WorldWideScience

Sample records for immersion red light

  1. Evaluation of red blood cell stability during immersion blood warming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The practice of warming blood for transfusion by immersion into a waterbath has been investigated. Objective: To find the maximum waterbath temperature at which blood can be heated effectively without effecting the red blood cell functional and structural integrity. Method: Blood, three days after donation ...

  2. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  3. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  4. Combined effects of blue light and supplemental far-red light and effects of increasing red light with constant far-red light on growth of kidney bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] under mixtures of narrow-band light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Shoji, K.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing blue light and decreasing R: FR with supplementary far-red light affect morphogenesis, dry matter production and dry matter partitioning to leaves, stems and roots. In this study, the combined effects of the two spectral treatments were examined in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under the mixture of four different narrow-band light sources. In addition, because the leaf and stem growth are accelerated by increasing red light (600-700 nm) in proportion to far-red light (700-800 nm) while keeping R : FR constant, this study was conducted to determine whether red light or far-red light causes the acceleration of growth. Increasing blue light (400-500 nm) and decreasing R : FR only interacted on stem extension. The results illustrated with figures suggest that blue light amplifies or attenuates the acceleration of stem extension caused by decreasing R : FR. On the other hand, increasing red light with constant far-red light had no influence on leaf expansion or stem extension while R : FR increased. Because the acceleration of leaf and stem growth is caused by increasing either far-red light or both red and far-red light in our environmental conditions, the stimulative effects on leaves and stems seem to require increases in far-red light rather than red light

  5. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  6. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  7. Light-absorbent liquid immersion angled exposure for patterning 3D samples with vertical sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Kubo, Hironori; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    To make photolithography patterns on 3D samples, the angled (inclined) exposure technique has been used so far. However, technological issues have emerged in making photolithography patterns on the surface of trench structures. The surface of the trench structures can be covered with a photoresist film by spray-coating but the photoresist film deposited on the sidewalls and bottom of the trench is generally thin. The thin photoresist film deposited inside the trench has been easily overdosed. Moreover, irregular patterns have frequently been formed by the light reflected inside the trench. In this study, we have developed liquid immersion photolithography using a light-absorbent material. The light-reflection inside the trench was suppressed. Various patterns were transferred in the photoresist film deposited on the trench structures which had an aspect ratio of 0.74. Compared to immersion photolithography using pure water under p -polarization light control, the light-absorbent liquid immersion photolithography developed here patterned well the surfaces of the trench sidewalls and bottom. (paper)

  8. Interactions between red light, abscisic acid, and calcium in gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A. C.; LaFavre, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of red light on orthogravitropism of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots has been attributed to its effects on the transduction phase of gravitropism (AC Leopold, SH Wettlaufer [1988] Plant Physiol 87:803-805). In an effort to characterize the orthogravitropic transduction system, comparative experiments have been carried out on the effects of red light, calcium, and abscisic acid (ABA). The red light effect can be completely satisfied with added ABA (100 micromolar) or with osmotic shock, which is presumed to increase endogenous ABA. The decay of the red light effect is closely paralleled by the decay of the ABA effect. ABA and exogenous calcium show strong additive effects when applied to either Merit or a line of corn which does not require red light for orthogravitropism. Measurements of the ABA content show marked increases in endogenous ABA in the growing region of the roots after red light. The interpretation is offered that red light or ABA may serve to increase the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium, and that this may be an integral part of orthogravitropic transduction.

  9. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  10. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.; van Melis, A.; Silva, C.I.F.; Leal, M.C.; Vogels, L.; Mutter, C.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced

  11. Drinking and driving behavior at stop signs and red lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingyan; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Yiqi; Houston, Rebecca J; Chen, Chang Wen; Chanawangsa, Panya

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose. Results suggested that alcohol impaired the driver control of speed and direction and prolonged their simple and complex reaction time, which were exhibited by impaired speed and lateral control, longer reaction time when the lights turned yellow, and lower deceleration towards stop signs and red lights. Visual degradation may also occur under alcohol intake. It was also suggested that alcohol impaired non-binge drinkers more severely. To be specific, higher acceleration was observed in impaired non-binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Instense red phosphors for UV light emitting diode devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fa-Bin; Tian, Yan-Wen; Chen, Yong-Jie; Xiao, Lin-Jiu; Liu, Yun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Ca(x)Sr1-x-1.5y-0.5zMoO4:yEu3+ zNa+ red phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction using Na+ as charge supply for LEDs (light emitting diodes). The content of charge compensator, Ca2+ concentration, synthesis temperature, reaction time, and Eu3+ concentration were the keys to improving the properties of luminescence and crystal structure of red phosphors. The photoluminescence spectra shows the red phosphors are effectively excited at 616 nm by 311 nm, 395 nm, and 465 nm light. The wavelengths of 395 and 465 nm nicely match the widely applied emission wavelengths of ultraviolet or blue LED chips. Its chromaticity coordinates (CIE) are calculated to be x = 0.65, y = 0.32. Bright red light can be observed by the naked eye from the LED-based Ca0.60Sr0.25MoO4:0.08Eu3+ 0.06Na+.

  14. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  15. Light scattering by coated sphere immersed in absorbing medium: a comparison between the FDTD and analytic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wenbo E-mail: w.sun@larc.nasa.gov; Loeb, Norman G.; Fu Qiang

    2004-02-01

    A recently developed finite-difference time domain scheme is examined using the exact analytic solutions for light scattering by a coated sphere immersed in an absorbing medium. The relative differences are less than 1% in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies and less than 5% in the scattering phase functions. The definition of apparent single-scattering properties is also discussed.

  16. Photometric measurements of red blood cell aggregation: light transmission versus light reflectance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskurt, O.K.; Uyuklu, M.; Hardeman, M.R.; Meiselman, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is the reversible and regular clumping in the presence of certain macromolecules. This is a clinically important phenomenon, being significantly enhanced in the presence of acute phase reactants (e. g., fibrinogen). Both light reflection (LR) and light transmission

  17. Photometric measurements of red blood cell aggregation: light transmission versus light reflectance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskurt, Oguz K.; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Hardeman, Max R.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2009-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is the reversible and regular clumping in the presence of certain macromolecules. This is a clinically important phenomenon, being significantly enhanced in the presence of acute phase reactants (e.g., fibrinogen). Both light reflection (LR) and light transmission

  18. Exposure to red light, temperature and exogenous gibberellins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red light, temperature and gibberellins are well known for their capacity to induce higher germination in dormant seeds of several plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA4+7 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 uM) ...

  19. Red light represses the photophysiology of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I F; Leal, Miguel C; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI.

  20. Red light represses the photophysiology of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    Full Text Available Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m(-2 s(-1. Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m(-2 s(-1. Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m(-2 s(-1, and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI.

  1. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I. F.; Leal, Miguel C.; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m−2 s−1). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m−2 s−1. Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m−2 s−1, and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI. PMID:24658108

  2. Red light walking, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    registration, 72+53 interviewed persons, and what will be extracted from the literature review. Based on the collected data, it will be studied, if the share of red light walking will be reduced. Also, the transportation time including any waiting time will be calculated for the two periods. Furthermore......, the attitude and experiences with this traffic signals will be measured. It is the hypotheses that red light walking will be reduced and that the overall transportation time for pedestrians will be reduced due to a more applicable and dynamic traffic signal system. Likewise, it is expected that the pedestrian...

  3. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF LASER RED LIGHT, FAR RED LIGHT AND SODIUM CARBONATE AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF BARLEY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern ecological state of the environment and human unhealthy diet cause many diseases. A healthy diet is the one that contains adequate amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macronutrients and micronutrients. Photosynthesis i. e. the process by which plants produce organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water, is the source of life, the source of evolution and proliferation of life forms on the Earth. Thus, the juice made from sprouted barley provides physiologically active chlorophyll, macronutrients and micronutrients, vitamins А, В2 , В3 , В5 , В6 , В8 , Е and К. It is well known that light from a red laser with a wavelength of 638.2 nm has a stimulating action on the germination energy, germination ability and productivity of seeds, and on the crop yields. Therefore, this research is of primary importance today. The research result produced a sharp decline in plant vigor and germinating capacity of barley when soaking in 1n sodium carbonate solution, as well as changes in the ratio of potassium-sodium balance in plants. Thus at lower concentrations of sodium carbonate and 0.1 n sodium increasing of pigment content in barley is observed on the seventh day. The red laser light has a similar stimulating action: the chlorophyll content of barley plants increased after the red laser treatment of barley seeds. However, the chlorophyll contents were depressed when the seeds were exposed to far red light with wavelengths of 754±10 nm. Using these factors, one can manage the content of chlorophyll and sodium-potassium balance in the initial stages of barley ontogenesis in the technology of barley juice or the powder for a healthy and proper human diet.

  4. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Bressan, Ray A; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide. PMID:24654847

  5. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    KAUST Repository

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt

    2014-06-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide.

  6. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    KAUST Repository

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Bressan, Ray A.; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide.

  7. Germination of somatic embryos of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vilchez Perozo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryo germination of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems (TIS, in which somatic embryos were cultured in the heart-torpedo stage in MS mediun at mayor half strength salt and suplemented with: 0.25 mg.l-1 of 6-bencilaminopurine (6-BAP, 10 mg.l-1 of Biobras-6 (analogous of brasinoesteriode and 20 g.l-1 of sucrose. As control was used solid cultivation medium (2.5 g.l-1 Gellan gum, Spectrum® of same composition to the one used in the TIS. The variables germination percentage and fresh weight were evaluated statistically. After ten weeks of cultivation the largest values in germination percentage (91.04% and fresh weight (1.22 g were obtained in the TIS, being statistically different to those obtained in solid medium (9.79% and 1.03 g, respectively. Key words: in vitro plant, guayaba, regeneration, RITA®,somatic embryogenesis

  8. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    OpenAIRE

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I. F.; Leal, Miguel C.; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral S...

  9. Far-red light is needed for efficient photochemistry and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shuyang; van Iersel, Marc W

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of monochromatic light to drive photosynthesis drops rapidly at wavelengths longer than 685nm. The photosynthetic efficiency of these longer wavelengths can be improved by adding shorter wavelength light, a phenomenon known as the Emerson enhancement effect. The reverse effect, the enhancement of photosynthesis under shorter wavelength light by longer wavelengths, however, has not been well studied and is often thought to be insignificant. We quantified the effect of adding far-red light (peak at 735nm) to red/blue or warm-white light on the photosynthetic efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Adding far-red light immediately increased quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ) of lettuce by an average of 6.5 and 3.6% under red/blue and warm-white light, respectively. Similar or greater increases in Φ PSII were observed after 20min of exposure to far-red light. This longer-term effect of far-red light on Φ PSII was accompanied by a reduction in non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ), indicating that far-red light reduced the dissipation of absorbed light as heat. The increase in Φ PSII and complementary decrease in NPQ is presumably due to preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) by far-red light, which leads to faster re-oxidization of the plastoquinone pool. This facilitates reopening of PSII reaction centers, enabling them to use absorbed photons more efficiently. The increase in Φ PSII by far-red light was associated with an increase in net photosynthesis (P n ). The stimulatory effect of far-red light increased asymptotically with increasing amounts of far-red. Overall, our results show that far-red light can increase the photosynthetic efficiency of shorter wavelength light that over-excites PSII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Light-dependent magnetoreception: orientation behaviour of migratory birds under dim red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds has been shown to be based on radical pair processes and to require light from the short wavelength part of the spectrum up to 565 nm Green. Under dim red light of 645 nm wavelength and 1 mW m(-2) intensity, Australian silvereyes and European robins showed a westerly tendency that did not change between spring and autumn, identifying it as a 'fixed direction' response. A thorough analysis revealed that this orientation did not involve the inclination compass, but was a response based on the polarity of the magnetic field. Furthermore, in contrast to the orientation under short-wavelength light, it could be disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak where iron-containing receptors are located, indicating that it is controlled by these receptors. The similarity of the response under dim red light to the response in total darkness suggests that the two responses may be identical. These findings indicate that the observed 'fixed direction' response under dim red light is fundamentally different from the normal compass orientation, which is based on radical pair processes.

