historical and contemporary social attitudes, opportunities, and barriers they encounter. It examines the psychosocial experiences of immigration and considers how these factors interact in ways that lead to divergent pathways of adaptation and…

  7. Haitian Immigrants in Black America. A Sociological and Sociolinguistic Portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zephir, Flore

    Identity formation among Haitian immigrants to the United States is explored in an effort to pinpoint the macro (external) and micro (internal) factors that shape the cultural identity of this particular immigrant community. The immigration experience that is revealed is one of a cultural and linguistic identity in transition. Part I presents a…

  8. Comparative Study on Subjective Experience of Elder Abuse Between Older Korean Immigrants in the United States and Older Koreans in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationship between sociodemographic factors and elder abuse among older Koreans in the United States and Korea. Survey data from older Koreans aged between 60 and 79 years from the two countries ( n = 480) were analyzed descriptively and in binary logistic regressions. This study found a similar prevalence of elder abuse in the two samples, with 26% of older Korean immigrants in the United States reporting abuse and 23% of older Koreans in Korea reporting abuse. However, there were significant differences in the types of emotional abuse experienced by older Koreans in both countries. Reports of some types of emotional abuse, such as 'name calling' and 'silent treatment,' were significantly higher in the United States than in Korea. These findings expand our knowledge of the experience of elder abuse among older Koreans in both countries.

  9. Health Care Satisfaction: Effects of Immigration, Acculturation, Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Russell K; Mejía, Camila

    2017-12-01

    Differences in health care satisfaction can alter patterns of health care utilization and so affect health outcomes, but little is known about variation in satisfaction in relation to immigration status. Health care satisfaction is analyzed with survey data from state public health program patients. Overall health care satisfaction is higher for first generation Hispanic immigrants and lower among those in the second generation compared to white Americans-consistent with the pattern termed the "healthy migrant effect." This pattern is more pronounced for Portuguese-speaking immigrants and is not explained by self-reported health, communication ability or acculturation. Satisfaction with specific aspects of health care follows different patterns that may be explained by differences in experiences and culture. As anticipated by segmented assimilation theory, we find variation in cross-generational patterns of health care satisfaction both within and between ethnic groups. This variation indicates the importance of distinguishing Portuguese-speakers from Spanish-speakers and of taking into account differences in the ways they are able to communicate with health care providers as well as differences in their orientations toward health care. Our disparate findings with other immigrant groups also reinforce limiting expectations of a "healthy migrant effect" to Latinos. Finally, the variable influences on different satisfaction measures indicate the importance of considering the relative influence of culturally-based orientations and health care experiences on the specific outcomes measured, with particular sensitivity to acceptance of individualized standards of care.

  10. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  11. Using Biometric Data to Assess Affective Response to Media Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Thodberg; Jessen, Anne Mette Karnøe; Jørgensen, Lotte Ishoy

    2016-01-01

    . This is observed in the biometric GSR data, which shows a clear correlation between GSR measures and the interruptions, showing an average of 30 seconds to return to “normal” after interruptions. The intervention group’s experience evaluation of the video content also support this effect, showing statistical...

  12. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  13. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanning Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230 among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001. Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year, purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions.

  14. Factors Affecting Jordanian School Adolescents' Experience of Being Bullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Abeer M; Hammad, Sawsan; Haourani, Eman M; Nassar, Omayyah S

    The purpose of this study was to identify the Jordanian school adolescents' experience of being bullied, and to examine its association with selected socio-demographic variables. This cross sectional descriptive study used multi-stages cluster sampling technique to recruit a sample of in-school adolescents in Jordan (N=436). The Personal Experiences Checklist was used to measure the experience of bullying. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used in the analysis. Relational-verbal bullying was the most common form of bullying while cyber bullying was the least common type. Male adolescents experienced bullying more than females. In addition, adolescents belonging to low-income families experienced bullying more than those from moderate-income families. Finally, being bullied was negatively correlated with academic performance of students. This study indicated that risk factors for bullying are multifaceted which necessitate the development of prevention and intervention strategies to combat bullying taking into consideration these factors. Schools should introduce environmental changes to discourage bullying and establish a policy with specific guidelines of what constitutes bullying behavior and expected disciplinary procedures. Staff training on information about the definition of bullying, current trends, and the effects of bullying is also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temps migratoires en tension Tense times for immigration. The production and experiences of temporalities for migrant workers in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La kafala, système de garantie sur l’étranger propre au monde arabe, produit au Liban un environnement normatif très contraignant pour les migrants non arabes dont elle organise l’immigration : en très grande majorité des femmes, originaires du Sri Lanka et des Philippines, employées domestiques. Elle impose sa temporalité d’institution globale à la migration, et se confronte aux autres temporalités qui structurent l’espace migratoire : celles des individus mobiles, dont la carrière migratoire s’encastre dans la hiérarchie socio-économique de la situation de départ, ainsi que dans dans la hiérarchie des contextes d’accueil ; la temporalité des industries d’émigration, qui développent une rationalité clivée qui leur est propre. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons mettre en scène ces tensions du temps migratoire dans des temporalités en conflit, en évoquant la négativité des rapports sociaux qui en résulte et les contournements normatifs que les migrants et les autres acteurs de cette scène globalisée opèrent dans la poursuite de leurs objectifs.The kafala is a system of guarantee for immigrants in the Arab world. In Lebanon, it produces a highly restrictive regulatory environment for non-Arab migrants; this institution organizes the import of a vast majority of women from Sri Lanka and the Philippines to become domestic employees. It imposes its - as defined - global institution's temporality to migration. It conflicts with the other temporalities that shape the migratory space : temporalities of individuals on the move, whose careers fit into the hierarchy of socio-economic baseline and into the hierarchy between host countries; temporalities of migration industry, that develop a cleaved rationality of their own. In this paper, we want to present the contradiction of migration time and temporalities, in order to understand the resulting negative social relationships. We also study the normative

  16. Emotion and the affective turn: Towards an integration of cognition and affect in real life experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion is caused by many factors, some of which are evolutionary, neurological, chemical, environmental, societal, personal and religious. Mostly, however, we are oblivious of the causal factors, many of which may function on a biological level or subconsciously, although the emotional effect is experienced physically and consciously. Emotions change as the trigger mechanisms in the cultural context change. This usually happens unnoticed over long periods. Internet databases have now made it possible to study the use of emotive words; this point is discussed. Of particular interest is the interaction between emotion and reason. Models that reduce emotion to the physical level are scrutinised critically. Reason is not emotionless and emotion is not always irrational. The close interrelationship of emotion and reason often makes it difficult to distinguish accurately between the two. The so-called affective turn takes cognisance of cultural, social, religious and other environmental factors; this broader approach clarifies the importance of affect’s role in rationality. One way of viewing emotion and affect is to look at the accompanying language; here the role of metaphor and narrative is pertinent. The traditional elevation of reason above emotion is examined critically as part of the affective turn that broadens the meaning and scope of emotions. I focus on the role of emotion in religion and factors that influence it, and explore the accent of affect in new spiritualities.

  17. Theoretical Models of Interpersonal Communication and Second Language Acquisition of Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FER

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the act of sharing information and it generally involves the use of oral or written symbols and, in other circumstances, it covers different types of nonverbal symbols such as body language, painting, music, crafts, sculpture or gestures. Building effective communication skills and relationships is often challenging, being the medium for group interactions, public relations and family. This study explores the interpersonal relationships of immigrants and it properly is a current topic because immigration to the European Union states has rapidly increased and immigrant groups are more diverse than ever before. The purpose is to analyze the immigrants attitudes, experiences but also expectations of their interpersonal communication and relationships and the way they expand and maintain them, and also to understand how interpersonal communication affects the immigrants adaptation to the new environment. The main rule of mutual respect is the basis for success in communication and relationships, as well as accepting and understanding cultural differences and the new language without judging them. Cultural differences are often easily identified and therefore, easy to adapt to, but others are considerably more difficult. In this respect, I considered as opportune to bring into question and compare important theories provided and investigated by specialists in interpersonal communication. They offer a clear overview and examination of understanding the immigrants participation to the process of interpersonal communication in the host country.

  18. Does Immigrant Employment Matter for Exports? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    Immigration impacts the economy in ample ways: it affects growth, wages and total factor productivity. This study deals with the effects of immigration on firm exports. Can firms benefit from hiring immigrants to expand their export sales? Or do immigrants who live in the firm’s region affect trade...... evidence on the adjustment of firms’ product portfolio in response to immigration. Our results show that firms can reap the benefits from immigration only through hiring foreigners. This implies that the trade-cost reducing intercultural knowledge embedded in foreign expatriates can only be accessed via...... employment. Thus, to tap the full potential of foreign labor movements for international trade, political efforts should be targeted towards labor market integration of immigrants....

  19. The art of understanding each other's qualitative research on the experiences and needs of non-western immigrant women with breast cancer after treatment with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kruif, A; Sondaal, A; Derks, M; Winkels, R; Kampman, E; Westerman, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the year 2000 a governmental report showed that the Dutch healthcare system did not meet the needs of the growing number of non-western immigrants. This report not only described the struggle of the Dutch health care system but also of immigrants themselves about the differences in

  20. Affective Music Generation and its effect on Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    Procedural content generation for games --the automated creation of some type of asset-- has become increasingly popular in the last decade, both with academics and game developers. This interest has been mainly motivated by how complex games have become, requiring a huge amount of assets......, narrative events unfold in response to player input. Therefore, the music composer in an interactive environment needs to create music that is dynamic and non-repetitive. This thesis investigates how to express emotions and moods in music and how to apply this research to improve player experience in games....... This focus on the emotional expression that procedurally generated music should express has also been identified by Collins as one of the missing features that currently prevent procedurally generated music being more widely used in the game industry. The research therefore focuses on investigating...

  1. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect brain dopamine receptor subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Cabib, S.; Kempf, E.; Schleef, C.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of tritiated spiperone (D2 antagonist) and tritiated SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), in vivo, was investigated in the caudatus putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) of mice submitted to ten daily restraint stress sessions. Mice sacrificed 24 hr after the last stressful experience presented a 64% decrease of D2 receptor density (Bmax) but no changes in D1 receptor density in the NAS. In the CP a much smaller (11%) reduction of D2 receptor density was accompanied by a 10% increase of D1 receptors. These results show that the two types of dopamine (DA) receptors adapt in different or even opposite ways to environmental pressure, leading to imbalance between them

  2. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon.

  3. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants' Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly...... confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence immigrants' mortality. Comparable mortality registration systems across Europe along with detailed socio-demographic information...... with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences...

  4. Family-School Relationships in Immigrant Children's Well-Being: The Intersection of Demographics and School Culture in The Experiences of Black African Immigrants in The United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the types of family-school relationships that promote academic, socio-economic, and social and emotional well-being of black African immigrant children in the United States. The data are ethnographic, drawing on one year of participant observation and interviews at two elementary schools. The findings are also set within the…

  5. Provider’s Perspectives on the Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Activity on Immigrant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Arsenault, Lisa; Marlin, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasing Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) activities such as raids, detention and deportation may be affecting the health and well-being of immigrants. This study sought to understand the impact of ICE activities on immigrant health from the perspective of health care providers. Methods An online survey of primary care and emergency medicine providers was conducted to determine whether ICE activity was negatively affecting immigrant patients. Results Of 327 providers surveyed, 163 responded (50%) and 156 (48%) met criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five (48%) of them observed negative effects of ICE enforcement on the health or health access of immigrant patients. Forty-three providers gave examples of the impact on emotional health, ability to comply with health care recommendations and access. Conclusions Health care providers are witnessing the negative effects of ICE activities on their immigrant patients’ psychological and physical health. This should be considered an important determinant of immigrant health. PMID:22643614

  6. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  7. Factors affecting successful colonoscopy procedures: Single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Ramazan; Yılmaz, Tonguç Utku; Baştuğral, Uygar; Kerimoğlu, Umut; Yavuz, Yücel

    2018-01-01

    Colonoscopy is a gold standard procedure for several colon pathologies. Successful colonoscopy means demonstration of the ileocecal valve and determination of colon polyps. Here we aimed to evaluate our colonoscopy success and results. This retrospective descriptive study was performed in İstanbul Eren hospital endoscopy unit between 2012 and 2015. Colonoscopy results and patient demographics were obtained from the hospital database. All colonoscopy procedures were performed under general anesthesia and after full bowel preparation. In all, 870 patients were included to the study. We reached to the cecum in 850 (97.8%) patients. We were unable to reach the cecum in patients who were old and obese and those with previous lower abdominal operations. Angulation, inability to move forward, and tortuous colon were the reasons for inability to reach the cecum. Total 203 polyp samplings were performed in 139 patients. We performed 1, 2, and 3 polypectomies in 97, 28, and 10 patients, respectively. There were 29 (3.3%) colorectal cancers in our series. There was no mortality or morbidity in our study. General anesthesia and full bowel preparation may be the reason for increased success of colonoscopy. Increased experience and patient-endoscopist cooperation increased the rate of cecum access and polyp resection and decreased the complication rate.