  11. Regulation of Picea abies seed dormancy by red and far-red light at various moisture contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, K.; Chantal, M. de [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1998-04-01

    The effects of red (R), far-red (FR) and R+FR light on Norway spruce seed dormancy were studied at five different moisture contents (MC) between 5 and 20%. The degree of dormancy was studied by germinating seeds over a wide range of temperatures in the dark. The non-irradiated control seeds were shallowly dormant, only a proportion of them germinated and within a limited temperature range. Red light progressively stimulated germination between 5 and 17% MC, but this effect was reversed if a FR treatment followed, although all germination could not be inhibited by one FR pulse. Far-red light had a slightly stimulating effect at 19% MC. To generate seeds able to germinate over a wide range of temperatures in darkness, an artificial light pretreatment should be given to seeds at MC above 17% in order to receive maximum response 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Impact of end-of-day red and far-red light on plant morphology and hormone physiology of poinsettia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Islam, M.A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Clarke, J.L.; Blystad, D.R.; Gislerod, H.R.; Torre, S.; Olsen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 77-86 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abscisic acid * End of day far red light * End of day red light Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.365, year: 2014

  13. Effects of red and blue LD lights on the growth of lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takatsuji, M.; Yasuoka, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, Lactuca sativa L. cv. “Red Fire” was cultivated under visible laser diodes (LD) light alone, using red and blue LD for digital versatile discs (DVD). Relative growth rate, photosynthetic rate and vitamin C content were measured, and compared with those obtained using light emitting diodes (LED). When the lettuce was cultivated under LD light, the relative growth rate and net photosynthetic rate were decreased compared to those under LED light. The rates were decreased by 10% and 20% or more under red LD light and under a combination of red and blue LD lights, respectively. However, the vitamin C content was higher when grown under LD light than LED light. Considering the high output and high electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency of LD, LD are potential light sources for plant cultivation when their prices decrease

  14. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems.

  15. A red-light running prevention system based on artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems.

  16. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  17. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  18. Molecular mechanisms and ecological function of far-red light signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, David J; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA). Here, we review the current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of how plants sense far-red light through phyA and the physiological responses to this light quality. Light-activated phytochromes act on two primary pathways within the nucleus; suppression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CUL4/DDB1 COP1/SPA and inactivation of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of bHLH transcription factors. These pathways integrate with other signal transduction pathways, including phytohormones, for tissue and developmental stage specific responses. Unlike other phytochromes that mediate red-light responses, phyA is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in far-red light by the shuttle proteins FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 (FHY1) and FHY1-LIKE (FHL). However, additional mechanisms must exist that shift the action of phyA to far-red light; current hypotheses are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  20. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  1. Light induced cooling of a heated solid immersed in liquid helium I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezak, D.; Brodie, L.C.; Semura, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter investigates the marked enhancement in the transient heat transfer from the heater-thermometer to the liquid helium immediately following the application of a flash of visible light. This ''light effect'' is associated with increased bubble activity, and it is possible that the light induces a rapid nucleation of bubbles in the superheated liquid at or near the heater surface. A summary of the light effect is presented and some potential uses to which this effect could be applied are suggested. Quantification of the light effect and properties of the light effect are discussed. It is determined that the light effect is an additional cooling due to a light induced enhancement of boiling in superheated liquid helium I. The effect could be applied in practical cryogenic engineering and for the acquisition of fundamental knowledge of boiling heat transfer and nucleation in cryogenic liquids

  2. Photooptical response of the blood plasma to the low-intensity red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, R.I.; Skopinov, S.A.; Yakovleva, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Photooptical response to low-intensity red light by irradiation of the whole blood as well as of its pigmentless plasma part is investigated. It is shown by the example of blood irradiation that the mechanism of action of low-intensity red light on the blood is not directly related to pigmented molecular complexes. The conclusion is made, that the effect of low-intensity red light on living organisms includes mechanism not utilizing light absorption by a specialized molecule-photoreceptor as a primary photophysical act

  3. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue

  4. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Dongsen

    2012-01-01

    Good sleep is an important recovery method for prevention and treatment of overtraining in sport practice. Whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes is unknown. To determine the effect of red light on sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. Cohort study. Athletic training facility of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and research laboratory of the China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty athletes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 6 3.60 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into red-light treatment (n = 10) and placebo (n = 10) groups. The red-light treatment participants received 30 minutes of irradiation from a red-light therapy instrument every night for 14 days. The placebo group did not receive light illumination. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was completed, serum melatonin was assessed, and 12-minute run was performed at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days). The 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of the elite female basketball players (P Sleep Quality Index and serum melatonin levels (r = -0.695, P = .006). Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.

  5. Flexible power 90W to 120W ArF immersion light source for future semiconductor lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdt, R.; Thornes, J.; Duffey, T.; Bibby, T.; Rokitski, R.; Mason, E.; Melchior, J.; Aggarwal, T.; Haran, D.; Wang, J.; Rechtsteiner, G.; Haviland, M.; Brown, D.

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor market demand for improved performance at lower cost continues to drive enhancements in excimer light source technologies. Increased output power, reduced variability in key light source parameters, and improved beam stability are required of the light source to support immersion lithography, multi-patterning, and 450mm wafer applications in high volume semiconductor manufacturing. To support future scanner needs, Cymer conducted a technology demonstration program to evaluate the design elements for a 120W ArFi light source. The program was based on the 90W XLR 600ix platform, and included rapid power switching between 90W and 120W modes to potentially support lot-to-lot changes in desired power. The 120W requirements also included improved beam stability in an exposure window conditionally reduced by 20%. The 120W output power is achieved by efficiency gains in system design, keeping system input power at the same level as the 90W XLR 600ix. To assess system to system variability, detailed system testing was conducted from 90W - 120W with reproducible results.

  6. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (Phatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  7. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Melis, A.A.M.; Ferreira Da Silva, C.I.; Leal, M.C.; Vogels, L.; Mutter, C.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced

  8. Light spectrum regulates cell accumulation during daytime in the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua causing noxious red tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed.

  10. Light scattering by red blood cells in ektacytometry: Fraunhofer versus anomalous diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Hoekstra, A. G.; Nijhof, E. J.; Heethaar, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present literature on ektacytometry, small angle light scattering by ellipsoidal red blood cells is commonly approximated by Fraunhofer diffraction. Calculations on a sphere with the size and relative refractive index of a red cell, however, show that Fraunhofer diffraction deviates

  11. Evaluation of historical museum interior lighting system using fully immersive virtual luminous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navvab, Mojtaba; Bisegna, Fabio; Gugliermetti, Franco

    2013-05-01

    Saint Rocco Museum, a historical building in Venice, Italy is used as a case study to explore the performance of its' lighting system and visible light impact on viewing the large size art works. The transition from threedimensional architectural rendering to the three-dimensional virtual luminance mapping and visualization within a virtual environment is described as an integrated optical method for its application toward preservation of the cultural heritage of the space. Lighting simulation programs represent color as RGB triplets in a devicedependent color space such as ITU-R BT709. Prerequisite for this is a 3D-model which can be created within this computer aided virtual environment. The onsite measured surface luminance, chromaticity and spectral data were used as input to an established real-time indirect illumination and a physically based algorithms to produce the best approximation for RGB to be used as an input to generate the image of the objects. Conversion of RGB to and from spectra has been a major undertaking in order to match the infinite number of spectra to create the same colors that were defined by RGB in the program. The ability to simulate light intensity, candle power and spectral power distributions provide opportunity to examine the impact of color inter-reflections on historical paintings. VR offers an effective technique to quantify the visible light impact on human visual performance under precisely controlled representation of light spectrum that could be experienced in 3D format in a virtual environment as well as historical visual archives. The system can easily be expanded to include other measurements and stimuli.

  12. Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Ichiro; Fujita, Takashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Chow, Wah Soon; Oguchi, Riichi

    2009-04-01

    The literature and our present examinations indicate that the intra-leaf light absorption profile is in most cases steeper than the photosynthetic capacity profile. In strong white light, therefore, the quantum yield of photosynthesis would be lower in the upper chloroplasts, located near the illuminated surface, than that in the lower chloroplasts. Because green light can penetrate further into the leaf than red or blue light, in strong white light, any additional green light absorbed by the lower chloroplasts would increase leaf photosynthesis to a greater extent than would additional red or blue light. Based on the assessment of effects of the additional monochromatic light on leaf photosynthesis, we developed the differential quantum yield method that quantifies efficiency of any monochromatic light in white light. Application of this method to sunflower leaves clearly showed that, in moderate to strong white light, green light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light. The green leaf should have a considerable volume of chloroplasts to accommodate the inefficient carboxylation enzyme, Rubisco, and deliver appropriate light to all the chloroplasts. By using chlorophylls that absorb green light weakly, modifying mesophyll structure and adjusting the Rubisco/chlorophyll ratio, the leaf appears to satisfy two somewhat conflicting requirements: to increase the absorptance of photosynthetically active radiation, and to drive photosynthesis efficiently in all the chloroplasts. We also discuss some serious problems that are caused by neglecting these intra-leaf profiles when estimating whole leaf electron transport rates and assessing photoinhibition by fluorescence techniques.

  13. Exploring unobserved heterogeneity in bicyclists' red-light running behaviors at different crossing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyong; Li, Zhibin; Wu, Yao; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-06-01

    Bicyclists running the red light at crossing facilities increase the potential of colliding with motor vehicles. Exploring the contributing factors could improve the prediction of running red-light probability and develop countermeasures to reduce such behaviors. However, individuals could have unobserved heterogeneities in running a red light, which make the accurate prediction more challenging. Traditional models assume that factor parameters are fixed and cannot capture the varying impacts on red-light running behaviors. In this study, we employed the full Bayesian random parameters logistic regression approach to account for the unobserved heterogeneous effects. Two types of crossing facilities were considered which were the signalized intersection crosswalks and the road segment crosswalks. Electric and conventional bikes were distinguished in the modeling. Data were collected from 16 crosswalks in urban area of Nanjing, China. Factors such as individual characteristics, road geometric design, environmental features, and traffic variables were examined. Model comparison indicates that the full Bayesian random parameters logistic regression approach is statistically superior to the standard logistic regression model. More red-light runners are predicted at signalized intersection crosswalks than at road segment crosswalks. Factors affecting red-light running behaviors are gender, age, bike type, road width, presence of raised median, separation width, signal type, green ratio, bike and vehicle volume, and average vehicle speed. Factors associated with the unobserved heterogeneity are gender, bike type, signal type, separation width, and bike volume. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-wavelength (red) light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-11-01

    In infant tree shrews, exposure to narrow-band long-wavelength (red) light, that stimulates long-wavelength sensitive cones almost exclusively, slows axial elongation and produces hyperopia. We asked if red light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent animals, ages when plus lenses are ineffective. Animals were raised in fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux) until they began 13days of red-light treatment at 11 (n=5, "infant"), 35 (n=5, "juvenile") or 95 (n=5, "adolescent") days of visual experience (DVE). LEDs provided 527-749 lux on the cage floor. To control for the higher red illuminance, a fluorescent control group (n=5) of juvenile (35 DVE) animals was exposed to ∼975 lux. Refractions were measured daily; ocular component dimensions at the start and end of treatment and end of recovery in colony lighting. These groups were compared with normals (n=7). In red light, the refractive state of both juvenile and adolescent animals became significantly (Prefractions (0.6±0.3D) were normal. In red-treated juveniles the vitreous chamber was significantly smaller than normal (Plight-induced slowed growth and hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews demonstrates that the emmetropization mechanism is still capable of restraining eye growth at these ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Germination of some important weeds influenced by red light and nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanfg, Dong-Seng; Hamayun, M.; Khan, A.L.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kim, H.A.; Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, Joon-Hee; Chae-In; Nawaz, Y.; Kang, Kee-Kyung; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy is a major constraint in the eradication of weeds from agriculture fields. Seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinocloa crus-galli and Digitaria adscendens were collected from cultivated fields, dried and then treated with different nitrogen containing compounds i.e., potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Some seeds were kept under dark while others were irradiated with red light for 10 min., after 12 hr of inhibition. The N-compounds were applied at the rate of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM, while the strength of red light pulse was maintained at 80 mu mols/sup -2/m/sup -1/. It was observed that red light significantly improved germination rates of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. adscendens. Nitrogenous compounds significantly improved germination of weeds and maximum germination was induced by ammonium nitrate. However, exposure of seeds to both red light and N-compounds provided significantly higher germination as compared to singular application of either of them. E. crusgalli recorded highest germination rates in response to red light and N-compounds, while D. adscendens provided least values for the same treatments. Application of N-compounds in conjunction with red light significantly improves germination rates of selected weed species by breaking their dormancy. (author)

  16. Intermittent long-wavelength red light increases the period of daily locomotor activity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Amanda M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We observed that a dim, red light-emitting diode (LED triggered by activity increased the circadian periods of lab mice compared to constant darkness. It is known that the circadian period of rats increases when vigorous wheel-running triggers full-spectrum lighting; however, spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in mice suggests little or no response to red light. Thus, we decided to test the following hypotheses: dim red light illumination triggered by activity (LEDfb increases the circadian period of mice compared to constant dark (DD; covering the LED prevents the effect on period; and DBA2/J mice have a different response to LEDfb than C57BL6/J mice. Methods The irradiance spectra of the LEDs were determined by spectrophotometer. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice was monitored by passive-infrared sensors and circadian period was calculated from the last 10 days under each light condition. For constant dark (DD, LEDs were switched off. For LED feedback (LEDfb, the red LED came on when the mouse was active and switched off seconds after activity stopped. For taped LED the red LED was switched on but covered with black tape. Single and multifactorial ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests were done. Results The circadian period of mice was longer under LEDfb than under DD. Blocking the light eliminated the effect. There was no difference in period change in response to LEDfb between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Conclusion An increase in mouse circadian period due to dim far-red light (1 lux at 652 nm exposure was unexpected. Since blocking the light stopped the response, sound from the sensor's electronics was not the impetus of the response. The results suggest that red light as background illumination should be avoided, and indicator diodes on passive infrared motion sensors should be switched off.

  17. Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Jagdeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

  18. Red light emitting solid state hybrid quantum dot-near-UV GaN LED devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hongjoo; Lee, Seonghoon

    2007-01-01

    We produced core-shell (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots by direct colloidal chemical synthesis and the surface-passivation method-an overcoating of the core CdSe with a larger-bandgap material ZnSe. The (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots(QDs) play the role of a colour conversion centre. We call these quantum dots nanophosphors. We fabricated red light emitting hybrid devices of (CdSe)ZnSe QDs and a near-UV GaN LED by combining red light emitting (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots (as a colour conversion centre) with a near-UV(NUV) GaN LED chip (as an excitation source). A few good red phosphors have been known for UV excitation wavelengths, and red phosphors for UV excitation have been sought for a long time. Here we tested the possibility of using (CdSe)ZnSe QDs as red nanophosphors for UV excitation. The fabricated red light emitting hybrid device of (CdSe)ZnSe and a NUV GaN LED chip showed a good luminance. We demonstrated that the (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots were promising red nanophosphors for NUV excitation and that a red LED made of QDs and a NUV excitation source was a highly efficient hybrid device

  19. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Lei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC induced by “Red Only” vs. “Blue+Red” visual stimulation conditions.The “Red Only” condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC. The “Blue+Red” condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR, representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs (“The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response” Lei et al. (2016 [1].MPC induced by the “Red Only” condition was compared with the MPC induced by the “Blue+Red” condition by multiple paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Keywords: Pupil light reflex, Chromatic pupillometry, Melanopsin, Post-illumination pupil response

  20. Increased Expression of CCN2 in the Red Flashing Light-Induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual environment plays an important role in the occurrence of myopia. We previously showed that the different flashing lights could result in distinct effects on the ocular growth and development of myopia. CCN2 has been reported to regulate various cellular functions and biological processes. However, whether CCN2 signaling was involved in the red flashing light-induced myopia still remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the red flashing lights exposure on the refraction and axial length of the eyes in vivo and then evaluated their effects on the expression of CCN2 and TGF-β in sclera tissues. Our data showed that the eyes exposed to the red flashing light became more myopic with a significant increase of the axial length and decrease of the refraction. Both CCN2 and TGF-β, as well as p38 MAPK and PI3K, were highly expressed in the sclera tissues exposed to the red flashing light. Both CCN2 and TGF-β were found to have the same gene expression profile in vivo. In conclusion, our findings found that CCN2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the red flashing light-induced myopia in vivo. Moreover, our study establishes a useful animal model for experimental myopia research.

  1. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraboni, Federico; Marín Puchades, Víctor; De Angelis, Marco; Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists' violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists' crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists' psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists' red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping), opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction), and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light), adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people's behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists' behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were significantly lower for conditions of

  2. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fraboni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists’ violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists’ crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists’ psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists’ red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping, opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light, adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people’s behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists’ behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were

  3. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Red-free light for measurement of intraocular pressure using Goldmann applanation tonometer without fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Ehab M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the use of red-free light for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) using a Goldmann applanation tonometer without fluorescein. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 eyes in 250 patients attending the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital. The IOP was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer mounted on a Haag-Streit slit-lamp. The measurements were performed first using red-free light without fluorescein. Then the measurements were repeated with cobalt blue light and topical fluorescein on the same eyes. The mean IOP was 15.23 ± 3.3 (SD) mm Hg using the red-free light without fluorescein, whereas it was 15.78 ± 3.7 (SD) mm Hg when measured using cobalt blue light after the application of fluorescein to the conjunctival sac. This difference was not statistically significant. Measurement of IOP with a Goldmann applanationtonometer with red-free light and without the use of fluorescein is simple, saves time, and gives an accurate IOP measurement relative to the traditional measurement technique with cobalt blue light and topical fluorescein.

  5. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp 2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  6. Effect of red and far-red light on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants sense the quality, quantity, and duration of light signals and use them to optimise their growth and development. These signals are perceived by special light receptors of which the phytochrome pigment system is one of the most important for photomorphogenetic responses. Using special diodes that emit ...

  7. Impact of blue, red, and far-red light treatments on gene expression and steviol glycoside accumulation in Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Juro; Ohdoi, Katsuaki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-05-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni is a plant that biosynthesizes a group of natural sweeteners that are up to approximately 400 times sweeter than sucrose. The sweetening components of S. rebaudiana are steviol glycosides (SGs) that partially share their biosynthesis pathway with gibberellins (GAs). However, the molecular mechanisms through which SGs levels can be improved have not been studied. Therefore, transcription levels of several SG biosynthesis-related genes were analyzed under several light treatments involved in GA biosynthesis. We detected higher transcription of UGT85C2, which is one of the UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in catalyzing the sugar-transfer reaction, under red/far-red (R/FR) 1.22 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue LEDs treatment. In this study, it was demonstrated that transcription levels of SG-related genes and the SGs content are affected by light treatments known to affect the GA contents. It is expected that this approach could serve as a practical way to increase SG contents using specific light treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A white–cyan-red LED system for low correlated colour temperature lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    A white LED complemented by cyan and red LEDs is a good candidate for achieving high colour rendering at low correlated colour temperatures. This is usually very difficult with commercially available white LEDs. In addition, the system is able to replace incandescent lighting in many applications...... to 2400 K. Within this range the white light is characterized by a high general colour rendering index (Ra>90), special colour rendering indices for saturated red objects (R9>85), and low chromaticity distance (Duv) from the Planckian locus (Duv

  10. Red light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve for first positive curvature of maize [Zea mays] coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.; Schäfer, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curve for first positive phototropic curvture of dark-grown maize coleoptiles is shifted to ten-fold higher fluences if the coieoptiles are irradiated with red light 2 h prior to the phototropic induction with blue light. Fluence-response curves for this red-induced shift were obtained with unilateral red irradiations 2 h prior to inductive blue pulses of different fluences. They differ significantly depending on whether the red light was given from the same side as or the opposite side to the respective inductive blue pulse, thus demonstrating that the red light effect is a local response of the coleoptile. The fluence-response curves for an inductive blue pulse in the ascending part were compared with those for an inductive blue pulse in the descending part of the fluence-response curve for blue light induced phototropism. They are quite different in threshold of red light sensitivity and shape for irradiations from both the same and the opposite sides. This offers evidence for the hypothesis that at least two different photosystems are involved in phototropism, and that they are modulated differently by a red light preirradiation. All these fluence-response curves indicate that it is possible to increase the response in the coleoptile, if the red light preirradiation is given opposite to the inductive blue pulse. This is supported by blue light fluence-response curves obtained after a weak unilateral red preirradiation. (author)

  11. Immersion revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    of existing definitions of immersion originating within the study of video games, virtual environments, and literary works of fiction. Based on this review, a three-dimensional taxonomy of the various conceptualizations of immersion is proposed. That is, the existing definitions of immersion may be broadly...... divided into three categories, each representing a dimension of the taxonomy: immersion as a property of a system, a subjective response to narrative contents, or a subjective response to challenges within the virtual environment. Finally, four distinct theories of presence are introduced and, based...... on the established taxonomy, we discuss how the individual theories relate to existing definitions of immersion....