  8. "When you walk in the rain, you get wet": a qualitative study of Ghanaian immigrants' perspective on the epidemiological paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sue A; Ahmed, Ramatu; Musah, Adam

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to understand the perceptions of Ghanaian immigrants of the health status and health trajectory of their community. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 63 primarily Ghanaian immigrants living in New York City. Nearly all participants observed that Ghanaians are generally healthy when they arrive in the US, but that their health declines over time. Participants identified four causes of this perceived deterioration: changes in health behaviors, increased stress, environmental exposures, and barriers to health care. Participants see themselves as being at risk for many health problems resulting from changes in lifestyle that follow immigration. Although some vulnerabilities are unique to their experience as immigrants, many of the risk factors they described are the same as those that affect other residents in the communities in which they live.

  9. Re-bordering spaces of trauma: auto-ethnographic reflections on the immigrant and refugee experience in an inner-city high school in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerverger, Grace

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this research study is to offer a glimpse into the lives of some newly-arrived students of different racial, linguistic and religious backgrounds as they confront the process of immigration and therefore personal and social displacement within the context of a Toronto inner-city high school. These students carry with them hidden but enduring scars that influence all aspects of their educational lives. In many cases their experience is steeped in trauma. Using auto-ethnographic methodology, this research is devoted to giving voice to these students who inhabit a space filled with suffering and loss but also resilience and cautious hope. If we really care about these vulnerable students in our classrooms, we must rethink and reshape our understanding of teaching and learning that is more fundamentally linked to the lived experiences of students coming from places of war and other oppressions. These issues are crucial for the future of nation-building and citizenship education in pluralistic Western societies such as Canada, both in and out of school.

  10. Cultural issues and other factors that affect self-management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) by Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eh, Kexin; McGill, Margaret; Wong, Jencia; Krass, Ines

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the influence of cultural and other factors on diabetes self-management behaviors among Australian Chinese immigrants with T2D. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and October 2015. The questionnaire comprised several validated scales examining aspects of self-management practice including medication adherence, acculturation and demographics. Participants were recruited from the community and Diabetes Center of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH), Sydney, Australia. Of the 139 participants, a majority were female, from mainland China, with high school level education and a mean age of 64 (SD±12) years. Participants were found to have poor self-management practices generally but moderate medication adherence. 13.7% of participants reported incorporating TCM into their diabetes treatment and 24% reported a cultural shame surrounding a diabetes diagnosis. Higher levels of acculturation predicted better medication adherence, whereas stronger beliefs in TCM predicted poorer medication adherence. Gender, education level and duration of diabetes were also predictors of diabetes self-management behaviors. This study provided insight into cultural influences on diabetes self-management and medication taking among Chinese immigrants in Australia. Health care providers should take these into account in delivering culturally sensitive care and advice to achieve better health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect....

  12. PORTRAYALS OF COLOMBIAN AND VENEZUELAN IMMIGRANT ORGANISATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANCHEZ-R, MAGALY; AYSA-LASTRA, MARIA

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the public images of Colombian and Venezuelan immigrant organisations in the United States. Immigrant organisations’ webpages and the expression of their main aims and goals serve to identify their major concerns as they create public images not only for the organisation but for the immigrant community itself. To interpret the immigrant organisations’ public images and their goals, we offer a multilevel study that considers immigrants’ contexts of exit, which are related to the motivation of migrate and the particular sociodemographic makeup of immigrant groups. This paper adds the Venezuelan immigrant experience to the literature on immigrant organisations. PMID:25324586

  13. How do multi-touchpoint experience affect consumer satisfaction and behavior : a real-time experience tracking approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Konus, U.; Macdonald, E.K.; Wilson, H.N.; Langerak, F.; Warlop, L.; Muylle, S.

    2015-01-01

    A customer experiences various touchpoints during the shopping trip with a brand, (i.e., traditional advertising, online and WOMs). However, it is still unknown how satisfaction and behavior are affected by customers’ instant touchpoint experiences during the shopping process. Therefore we

  14. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  15. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  16. What drives immigration amnesties?

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...

  17. Transition to Motherhood as an Immigrant: Risks and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruveyde Aydin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of transition to motherhood that brings along a number of vital changes may be full of risks and difficulties for immigrant mothers. Poverty, being unfamiliar with the language of the country that the mother migrated, inability of healthcare policies in covering healthcare expenses of immigrants, insufficiency of social assistance and loneliness may negatively affect health of mother and infant. Postpartum immigrant mothers are seen depression, anxiety, stress and social isolation because of these obstacles. Therefore, health care professionals, who provide care to immigrant mothers, should clarify immigrant mothers' religious, cultural beliefs and attitudes. Procurement of peer support is important by developing care programs special to immigrant mothers and ensuring immigrant women to come together. Increase in the number of translators in hospitals and prepara-tion of education materials in native language of mothers will improve the level of benefiting from healthcare services. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 250-262

  18. Risk For Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant Arabic Women in the United States: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2017-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 14% of women in the United States and 10% to 37% of Arabic women in the Middle East. Evidence suggests that immigrant women experience higher rates, but information on PPD among immigrant women of Arabic descent in the United States is nonexistent. A cross-sectional descriptive feasibility study was conducted to assess the practicality of implementing a larger proposed research study to examine predictors of PPD in US immigrant women of Arabic descent residing in Dearborn, Michigan. Fifty women were recruited from an Arab community center and completed demographic data, the Arabic version of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Among participants, 36% were considered at high risk for developing PPD. Lack of social support, antenatal anxiety, antenatal depression, maternity blues (feeling depressed during the first 4 weeks postpartum), and life stress were significantly related to risk for PPD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social support (t = -3.77, P postpartum depressive symptoms. Findings of this study describe the prevalence of PPD in a sample of US immigrant women of Arabic descent and support the feasibility of a larger and more in-depth understanding of their immigration and acculturation experiences. Study participants reported high risk for PPD. Maternity blues and lack of social support were significant predictors to the risk for PPD. Future research tailored to this minority group is recommended. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Skin Color and Self-Perceptions of Immigrant and U.S.-Born Latinas: The Moderating Role of Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.; Vazquez Garcia, Heidie A.

    2009-01-01

    Research has increasingly identified race as a salient characteristic that affects one's life experiences and psychological well-being. However, little is known about how skin color affects the emotional health of Latinos. The present study examined how skin color relates to the self-perceptions of immigrant (N = 26) and U.S.-born (N = 55) Latina…

  20. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  1. K–12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; López Turley, Ruth N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K–12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K–12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths’ English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially

  2. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinthäll, Martin; Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems fro...

  3. More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Eva C; Zhang, Jiao; Morewedge, Carey K; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6).

  4. More than culture: structural racism, intersectionality theory, and immigrant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A; Miranda, Patricia Y; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2012-12-01

    Explanations for immigrant health outcomes often invoke culture through the use of the concept of acculturation. The over reliance on cultural explanations for immigrant health outcomes has been the topic of growing debate, with the critics' main concern being that such explanations obscure the impact of structural factors on immigrant health disparities. In this paper, we highlight the shortcomings of cultural explanations as currently employed in the health literature, and argue for a shift from individual culture-based frameworks, to perspectives that address how multiple dimensions of inequality intersect to impact health outcomes. Based on our review of the literature, we suggest specific lines of inquiry regarding immigrants' experiences with day-to-day discrimination, as well as on the roles that place and immigration policies play in shaping immigrant health outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for integrating intersectionality theory in future research on immigrant health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of Recent Immigrants' Location Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2009-01-01

    This paper exploits a Danish spatial dispersal policy on refugees which can be regarded as a natural experiment to investigate the influence of regional factors on recent immigrants' location choices. The main push factors are lack of co-nationals and immigrants. Additional push factors are lack...... of rental, including social, housing and lack of institutions for qualifying educations which explain why recent immigrants are attracted to large cities. Finally, placed refugees tend to leave locations with relatively high regional unemployment and there is indirect evidence of welfare seeking....

  6. "Experience Isn't Everything": How Emotion Affects the Relationship Between Experience and Cue Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Monique Frances; Brouwers, Sue; Wiggins, Mark William; Loveday, Thomas; Forrest, Kirsty; Tan, Suyin Giselle Marianne; Cyna, Allan Michael

    2018-04-01

    This research examined whether negative and positive arousal emotions modify the relationship between experience level and cue utilization among anesthetists. The capacity of a practitioner to form precise associations between clusters of features (e.g., symptoms) and events (e.g., diagnosis) and then act on them is known as cue utilization. A common assumption is that practice experience allows opportunities for cue acquisition and cue utilization. However, this relationship is often not borne out in research findings. This study investigates the role of emotional state in this relationship. An online tool (EXPERTise 2.0) was used to assess practitioner cue utilization for tasks relevant to anesthesia. The experience of positive and negative arousal emotions in the previous three days was measured, and emotion clusters were generated. Experience was measured as the composite of practice years and hours of practice experience. The moderating role of emotion on the relationship between experience and cue utilization was examined. Data on 125 anesthetists (36% female) were included in the analysis. The predicted interaction between arousal emotions and the experience level emerged. In particular, post hoc analyses revealed that anxiety-related emotions facilitated the likelihood of high cue utilization in less experienced practitioners. The findings suggest a role for emotions in cue use and suggest a functional role for normal range anxiety emotions in a simulated work-relevant task. This research illustrates the importance of understanding the potentially functional effects common negative arousal emotions may have on clinical performance, particularly for those with less experience.

  7. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  8. The experiment of affective web risk communication on HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Eiwa; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Uda, Akinobu; Ito, Kyoko

    2006-01-01

    Dialog mode web contents regarding the HLW risk is effective to altruism. To make it more effectively, we introduced affective elements such as facial expression of character agents and sympathetic response on the BBS by experts, which brought us smooth risk communication. This paper describes the result of preliminary experiments surrounding the affective ways to communicate on the risk of HLW geological disposal, leading to enhance the social cooperation, and the public open experiment for one month on the Web. (author)

  9. Cross-cultural experiences of maternal depression: associations and contributing factors for Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino immigrant women in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Rhonda; Lumley, Judith; Yelland, Jane

    2003-08-01

    To investigate in an Australian study of immigrant women conducted 6-9 months following childbirth (a) the associations of a range of demographic, obstetric, health and social context variables with maternal depression, and (b) women's views of contributing factors in their experiences of depression. Three hundred and eighteen Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino women participated in personal interviews conducted by three bicultural interviewers in the language of the women's choice. Utilising three approaches to the assessment of maternal depression, the consistency of associations on the different measures is examined. Women's views of contributing factors are compared with previous research with largely English-speaking Australian-born women. Analysis of the associations of maternal depression revealed considerable consistency in associations among the three approaches to assessing depression. Significant associations with depression on at least two of the measures were seen for: mothers under 25 years, shorter residence in Australia, speaking little or no English, migrating for marriage, having no relatives in Melbourne, or no friends to confide in, physical health problems, or a baby with feeding problems. There were no consistent associations found with family income or maternal education, method of delivery and a range of other birth events, or women's views about maternity care. The issues most commonly identified by women in this study as contributing to depression are similar to those found previously for Australian-born women: isolation (in this study, including being homesick)--29%; lack of support and marital issues--25%; physical ill-health and exhaustion--23%; family problems--19%, and baby-related issues--17%. There were some differences in the importance of these among the three country-of-birth groups, but all except family issues were in the top four contributing factors mentioned by women in all groups. These findings support the evidence for quite

  10. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  11. Immigrants in Slovenia: Integration Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Žitnik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the latest statistics, the author estimates the present share of first- and second-generation immigrants in Slovenia’s population. After examining the quantity and intensity of those public efforts in Slovenia that have been focused on unresolved problems of the immigrants’ social and cultural integration, she continues to question the equality of immigrant minorities in Slovenia, and the sufficiency of the existing programs aimed at facilitating their integration with Slovenian society at large. She explains her doubts about the general assumption that a very clear distinction should be made between the rights of the autochthonous minorities and those of the immigrant ones as far as their special protection is concerned. In the third section of this article, the author discusses the social-ethnic stratification of Slovenian society and tries to look into the psychological background of the nationality/ethnicity statistics. She presents some aspects of the immigrants’ daily experience in Slovenian social, cultural, educational and working milieu, and points to the authorities’ attitude toward them. She comments on the burning issue of the “deleted residents”, and illustrates it with the experience of one of the persons involved. The fourth section, in which the most regular symptoms of Slovenian xenophobia are presented, consists of first-hand observations and focuses on the daily human attitude of the national majority towards the immigrant minorities. Finally the author compares the nature of the specific needs of Slovenians as a “European national minority” with the needs of the immigrant minorities in Slovenia.

  12. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  13. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    This study analyses visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments are found to be strongly affected by stimuli presentation format. These results...

  14. Dealing with Stigma: Experiences of Persons Affected by Disabilities and Leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusli, M.M.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Miranda Galarza, H.B.; Peters, R.M.H.; Cummings, S.J.R.; Seda, F.S.S.E.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of

  15. Elementary Teachers' Experiences of Departmentalized Instruction and Its Impact on Student Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Robert Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative dissertation was to explore the lived experiences of departmentalized elementary teachers, Grades 1-3, and how they addressed their students' affective needs. The main research question of the study was how do elementary school teachers perceive departmentalized instruction and describe their experiences of this…

  16. Factors affecting the recreation of a story from a text : A cross-cultural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokmans, Mia; el Aissati, Abder; Boogaard, Marianne; van den Bogaerde, Beppie; Bacchini, Sylvia; Curcic, Maja; de Jong, Nivja; le Pichon, Emanuelle; Rasier, Laurent

    In this research, we regard a text as a written expression about an extraordinary experience in which the socio-economic, cultural and historical background of an author affects the way this experience is translated into a text that tells the story. From this perspective, the task of a reader is to

  17. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  18. Race and Gender in Immigration: A Continuing Saga with Different Encryptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquin, Edward; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the U.S. contemporary immigrant and transnational migration phenomena and the historical immigrant experience using a postcolonial theoretical framework. In this chapter, the issues of race and gender and current political positions are discussed.