  12. FIN5 positively regulates far-red light responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.S.; Hong, S.H.; Nam, H.G.; Soh, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We report the characterization of a semi-dominant mutation fin5-1 (far-red insensitive 5-1) of Arabidopsis, which was isolated from genetic screening of phytochrome A (phyA) signaling components. Plants with the fin5-1 mutation exhibited a long hypocotyl phenotype when grown under far-red (FR) light, but not under red light. Physiological analyses implied that FIN5 might be differentially involved in diverse responses that are regulated by phyA under continuous FR light. Anthocyanin accumulation, gravitropic response of hypocotyl growth, and FR light-preconditioned blocking of greening were also impaired in the fin5-1 mutant, whereas photoperiodic floral induction was not, if at all, significantly affected. Moreover, light-regulated expression of the CHS, PORA and PsbS genes was attenuated in fin5-1 mutant plants, while the light-induced expression of CAB was normal. The mutation exhibited semi-dominance regarding control of hypocotyl growth in FR light. We suggest that FIN5 defines a novel branch in the network of phyA signaling in Arabidopsis. (author)

  13. Influences of motorcycle rider and driver characteristics and road environment on red light running behavior at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensupakarn, Auearree; Kanitpong, Kunnawee

    2018-04-01

    In Thailand, red light running is considered as one of the most dangerous behaviors at intersection. Red light running (RLR) behavior is the failure to obey the traffic control signal. However, motorcycle riders and car drivers who are running through red lights could be influenced by human factors or road environment at intersection. RLR could be advertent or inadvertent behavior influenced by many factors. Little research study has been done to evaluate the contributing factors influencing the red-light violation behavior. This study aims to determine the factors influencing the red light running behavior including human characteristics, physical condition of intersection, traffic signal operation, and traffic condition. A total of 92 intersections were observed in Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi, the major provinces in each region of Thailand. In addition, the socio-economic characteristics of red light runners were obtained from self-reported questionnaire survey. The Binary Logistic Regression and the Multiple Linear Regression models were used to determine the characteristics of red light runners and the factors influencing rates of red light running respectively. The results from this study can help to understand the characteristics of red light runners and factors affecting them to run red lights. For motorcycle riders and car drivers, age, gender, occupation, driving license, helmet/seatbelt use, and the probability to be penalized when running the red light significantly affect RLR behavior. In addition, the results indicated that vehicle travelling direction, time of day, existence of turning lane, number of lanes, lane width, intersection sight distance, type of traffic signal pole, type of traffic signal operation, length of yellow time interval, approaching speed, distance from intersection warning sign to stop line, and pavement roughness significantly affect RLR rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of laser light on the fragility and permeability of the red blood cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yassin, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of red blood cells to hypotonic hemolysis is often characterized in terms of their osmotic fragility. The percentage of cells that hemolize when plotted as a function of different concentrations of NaCl forms fragility curve, which has a sigmoidal shape. In this study we show that the exposure of red blood cells to laser light converts the sigmoidal shape of the fragility curve to a hyperbolic one, which means that the old population of the red blood cells are the ones more affected by the light which cause their destruction. At the same time it seems that transport across the cell membrane is affected also. The biochemical and physiological implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  15. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  16. The fight against human trafficking in the Amsterdam Red Light District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Rijken, C.R.J.J.

    The Amsterdam Red Light District is famous for its sex-oriented businesses. Although prostitution was legalized in 2000, this did not end some of its criminal side effects, particularly the trafficking in women. In an effort to combat human trafficking in the district, the local authorities launched

  17. Gentrification of Progressive Red Light Districts and New Moral Geographies: The case of Amsterdam and Zurich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.C.; Chimienti, M.

    2017-01-01

    Even though there is a long tradition of red-light districts (RLD) being concentrated within the city centre, gentrification policies in many European cities now aim at spatially dispersing the sex market (and its workers) to the fringes of the city. Moving RLDs out of the city centre (or

  18. Variation in growth form in relation to spectral light quality (red/far-red ratio) in Plantago lanceolata L in sun and shade populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Plants from a sun and shade population were grown in two environments differing in the ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio). A low R/FR ratio, simulating vegetation shade, promoted the formation of long, upright-growing leaves and allocation towards shoot growth, whereas a high R/FR ratio had

  19. Red Light-Dose or Wavelength-Dependent Photoresponse of Antioxidants in Herb Microgreens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedė Samuolienė

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of 638-nm and 665-nm LEDs on changes of antioxidants of basil (Ocimum basilicum and parsley (Petroselinum crispum, and to assess the effect of light quality on antioxidative status. Plants were grown in peat substrate for 19 days (21/17 ±2°C, 16 h. Experiments were performed in (I a controlled-environment: B455,R638,R665,FR731(control; B455,R*638,R665,FR731; B455,R638,R*665,FR731; R638; R665 (B-blue, R- red, FR-far-red light. PPFD was set from 231 during growth, upto 300 μmol m-2 s-1 during 3-day treatment changing R638 or R665 PPFD level; in (II greenhouse (November: high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS (control-300 μmol m-2s-1; and HPS + 638 (HPS generated 90 and red LEDs-210 μmol m-2s-1. In general, under supplemental or increased red 638 nm light, amounts of tested antioxidants were greater in basil, whereas sole 665 nm or sole 638 nm is more favourable for parsley. Increased or supplemental red light significantly increased contents of phenolics, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and DPPH• but suppressed accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in basil, whereas an increase of β-carotene and DPPH• was observed in parsley. Hereby, the photoresponse of antioxidant compounds suggests that photoprotective mechanism is stimulated by both light-dose-dependent and wavelength-dependent reactions.

  20. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Suo

    Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.

  1. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  2. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ho Mien

    Full Text Available Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2 s(-1, intermittent red light (1 min on/off, or bright white light (2,500 lux near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group. Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69, with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  3. Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Dierolf, Volkmar; Gregorkiewicz, Tom; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2018-04-01

    While InGaN/GaN blue and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are commercially available, the search for an efficient red LED based on GaN is ongoing. The realization of this LED is crucial for the monolithic integration of the three primary colors and the development of nitride-based full-color high-resolution displays. In this perspective, we will address the challenges of attaining red luminescence from GaN under current injection and the methods that have been developed to circumvent them. While several approaches will be mentioned, a large emphasis will be placed on the recent developments of doping GaN with Eu3+ to achieve an efficient red GaN-based LED. Finally, we will provide an outlook to the future of this material as a candidate for small scale displays such as mobile device screens or micro-LED displays.

  4. Effect of Immersion Time in Artificial Saliva on Flexural Strength of Provisional Crown and Bridge Material: Light zPolymerization versus Autopolymerization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Magdalena Tetelepta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of immersion time in artificial salive on the flexural strength of provisional crown and bridge (p-c&b materials. Materials and Methods: Two types of p-c&b materials were used in this study: Light polymerized p-c&b material (Revotek LC and autopolymerized p-c&b material (PerfecTemp II. A total of 100 specimens were fabricated and measured according to ISO 4049/2000. A stainless steel mould was used to prepare 2mmx2mmx25mm bar shaped specimens. All materials were dispensed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10. Each specimen of the first group was measured immediately after preparation. The second, third, fourth and fifth groups were immersed in artificial saliva at 37ºC in an incubator for 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days, respectively. Flexural strength was tested by Universal Mechanical Testing Machine Shimadzu in a 3-point bending test. The repeated ANOVA and Post-Hoc Bonferroni test were used to compare the continuous variables between the groups. Results: The results showed flexural strength of Revotek LC were higher than PerfecTemp II at first and second group. However, flexural strength of PerfecTemp II was higher than Revotek LC at third, fourth, and fifth group. The highest flexural strength of Revotek LC was achieved in 1 hour immersion, whereas PerfecTemp II achieved the highest value in 7 days. Conclusion: Flexural strength of p-c&b materials were influenced by immersion time in artifical saliva and the type of p-c&b materials.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i1.108

  5. Argorejo ‘red-light district’ student perceptions on sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, M. T.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Anas, M.; Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    Argorejo ‘Red-light District’ environment (Sunan Kuning), prostitution area in Semarang, Indonesia support the highly sexual behaviors among Junior High School (JHS) students. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of JHS students on sexual behaviors. The method used was that of a qualitative and descriptive phenomenological approaches. The data were collected, from four JHS students as key informants, and their neigbours as the supporting informants, by observation, interviews, and documentation study, then analyzed with the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The findings showed that (1) JHS students from ‘Red-light District’ of Argorejo showed they had more negative views of sexual behavior (behavioral beliefs), (2) they believed that other reference parties did not agree with this sexual behaviors, and consequently they would prohibit them to do sexual behavior (normative beliefs), and (3) assumed there were equal conditions that would fasilitate or hinder them to do sexual behavior (control beliefs).

  6. Photomorphogenetic responses to UV radiation and short-term red light in lettuce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar, E.F.; Kreslavski, V.D.; Muzafarov, E.N.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of red light (R), far-red light (FR) and UV radiation on growth and greening of lettuce seedlings (Latuca sativa L., cv. Berlinskii) have been investigated. UV-B and UV-C inhibited hypocotyl elongation and stimulated cotyledonary growth. R in combination with UV-B and UV-C partly eliminated these effects, but FR increased those and reversed the R effect. Chlorophyll accumulation was inhibited by UV-B and UV-C. In comparison with cotyledonary growth, R strengthened the UV inhibitory effect, and FR reversed this effect of R. Thus, UV and phytochrome system modify the effects of each other on hypocotyl and leaf growth in lettuce seedlings depending on the level of active phytochrome formed

  7. [Action of red polarized light on the acupuncture point E-36 increases analgesic effect of corvitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarova, Z A; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Kostiuk, O I; Mitruzaeva, V A; Lymans'ka, L I

    2010-01-01

    In experiments on mice of lines C57BL/6J and CBA/CaLac, the possibility of strengthening of analgesic effect of corvitin by the action of red polarized light (PL) on the acupoint (AP) E-36 was studied. The pain behavioral response (licking of the painful area) was caused by injection of 5% formalin in hind limb (0.25 microl subcutaneously). The duration of pain response was studied before and after systemic introduction of corvitin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or joint use of corvitin and red PL (10 minute session). It is established, that after application of red PL on the antinociceptive AP E-36 in all animals an authentic strengthening of antinociceptive effect of corvitin takes place. In C57BL/6J mice, application of corvitin alone weakened the pain response by 29.7% and during combined use of red PL and corvitin, it grew up to 53.1%. Mice of line CBA/CaLac were less sensitive both to corvitin, and PL. In this line, corvitin used alone reduced the duration of pain response by 14%, and by 32.4% during combined use with red PL. Non-traumatic, without side effects, the method of influence by low-intensive PL can be recommended to patients accepting corvitin for strengthening its efficiency.

  8. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic property of red phosphorus via surface roughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weibing; Yue, Jiguang; Hua, Fangxia; Feng, Chang; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic RhB degradation of red phosphorus was studied for the first time. • Surface rough can increase the photocatalysis reaction active sites. • Surface rough red phosphorus possesses high photocatalytic performance. • Surface rough red phosphorus has high industrial application value. - Abstract: Red phosphorus with rough surface (SRP) was prepared by catalyst-assisted hydrothermal synthesis using Co 2+ catalyst. The photocatalytic Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation of red phosphorus (RP) and SRP was studied for the first time in this work. Rough surface can enhance the dye adsorption ability of RP. About 75% RhB was absorbed by SRP after 30-min adsorption in 100 ml RhB solution with concentration of 10 mg l −1 in dark. After only 10 min of illumination by visible light, more than 95% RhB was degraded, indicating that SRP has a great application potential in the area of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic RhB degradation properties of RP are much weaker than those of SRP. The increase of the number of the active sites for the photocatalytic reactions, the electron mobility and the lifetime of the photogenerated electrons cause the significant improvement of the photocatalytic performance of SRP based on the experimental results obtained

  9. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic property of red phosphorus via surface roughening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weibing, E-mail: lwbing@qust.edu.cn [School of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); Yue, Jiguang; Hua, Fangxia; Feng, Chang [School of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic RhB degradation of red phosphorus was studied for the first time. • Surface rough can increase the photocatalysis reaction active sites. • Surface rough red phosphorus possesses high photocatalytic performance. • Surface rough red phosphorus has high industrial application value. - Abstract: Red phosphorus with rough surface (SRP) was prepared by catalyst-assisted hydrothermal synthesis using Co{sup 2+} catalyst. The photocatalytic Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation of red phosphorus (RP) and SRP was studied for the first time in this work. Rough surface can enhance the dye adsorption ability of RP. About 75% RhB was absorbed by SRP after 30-min adsorption in 100 ml RhB solution with concentration of 10 mg l{sup −1} in dark. After only 10 min of illumination by visible light, more than 95% RhB was degraded, indicating that SRP has a great application potential in the area of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic RhB degradation properties of RP are much weaker than those of SRP. The increase of the number of the active sites for the photocatalytic reactions, the electron mobility and the lifetime of the photogenerated electrons cause the significant improvement of the photocatalytic performance of SRP based on the experimental results obtained.

  10. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  11. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  12. Phytochrome control of gene expression in radish seedlings. 111. Evidence for a rapid control of the ribulose 1. 5 biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene expression by red light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourcroy, P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of red and far-red light on the level of the mRNA encoding the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose, 1.5 bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO; EC 4.1.1.39) from radish cotyledons was investigated. Northern blot analysis of RNA with a cDNA probe showed that both long (12-36h) far-red irradiation and short (1-5 min) red irradiation brings about an increase in SSU mRNA concentraton which was prevented by a subsequent far-red light exposure. Far-red light was effective in reversing the red light effect provided that it was given soon after (<10 min) the red light pulse. The red light mediated increase in SSU mRNA level did not occur in presence of ..cap alpha..-amanitin. Our results suggest that phytochrome control of SSU gene expression is exerted at the transcriptional level. 34 refs.

  13. Boron-Containing Red Light-Emitting Phosphors And Light Sources Incorporating The Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-03-28

    A boron-containing phosphor comprises a material having a formula of AD1-xEuxB9O16, wherein A is an element selected from the group consisting of Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, and combinations thereof; D is at least an element selected from the group consisting of rare-earth metals other than europium; and x is in the range from about 0.005 to about 0.5. The phosphor is used in a blend with other phosphors in a light source for generating visible light with a high color rendering index.

  14. Red light sensitive heterojunction organic field-effect transistors based on neodymium phthalocyanine as photosensitive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Wenli; Tang, Yu [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yao, Bo [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhou, Maoqing; Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Zhong, Junkang; Sun, Lei [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Peng, Yingquan, E-mail: yqpeng@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-08-31

    Compared with organic photodiodes, photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs) exhibit higher sensitivity and lower noise. The performance of photOFETs based on conventional single layer structure is generally poor due to the low carrier mobility of the active channel materials. We demonstrate a high performance photOFET operating in red light with a structure of C60/neodymium phthalocyanine (NdPc{sub 2}) planar heterojunction. PhotOFETs based on single-layer NdPc{sub 2} and C60/NdPc{sub 2} heterojunction (denoted as NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs and C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs, respectively) were fabricated and characterized. It is concluded that the photOFETs with heterojunction structure showed superior performance compared to that of single layer photOFETs. And for red light with a wavelength of 655 nm, C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W, which is approximately 62 times larger than that of NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs under the same conditions. The high performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs is attributed to its high light absorption coefficient, high exciton dissociation efficiency and high carrier mobility. - Highlights: • The mobility of light-sensitive organic materials is generally low. • We fabricated C60/NdPc{sub 2} photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs). • The performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs is superior than single-layer NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs. • C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W for red light.

  15. The ratio of red light to far red light alters Arabidopsis axillary bud growth and abscisic acid signalling before stem auxin changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holalu, Srinidhi V; Finlayson, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling were examined in the context of rapid bud responses to an increased R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted the growth of buds inhibited by a low R:FR within 6 h. Relative to a low R:FR, bud ABA accumulation and signalling in plants given a high R:FR showed a sustained decline within 3 h, prior to increased growth. Main stem auxin levels and signalling showed a weak, transient response. Systemic effects and those localised to the bud were further examined by decapitating plants maintained either under a low R:FR or provided with a high R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted bud growth before decapitation, but decapitated plants eventually formed longer branches. The data suggest that rapid responses to an increased R:FR may be mediated by changes in bud ABA physiology, although systemic auxin signalling is necessary for sustained bud repression under a low R:FR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Estimation of red-light running frequency using high-resolution traffic and signal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yu, Guizhen; Wu, Xinkai; Ren, Yilong; Li, Yueguang

    2017-05-01

    Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it's critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors. Using 12 months of event data, a total of 6550 RLR cases were identified. According to a definition of RLR frequency as the conditional probability of RLR on a certain traffic or signal condition (veh/1000veh), the relationships between RLR frequency and some influential factors including arriving time at advance detector, approaching speed, headway, gap to the preceding vehicle on adjacent lane, cycle length, geometric characteristics and even snowing weather were empirically investigated. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with the traffic engineering practice, e.g., RLR is most likely to occur on weekdays during peak periods under large traffic demands and longer signal cycles, and a total of 95.24% RLR events occurred within the first 1.5s after the onset of red phase. The findings confirmed that vehicles tend to run the red light when they are close to intersection during phase transition, and the vehicles following the leading vehicle with short headways also likely run the red light. Last, a simplified nonlinear regression model is proposed to estimate RLR frequency based on the data from advance detector. The study is expected to helpbetter understand RLR occurrence and further contribute to the future improvement of intersection safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harant, Ulrike Katharina; Michiels, Nicolaas Karel

    2017-04-20

    Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system. We repeatedly presented 10 copepods to individual fish (n = 40) kept under a narrow blue-green spectrum and compared their performance with that under a broad spectrum with the same overall brightness. The experiment was repeated for two levels of brightness, a shaded one representing 0.4% of the light present at the surface and a heavily shaded one with about 0.01% of the surface brightness. Fish were 7% more successful at catching copepods under the narrow, fluorescence-friendly spectrum than under the broad spectrum. However, this effect was significant under the heavily shaded light treatment only. This outcome corroborates previous predictions that fluorescence may be an adaptation to blue-green, heavily shaded environments, which coincides with the opportunistic biology of this species that lives in the transition zone between exposed and heavily shaded microhabitats.

  18. Static and dynamic light scattering by red blood cells: A numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Johannes; Peltomäki, Matti; Poblete, Simón; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2017-01-01

    Light scattering is a well-established experimental technique, which gains more and more popularity in the biological field because it offers the means for non-invasive imaging and detection. However, the interpretation of light-scattering signals remains challenging due to the complexity of most biological systems. Here, we investigate static and dynamic scattering properties of red blood cells (RBCs) using two mesoscopic hydrodynamics simulation methods-multi-particle collision dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics. Light scattering is studied for various membrane shear elasticities, bending rigidities, and RBC shapes (e.g., biconcave and stomatocyte). Simulation results from the two simulation methods show good agreement, and demonstrate that the static light scattering of a diffusing RBC is not very sensitive to the changes in membrane properties and moderate alterations in cell shapes. We also compute dynamic light scattering of a diffusing RBC, from which dynamic properties of RBCs such as diffusion coefficients can be accessed. In contrast to static light scattering, the dynamic measurements can be employed to differentiate between the biconcave and stomatocytic RBC shapes and generally allow the differentiation based on the membrane properties. Our simulation results can be used for better understanding of light scattering by RBCs and the development of new non-invasive methods for blood-flow monitoring.

  19. The short-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana (C3) and Zea mays (C4) chloroplasts to red and far red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian; Drożak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Bacławska, Ilona; Przedpełska-Wąsowicz, Ewa; Romanowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Light quality has various effects on photochemistry and protein phosphorylation in Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoids due to different degrees of light penetration across leaves and redox status in chloroplasts. The effect of the spectral quality of light (red, R and far red, FR) on the function of thylakoid proteins in Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. It was concluded that red light stimulates PSII activity in A. thaliana thylakoids and in maize bundle sheath (BS) thylakoids, but not in mesophyll (M) thylakoids. The light quality did not change PSI activity in M thylakoids of maize. FR used after a white light period increased PSI activity significantly in maize BS and only slightly in A. thaliana thylakoids. As shown by blue native (BN)-PAGE followed by SDS-PAGE, proteins were differently phosphorylated in the thylakoids, indicating their different functions. FR light increased dephosphorylation of LHCII proteins in A. thaliana thylakoids, whereas in maize, dephosphorylation did not occur at all. The rate of phosphorylation was higher in maize BS than in M thylakoids. D1 protein phosphorylation increased in maize and decreased in A. thaliana upon irradiation with both R and growth light (white light, W). Light variations did not change the level of proteins in thylakoids. Our data strongly suggest that response to light quality is a species-dependent phenomenon. We concluded that the maize chloroplasts were differently stimulated, probably due to different degrees of light penetration across the leaf and thereby the redox status in the chloroplasts. These acclimation changes induced by light quality are important in the regulation of chloroplast membrane flexibility and thus its function.

  20. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  1. Red photoluminescent property and modification of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal for blue light converted LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiufeng; Yang, Zhengwen; Huang, Anjun; Chai, Zhuangzhuang; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    Blue light converted light-emitting diodes is of great significance as a candidate for next generation lighting. In this work, the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal photonic crystals were prepared and their luminescence properties were studied. The results demonstrated that the main excitation peak of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals were located at 465 nm. The red luminescence peak at the 613 nm was observed in the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal upon 465 nm excitation, exhibiting better red color purity. The influence of photonic band gap on the photoluminescence of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal was obtained. When the red luminescence peak is in the regions of the photonic band gap and the edge of the band-gap, the red luminescence suppression and enhancement was observed respectively. The WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals may be a promising candidate for the blue light converted LEDs.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have

  3. Laser cooling of neutral atoms by red-shifted diffuse light in an optical integral sphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhu; Chen Hongxin; Cai Weiquan; Liu Liang; Zhou Shanyu; Shu Wei; Li Fosheng

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we report a cooling and deceleration experiment of a thermal beam by using a nearly resonant red-shifted diffuse light in an optical integral sphere cavity. With this red-shifted diffuse light, a part of thermal sodium atoms is cooled to 380m/s and the velocity width of cooled atoms is about 20m/s. The mechanism of this kind of laser cooling and the experimental results are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  4. Novel application of red-light runner proneness theory within traffic microsimulation to an actual signal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margaret Carol; Galatioto, Fabio; Giuffrè, Tullio; Tesoriere, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Building on previous research a conceptual framework, based on potential conflicts analysis, has provided a quantitative evaluation of 'proneness' to red-light running behaviour at urban signalised intersections of different geometric, flow and driver characteristics. The results provided evidence that commonly used violation rates could cause inappropriate evaluation of the extent of the red-light running phenomenon. Initially, an in-depth investigation of the functional form of the mathematical relationship between the potential and actual red-light runners was carried out. The application of the conceptual framework was tested on a signalised intersection in order to quantify the proneness to red-light running. For the particular junction studied proneness for daytime was found to be 0.17 north and 0.16 south for opposing main road approaches and 0.42 east and 0.59 west for the secondary approaches. Further investigations were carried out using a traffic microsimulation model, to explore those geometric features and traffic volumes (arrival patterns at the stop-line) that significantly affect red-light running. In this way the prediction capability of the proposed potential conflict model was improved. A degree of consistency in the measured and simulated red-light running was observed and the conceptual framework was tested through a sensitivity analysis applied to different stop-line positions and traffic volume variations. The microsimulation, although at its early stages of development, has shown promise in its ability to model unintentional red light running behaviour and following further work through application to other junctions, potentially provides a tool for evaluation of alternative junction designs on proneness. In brief, this paper proposes and applies a novel approach to model red-light running using a microsimulation and demonstrates consistency with the observed and theoretical results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing...... and prolongation of the green time for the pedestrians if required. The effect is examined in a before/after study of a two-stage pedestrian crossing with a centre refuge island in an intersection of four-lane roads. The data consists of responses from an on-site questionnaire including 72+53 individuals and 266...