  19. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    share of immigrants without prior working experience decreased in the crisis year, also regardless of the duration of their unemployment. Both factors indicate more active search in the crisis period and suggest demand constraints on the labour market, which has affected both the domicile and immigrant population. In order to determine significant predictors of very long-term in comparison to short-term unemployment, the same empirical strategy has been applied. The analysis for the 2007 (pre-crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of long-term unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: lower secondary education (in comparison to upper-secondary education, persons older than 55 and persons in the 45‒54 age cohort (in comparison to the reference 35‒44 age cohort. The analysis for the 2012 (crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of long-term unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: persons without prior working experience and persons older than 55 (in comparison to the reference age cohort; negative predictors: age cohorts 15‒24 and 25‒34 (in comparison to the reference age cohort, being married or cohabitating, male persons. Comparing the results for 2007 and 2012 it seems obvious that the most important difference is related to first-time job seekers. The crisis has created a population without previous working experience that has become long-term unemployed. Since the long-term unemployed are, in general, considered by employers as persons with lower employability, this is a serious issue that deserves policy actions. When considering future policy actions related to immigration, results for the most recent year are more important. The analysis in the paper has shown that certain occupations (elementary occupations, services and sales workers, crafts and related

  1. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2007-01-01

    Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...

  2. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  3. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela M; Donnelly, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration.

  4. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  5. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  6. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants' experiences with non-Western immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Francke, Anneke L; van de Reep, Merle; Manniën, Judith; Wiegers, Therese A; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2014-01-01

    Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the baby's grandmother as care-giver in the postnatal period. However, not much attention has been paid in existing literature to postnatal care professionals' approaches to these issues. Our main objective was to gain insight into how Dutch postnatal care providers--'maternity care assistants' (MCA)--address issues encountered when providing care for non-western women. A generic qualitative research approach was used. Two researchers interviewed fifteen MCAs individually, analysing the interview material separately and then comparing and discussing their results. Analytical codes were organised into main themes and subthemes. MCAs perceive caring for non-western women as interesting and challenging, but sometimes difficult too. To guarantee the health and safety of mother and baby, they have adopted flexible and creative approaches to address issues concerning traditional practices, socioeconomic status and communication. Furthermore, they employ several other strategies to establish relationships with non-western clients and their families, improve women's knowledge of the maternity care system and give health education. Provision of postnatal care to non-western clients may require special skills and measures. The quality of care for non-western clients might be improved by including these skills in education and retraining programmes for postnatal care providers on top of factual knowledge about traditional practices.

  7. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  9. How Sensory Experiences of Children With and Without Autism Affect Family Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, Molly Shields; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2012-01-01

    We used a grounded theory approach to data analysis to discover what effect, if any, children's sensory experiences have on family occupations. We chose this approach because the existing literature does not provide a theory to account for the effect of children's sensory experiences on family occupations. Parents of six children who were typically developing and six children who had autism were interviewed. We analyzed the data using open, axial, and selective coding techniques. Children's sensory experiences affect family occupations in three ways: (1) what a family chooses to do or not do; (2) how the family prepares; and (3) the extent to which experiences, meaning, and feelings are shared. PMID:22389942

  10. Masculinity and Immigrant Health Practices: How Male Kurdish Immigrants to the United States Think about and Practice Health

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jihad K.; Linders, Annulla

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have identified a host of factors that influence immigrant men’s understanding of and commitment to health, but overall the scholarship is still unsettled, in large part because the experiences of immigrant groups are so varied. In this paper, based on interviews with Kurdish immigrants in the United States, we demonstrate that the field of health provides both opportunities and pitfalls for men whose social, familial, and masculine aspirations simultaneously pull them into Americ...

  11. Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  12. Does Islam play a role in anti-immigrant sentiment? An experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J; Jamal, Amaney

    2015-09-01

    Are Muslim immigrants subjected to targeted opposition (i.e., Islamophobia) on their pathway to US citizenship? Using a list experiment and a representative sample of the US population, we compare explicit and implicit opposition to Muslim and Christian immigrants. We find that Muslim immigrants, relative to Christian immigrants, experience greater explicit resistance. However, when social desirability bias is taken into account via the list experiment, we find that opposition to Christian and Muslim immigrants is the same. The explanation is that respondents conceal a significant amount of opposition to Christian immigrants. Muslim immigrants, on the other hand, are afforded no such protection. We find that religiosity or denomination do not play a significant role in determining implicit or explicit opposition. We conclude that Islamophobia, which is only explicitly expressed, is best understood as reflective of social desirability bias from which Muslim immigrants do not benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  14. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children's Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-05-25

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.

  15. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children’s Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.

  16. Clouds and silver linings: positive experiences associated with primary affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, K R; Gerner, R H; Hammen, C; Padesky, C

    1980-02-01

    Clinical psychiatry has focused almost entirely on the psychopathology of the affective disorders. The authors studied responses of 61 patients (35 bipolar. 26 unipolar) to questions about perceived short- and long-term benefits (increased sensitivity, sexuality, productivity, creativity, and social outgoingness) they attributed to their affective illness. Bipolar patients strongly indicated positive experiences associated with manic-depressive illness; few unipolar patients perceived their disorder in such a way. Significant sex differences emerged in the attributions made by bipolar patients.

  17. Out of mind, out of heart: Attention affects duration of emotional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negativ...

  18. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  19. Integration Becoming Business: Marketisation of Integration Training for Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Tuuli; Masoud, Ameera; Niemi, Anna-Maija; Brunila, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    Today, education is massively affected by marketisation and the drastic demands of the global economy. Integration training for immigrants has fallen prey to that; immigrants are employed to serve market needs, which has been attributed to the creation of "integration as business." In the article, the authors examine how integration…

  20. Stages of Immigrant Parent Involvement--Survivors to Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-chan; Love, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant parents are not all alike. They vary in language skills as well as their understanding of U.S. culture. All of this affects their ability, if not inclination, to become engaged in their children's education. Educators can assist families by understanding the stages of immigrant parent involvement, which identifies parents' needs, skills,…

  1. Impediments to the successful reconstruction of African immigrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affect the reconstruction of immigrant teachers' professional identities (Hutchison, ... 1979; Turner, 1982) is a social psychological theory that sets out to explain group ... maintain our self-esteem our group needs to compare favourably with other groups. ... In order for immigrant teachers in this study to overcome social,.

  2. Contributions to Variations in Academic Trajectories amongst Recent Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Bang, Hee Jin; Onaga, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Immigration presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Over the course of five years, varying academic trajectories were identified for recent immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some students…

  3. Examining My Window and Mirror: A Pedagogical Reflection from a White Mathematics Teacher Educator about Her Experiences with Immigrant Latina Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinec-Craig, Crystal A.

    2014-01-01

    In this pedagogical reflection, a White mathematics teacher educator describes what she learned from three Latina pre-service teachers who were recent immigrants from Mexico while they completed an elementary mathematics methods course. Using Rochelle Gutierrez's (2012) metaphor of a window and mirror, the author interrogates her own identity and…

  4. Who is Less Welcome?: The Impact of Individuating Cues on Attitudes towards Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turper, Sedef; Iyengar, Shanto; Aarts, Kees; van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    Based on a novel experimental design, the current study examines the impact of economic and cultural characteristics of potential immigrants on anti-immigrant sentiments. We investigate the extent to which individuating cues affect public support for individual immigrants in the USA and the

  5. Does Immigration Crowd Natives into or out of Higher Education? Working Papers. No. 15-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Osborne

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of immigration on the college enrollment of U.S. natives. Many studies have focused on the effect of increased demand for schooling by immigrants on the enrollment of natives. However, changes in immigrant labor supply may also affect native enrollment by changing local market prices. Using U.S. Census data from…

  6. Affordability of and Access to Information About Health Insurance Among Immigrant and Non-immigrant Residents After Massachusetts Health Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ye Jin; McCormick, Danny; Zallman, Leah

    2017-08-01

    Immigrants' perceptions of affordability of insurance and knowledge of insurance after health reform are unknown. We conducted face-to-face surveys with a convenience sample of 1124 patients in three Massachusetts safety net Emergency Departments after the Massachusetts health reform (August 2013-January 2014), comparing immigrants and non-immigrants. Immigrants, as compared to non-immigrants, reported more concern about paying premiums (30 vs. 11 %, p = 0.0003) and about affording the current ED visit (38 vs. 22 %, p Insured immigrants were less likely to know copayment amounts (57 vs. 71 %, p = 0.0018). Immigrants were more likely to report that signing up for insurance would be easier with fewer plans (53 vs. 34 %, p = 0.0443) and to lack information about insurance in their primary language (31 vs. 1 %, p insurance. Immigrants who sought insurance information via websites or helplines were more likely to find that information useful than non-immigrants (100 vs. 92 %, p = 0.0339). Immigrants seeking care in safety net emergency departments had mixed experiences with affordability of and knowledge about insurance after Massachusetts health reform, raising concern about potential disparities under the Affordable Care Act that is based on the MA reform.

  7. ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi-bacci, M

    1994-01-01

    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in

  8. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.

  9. Acculturation and its impact on professional Chinese immigrants in the Australian workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the acculturation experience of professional Chinese immigrants (PCIs) in the Australian workplace. It identifies factors influencing PCIs’ choice of acculturation options and examines the impact of that choice on an individual’s job satisfaction, affective workgroup commitment and work engagement in a group environment. The study adopts a sequential mixed-methods approach of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Since acculturation is an inevitable process th...

  10. The Effects of DACAmentation: The Impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Unauthorized Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Nolan G.

    2016-01-01

    As the largest immigration policy in 25 years, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) made deportation relief and work authorization available to 1.7 million unauthorized immigrants. This paper looks at how DACA affects DACA-eligible immigrants' labor market outcomes. I use a difference-in-differences design for unauthorized immigrants near the criteria cutoffs for DACA eligibility. I find DACA increases the likelihood of working by increasing labor force participation and decreasing t...

  11. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  12. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  13. On the move: Analyzing immigration determinants and immigrant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372640060

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the

  14. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  15. Holdninger til Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....

  16. Holdninger til immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...

  17. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  18. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  19. Banking on His Immigrant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2004-01-01

    Basan N. Nembirkow grew up as a pre-adolescent adoring the Brooklyn Dodgers, and his friends in central New Jersey applied the nickname of Buzz, to which he still answers. But in other respects, it would be hard to suggest Basan Nembirkow is simply a product of a middle-class American upbringing. Nembirkow, who is about to finish his second year…

  20. THE ROLE OF AN IMMIGRANT MOTHER IN HER ADOLESCENT'S IDENTITY FORMATION: "WHO AM I?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mali

    2016-06-01

    Immigration is a complex bio-psycho-social process and the immigrant mother has a truly complex task in lending her ego strength to her adolescent offspring. The normal adolescence's decathexis of the love object and the consequent search for a new object may not happen smoothly for those adolescents whose mothers are immigrants. The immigration experience may cause the immigrant mother, who lost her motherland, deeper disturbance in self-identity as well as disequilibrium in her psychic structure, which in turn impacts adversely her adolescent's development. The adolescent's inadequate early experience with an immigrant mother may result in a deeper disturbance in his separation-individuation process as well as his identification process. An immigrant mother who has not mourned adequately, with a different sociocultural background has to go through a far more complex development of motherhood. The case of an adolescent boy, Jason, demonstrates the impact of immigrant motherhood on his ego development.

  1. Trait Dissociation and the Subjective Affective, Motivational, and Phenomenological Experience of Self-Defining Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stockdale, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    The present research reports two studies that examine the relation between non-pathological trait dissociation and the subjective affect, motivation, and phenomenology of self-defining memories. In Study 1 (N=293), participants retrieved and rated the emotional and motivational experience of a general and a positive and negative achievement-related memory. Study 2 (N=449) extended these ratings to relationship-related memories and the phenomenological experience of the memory. Dissociation was associated with incongruent affect in valenced memories (e.g., positive affect in a negative memory) and memories that were visually incoherent and saturated with power motivation, hubristic pride, and shame, regardless of valence or domain. The present findings demonstrate that autobiographical memories, which integrate emotional, motivational, and phenomenological components, reflect the emotional and motivational processes inherent to dissociation. PMID:21204840

  2. Theorizing One Learner’s Perceived Affective Experiences and Performances from a Dynamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanyi Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of one Chinese learner of English at a university. From a Dynamic System Theory (DST perspective, the student’s perceptions, affective experiences and classroom learning will be explored by identifying the non-linear relationships between them. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the student’s perceived affective experiences and her self-reported performances in a foreign language classroom. The participant was a second-year university student from a foreign language university in China. Diary, questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and class observation were applied to investigate this 6-month longitudinal study. Emotional ambivalence including several different affective patterns and five attractor states, namely, Integrative Disposition, Amotivation, Autonomy, Actual Learning Process and Language Awareness were identified.

  3. Out of mind, out of heart: attention affects duration of emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negative performance feedback in a cognitive task to induce unpleasant affect and included three experimental groups (waiting condition, continuing with the same cognitive task, distraction by a different cognitive task). Results converged to show that distracting attention away from the emotion-eliciting event leads to a shorter duration of the emotional experience. These findings support the attention-focus hypothesis.

  4. Immigration Enforcement Practices Harm Refugee Children and Citizen-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.

    2018-01-01

    Aggressive immigration enforcement hurts the very youngest children. Refugee and U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants experience many childhood adversities, compromising their development and health. Refugee children flee traumatizing violence in their home countries, face grueling migrations, and are harmed further by being held in…

  5. Education and Recreation Activities of Older Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Dattilo, John; Heo, Jinmoo

    2011-01-01

    Older Asian immigrants experience a variety of challenges when attempting to adapt to life in a new society. Adjustment difficulties associated with cultural differences among older Asian immigrants and the host country may result in a certain levels of acculturative stress. This stress is negatively associated with health and quality of life. In…

  6. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an “asylum” template, a “rights” template, and a “local attachments” template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice. PMID:25013360

  7. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship . While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an "asylum" template, a "rights" template, and a "local attachments" template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.

  8. Factors affecting experiences of intensive care patients in Turkey: patient outcomes in critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yurdanur; Korhan, Esra Akin; Eser, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla

    2013-07-01

    To determine the factors affecting a patient's intensive care experience. The descriptive study was conducted at an intensive care unit in the Aegean Region of Turkey, and comprised 158 patients who spent at least 48 hours at the unit between June and November 2009. A questionnaire form and the Intensive Care Experience Scale were used as data collection tools. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Of the total, 86 (54.4%) patients related to the surgical unit, while 72 (45.5%) spent time at the intensive care unit. Most of the subjects (n=113; 71.5%) reported that they constantly experienced pain during hospitalisation. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation support and patients reporting no pain had significantly higher scores on the intensive care experience scale. Patients who reported pain remembered their experiences less than those having no pain. Interventions are needed to make the experiences of patients in intensive care more positive.

  9. "My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Joanne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

  10. Relocating Precarity and Resiliency within Montreal: The Artists' Bloc of the Immigrant Workers' Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Koby Rogers; Salamanca, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this document we describe our experience relocating precarity and resiliency by way of arts activism, to denounce and make visible social injustices experienced by im/migrant communities in Montreal. Under the umbrella of the Immigrant Workers' Centre, and other allies from the im/migrant workers' movement, we combine knowledge building, action…

  11. Dreams and Opportunities: Immigrant Families and Iowa's Future. Iowa Kid's Count Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle Stover

    2010-01-01

    The fact that there has been population growth in Iowa at all (about 100,000 growth per decade over the last 50 years) is due in large measure to an increased level of immigration into the state. This immigration has helped to stabilize Iowa's population and workforce. Immigrants bring diverse experiences and backgrounds with them. This report…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Indian and Indian Immigrant Adolescents' Perceptions of the Factors Affecting Their Engagement and Performance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing body of quantitative research has examined the non-cognitive factors affecting the school engagement and performance of adolescents across cultures, there is relatively sparse qualitative research investigating the perceptions of adolescents regarding the factors influencing their engagement and performance in school. This focus…

  13. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2011-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  14. Immigrant to Canada, newcomer to childhood cancer: a qualitative study of challenges faced by immigrant parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Banerjee, Ananya T; Sung, Lillian; Klaassen, Robert J; Dix, David; Poureslami, Iraj M; Shaw, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Given the increasing numbers of immigrant families in Canada, it is imperative that healthcare providers (HCPs) understand the caregiving experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our study aimed to explore any special challenges faced by immigrant parents of children with cancer and to identify supportive factors. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Participants included 50 first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least six months post-diagnosis. Recruitment took place at six Canadian pediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi. Analysis involved coding and the use of the constant comparison method. Interviewing continued until no new themes emerged. While immigrant parents described many challenges faced by any parent of a child with cancer, the context of being an immigrant made certain experiences particularly challenging. Parents described challenges in the following areas: managing caregiving demand and financial strain, accessing support from others, and interfacing with the healthcare system. Parents described receiving a range of practical, emotional, social and informational support from extended family, their workplace, other cancer families, community organizations and HCPs. Our study addresses an important gap in the research literature by providing practical insight into the experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our findings may help to inform the development of pediatric oncology policies and programs in ways that respond to the unique needs and challenges of culturally and linguistically diverse families. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  16. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  17. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  18. How do organizations and social policies 'acculturate' to immigrants? Accommodating skilled immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Izumi; Wei, Yi; Truong, Lele

    2008-12-01

    While the idea of acculturation (Berry 1997) was originally proposed as the mutual change of both parties (e.g., immigrants and the host society), the change processes of host societies are neglected in research. A grounded theory study explored the efforts of human service organizations to 'acculturate' to an increasingly diverse immigrant population, through interviews conducted with service providers serving Mainland Chinese immigrants. Acculturation efforts of human service organizations (mezzo-level acculturation) were often needs-driven and affected by the political will and resultant funding programs (macro-level forces). Even with limitations, human service organizations commonly focused on hiring Mainland Chinese immigrants to reflect the changing demographics of their clientele and creating new programs to meet the language and cultural backgrounds of the clients. To contextualize these organizational efforts, an analysis of how policy changes (macro-level acculturation) interact with organizational practice is presented. Finally, the meaning of acculturation for the host society is discussed.

  19. Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....

  20. Listening to immigrant latino men in rural Oregon: exploring connections between culture and sexual and reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith R; Hudson, Deanne; Torres, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    This study explored factors that affect access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services including family planning among immigrant Latino men residing in rural Oregon communities that have experienced a high growth in their Latino population. In-depth interviews were conducted with 49 sexually active men aged 18 to 30 years who recently immigrated to the United States. Findings from content analysis identified multiple overlapping individual-level barriers, including lack of knowledge, perception of personal risk for unintended pregnancy and STIs, and fear of disease. On a service delivery level, structural factors and the importance of confianza when interacting with providers and clinic staff were dominant themes. The majority of these themes were grounded in a cultural context and linked to men's cultural background, beliefs, and experiences. Examining the needs of immigrant Latino men through this cultural lens may be critically important for improving access and use of sexual and reproductive health services.

  1. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  2. Effects of constant immigration on the dynamics and persistence of stable and unstable Drosophila populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Joshi, Amitabh

    2013-01-01

    Constant immigration can stabilize population size fluctuations but its effects on extinction remain unexplored. We show that constant immigration significantly reduced extinction in fruitfly populations with relatively stable or unstable dynamics. In unstable populations with oscillations of amplitude around 1.5 times the mean population size, persistence and constancy were unrelated. Low immigration enhanced persistence without affecting constancy whereas high immigration increased constancy without enhancing persistence. In relatively stable populations with erratic fluctuations of amplitude close to the mean population size, both low and high immigration enhanced persistence. In these populations, the amplitude of fluctuations relative to mean population size went down due to immigration, and their dynamics were altered to low-period cycles. The effects of immigration on the population size distribution and intrinsic dynamics of stable versus unstable populations differed considerably, suggesting that the mechanisms by which immigration reduced extinction risk depended on underlying dynamics in complex ways. PMID:23470546

  3. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  4. Toward immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  5. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules......-hierarchical decision-making procedures enhance trust vis-à-vis other more hierarchical decision-making procedures....... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...

  7. "A Day Without Immigrants"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Benita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...

  8. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  9. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  10. The Contribution of Personality and Refugee Camp Experience to Callous and Unemotional Traits Among Immigrant Adolescents in the United States: Implications for the DSM-5 "Limited Prosocial Emotions" Specifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Malikina, Mariya V; Hecht, Lisa K; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Chan, Wing Yi

    2016-04-01

    Callous and Unemotional (C&U) traits characterize a group of adolescents who engage and persist in especially severe antisocial behaviors. These traits have been included in DSM-5 within a "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) specifier for Conduct Disorder. To investigate the generalizability of this specifier to non-Western cultures, we examined associations among Big Five personality, refugee camp experience, and C&U traits among 81 immigrant adolescents from non-Western cultures. Adolescents with refugee camp history endorsed higher levels of Uncaring than other adolescents. Personality traits explained 6 (Unemotional) to 18 % (Callousness) of the variance in C&U traits. The association between Neuroticism and Callousness held only for adolescents with a refugee camp history. Our results corroborate the importance of considering personality to understand C&U traits and the LPE specifier. Results also raise questions regarding the applicability of C&U traits to non-Western adolescents with varying pre-immigration experiences, and raise the possibility that the LPE specifier is vulnerable to false-positive identifications among such individuals.

  11. Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K N

    2000-06-01

    The author used the remember/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model of A. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. Kroll, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended to be remembered, whereas positive stimuli tended to be known; (b) recollection, but not familiarity, was boosted for negative or highly arousing and, to a lesser extent, positive stimuli; and (c) across experiments, variations in depth of encoding did not influence these patterns. These data suggest that greater recollection for affective events leads them to be more richly experienced in memory, and they are consistent with the idea that the states of remembering and knowing are experientially exclusive, whereas the processes underlying them are functionally independent.

  12. What can a geography as dancing body? language-experience 'gesture-movement-affection' (fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Queiroz Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Made of fragments, this paper proposes to think about relations and possible repercussions existing between language and experience from the perspective of some post-structuralist authors. I sought in reflection about body and dance a way to discuss this issue and at the same time, making a geography as something that produces in us affections. “What can a Geography as dancing body?” is beyond a question, an invitation, a proposition: a ballerina geography.

  13. Sensibility, Narcissism and Affect: Using Immersive Practices in Design for Embodied Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Spence

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Embodiment’ need not focus on isolated individuals or group interactions. This article articulates the potential for designs that prompt participants to bring relationships with other people to mind. These can be fleeting relationships between participants and unknown others, or remembered relationships with romantic partners, family members, or close friends who are not physically co-present or digitally represented. In either case, it is possible to generate affective responses that profoundly shape participants’ emotional and physical reactions to, and co-creation of, the designed interaction. This article presents existing practices of immersive theatre to frame our exploration of this phenomenon. It introduces three theories—mise-en-sensibilité, narcissistic spectatorship and affect—through which we illuminate both the internally felt and the externally designed experience, whether or not it is explicitly framed as theatrical performance. Through analysis of two immersive performances (one-on-one interactions that could easily be understood in terms of experience design and two designs of our own, we argue that the affect generated by personal relationships in immersive experiences can both shape and drive participation, and we offer a three-point guideline by which one can design for the affective consequences of bringing relationships to mind.

  14. Helping Immigrants Become Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Flynn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)

  15. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  16. Libertarianism and Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Virginia Todea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.

  17. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  18. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  19. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  20. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  2. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-05-30

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-perceived health among Eastern European immigrants over 50 living in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, D; Bussini, O; Minelli, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether Eastern European immigrants aged 50 and over living in Northern and Western Europe face a health disadvantage in terms of self-perceived health, with respect to the native-born. We also examined health changes over time (2004-2006-2010) through the probabilities of transition among self-perceived health states, and how they vary according to nativity status and age group. Data were obtained from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Logistic regressions and probabilities of transition were used. Results emphasise the health disadvantage of Eastern European immigrants living in Germany, France and  Sweden with respect to the native-born, even after controlling for socio-economic status. Probabilities of transition also evidenced that people born in Eastern Europe were more likely to experience worsening health and less likely to recover from sickness. This paper suggests that health inequalities do not affect immigrant groups in equal measure and confirm the poorer and more steeply deteriorating health status of Eastern European immigrants.

  4. Relations Between Self-Reported and Linguistic Monitoring Assessments of Affective Experience in an Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland. The expedition lasted 28 days, and conditions included severe cold, low stimulation, whiteouts, limited habitability, and threats to life and limb. During the expedition, the participant completed a daily self-report log including assessment of psychological health (perceptions of control and affect) and a video diary (emotion). Video diary entries were subjected to linguistic inquiry and word count analyses before the links between self-report and linguistic data across the expedition period were tested. Similarities in the pattern of self-reported and linguistic assessments emerged across the expedition period. A number of predictable correlations were identified between self-reported and linguistic assessments of affective/emotional experience. Overall, there was better agreement between self-reports and linguistic analytics for indicators of negative affect/emotion. Future research should build on this initial study to further test the links between self-reported affect and emotional states monitored via linguistics. This could help develop methods for monitoring psychological health in extreme environments and support organizational decision making. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  6. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  7. SPORT PARTICIPATION OF IMMIGRANTS: ANTECEDENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ramadmin

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2016, ... question – what shapes the ethnic identity of immigrants in the context of sport participation? ... tends to be determined by the quality of experience they have when ..... International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(2): 203-229.

  8. Gifted Immigrants and Refugees in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1948, the state of Israel has acquired a lot of experience in absorbing Jews who migrated from different parts of the globe. Two very different groups have immigrated into Israel during the last two decades--Ethiopians (100.000) and Russians (700.000). Due to the basic differences between those groups and cultures, the…

  9. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing ‘Illegality’ Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eSabo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of ‘Othering’ Latino immigrants—as illegal aliens. The internalization of ‘illegality’ can manifest as a sense of undeservingness of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. Objective: We explore the impacts of ‘illegality’ among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Methods: Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N=349 to Mexico-based farmworkers (N=140 or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Results: Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. Conclusion: The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and

  10. Dealing with Stigma: Experiences of Persons Affected by Disabilities and Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Lusli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination.