  6. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  7. Efficient red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with double emission layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Khalifa, M; Mazzeo, M; Maiorano, V; Mariano, F; Carallo, S; Melcarne, A; Cingolani, R; Gigli, G

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with a bipolar emission structure (D-EML) formed by two different layers doped with a red phosphorescent dye. Due to its self-balancing character, the recombination zone is shifted far from the emission/carrier-blocking-layer interfaces. This prevents the accumulation of carriers at the interfaces and reduces the triplet-triplet annihilation, resulting in an improved efficiency of the D-EML device compared with the standard single-EML architecture. However, a current efficiency of 8.4 cd A -1 at 10 mA cm -2 is achieved in the D-EML device compared with 3.7 cd A -1 in the single-EML device

  8. A novel red-emitting phosphor for white light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Fuqiang; Chen, Donghua

    2010-01-01

    A novel red-emitting phosphor of Eu 3+ -activated molybdate was prepared at 850 o C by a modified solid-state reaction. Photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV-visible light from 350 to 550 nm, and exhibited bright red emission at 614 nm. XPS are taken to investigate the structure and compositions of this material. The crystallization and particle sizes of the phosphor have been investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images show that the grain size of the phosphor is about 30 nm which is in full agreement with the theoretical calculation data from the XRD patterns.

  9. Efficient red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with double emission layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Khalifa, M; Mazzeo, M; Maiorano, V; Mariano, F; Carallo, S; Melcarne, A; Cingolani, R; Gigli, G [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-INFM, Distretto tecnologico ISUFI, Universita del Salento, Italy, Via per Arnesano, Km.5, 73100 Lecce (Italy)], E-mail: mohamed.benkhalifa@unile.it

    2008-08-07

    We demonstrate efficient red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with a bipolar emission structure (D-EML) formed by two different layers doped with a red phosphorescent dye. Due to its self-balancing character, the recombination zone is shifted far from the emission/carrier-blocking-layer interfaces. This prevents the accumulation of carriers at the interfaces and reduces the triplet-triplet annihilation, resulting in an improved efficiency of the D-EML device compared with the standard single-EML architecture. However, a current efficiency of 8.4 cd A{sup -1} at 10 mA cm{sup -2} is achieved in the D-EML device compared with 3.7 cd A{sup -1} in the single-EML device.

  10. Employing exciton transfer molecules to increase the lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindla, Florian; Boesing, Manuel; van Gemmern, Philipp; Bertram, Dietrich; Keiper, Dietmar; Heuken, Michael; Kalisch, Holger; Jansen, Rolf H.

    2011-04-01

    The lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is investigated employing either N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB), TMM117, or 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) as hole-conducting host material (mixed with an electron conductor). All OLED (organic vapor phase deposition-processed) show similar efficiencies around 30 lm/W but strongly different lifetimes. Quickly degrading OLED based on TCTA can be stabilized by doping exciton transfer molecules [tris-(phenyl-pyridyl)-Ir (Ir(ppy)3)] to the emission layer. At a current density of 50 mA/cm2 (12 800 cd/m2), a lifetime of 387 h can be achieved. Employing exciton transfer molecules is suggested to prevent the degradation of the red emission layer in phosphorescent white OLED.

  11. Modeling the Frequency of Cyclists’ Red-Light Running Behavior Using Bayesian PG Model and PLN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red-light running behaviors of bicycles at signalized intersection lead to a large number of traffic conflicts and high collision potentials. The primary objective of this study is to model the cyclists’ red-light running frequency within the framework of Bayesian statistics. Data was collected at twenty-five approaches at seventeen signalized intersections. The Poisson-gamma (PG and Poisson-lognormal (PLN model were developed and compared. The models were validated using Bayesian p values based on posterior predictive checking indicators. It was found that the two models have a good fit of the observed cyclists’ red-light running frequency. Furthermore, the PLN model outperformed the PG model. The model estimated results showed that the amount of cyclists’ red-light running is significantly influenced by bicycle flow, conflict traffic flow, pedestrian signal type, vehicle speed, and e-bike rate. The validation result demonstrated the reliability of the PLN model. The research results can help transportation professionals to predict the expected amount of the cyclists’ red-light running and develop effective guidelines or policies to reduce red-light running frequency of bicycles at signalized intersections.

  12. Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David; Loss, Robert; Jarratt, Michael; Abramovits, William; Spencer, James; Geronemus, Roy; Bailin, Philip; Bruce, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied. The lesions were then illuminated (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm2) with repeated treatment 1 week later. Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment. MAL PDT was superior (PAK. MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.

  13. Immersive CAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  14. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  15. Type IIP supernova light curves affected by the acceleration of red supergiant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Förster, Francisco; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the first synthetic light-curve model set of Type IIP supernovae exploded within circumstellar media in which the acceleration of the red supergiant winds is taken into account. Because wind acceleration makes the wind velocities near the progenitors low, the density of the immediate vicinity of the red supergiant supernova progenitors can be higher than that extrapolated by using a constant terminal wind velocity. Therefore, even if the mass-loss rate of the progenitor is relatively low, it can have a dense circumstellar medium at the immediate stellar vicinity and the early light curves of Type IIP supernovae are significantly affected by it. We adopt a simple β velocity law to formulate the wind acceleration. We provide bolometric and multicolour light curves of Type IIP supernovae exploding within such accelerated winds from the combinations of three progenitors, 12-16 M⊙; five β, 1-5; seven mass-loss rates, 10-5-10-2 M⊙ yr-1; and four explosion energies, (0.5-2) × 1051 erg. All the light-curve models are available at https://goo.gl/o5phYb. When the circumstellar density is sufficiently high, our models do not show a classical shock breakout as a consequence of the interaction with the dense and optically thick circumstellar media. Instead, they show a delayed `wind breakout', substantially affecting early light curves of Type IIP supernovae. We find that the mass-loss rates of the progenitors need to be 10-3-10-2 M⊙ yr-1 to explain typical rise times of 5-10 d in Type IIP supernovae assuming a dense circumstellar radius of 1015 cm.

  16. Opening of brain blood barrier induced by red light and central analgesic improvement of cobra neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Li, Yue; Fang, Fei

    2014-05-05

    Cobra neurotoxin (NT) has central analgesic effects, but it is difficult to pass through brain blood barrier (BBB). A novel method of red light induction is designed to help NT across BBB, which is based on photosensitizer activation by red light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to open BBB. The effects were evaluated on cell models and animals in vivo with illumination by semiconductor laser at 670nm on photosensitizer pheophorbide isolated from silkworm excrement. Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to build up BBB cell model. The radioactivity of (125)I-NT was measured in cells and tissues for NT permeation. Three ways of cranial irradiation, nasal cavity and intravascular irradiation were tested with combined injection of (125)I-NT 20μg/kg and pheophorbide 100μg/kg to rats, and organs of rats were separated and determined the radioactivity. Paw pressure test in rats, hot plate and writhing test in mice were applied to appraise the analgesic effects. NT across BBB cell model increased with time of illumination, and reached stable level after 60min. So did ROS in cells. NT mainly distributed in liver and kidney of rats, significantly increased in brain after illumination, and improved analgesic effects. Excitation of pheophorbide at red light produces ROS to open BBB, help NT enter brain, and enhance its central action. This research provides a new method for drug across BBB to improve its central role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New fluorescent dipolar pyrazine derivatives for non-doped red organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baoxiang; Zhou Quanguo; Geng Yanhou; Cheng Yanxiang; Ma Dongge; Xie Zhiyuan; Wang Lixiang; Wang Fosong

    2006-01-01

    Dipolar fluorescent compounds containing electron-accepting pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile and electron-donating arylamine moiety have been designed and synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of these compounds can be adjusted by changing π-bridge length and the donor (D) strength. Organic light-emitting devices based on these compounds are fabricated. Saturated red emission of (0.67, 0.33) and the external quantum efficiency as high as 1.41% have been demonstrated for one of these compounds

  18. Immersion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eileen B.

    Four classroom activities useful for language immersion instruction are described and specific applications and extensions are noted. All are best used to teach content and language at the same time. The first, entitled "Think-Pair-Share," is a cooperative learning technique that increases student participation in classroom experiences and…

  19. Transfer of chirality from light to a Disperse Red 1 molecular glass surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Leila; Lebel, Olivier; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-12-01

    Chiral structures and materials interact with light in well-documented ways, but light can also interact with achiral materials to generate chirality by inscribing its asymmetric configuration on photoresponsive materials, such as azobenzene derivatives. While it is thus possible to generate both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) chirality, 2D chirality is especially attractive because of its non-reciprocity. Herein, 2D chirality is induced on the surface of a glass-forming Disperse Red 1 derivative by irradiation with a single laser beam, yielding crossed spontaneous surface relief gratings with different pitches. Azimuth rotations up to 10° have been observed, and the absence of 3D chirality has been confirmed. This method thus allows generating non-reciprocal planar chiral objects by a simple, single irradiation process on a thin film of a material that can easily be processed over large areas or onto small objects.

  20. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470 nm......, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus....

  1. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm......, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus....

  2. Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on blue, orange, red phosphorescent dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Duan Yu; Xie Wenfa; Zhao Yi; Hou Jingying; Liu Shiyong; Zhang Liying; Li Bin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex bis(2-(2-fluorphenyl)-1,3-benzothiozolato-N, C 2' )iridium(acetylacetonate) in combination with blue phosphorescent dye bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C 2 )](picolinato) Ir(III) and red phosphorescent dye bis[1-(phenyl)isoquinoline] iridium (III) acetylanetonate. By introducing a thin layer of 4, 7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline between blue and red emission layers, the diffusion of excitons is confined and white light can be obtained. WOLEDs with the interlayer all have a higher colour rendering index (>82) than the device without it (76). One device has the maximum current efficiency of 17.6 cd A -1 and a maximum luminance of 39 050 cd m -2 . The power efficiency is 8.7 lm W -1 at 100 cd m -2 . Furthermore, the device has good colour stability and the CIE coordinates just change from (0.394, 0.425) to (0.390, 0.426) with the luminance increasing from 630 to 4200 cd m -2 .

  3. Red-light absorption and fluorescence of phytochrome chromophores: A comparative theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falklöf, Olle; Durbeej, Bo, E-mail: bodur@ifm.liu.se

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: • Calculation of red-light absorption and emission of phytochrome chromophores. • Comparison of TD-DFT and ab initio methods. • Pure functionals show better accuracy than hybrid functionals. - Abstract: Currently, much experimental effort is being invested in the engineering of phytochromes, a large superfamily of photoreceptor proteins, into fluorescent proteins suitable for bioimaging in the near-infrared regime. In this work, we gain insight into the potential of computational methods to contribute to this development by investigating how well representative quantum chemical methods reproduce recently recorded red-light absorption and emission maxima of synthetic derivatives of the bilin chromophores of phytochromes. Focusing on the performance of time-dependent density functional theory but using also the ab initio CIS(D), CC2 and CASPT2 methods, we explore how various methodological considerations influence computed spectra and find, somewhat surprisingly, that density functionals lacking exact exchange reproduce the experimental measurements with smaller errors than functionals that include exact exchange. Thus, for the important class of chromophores that bilins constitute, the widely established trend that hybrid functionals give more accurate excitation energies than pure functionals does not apply.