  11. Working with women survivors of the Holocaust: affective experiences in transference and countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses some late effects of massive traumatization on two women survivors of the Holocaust. Both had appeared to recover from their affective experience of psychic death and hopelessness in Auschwitz and to have moved towards a resumption of further stages of the life cycle. The normal transitional crises of adolescence, when children emotionally separate from their parents, led to severe breakdown in both these patients. Analysis showed that denial, repression and splitting had enabled them to distance themselves from the overwhelming horror of their past, but it had also led to concrete thinking as opposed to metaphorical, and to non-differentiation of psychic and somatic pain. Their inability to dream and the absence of fantasy life in the material could neither facilitate the analytic task of working through these patients' unbearable experience, nor enable them at first to face and recover unbearable affects during the course of the analysis. Hence the analyst's acceptance of an unbearable countertransference and careful monitoring of the affects evoked proved to be an invaluable tool.

  12. Economic and Cultural Drivers of Immigrant Support Worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, Nicholas A.; Soroka, Stuart N.; Iyengar, Shanto

    2017-01-01

    Employing a comparative experimental design drawing on over 18,000 interviews across eleven countries on four continents, this article revisits the discussion about the economic and cultural drivers of attitudes towards immigrants in advanced democracies. Experiments manipulate the occupational...

  13. 'Every pregnant woman needs a midwife'--the experiences of HIV affected women in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Carmel; Alderdice, Fiona; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale

    2013-02-01

    'Every pregnant woman needs a midwife'-the experiences of HIV affected women in Northern Ireland. to explore HIV positive women's experiences of pregnancy and maternity care, with a focus on their interactions with midwives. a prospective qualitative study. regional HIV unit in Northern Ireland. 22 interviews were conducted with 10 women at different stages of their reproductive trajectories. the pervasive presence of HIV related stigma threatened the women's experience of pregnancy and care. The key staff attributes that facilitated a positive experience were knowledge and experience, empathy and understanding of their unique needs and continuity of care. pregnancy in the context of HIV, whilst offering a much needed sense of normality, also increases woman's sense of anxiety and vulnerability and therefore the need for supportive interventions that affirm normality is intensified. A maternity team approach, with a focus on providing 'balanced care' could meet all of the woman and child's medical needs, whilst also emphasising the normalcy of pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compensatory immigration depends on adjacent population size and habitat quality but not on landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Katrine; Kramer, Donald L

    2012-11-01

    1. Populations experiencing localized mortality can recover in the short term by net movement of individuals from adjacent areas, a process called compensatory immigration or spillover. Little is known about the factors influencing the magnitude of compensatory immigration or its impact on source populations. Such information is important for understanding metapopulation dynamics, the use of protected areas for conservation, management of exploited populations and pest control. 2. Using two small, territorial damselfish species (Stegastes diencaeus and S. adustus) in their naturally fragmented habitat, we quantified compensatory immigration in response to localized mortality, assessed its impact on adjacent source populations and examined the importance of potential immigrants, habitat quality and landscape connectivity as limiting factors. On seven experimental sites, we repeatedly removed 15% of the initial population size until none remained and immigration ceased. 3. Immigrants replaced 16-72% of original residents in S. diencaeus and 0-69% in S. adustus. The proportion of the source population that immigrated into depleted areas varied from 9% to 61% in S. diencaeus and from 3% to 21% in S. adustus. In S. diencaeus, compensatory immigration was strongly affected by habitat quality, to a lesser extent by the abundance of potential immigrants and not by landscape connectivity. In S. adustus, immigration was strongly affected by the density of potential migrants and not by habitat quality and landscape connectivity. On two control sites, immigration in the absence of creation of vacancies was extremely rare. 4. Immigration occurred in response to localized mortality and was therefore compensatory. It was highly variable, sometimes producing substantial impacts on both depleted and source populations. The magnitude of compensatory immigration was influenced primarily by the availability of immigrants and by the potential improvement in territory quality that they

  15. Does hospital ownership affect patient experience? An investigation into public-private sector differences in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérotin, Virginie; Zamora, Bernarda; Reeves, Rachel; Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    Using patient experience survey data, the paper investigates whether hospital ownership affects the level of quality reported by patients whose care is funded by the National Health Service in areas other than clinical quality. We estimate a switching regression model that accounts for (i) some observable characteristics of the patient and the hospital episode; (ii) selection into private hospitals; and (iii) unmeasured hospital characteristics captured by hospital fixed effects. We find that the experience reported by patients in public and private hospitals is different, i.e. most dimensions of quality are delivered differently by the two types of hospitals, with each sector offering greater quality in certain specialties or to certain groups of patients. However, the sum of all ownership effects is not statistically different from zero at sample means. In other words, hospital ownership in and of itself does not affect the level of quality of the average patient's reported experience. Differences in mean reported quality levels between the private and public sectors are entirely attributable to patient characteristics, the selection of patients into public or private hospitals and unobserved characteristics specific to individual hospitals, rather than to hospital ownership. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields.

  17. The Personal Foundations of Political Tolerance towards Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we expand previous research on the psychological foundations of attitudes towards immigrants by evaluating the role of the Big Five personality traits with regard to the formation of political tolerance. Following the literature, we elaborate tolerance as a sequential concept...... of rejection and acceptance to uncover differentiating effects of personality on both immigrant-specific prejudices as well as on the assignment of the right to vote as a pivotal political privilege to this group. Using a representative sample of the Swiss population, with its distinctive history related...... to the immigration issue, our two-step Heckman selection models reveal that extroverts and people who score low in agreeableness exhibit negative attitudes towards immigrants. At the same time, only openness to experience is significantly connected to the likeliness of granting immigrants the right to vote....

  18. Socially anxious smokers experience greater negative affect and withdrawal during self-quit attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Langdon, Kirsten J; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers.

  19. The Adaptation of Intentional Immigrant Entrepreneurs: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue Cruickshank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes the experiences of a group of intentional immigrant entrepreneurs (IIEs who have successfully set up a business within three years of arrival in a new country. It shows how various forms of symbolic capital are successfully deployed at each stage of the entrepreneurial process and asserts that the study of intentional, well-resourced immigrants, can contribute to understanding immigrant entrepreneurs’ adaptation to their new settings and also inform immigration policy. Research Design & Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of New Zealand intentional immigrant entrepreneurs. The iterative analytical process used revealed the various dimensions of symbolic capital necessary for adaptation to the host country and to fulfilling visa requirements to gain residency. Findings: This paper demonstrates that the successful adaptation of IIEs, while in the first instance requiring adequate financial capital, also requires the strategic use of human, cultural and social capital, in different ways and at different times in the entrepreneurial process, to overcome the obstacles and barriers to success. Implications & Recommendations: As immigration policy makers seek to balance global migrant pressures and international obligations against internal national economic and political demands, the results of this study could resonate with both global policy analysts and scholars engaged in immigrant entrepreneurship. Contribution & Value Added: This article adds to the relatively small body of scholarship on IIEship, particularly those who, unlike the majority of immigrant entrepreneurs, do not establish a business within ethnic communities.

  20. Review of child maltreatment in immigrant and refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Annie; Hassan, Ghayda; Boivin, Mylène; Fraser, Sarah-Louise; Dufour, Sarah; Lavergne, Chantal

    2016-03-14

    Study results on child maltreatment based on general population samples cannot be extrapolated with confidence to vulnerable immigrant or refugee families because of the specific characteristics and needs of these families. The aims of this paper are 1) to conduct an evidence review of the prevalence, risk factors and protective factors for child maltreatment in immigrant and refugee populations, and 2) to integrate the evidence in an analytical ecosystemic framework that would guide future research. We used a 14-step process based on guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and the Canadian Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health. We searched major databases from "the oldest date available to July 2014". The eligibility criteria for paper selection included qualitative or quantitative methodologies; papers written in English or French; papers that describe, assess or review prevalence, risk and protection factors for child maltreatment; and a studied population of immigrants or refugees. Twenty-four articles met the criteria for eligibility. The results do not provide evidence that immigrant or refugee children are at higher risk of child maltreatment. However, recently settled immigrants and refugees experience specific risk factors related to their immigration status and to the challenges of settlement in a new country, which may result in high risk of maltreatment. Future research must incorporate more immigrant and refugee samples as well as examine, within an ecosystemic framework, the interaction between migratory and cultural factors with regard to the prevalence, consequences and treatment of child maltreatment for the targeted groups.

  1. Serial migration and its implications for the parent-child relationship: a retrospective analysis of the experiences of the children of Caribbean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea; Lalonde, Richard N; Johnson, Simone

    2004-05-01

    This study addressed the potential impact of serial migration for parent-children relationships and for children's psychological well-being. The experience of being separated from their parents during childhood and reunited with them at a later time was retrospectively examined for 48 individuals. A series of measures (e.g., self-esteem, parental identification) associated with appraisals at critical time periods during serial migration (separation, reunion, current) revealed that serial migration can potentially disrupt parent-child bonding and unfavorably affect children's self-esteem and behavior. Time did not appear to be wholly effective in repairing rifts in the parent-child relationship. Risk factors for less successful reunions included lengthy separations and the addition of new members to the family unit in the child's absence. (c) 2004 APA

  2. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  3. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  4. Non-response in a survey among immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Fridberg, Torben; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    The purpose of this paper is to study how various characteristics of respondents and interviewers affect non-response among immigrants. We use a survey conducted among immigrants in Denmark and ethnic Danes. First, we analyse the determinants of overall non-response. Second, we analyse how...... the determinants of contact and of response given contact differ. We find that characteristics of the respondents are important for the response rate – especially they are important for the probability of getting in contact with the respondent. The lower probability of response among immigrants compared to ethnic...

  5. Walking the Roads as Immigrant Mothers and Teacher Educators: A Collaborative Self-Study of Three Korean Immigrant Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Wee, Su-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Offering an analysis of our multifaceted experiences as three Korean immigrant early childhood teacher educators in the United States, this critical collaborative self-study examines how positions as immigrant mothers and teacher educators interplay with each other. This study also explores ways in which the intersectional experiences influence…

  6. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  7. The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant hispanics/latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Lawlor, Emma; Martinez, Omar; Sun, Christina J; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Reboussin, Beth A; Hall, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    We sought to understand how local immigration enforcement policies affect the utilization of health services among immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina. In 2012, we analyzed vital records data to determine whether local implementation of section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Secure Communities program, which authorizes local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration laws, affected the prenatal care utilization of Hispanics/Latinas. We also conducted 6 focus groups and 17 interviews with Hispanic/Latino persons across North Carolina to explore the impact of immigration policies on their utilization of health services. We found no significant differences in utilization of prenatal care before and after implementation of section 287(g), but we did find that, in individual-level analysis, Hispanic/Latina mothers sought prenatal care later and had inadequate care when compared with non-Hispanic/Latina mothers. Participants reported profound mistrust of health services, avoiding health services, and sacrificing their health and the health of their family members. Fear of immigration enforcement policies is generalized across counties. Interventions are needed to increase immigrant Hispanics/Latinos' understanding of their rights and eligibility to utilize health services. Policy-level initiatives are also needed (e.g., driver's licenses) to help undocumented persons access and utilize these services.

  8. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  9. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  10. Methods for interpreting lists of affected genes obtained in a DNA microarray experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedegaard Jakob

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to describe and compare the methods used and the results obtained by the participants in a joint EADGENE (European Animal Disease Genomic Network of Excellence and SABRE (Cutting Edge Genomics for Sustainable Animal Breeding workshop focusing on post analysis of microarray data. The participating groups were provided with identical lists of microarray probes, including test statistics for three different contrasts, and the normalised log-ratios for each array, to be used as the starting point for interpreting the affected probes. The data originated from a microarray experiment conducted to study the host reactions in broilers occurring shortly after a secondary challenge with either a homologous or heterologous species of Eimeria. Results Several conceptually different analytical approaches, using both commercial and public available software, were applied by the participating groups. The following tools were used: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, MAPPFinder, LIMMA, GOstats, GOEAST, GOTM, Globaltest, TopGO, ArrayUnlock, Pathway Studio, GIST and AnnotationDbi. The main focus of the approaches was to utilise the relation between probes/genes and their gene ontology and pathways to interpret the affected probes/genes. The lack of a well-annotated chicken genome did though limit the possibilities to fully explore the tools. The main results from these analyses showed that the biological interpretation is highly dependent on the statistical method used but that some common biological conclusions could be reached. Conclusion It is highly recommended to test different analytical methods on the same data set and compare the results to obtain a reliable biological interpretation of the affected genes in a DNA microarray experiment.

  11. Experience with a second language affects the use of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cho, Taehong; Kim, Sahyang; Martínez-García, Maria Teresa; Connell, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether listeners’ experience with a second language learned later in life affects their use of fundamental frequency (F0) as a cue to word boundaries in the segmentation of an artificial language (AL), particularly when the cues to word boundaries conflict between the first language (L1) and second language (L2). F0 signals phrase-final (and thus word-final) boundaries in French but word-initial boundaries in English. Participants were functionally monolingual French listeners, functionally monolingual English listeners, bilingual L1-English L2-French listeners, and bilingual L1-French L2-English listeners. They completed the AL-segmentation task with F0 signaling word-final boundaries or without prosodic cues to word boundaries (monolingual groups only). After listening to the AL, participants completed a forced-choice word-identification task in which the foils were either non-words or part-words. The results show that the monolingual French listeners, but not the monolingual English listeners, performed better in the presence of F0 cues than in the absence of such cues. Moreover, bilingual status modulated listeners’ use of F0 cues to word-final boundaries, with bilingual French listeners performing less accurately than monolingual French listeners on both word types but with bilingual English listeners performing more accurately than monolingual English listeners on non-words. These findings not only confirm that speech segmentation is modulated by the L1, but also newly demonstrate that listeners’ experience with the L2 (French or English) affects their use of F0 cues in speech segmentation. This suggests that listeners’ use of prosodic cues to word boundaries is adaptive and non-selective, and can change as a function of language experience. PMID:28738093

  12. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  13. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  14. Wanting to Maximize the Positive and Minimize the Negative: Implications for Mixed Affective Experience in American and Chinese Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H.; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared to Chinese. In this paper, we argue that these cultural differences are due to “ideal affect,” or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in two experience sampling studies conducted in the U.S. and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) television clip in the U.S. and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's mixed affective experience. PMID:26121525

  15. Wanting to maximize the positive and minimize the negative: implications for mixed affective experience in American and Chinese contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared with Chinese. In this article, we argue that these cultural differences are due to "ideal affect," or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in 2 experience sampling studies conducted in the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) TV clip in the United States and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's experiences of mixed affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Coming Out of the Shadows and the Closet: Visibility Schemas Among Undocuqueer Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Jesus; Bracho, Christian

    2018-01-16

    Centering the experiences of 31 undocuqueer immigrants, this study seeks to understand the ways that undocuqueer immigrants negotiate the boundaries of social performance by revealing or concealing their gender, sexuality, and immigration status. Findings of this study reveal how, in order to avoid the constant threat of rejection (both legal and social), undocuqueer immigrants engage visibility schemas and make strategic decisions about coming out of the shadows and the closet across different contexts. Undocuqueer immigrants' narratives reveal the ways the closet resembles the shadows in that both provide protection from the outside world, yet neither are considered suitable places for sustaining life. This study raises implications for both research and policy by considering how the intersection of gender, sexuality, and immigration status nullifies neoliberal narratives of coming out as an empowering process and illustrating the uneven landscapes of social acceptance and political control that undocuqueer immigrants must negotiate.

  17. Employers’ Openness to Labour Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Mikalauskiene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.

  18. A study on the perceptions of child welfare workers on the use of corporal punishment among immigrant and Norwegian families

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Nathalia Patricia Perez

    2016-01-01

    Erasmus Mundus Master’s Programme in Social Work with Families and Children The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of child welfare workers in regard to immigrant and non-immigrant families by using the concept of corporal punishment as a point of departure. There were three main questions and objectives that focused on exploring the expectations and approaches that child welfare workers have when working with immigrant and non-immigrant familie...

  19. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  20. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  1. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  2. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  3. Immigration policy index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  4. Gay Immigrants and Grindr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...

  5. Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  7. Affective experience and motivated behavior in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Evidence from clinical and nonclinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Simon S Y; Shi, Yan-Fang; Au, Angie C W; Li, Zhi; Tsui, Chi F; Chan, Constance K Y; Leung, Meranda M W; Wong, Peony T Y; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Heerey, Erin A; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to exhibit emotion-behavior decoupling, particularly with respect to anticipated, rather than experienced events. However, previous research has focused on how emotion valence translates into motivated behavior, ignoring the fact that emotion arousal should also modulate emotion-behavior coupling. Few studies have examined emotion-behavior coupling in prepsychotic conditions. This investigation aimed to examine the nature and extent of emotion valence- and arousal-behavior coupling across the schizophrenia spectrum. We examine how emotional valence and arousal couple with behavior in 3 groups of individuals (25 individuals with chronic schizophrenia; 27 individuals early in the disease course, and 31 individuals reporting negative schizotypal symptoms). Participants completed a task using slides to elicit emotion and evoke motivated behavior. We compared participants with their respective matched control groups to determine differences in the correspondence between self-reported emotion valence/arousal and motivated behavior. Both groups with schizophrenia reported similar affective experiences as their controls, whereas individuals reporting negative schizotypal symptoms showed "in-the-moment" anhedonia but not emotion-behavior decoupling. In addition, the schizophrenia groups' affective experiences corresponded less well to their behavior relative to controls. Our findings suggest emotion-behavior decoupling along both valence and arousal dimensions in schizophrenia but not in participants with high levels of schizotypal symptoms. Findings appear to support the idea that emotion-behavior decoupling differs in nature and extent across the schizophrenia spectrum. Interventions to recouple emotion and behavior may be particularly helpful in allowing people with schizophrenia to gain functional independence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  9. Immigrant community integration in world cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Fabio; Lenormand, Maxime; Salas-Olmedo, María Henar; Romanillos, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    As a consequence of the accelerated globalization process, today major cities all over the world are characterized by an increasing multiculturalism. The integration of immigrant communities may be affected by social polarization and spatial segregation. How are these dynamics evolving over time? To what extent the different policies launched to tackle these problems are working? These are critical questions traditionally addressed by studies based on surveys and census data. Such sources are safe to avoid spurious biases, but the data collection becomes an intensive and rather expensive work. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study on immigrant integration in 53 world cities by introducing an innovative approach: an analysis of the spatio-temporal communication patterns of immigrant and local communities based on language detection in Twitter and on novel metrics of spatial integration. We quantify the Power of Integration of cities –their capacity to spatially integrate diverse cultures– and characterize the relations between different cultures when acting as hosts or immigrants. PMID:29538383

  10. Immigrant community integration in world cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lamanna

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the accelerated globalization process, today major cities all over the world are characterized by an increasing multiculturalism. The integration of immigrant communities may be affected by social polarization and spatial segregation. How are these dynamics evolving over time? To what extent the different policies launched to tackle these problems are working? These are critical questions traditionally addressed by studies based on surveys and census data. Such sources are safe to avoid spurious biases, but the data collection becomes an intensive and rather expensive work. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study on immigrant integration in 53 world cities by introducing an innovative approach: an analysis of the spatio-temporal communication patterns of immigrant and local communities based on language detection in Twitter and on novel metrics of spatial integration. We quantify the Power of Integration of cities -their capacity to spatially integrate diverse cultures- and characterize the relations between different cultures when acting as hosts or immigrants.

  11. Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet

    2018-04-01

    Asylum seeking children arriving in Canada regularly face incarceration in medium-security-style immigration detention centres. Research demonstrates the human cost of detaining migrant children and families and the psychiatric burden linked with such imprisonment. This study aims to understand the lived experiences of children aged 3-13 held in detention. Informed by a qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry, child participants created worlds in the sand and generated stories to express their subjective experience. Results suggest that children's sandplay confirms the traumatic nature of immigration detention while also revealing children's sometimes conflicting understanding of the meaning of detention and their own migration. The results are contextualized by a description of detention conditions and the psychiatric symptoms associated with immigration incarceration. The study highlights the need for more research examining the impact of immigration detention on children's mental health, while also underlining how refugee children's voices provide important direction for policy change.

  12. Factors Affecting Optimal Surface Roughness of AISI 4140 Steel in Turning Operation Using Taguchi Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novareza, O.; Sulistiyarini, D. H.; Wiradmoko, R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the result of using Taguchi method in turning process of medium carbon steel of AISI 4140. The primary concern is to find the optimal surface roughness after turning process. The taguchi method is used to get a combination of factors and factor levels in order to get the optimum surface roughness level. Four important factors with three levels were used in experiment based on Taguchi method. A number of 27 experiments were carried out during the research and analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. The result of surface finish was determined in Ra type surface roughness. The depth of cut was found to be the most important factors for reducing the surface roughness of AISI 4140 steel. On the contrary, the other important factors i.e. spindle speed and rake side angle of the tool were proven to be less factors that affecting the surface finish. It is interesting to see the effect of coolant composition that gained the second important factors to reduce the roughness. It may need further research to explain this result.

  13. Cancer mortality among immigrant populations in Ontario, 1969 through 1973.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, A. M.; Spengler, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Ontario is home to a sizeable, recently established immigrant population whose cancer mortality has until now remained unexamined. The province's six largest immigrant groups (British, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish and Soviet) were investigated to compare their cancer mortality experience with that prevailing in Ontario and in their countries of birth for the period 1969 through 1973. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed from data from Statistics Canada and the World Health Org...

  14. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  15. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  16. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter; Diel, Roland; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Schoen, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  17. Communication and cultural issues in providing reproductive health care to immigrant women: health care providers' experiences in meeting the needs of [corrected] Somali women living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari; Essén, Birgitta; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-04-01

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  18. Self-rated health in Canadian immigrants: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Lynch, John; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2011-03-01

    Using a multi-level random effects logistic model, we examine the contribution of source country, individual characteristics and post-migration experiences to the self-rated health (SRH) of 2468 male and 2614 female immigrants from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2001-2005). Sex/gender differences were found for all categories of health determinants. Source country characteristics explained away some ethnic differentials in health and had independent negative effects, particularly among women. Thus, women from countries lower on the development index appear at greater risk of poor SRH, and should be at the forefront of public health programmes aimed at new immigrants in Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Immigrants or citizens: immigration policy in France and in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, J H

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of migrants and foreigners by a government can reveal not only the functioning of the political system but the philosophic values on which the system is founded. This article compares French and American immigration policy and explores the extent to which French immigration policy is more "statist" or Jacobin while American immigration policy is more "liberal" or pluralist. Immigration is an explosive problem for all democratic governments. 4 questions are involved, that of the sovereignty of the state over its citizens; that of citizenship, not only regarding the juridical definition of citizen but also assimilation, ethnicity, race, and political socialization; that of employment, which has been the most important determinant of migration policies in the industrialized countries after World War II; and that of humanitarian considerations, which have become more significant in the 1980s. Comparison of immigration policies must focus on issues of citizenship and employment and on humanitarian aspects. France and the US have had more difficulty in formulating and applying migration policies with national objectives than have any of the other liberal democracies. This work seeks to explain this similarity as well as divergences in the migration policies of France and the US by examining: 1) institutional differences between the 2 political systems and how they affect the state's capacity to control immigration; 2) the way in which the political and juridical culture influence relationships between problems of citizenship and use of foreign manpower; and 3) immigration policies as they have been applied in the 2 countries in the postwar period. The entire issue of immigration has become more politicized in France than in the US, partly because of the statist and administrative approach to it in France. The federal nature of the US political system, the stability of the party system, and the pluralist approach to legislation have fragmented the issue of

  20. Immigration, Language Proficiency, and Autobiographical Memories: Lifespan Distribution and Second-Language Access

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the num...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  2. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  3. Portrayal of Immigrants in Newsmagazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldberger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.

  4. Integration of Low-Skilled Immigrants to the United-States and Work-Family Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Magali

    2012-01-01

    The role played by immigrants in the American economy is well documented and, to a lesser extent, the effect of the migration experience on the families of immigrants. However, little is known of the connections between work and family when it comes to immigrants, especially immigrants in low-skilled jobs, whether it is the effect of labour market experiences on the family or the effect of family patterns on integration into the labour market. Yet, the issue of balancing personal life with pr...

  5. Language and Psychological Dimensions: The Inner World of the Immigrant Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, Cristina

    To help immigrant children succeed academically, the teacher must seek to ease the pain of the uprooting experience and find ways to awaken the power within the children to help themselves. This paper describes teaching experiences that led one teacher to understand immigrant children's psychology and the interventions necessary for giving self…

  6. Wicked Problems Forum: Immigration and Higher Education. Contours of a Storied Decolonial Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Devika

    2018-01-01

    The author recounts her experiences as a South Asian-immigrant teaching public-speaking classes at an American higher education institution. In this paper, she illustrates how she puts to use her immigrant experience by accessing a storytelling mode of teaching and learning rooted in a postcolonial ethos. She humanizes, demystifies, and strives to…

  7. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  8. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  9. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S

    2012-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.

  10. Evaluation of factors that affect rutting resistance of asphalt mixes by orthogonal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutting has been one of the major distresses observed on asphalt pavement in China, due to increasing traffic volume, heavy axle load, continuous hot weather, etc., especially in long-steep-slope section, bus stops, etc. Many factors would affect rutting resistance of asphalt pavement, including material properties, climatic condition, traffic volumes, speed, and axle types, and construction quality.The orthogonal experimental design method was used in this study to reduce the number of tests required, without comprising the validity of the test results. The testing variables and their levels were selected according to investigations and field test results. Effects of various factors on asphalt pavement rutting performance were evaluated, including the asphalt binders, mixture type (aggregate gradation, axle load, vehicle speed and temperature.In this study, the wheel tracking test was used to evaluate rutting performance, as represented by the parameter Dynamic Stability (DS, of the various asphalt mixes. Test results were analyzed using range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. All four factors evaluated in this study had significant effects on pavement rutting performance. The ranking of the significance was asphalt mixture type, temperature, loading frequency, and tire-pavement contact pressure. Asphalt mixture type was the most important factor that affects rutting resistance. Within the asphalt mixtures, asphalt binder had significant effects on rutting performance of mixes more than aggregate gradation. Rutting resistance of SBS modified asphalt mixes was significantly better than neat asphalt mixes, and skeleton dense structure mixes were better than suspended dense structure mixes. Keywords: Asphalt mixes, Rutting resistance, Effect factor, Orthogonal experiment design

  11. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  13. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Diel, Roland; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among refugees in 2015 was low (0.103%). • The number needed to screen to detect one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening resulted in a low sensitivity and high specificity. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening during the European refugee crisis is of low yield. • Improved screening algorithms are needed due to the overwhelming the number of refugees.