  4. Red/near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Ho, Michael D.; Krengel, Maxine H.; Bogdanova, Yelena; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Yee, Megan K.; Zafonte, Ross; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Koo, Bang-Bon

    2015-05-01

    This invited paper reviews our research with scalp application of red/near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) to improve cognition in chronic, traumatic brain injury 1. Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased ATP, important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. Eleven chronic, mTBI participants with closed-head injury and cognitive dysfunction received 18 outpatient treatments (MWF, 6 Wks) starting at 10 Mo. to 8 Yr. post-mTBI (MVA, sports-related, IED blast injury). LED therapy is non-invasive, painless, non-thermal (FDA-cleared, non-significant risk device). Each LED cluster head (2.1" diameter, 500mW, 22.2mW/cm2) was applied 10 min (13J/cm2) to 11 scalp placements: midline, from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal, and parietal areas. Testing performed pre- and post-LED (+1 Wk, 1 and 2 Mo post- 18th treatment) showed significant linear trend for LED effect over time, on improved executive function and verbal memory. Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported. New studies at VA Boston include TBI patients treated with transcranial LED (26J/cm2); or treated with only intranasal red, 633nm and NIR, 810nm diodes placed into the nostrils (25 min, 6.5mW, 11.4J/cm2). Intranasal LEDs are hypothesized to deliver photons to hippocampus. Results are similar to Naeser et al. (2014). Actigraphy sleep data show increased sleep time (average, +1 Hr/night) post-18th transcranial or intranasal LED treatment. LED treatments may be self-administered at home (Naeser et al., 2011). A shamcontrolled study with Gulf War Illness Veterans is underway.

  5. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Singh, Tanya; LokaBharathi, P. A.; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K.; Mallik, Sweta; Kshirsagar, Pranav R.; Khadge, N. H.; Nath, B. Nagender; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Dagar, Aditya Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot; Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.; Fernandes, Christabelle E. G.; Fernandes, Sheryl O.; Thomas, Tresa Remya A.; Mamatha, S. S.; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Meena, Ram Murti

    2017-02-01

    Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30.66 W m-2, were attempted for three red-clay sediment cores. Successful enrichments were obtained after incubation for c.a. 120 days at 4°± 2 °C and 25°± 2 °C, representing ambient psychrophilic and low temperature hydrothermal alteration conditions respectively. During hydrothermal cooling, a microbial succession from anaerobic chemolithotrophy to oxygenic photoautotrophy through anaerobic/aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic microbes is indicated. Spectral absorbance patterns of the methanol extracted cell pellets showed peaks corresponding to metal sulphide precipitations, the Soret band of chlorosome absorbance by photosystem II and absence of peaks at Qy transition band. Dendritic nano-structures of metal sulphides are common in these sediments and are comparable with other sulphidic paleo-marine Martian analogues. Significant blue and redshifts have been observed for the experimental samples relative to the un-inoculated medium. These observations indicate the propensity of metal-sulphide deposits contributing to chemiluminiscence supporting the growth of phototrophs at least partially, in the otherwise dark abyss. The effects of other geothermal heat and light sources are also under further consideration. The potential of phototrophic microbial cells to exhibit Doppler shift in absorbance patterns is significant towards understanding planetary microbial habitability. Planetary desiccation could considerably

  6. Effects of light emitting diode (LED) therapy and cold water immersion therapy on exercise-induced muscle damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana Zingari; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Preti, Maria Carla Perozim; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Ramos, Solange de Paula

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 940 nm or cold water immersion therapy (CWI) after an acute bout of exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: animals kept at rest (control), exercised animals (E), exercised + CWI (CWI), and exercised + LED therapy (LED). The animals swam for 100 min, after which blood samples were collected for lactate analysis. Animals in the E group were returned to their cages without treatment, the CWI group was placed in cold water (10°C) for 10 min and the LED group received LED irradiation on both gastrocnemius muscles (4 J/cm(2) each). After 24 h, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles were submitted to histological analysis. Blood samples were used for hematological and CK analyses. The results demonstrated that the LED group presented fewer areas of muscle damage and inflammatory cell infiltration and lower levels of CK activity than the E group. Fewer areas of damaged muscle fiber were observed in the LED group than in CWI. CWI and LED did not reduce edema areas. Hematological analysis showed no significant effect of either treatment on leukocyte counts. The results suggest that LED therapy is more efficient than CWI in preventing muscle damage and local inflammation after exercise.

  7. Bright light in elderly subjects with nonseasonal major depressive disorder: a double blind randomised clinical trial using early morning bright blue light comparing dim red light treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Someren Eus JW

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression frequently occurs in the elderly. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to disturbances of biological rhythmicity. In both normal aging, and depression, the functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is impaired, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of day-night rhythm perturbations, such as sleeping disorders. Moreover, the inhibitory SCN neurons on the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis have decreased activity and HPA-activity is enhanced, when compared to non-depressed elderly. Using bright light therapy (BLT the SCN can be stimulated. In addition, the beneficial effects of BLT on seasonal depression are well accepted. BLT is a potentially safe, nonexpensive and well accepted treatment option. But the current literature on BLT for depression is inconclusive. Methods/Design This study aims to show whether BLT can reduce non-seasonal major depression in elderly patients. Randomized double blind placebo controlled trial in 126 subjects of 60 years and older with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD, DSM-IV/SCID-I. Subjects are recruited through referrals of psychiatric outpatient clinics and from case finding from databases of general practitioners and old-people homes in the Amsterdam region. After inclusion subjects are randomly allocated to the active (bright blue light vs. placebo (dim red light condition using two Philips Bright Light Energy boxes type HF 3304 per subject, from which the light bulbs have been covered with bright blue- or dim red light- permitting filters. Patients will be stratified by use of antidepressants. Prior to treatment a one-week period without light treatment will be used. At three time points several endocrinological, psychophysiological, psychometrically, neuropsychological measures are performed: just before the start of light therapy, after completion of three weeks therapy period, and three weeks thereafter. Discussion If BLT

  8. Near infrared light induces post-translational modifications of human red blood cell proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Dzik, Małgorzata; Chludzińska, Ludmiła; Tomków, Tomasz; Mehl, Joanna; Detyna, Jerzy; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that near infrared (NIR) light exerts beneficial effects on cells. Its usefulness in the treatment of cancer, acute brain injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. The mechanism of the NIR action is probably of photochemical nature, however it is not fully understood. Here, using a relatively simple biological model, human red blood cells (RBCs), and a polychromatic non-polarized light source, we investigate the impact of NIR radiation on the oxygen carrier, hemoglobin (Hb), and anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3). The exposure of intact RBCs to NIR light causes quaternary transitions in Hb, dehydration of proteins and decreases the amount of physiologically inactive methemoglobin, as detected by Raman spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by a lowering of the intracellular pH (pHi) and changes in the cell membrane topography, as documented by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All those changes are in line with our previous studies where alterations of the membrane fluidity and membrane potential were attributed to NIR action on RBCs. The rate of the above listed changes depends strictly on the dose of NIR light that the cells receive, nonetheless it should not be considered as a thermal effect.

  9. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  10. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  11. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m−2 s−1 for blue LEDs at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm, red (639 nm and blue (470 nm LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m−2 s−1 and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70–80 μmol m−2 s−1. The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment.

  12. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitz J Dustin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours, require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings

  13. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  14. Phytochrome-interacting factors PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis under red light in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongjuan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Ping; Zhao, Chengzhou; Chen, Yadi; Bi, Yurong

    2015-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor inducing anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) have been shown to be a family of bHLH transcription factors involved in light signaling in Arabidopsis. Red light effectively increased anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type Col-0, whereas the effects were enhanced in pif4 and pif5 mutants but impaired in overexpression lines PIF4OX and PIF5OX, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are both negative regulators for red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Consistently, transcript levels of several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulatory pathway, including CHS, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, PAP1 and TT8, were significantly enhanced in mutants pif4 and pif5 but decreased in PIF4OX and PIF5OX compared to in Col-0, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are transcriptional repressor of these gene. Transient expression assays revealed that PIF4 and PIF5 could repress red light-induced promoter activities of F3'H and DFR in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) test and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PIF5 could directly bind to G-box motifs present in the promoter of DFR. Taken together, these results suggest that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional repression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red light (RL marked higher weight gain (WG and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux, T2 = medium intensity (20 lux; T3 = dim intensity (5 lux, T4 = control/white light at (20 lux provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05 highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99 was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56 and FCR (1.34 were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05 influence giving the highest (56.2 g and the lowest (12.6 g values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05 higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1% was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2% was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI (4.87%±4% was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05 affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05 affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  16. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  17. Trivalent europium-doped strontium molybdate red phosphors in white light-emitting diodes: Synthesis, photophysical properties and theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.-Q.; Liu, H.-G.; Liu, G.-K.; Lin, Y.; Gao, M.; Zhao, X.-Y.; Zheng, W.-C.; Chen, Y.; Xu, J.; Li, L.-Z.

    2012-01-01

    Eu 3+ -doped strontium molybdate red phosphors (Sr 1−x MoO 4 :Eu x (x = 0.01–0.2)) for white light-emitting diodes (LED) were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The fluorescent intensities of the as-prepared phosphors were remarkably improved. The excitation and emission spectra demonstrate that these phosphors can be effectively excited by the near-UV light (395 nm) and blue light (466 nm). Their emitted red light peaks are located at 613 nm, and the highest quantum yield value (η) of the as-grown red phosphor, which is 95.85%, is much higher than that of commercial red phosphor (77.53%). These red phosphors plus commercial yellow powers (1:10) were successfully packaged with the GaN-based blue chips on a piranha frame by epoxy resins. The encapsulated white LED lamps show high performance of the CIE chromaticity coordinates and color temperatures. Moreover, to explain the fluorescent spectra of these phosphors, a complete 3003 × 3003 energy matrix was successfully built by an effective operator Hamiltonian including free ion and crystal field interactions. For the first time, the fluorescent spectra for Eu 3+ ion at the tetragonal (S 4 ) Sr 2+ site of SrMoO 4 crystal were calculated from a complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method. The fitting values are close to the experimental results.

  18. Highly efficient red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by sorbitol-doped PEDOT:PSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Le; Wang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    This work shows a promising approach to improve device performance by optimizing the electron transport and hole injection layers for tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):rubrene-based red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We compared the effect of two electron transport layers (ETLs), and found that the rubrene/bathophenanthroline (Bphen) ETL-based OLED showed a much higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) (4.67%) than the Alq3 ETL-based OLED (EQE of 3.08%). The doping ratio of DBP in rubrene was tuned from 1.0 wt% to 4.5 wt%, and the 1.5 wt%-DBP:rubrene-based OLED demonstrated the highest EQE of 5.24% and lowest turn-on voltage of 2.2 V. Atomic force microscopy images indicated that 1.5 wt% DBP-doped rubrene film exhibited a regular strip shape, and this regular surface was favorable to the hole and electron recombination in the emitting layer. Finally, the sorbitol-doped poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used to further improve the EQE; doping with 6 wt% sorbitol achieved the highest current efficiency of 7.03 cd A‑1 and an EQE of 7.50%. The significantly enhanced performance implies that the hole injection is a limiting factor for DBP:rubrene-based red fluorescent OLEDs.