  14. [Categories of immigrants and "levels of immigration" in Canada: a voluntarist policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, F

    1986-11-01

    Because Canada has no terrestrial border other than that with the US, the potential for significant uncontrolled migration is low and the country is able to implement a selective and relatively voluntarist immigration policy. The government prepares an annual report indicating the number of immigrants to be admitted and the demographic considerations used to arrive at the number. Immigrants are classified as familial, humanitarian, or economic, and each category has its own selection criteria designed to determine the capacity of the candidate to become successfully established in Canada. Canadian immigration authorities have very wide latitude in interpreting selection criteria and evaluating candidates. Family members can seek entry if they will be sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident at least 18 years old who is judged able to do so by an immigration agent. Humanitarian immigration includes refugees, "voluntary exiles" from Eastern European countries excluding Yugoslavia, "Indochinese", and "political prisoners and oppressed persons" from Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Uruguay, and Poland. Special arrangements sometimes made in emergencies have benefitted Haitians, Italian earthquake victims, unaccompanied Indochinese minors, Iranian Bahais, and others. The category of "economic immigrants" includes independent, unsponsored individuals who wish to establish themselves in Canada to exercise a profession. Such candidates are awarded points for educational level, specific professional preparation, experience, need for workers in their profession, age, knowledge of English or French, and other factors, but the immigration agent can disregard the points if in his opinion they do not accurately reflect the candidate's chances of establishing himself successfully in Canada. Various categories of workers have slightly different admissions criteria: retired persons, businessmen and investers, and other workers. The order of priority for consideration of

  15. The first OSCE; does students' experience of performing in public affect their results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael; Bax, Nigel; Woodley, Caroline; Jennings, Michael; Nicolson, Rod; Chan, Philip

    2015-03-26

    Personal qualities have been shown to affect students' exam results. We studied the effect of experience, and level, of public performance in music, drama, dance, sport, and debate at the time of admission to medical school as a predictor of student achievement in their first objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A single medical school cohort (n = 265) sitting their first clinical exam in 2011 as third year students were studied. Pre-admission statements made at the time of application were coded for their stated achievements in the level of public performance; participation in each activity was scored 0-3, where 0 was no record, 1 = leisure time activity, 2 = activity at school or local level, 3 = activity at district, regional or national level. These scores were correlated to OSCE results by linear regression and t-test. Comparison was made between the highest scoring students in each area, and students scoring zero by t-test. There was a bell shaped distribution in public performance score in this cohort. There was no significant linear regression relationship between OSCE results and overall performance score, or between any subgroups. There was a significant difference between students with high scores in theatre, debate and vocal music areas, grouped together as verbal performance, and students scoring zero in these areas. (p < 0.05, t-test) with an effect size of 0.4. We found modest effects from pre-admission experience of verbal performance on students' scores in the OSCE examination. As these data are taken from students' admission statements, we call into question the received wisdom that such statements are unreliable.

  16. Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G.; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. Methods: We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. Results: The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Interpretation: Systematic inquiry into patients’ migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally

  17. Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Narasiah, Lavanya; Munoz, Marie; Rashid, Meb; Ryder, Andrew G; Guzder, Jaswant; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Pottie, Kevin

    2011-09-06

    Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care. We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health. The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations. Systematic inquiry into patients' migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally appropriate indicators of social, vocational and

  18. Attitudes of the Citizens of the Central Part of Serbia towards the Influence of Immigrants on Local Culture and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vesković Anđelković

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing number of immigrants arriving to Serbia from various places ever since the end of the last century. It is primarily a forced displaced population from war affected territories in the 1990s who have still been living in Serbia even two decades after completion of the conflict and the relative normalization of relations. Furthermore, the number of asylum seekers and irregular migrants has also enormously increased. Since demographic forecasts and experiences of other former socialistic countries show that migration transition towards immigration is to be expected in the coming decades, especially with the formal EU membership, it seems there is a need for greater visibilisation of this phenomenon in order to be adequately prepared to face these challenges. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the geopolitical position of Serbia and lay down the long-term prospects regarding immigration as well as to shed light on the attitudes of Serbian citizens towards immigrants, especially when it comes to their influence on the local culture, customs and everyday life. The data presented and analysed were collected by field survey research carried out by the Institute for Sociological Research of the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade in 2013. Besides analysing attitudes of the local population concerning the influence of refugees, the authors also examine their opinion on the foreigners’ impact on culture and everyday life in local communities.

  19. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  20. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  1. Evidence from the 1920s U.S.Immigration Quota Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm

    2017-01-01

    in population growth in areas with larger pre-existing immigrant communities of affected nationalities. This effect was largely driven by the policy-restricted supply of immigrants from quota-affected nationalities and lower fertility of first- and second-generation immigrant women. In the more affected areas...... labor productivity growth in manufacturing declined substantially and native workers were pushed into lower-wage occupations. While native white workers faced sizable earnings losses, black workers benefited from the quota system and improved their relative economic status within the more affected areas....

  2. Fournier’s gangrene: our experience with 50 patients and analysis of factors affecting mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and perineum. Case series have shown a mortality rate of 20% to 40% with an incidence of as high as 88% in some reports. In this study we aimed to share our experience in the management of Fournier’s gangrene and to identify risk factors that affect mortality. Methods The medical records of 50 patients with Fournier’s gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez from January 2003 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk factors and prognostic indicators of mortality. Results Ten males and five females were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 54 years (range 23–81). The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (34%). E. coli was the most frequent bacterial organisms cultured. All patients were treated with a common approach of resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and wide surgical excision. The mortality rate was 24%. The advanced age, renal failure on admission, extension of infection to the abdominal wall, occurrence of septic shock and need for postoperative mechanical ventilation are the main prognostic factors of mortality. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables is an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusions Fournier’s gangrene is still a very severe disease with high mortality rates. Early recognition of infection associated with invasive and aggressive treatment is essential for attempting to reduce these prognostic indices. PMID:23547796

  3. The Social and Spatial Patterning of Life Stress Among Immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Palacios, Elmer Lara

    2017-06-01

    While much literature has examined immigrants' health in Canada, less attention has focused specifically on the life stress, an important yet understudied post-migration challenge which may lead to poor coping strategies and negative health consequences. For this study, the pooled 2009-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) was analyzed, using multilevel logistic regression to examine the compositional effects (at an individual level) and areal effects (at a CMA/CA level) on reported high life stress. Separate models have been run for immigrants and non-immigrants for comparative purposes. The results reveal different ways in which select individual socioeconomic and lifestyle factors affect life stress. A statistically significant yet small areal effect at the CMA/CA level on life stress was identified for both immigrants and non-immigrants. When comparing immigrants to non-immigrants, factors such as smoking, length of residency in Canada, and mental health status were found to be particularly informative for predicting high life stress among immigrants. A Healthy Immigrant Effect (HIE) is partially evident, as immigrants with a longer stay in Canada are more likely to be highly stressed than recent arrivals. The areal effect on variances in high life stress is minimal, suggesting the importance of focusing on individual-level effects as stress predictors.

  4. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  5. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...

  6. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  7. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  8. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  9. Construction and preliminary validation of the Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Qureshi, Adil; Antonin, Montserrat; Collazos, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    In the study of mental health and migration, an increasing number of researchers have shifted the focus away from the concept of acculturation towards the stress present in the migratory experience. The bulk of research on acculturative stress has been carried out in the United States, and thus the definition and measurement of the construct has been predicated on that cultural and demographic context, which is of dubious applicability in Europe in general, and Spain in particular. Further, some scales have focused on international students, which down-played the importance of the migratory process, because it deals with a special subset of people who are not formally immigrating. The Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale was developed to measure acculturative stress appropriate to immigrants in Spain, using expert and focus group review and has 42 items. The scale shows acceptable internal validity, and, consistent with other scales, suggests that immigration stress is a complex construct.

  10. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  12. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  13. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  14. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lauter

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...

  15. Clinical observations of a Cantonese cognitive-behavioral treatment program for Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Edward K; Alden, Lynn E; Söchting, Ingrid; Tsang, Pheobe

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe our clinical observations about the process of delivering a Cantonese-language cognitive- behavioral therapy program to treat depression in Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver, Canada. Our experiences indicated that standard referral and assessment procedures were not optimal for this population. Other factors that required consideration were how to convert Cantonese terms for dysphoric affect into English equivalents and how to implement cognitive modification strategies when dealing with culture-syntonic beliefs about social relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Grassroots responsiveness to human rights abuse: history of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials.

  17. National Identification, Endorsement of Acculturation Ideologies and Prejudice: The Impact of the Perceived Threat of Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Badea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the perceived threat of immigration affects the links between national identification, endorsement of assimilation or multiculturalism, and prejudice against immigrants in France. One hundred thirty-five French undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring these factors. Path analysis showed that higher national identification increased perception of immigrants as a threat, which in turn predicted increased endorsement of assimilation for immigrants. The link between endorsement of assimilation and prejudice was not significant. In contrast, lower national identification decreased perception of immigrants as a threat and, in turn, increased endorsement of multiculturalism and reduced levels of prejudice. An alternative model specifying perception of threat as an outcome of preferences for multiculturalism or assimilation did not fit the data well. Results suggest that perceived threat from immigration is the key factor that guides the preferences of the majority group for acculturation ideologies and, through these preferences, shapes intergroup attitudes.

  18. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Incidence of Schizophrenia Among Second-Generation Immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased incidence of schizophrenia is observed among some immigrant groups in Europe, with the offspring of immigrants, ie “second-generation” immigrants particularly vulnerable. Few contemporary studies have evaluated the risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in other parts of the world. Methods: We studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to parental immigrant status in a population-based cohort of 88 829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964–1976. Parental countries of birth were obtained from birth certificates and grouped together as (1) Israel, (2) Other West Asia, (3) North Africa, and (4) Europe and industrialized countries. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents’ ages, maternal education, social class, and birth order. Results: Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. Incidence of schizophrenia was not increased among second-generation immigrants in this birth cohort, neither overall nor by specific group. Conclusions: The difference in risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in Europe and in this Israeli birth cohort suggests that the nature of the immigration experience may be relevant to risk, including reasons for migration, the nature of entry, and subsequent position in the host country for immigrants and their offspring. Minority status may be of importance as, in later studies, immigrants to Israel from Ethiopia had increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:18648022

  20. Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical information. This paper investigates a hybrid memory and random immigrants scheme, called memory-based immigrants, and a hybrid elitism and random immigrants scheme, called elitism-based immigrants, for genetic algorithms in dynamic environments. In these schemes, the best individual from memory or the elite from the previous generation is retrieved as the base to create immigrants into the population by mutation. This way, not only can diversity be maintained but it is done more efficiently to adapt genetic algorithms to the current environment. Based on a series of systematically constructed dynamic problems, experiments are carried out to compare genetic algorithms with the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes against genetic algorithms with traditional memory and random immigrants schemes and a hybrid memory and multi-population scheme. The sensitivity analysis regarding some key parameters is also carried out. Experimental results show that the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes efficiently improve the performance of genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.

  1. Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language

  2. Host country patriotism among European immigrants : A comparative study into its individual and societal roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; Wright, M.

    2014-01-01

    While research has traditionally focused on first- and second-generation immigrants' socio-economic incorporation and to a lesser extent on their cultural and political integration, we analyse their affective attachment to the host country. Specifically, we assess: (1) the extent to which immigrants

  3. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  4. Life history affects how species experience succession in pen shell metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    In nature, very few species are common and broadly distributed. Most species are rare and occupy few sites; this pattern is ubiquitous across habitats and taxa. In spatially structured communities (metacommunities), regional distribution and local abundance may change as the relative effects of within-habitat processes (e.g., species interactions) and among-habitat processes (e.g., dispersal) may vary through succession. A field experiment with the marine benthic inhabitants of pen shells (Atrina rigida) tested how common and rare species respond to succession and metacommunity size. I followed community development through time and partitioned species into sessile and motile based on their natural history. Rare species drive diversity patterns and are influenced by metacommunity size: there are strong abundance-distribution differences between common and rare species in large metacommunities, but motile species show lower rates of change than sessile species. In small metacommunities both common and rare species have similar changes through time; the dichotomous distinction of common and rare species is not present. Edge effects in metacommunities affect species' changes in distribution and abundance. In large metacommunities diversity is higher in edge habitats relative to small metacommunities during early succession. However, edge effects benefit motile species over time in small metacommunities showing a rapid increase in diversity. Individual mobility is sensitive to regional community size and allows individuals to sort among different communities. In contrast, sessile species do not show this edge effect. Metacommunity theory is a useful framework for understanding spatially structured communities, but the natural history of coexisting species cannot be ignored.

  5. Immigration and Firm Performance: a city-level approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Teruel Carrizosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the effect of immigration flows on the growthand efficiency of manufacturing firms in Spanish cities. While most studies werefocusing on the effect immigrants have on labour markets at an aggregate level,here, we argue that the impact of immigration on firm performance should not onlybe considered in terms of the labour market, but also in terms of how city’s amenitiescan affect the performance of firms. Implementing a panel data methodology,we show that the immigrants’ increasing pressure has a positive effect on labourproductivity and wages and a negative effect on the job evolution of these manufacturingfirms. In addition, both small and new firms are more sensitive to thepressures of immigrant inflow, while foreign market oriented firms report higherproductivity levels and a less marked impact of immigration than their counterparts.We also present a set of instruments to control for endogeneity. It allows us toconfirm the effect of local immigration flows on the performance of manufacturingfirms.

  6. The Role of Acculturation in the Civic Engagement of Latino Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Michele Tucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite continued growth and dispersion of the Latino immigrant population in the United States, the lingering effects of a sluggish national economy and growing anti-immigrant sentiments have contributed to ongoing marginalization and exclusion, further hindering their participation in American civic life. Despite these challenges, Latino immigrants have remained engaged, yet the factors and processes that facilitate participation in American society remain poorly understood. Data from the Latino National Survey and focus groups with Latino immigrants were used to examine how variations in levels of acculturation, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, and characteristics of the immigrant experience influence the civic engagement of Latino immigrants in American society. We found that citizenship, length of residence in the United States, and higher SES enhanced civic engagement, while brown skin color, migration for economic reasons, and Mexican ancestry decreased participation. The level of acculturation significantly moderated the effects of these contextual factors.

  7. The Specifics of Post-War Canadian Immigration Policy (1945–1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Burtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration plays a significant role in various areas of the society’s life and the international policy. Investigating the Canadian experience of immigration is one of the major elements for understanding different aspects of actual mass relocation. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the specifics of Canadian immigration policy following the Second World War. The research is based on analyzing legislation regulations that established Canadian immigration policy from 1945 to 1957. The findings indicated that there were multilateral causes for the after-war immigration changes. And that in reality, Canadian immigration policy in the post-war decade was quite ambiguous because of enacting liberal and discriminatory legislation at the same time.

  8. IMMIGRANT WOMEN: BODY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lázaro-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of women in contemporary migration has broken with the course and social representation of the organization and implementation of international migration projects are predominantly male (Pedone, 2008. The growing presence of women has inspired a large number of studies have focused on immigrant women and their relationship to the labor market, changes in social structure and family and gender systems in both societies of origin and the destination. However, the literature takes as a center for immigrant women and their relationship to emotions and body are relatively recent, the most important contributions are found in disciplines such as anthropology or psychology. The transnational perspective little has reflected on the physical and mental health, emotions and subjectivities of women, resulting from their migration experience. From a socio-anthropological point of view of immigrants and bring their own notions of subjectivity related to gender, race or social class, do not always coincide with those in the host country. We suspect that the same applies to perception, practices and experiences on the body and emotions of women.

  9. Films, Affective Computing and Aesthetic Experience: Identifying Emotional and Aesthetic Highlights from Multimodal Signals in a Social Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kostoulas, Theodoros; Chanel, Guillaume; Muszynski, Michal; Lombardo, Patrizia; Pun, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, affective computing has been strengthening its ties with the humanities, exploring and building understanding of people’s responses to specific artistic multimedia stimuli. “Aesthetic experience” is acknowledged to be the subjective part of some artistic exposure, namely, the inner affective state of a person exposed to some artistic object. In this work, we describe ongoing research activities for studying the aesthetic experience of people when exposed to movie artistic...

  10. Historia de un extranjero: Vivencias de un inmigrante rifeño sin papeles A foreigner’s story: Experiences of a rifian immigrant without papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jesús Plaza-del Pino

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La globalización económica está provocando que decenas de miles de personas se vean forzadas a salir de sus países huyendo de la pobreza extrema. Se juegan la vida buscando vivir con dignidad. Los extranjeros residentes en España representan el ocho por ciento de la población. En Andalucía conviven con los andaluces unos 420.000. En la provincia de Almería hay unos 50.000 extranjeros afiliados a la Seguridad Social y se calcula que otros 40.000 no tienen permiso de residencia. Almería es elegida por miles de inmigrantes como puerta de entrada al "mundo rico". En la provincia de Almería más de un 60% proceden de Marruecos. Movernos con grandes números, estadísticas, puede hacer que nos olvidemos que cada una de estas cifras la conforman historias personales únicas. A través de la historia de vida de uno de ellos pretendemos acercarnos a una de esas realidades para intentar entender sus sensaciones y sus sentimientos. Esta es la historia de un extranjero, como otras muchas historias de otros muchos extranjeros, historia de una persona que, como otras muchas personas, nació en otro lugar y viene a nuestra tierra con sus ilusiones, sus sueños y sus esperanzas. Es la historia de un rifeño que, tras varios intentos, consiguió llegar a nuestras costas hace dos años.Economic globalization is causing tens of thousands of people to be forced to leave their countries to escape extreme poverty. They risk their lives in pursuit of a dignified way of life. Foreign residents in Spain make up eight per cent of the population. In Andalusia about 420,000 of them coexist with the Andalusian people. In the province of Almería there are about 50,000 foreigners on the files of the Social Security and it is estimated that there are another 40,000 who do not have residency permits. Almería is chosen by thousands of immigrants as the gate of entry to the ‘rich world’. In the province of Almería over 60% of these come from Morocco. Using such

  11. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  12. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  13. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…

  14. Which daily experiences can foster well-being at work? A diary study on the interplay between flow experiences, affective commitment, and self-control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Wladislaw; Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has provided strong evidence for affective commitment as a direct predictor of employees' psychological well-being and as a resource that buffers the adverse effects of self-control demands as a stressor. However, the mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of affective commitment have not been examined yet. Drawing on the self-determination theory, we propose day-specific flow experiences as the mechanism that underlies the beneficial effects of affective commitment, because flow experiences as peaks of intrinsic motivation constitute manifestations of autonomous regulation. In a diary study covering 10 working days with N = 90 employees, we examine day-specific flow experiences as a mediator of the beneficial effects of interindividual affective commitment and a buffering moderator of the adverse day-specific effects of self-control demands on indicators of well-being (ego depletion, need for recovery, work engagement, and subjective vitality). Our results provide strong support for our predictions that day-specific flow experiences a) mediate the beneficial effects of affective commitment on employees' day-specific well-being and b) moderate (buffer) the adverse day-specific effects of self-control demands on well-being. That is, on days with high levels of flow experiences, employees were better able to cope with self-control demands whereas self-control demands translated into impaired well-being when employees experienced lower levels of day-specific flow experiences. We then discuss our findings and suggest practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Irene D; Swartz, Rebecca H; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2016-05-01

    Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for emergent themes using NVivo. Five factors were found to impact primary care access and use: lack of social contacts, lack of universal healthcare coverage during their initial arrival, language as a barrier, treatment preferences, and geographic distance to primary care. Overall findings suggest that immigrants moving to smaller areas such as the Niagara Region face similar barriers to primary care as those moving into large cities. Some barriers, however, appear to be specific to the context of smaller urban centres, further exacerbated by living in a small city due to a smaller immigrant population, fewer services for immigrants, and less diversity in practicing physicians. More research is required to understand the contextual factors inhibiting primary care access and use among immigrants moving to smaller urban centres, and determine effective strategies to overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Globalization and the cultural safety of an immigrant Muslim community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cynthia

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.

  17. Effects of individual immigrant attitudes and host culture attitudes on doctor-immigrant patient relationships and communication in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittal, Amanda; Rosenberg, Ellen

    2015-10-29

    In many countries doctors are seeing an increasing amount of immigrant patients. The communication and relationship between such groups often needs to be improved, with the crucial factor potentially being the basic attitudes (acculturation orientations) of the doctors and patients. This study therefore explores how acculturation orientations of Canadian doctors and immigrant patients impact the doctor-patient relationship. N = 10 participants (five doctors, five patients) participated in acculturation orientation surveys, video recordings of a regular clinic visit, and semi structured interviews with each person. Acculturation orientations were calculated using the Euclidean distance method, video recordings were analyzed according to the Verona Coding System, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Interviews were used to explain and interpret the behaviours observed in the video recordings. The combined acculturation orientations of each the doctor and immigrant patient played a role in the doctor-patient relationship, although different combinations than expected produced working relationships. Video recordings and interviews revealed that these particular immigrant patients were open to adapting to their new society, and that the doctors were generally accepting of the immigrants' previous culture. This produced a common level of understanding from which the relationship could work effectively. A good relationship and level of communication between doctors and immigrant patients may have its foundation in acculturation orientations, which may affect the quality of care, health behaviours and quality of life of the immigrant. The implications of these findings are more significant when considering effective interventions to improve the quality of doctor-patient relationships, which should have a solid foundational framework. Our research suggests that interventions based on understanding the influence of acculturation orientations could

  18. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  19. [Barriers in the attendance of health care interventions by immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, I; Hölzel, L P; Kriston, L; Härter, M

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of barriers regarding attendance at the health care system under consideration of cultural and migration-related factors. Cross-sectional survey with immigrants from Turkey (n = 77), Spain (n = 67), Italy (n = 95) and German resettlers from the former Soviet Union (n = 196), recruited on migration and addiction services of the German Caritasverband, the Arbeiterwohlfahrt and migrant organizations. Spanish and Italian immigrants mainly search for help within their families and social environment. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union use home remedies and experience more linguistic difficulties as barriers for the use of health services, just like Turkish immigrants. Turkish immigrants reported feeling misunderstood regarding their cultural peculiarities by the expert staff as another main barrier. Other major influencing factors were German language proficiency and the subjective wellbeing in Germany. The consideration of cultural-related as well as linguistic factors in health care services is an essential contribution for improving health care of immigrants.

  20. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  1. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  2. How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Nadine; Wranke, Christina; Hamburger, Kai; Knauff, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental studies show that emotions can have a significant effect on the way we think, decide, and solve problems. This paper presents a series of four experiments on how emotions affect logical reasoning. In two experiments different groups of participants first had to pass a manipulated intelligence test. Their emotional state was altered by giving them feedback, that they performed excellent, poor or on average. Then they completed a set of logical inference problems (with if p,...

  3. An Experience Sampling Study of Learning, Affect, and the Demands Control Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Boocock, Grahame; Glover, Jane; Hartley, Ruth; Holland, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The demands control support model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990) indicates that job control and social support enable workers to engage in problem solving. In turn, problem solving is thought to influence learning and well-being (e.g., anxious affect, activated pleasant affect). Two samples (N = 78, N = 106) provided data up to 4 times per…

  4. An Art Therapy Exploration of Immigration with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linesch, Debra; Aceves, Hilda C.; Quezada, Paul; Trochez, Melissa; Zuniga, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory study utilized art therapy techniques to explore the experiences of 8 Latino families that had immigrated to the United States. Focus group facilitators invited the parents and adolescent children in the families to share their acculturation experiences verbally and in family drawings. Emergent themes from each of three focus…

  5. "My Home and My School": Examining Immigrant Adolescent Narratives from the Critical Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Privileging the voices of 12 recent Chinese immigrant adolescents, this multiple-case narrative study examined their home and school experiences from the critical sociocultural perspective. The adolescent stories about home testified to the significant influence of immigrant poverty, parental sacrificial altruism, and disciplinary Chinese…

  6. Undermatched? School-Based Linguistic Status, College Going, and the Immigrant Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Humphries, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research investigates the immigrant advantage--the academic benefit first- and second-generation students experience relative to native-born peers. However, little work examines how school-based linguistic status may influence this advantage. Contradictory patterns exist: Research identifies both an immigrant advantage and a language…

  7. Learning to "Fit In": The Emotional Work of Chinese Immigrants in Canadian Engineering Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore the emotion learning experiences of some Chinese immigrants in Canadian engineering workplaces. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on life history style interviews with 14 Chinese immigrant engineers and 14 key informant interviews. Findings: Research respondents constructed a competitive, masculine,…

  8. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  9. "Las Siete Historias": Perceptions of Parent Involvement among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Duckwitz, Claire M.; Hess, Robyn S.; Atcherly, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple case study examined parent involvement perspectives among seven immigrant mothers from Mexico. All the participants came from limited educational and socioeconomic backgrounds, and reported that they immigrated to the United States for greater opportunity. These background experiences seemed to shape their current role…

  10. A Gay Immigrant Student's Perspective: Unspeakable Acts in the Language Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a subset of the student cohort that has, until recently, been largely hidden from view in the literature of language education: gay immigrants. Little is known about what sorts of classroom experiences gay immigrant students find engaging or alienating, or why this sort of knowledge is needed. This case study uses interview…

  11. Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs’ involvement in internationalization and innovation: Three Canadian cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Vissak, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    that these immigrants’ experience of doing business in China and Canada, their network relationships and knowledge of these markets quickened their firms’ internationalization considerably. Moreover, these firms became active in product or service innovation as the case immigrants also involved other immigrants...

  12. Immigrant Voices: Pursuing an American Dream = Voces de inmigrantes: En busca de un sueno americano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira Costa Coll., Oceanside, CA.

    Dedicated to the 1.6 million Californians newly legalized under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, this booklet summarizes interviews with 148 immigrants conducted as part of the Amnesty Education Outreach Project. The interviews included the following topics: why they came, their educational experiences, changes in their lives, their…

  13. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  14. Listen to my Picture: Art as a Survival Tool for Immigrant and Refugee Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunick, Lisa Lefler

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the social, emotional, and psychological needs of immigrant and refugee students and the use of art forms to communicate their feelings. Summarizes the identity crisis that immigrants and refugees experience. Considers art education as a helpful intervention. Discusses the characteristics of children's artwork and the art teacher's role.…

  15. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  16. Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.

  17. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...

  20. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…