  19. Safety impacts of red light cameras at signalized intersections based on cellular automata models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D; Lum, K M

    2015-01-01

    This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. Conflict occurrences are generated through simulating vehicular interactions based on an improved cellular automata (CA) model. The CA model is calibrated and validated against field observations at approaches with and without RLCs. Simulation experiments are conducted for RLC and non-RLC intersections with different geometric layouts and traffic demands to generate conflict occurrences that are analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that RLCs exert important effects on road safety. The comparison of simulated conflict occurrences show favorable safety impacts of RLCs on crossing conflicts and unfavorable impacts for rear-end conflicts during red/amber phases. Corroborative results are found from broad analysis of accident occurrence. RLCs are found to have a mixed effect on accident risk at signalized intersections: crossing collisions are reduced, whereas rear-end collisions may increase. The specially developed CA model is found to be a feasible safety assessment tool.

  20. Steady full colour white organic light-emitting devices consisting of an ultrathin red fluorescent layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wen; Yu Junsheng; Li Lu; Wang Jun; Jiang Yadong

    2009-01-01

    White organic light-emitting devices were fabricated using an ultrathin red fluorescent dye of 3-(dicyanomethylene)-5, 5-dimethyl-1-(4-dimethylamino-styryl)cyclohexene inserted in tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminium layer as a red and green emitting layer (EML) and a thin 4, 4'-bis(2, 2'-diphenylvinyl)-1, 1'-diphenyl (DPVBi) layer as blue EML. A maximum power efficiency of 2.4 lm W -1 at 5.5 V and a maximum luminance of 16 690 cd m -2 at 18.5 V were obtained. Pure white emission with a good colour rendering index of 80 was achieved as low as 5 V. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates near (0.330, 0.300) show a slight variation of (-0.020, +0.002) in a wide range of voltages. The achievement of full colour white emission at low-operation voltages and high-colour stability is attributed to the confining emission zone function of the thin EML and direct carrier trapping in the ultrathin layer.

  1. Steady full colour white organic light-emitting devices consisting of an ultrathin red fluorescent layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Wen; Yu Junsheng; Li Lu; Wang Jun; Jiang Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn

    2009-01-07

    White organic light-emitting devices were fabricated using an ultrathin red fluorescent dye of 3-(dicyanomethylene)-5, 5-dimethyl-1-(4-dimethylamino-styryl)cyclohexene inserted in tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminium layer as a red and green emitting layer (EML) and a thin 4, 4'-bis(2, 2'-diphenylvinyl)-1, 1'-diphenyl (DPVBi) layer as blue EML. A maximum power efficiency of 2.4 lm W{sup -1} at 5.5 V and a maximum luminance of 16 690 cd m{sup -2} at 18.5 V were obtained. Pure white emission with a good colour rendering index of 80 was achieved as low as 5 V. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates near (0.330, 0.300) show a slight variation of (-0.020, +0.002) in a wide range of voltages. The achievement of full colour white emission at low-operation voltages and high-colour stability is attributed to the confining emission zone function of the thin EML and direct carrier trapping in the ultrathin layer.

  2. Effects of Light Intensity and Color on the Biomass, Extracellular Red Pigment, and Citrinin Production of Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liling; Dai, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-12-21

    Light is a crucial environmental signal for fungi. In this work, the effects of different light intensities and colors on biomass, Monascus pigments (MPs) and citrinin production of Monascus ruber M7 were investigated. We have demonstrated that low intensity of blue light (500 lx) decreased Monascus biomass, increased MPs accumulation via upregulation of MpigA, MpigB, and MpigJ genes expression, but had no significant influence on citrinin production. High intensity of blue light (1500 lx) decreased citrinin accumulation but had no significant influence on biomass and MPs production after 14 days cultivation. Low intensity of green light (500 lx) stimulated citrinin production via upregulation of pksCT, mrl1, mrl2, and ctnA genes expression. One putative red light photoreceptor and two putative green light photoreceptors were identified in M. ruber M7. These observations will not only guide the practical production of Monascus but also contribute to our understanding light effects on Monascus.

  3. Efficient red, green, blue and white organic light-emitting diodes with same exciplex host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Szu-Wei; Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Chung-Tsung; Lin, Sung-En; Chen, Nien-Po; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Recently, exciplex had drawn attention because of its potential for efficient electroluminescence or for use as a host in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this study, four kinds of hole transport material/electron transport material combinations were examined to verify the formation of exciplex and the corresponding energy bandgaps. We successfully demonstrated that the combination of tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) and 3,5,3‧,5‧-tetra(m-pyrid-3-yl)phenyl[1,1‧]biphenyl (BP4mPy) could form a stable exciplex emission with an adequate energy gap. Using exciplex as a host in red, green, and blue phosphorescent OLEDs with an identical trilayer architecture enabled effective energy transfer from exciplex to emitters, achieving corresponding efficiencies of 8.8, 14.1, and 15.8%. A maximum efficiency of 11.3% and stable emission was obtained in white OLEDs.

  4. Control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation and glutathione by the incident light red/far red ratio in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Tambussi, Eduardo A; Diego, Fanello; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-01-05

    The effects of red/far red (R/FR) ratios on leaf ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) accumulation were examined in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Growth under low R/FR ratios resulted in a "shade" phenotype and much lower leaf AA and GSH contents than high (R/FR) ratios. Photosynthesis rates were unaffected by changes in the R/FR ratio but leaf respiration rates, pyridine nucleotide pools and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased under the low R/FR regime. The GSH pool changed slowly in response to altered R/FR ratios but leaf ascorbate acclimated over a single photoperiod. We conclude that light quality signals, particularly R/FR ratios, are important regulators of antioxidant synthesis and accumulation. These acclimatory changes are an early response to changing light environment.

  5. Photoresponsive nanocapsulation of cobra neurotoxin and enhancement of its central analgesic effects under red light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Qian Yang, Chuang Zhao, Jun Zhao, Yong Ye Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cobra neurotoxin (CNT, a peptide isolated from snake venom of Naja naja atra, shows central analgesic effects in our previous research. In order to help CNT pass through blood–brain barrier (BBB and improve its central analgesic effects, a new kind of CNT nanocapsules were prepared by double emulsification with soybean lecithin and cholesterol as the shell, and pheophorbide as the photosensitizer added to make it photoresponsive. The analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The CNT nanocapsules had an average particle size of 229.55 nm, zeta potential of -53.00 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 84.81% and drug loading of 2.98%, when the pheophorbide content was 1% of lecithin weight. Pheophorbide was mainly distributed in outer layer of the CNT nanocapsules and increased the release of the CNT nanocapsules after 650 nm illumination. The central analgesic effects were improved after intraperitoneal injection of CNT at 25 and 50 µg·kg-1 under 650 nm irradiation for 30 min in the nasal cavity. Activation of pheophorbide by red light generated reactive oxygen species which opened the nanocapsules and BBB and helped the CNT enter the brain. This research provides a new drug delivery for treatment of central pain. Keywords: cobra neurotoxin, nanocapsules, photoresponsive, central analgesic effects, red light, drug delivery, photosensitizer

  6. Regulation of the expression of NADP-malic enzyme by UV-B, red and far-red light in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Casati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malic enzyme (NADP-ME in etiolated maize (Zea mays seedlings by UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm was investigated by measuring changes in activity, protein quantity and RNA levels as a function of intensity and duration of exposure to the different radiations. Under low levels of PAR, exposure to UV-B radiation but not UV-A radiation for 6 to 24 h caused a marked increase in the enzyme levels similar to that observed under high PAR in the absence of UV-B. UV-B treatment of green leaves following a 12-h dark period also caused an increase in NADP-ME expression. Exposure to UV-B radiation for only 5 min resulted in a rapid increase of the enzyme, followed by a more gradual rise with longer exposure up to 6 h. Low levels of red light for 5 min or 6 h were also effective in inducing NADP-ME activity equivalent to that obtained with UV-B radiation. A 5-min exposure to far-red light following UV-B or red light treatment reversed the induction of NADP-ME, and this effect could be eliminated by further treatment with UV-B or red light. These results indicate that physiological levels of UV-B radiation can have a positive effect on the induction of this photosynthetic enzyme. The reducing power and pyruvate generated by the activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration, in cellular repair processes and as substrates for fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair.

  7. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  8. Pulpal blood flow recorded from human premolar teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter using either red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human premolar teeth. Recordings were made from 11 healthy teeth in 9 subjects (aged 16-30 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, the dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 80%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. Removal and replacement of the pulp reduced the mean blood flow by 58%. There was no further change when the pulp was removed. With red light, the dam reduced the signal from intact teeth by 60%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. The signal fell by 67% after pulp removal and replacement and did not change significantly when the pulp was removed. Opaque rubber dam minimises the contribution of non-pulpal tissues to the laser Doppler signal recorded from premolars. Using dam, the pulp contributed about 60% to the blood flow signal with both red and infrared light. The difference between them in this respect was not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021

  10. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  11. Use of polarization to separate on-axis scattered and unscattered light in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Nemati, Babak; Barrera, Frederick J.

    1991-06-01

    The separation of on-axis scattered and unscattered transmission through turbid media has been a difficult experimental task in recent years. This study suggests the use of a polarimeter to filter out the contribution of scattered light to the net on-axis transmission. Red blood cells (RBC) were used to produce the scattering effect. The scattering level was varied by: (1) altering the distance of the detector from the sample, (2) using erythrocytes from three different species, e.g., the dog, goat, and human, which are know to have different RBC sizes, and (3) allowing the RBCs from each species to shrink and swell osmotically. An He-Ne laser was used as the source of the radiation so that data were obtained at a wavelength in the spectral region used in oximetry and hemoglobinometry. In each case, the difference in the scattering cross sections obtained for each sample, with and without polarization filtering, gave us a measure of the filtered scattered light. The results obtained were in close agreement with the expected contribution of scattered radiation to the net axial transmission. This method may be used effectively for all studies involving measurements of on-axis transmission through turbid media, such as biological tissue.

  12. AZO/Ag/AZO anode for resonant cavity red, blue, and yellow organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentle, A. R., E-mail: angus.gentle@uts.edu.au; Smith, G. B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences and Institute of Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia); Yambem, S. D.; Burn, P. L.; Meredith, P. [Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2016-06-28

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the transparent electrode of choice for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Replacing ITO for cost and performance reasons is a major drive across optoelectronics. In this work, we show that changing the transparent electrode on red, blue, and yellow OLEDs from ITO to a multilayer buffered aluminium zinc oxide/silver/aluminium zinc oxide (AZO/Ag/AZO) substantially enhances total output intensity, with better control of colour, its constancy, and intensity over the full exit hemisphere. The thin Ag containing layer induces a resonant cavity optical response of the complete device. This is tuned to the emission spectra of the emissive material while minimizing internally trapped light. A complete set of spectral intensity data is presented across the full exit hemisphere for each electrode type and each OLED colour. Emission zone modelling of output spectra at a wide range of exit angles to the normal was in excellent agreement with the experimental data and hence could, in principle, be used to check and adjust production settings. These multilayer transparent electrodes show significant potential for both eliminating indium from OLEDs and spectrally shaping the emission.

  13. High-Performance Red-Light Photodetector Based on Lead-Free Bismuth Halide Perovskite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Wei; Kong, Wei-Yu; Wang, You-Yi; Zhu, Jin-Miao; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Zheng-Hua

    2017-06-07

    In this study, we developed a sensitive red-light photodetector (RLPD) based on CsBi 3 I 10 perovskite thin film. This inorganic, lead-free perovskite was fabricated by a simple spin-coating method. Device analysis reveals that the as-assembled RLPD was very sensitive to 650 nm light, with an on/off ratio as high as 10 5 . The responsivity and specific detectivity of the device were estimated to be 21.8 A/W and 1.93 × 10 13 Jones, respectively, which are much better than those of other lead halide perovskite devices. In addition, the device shows a fast response (rise time: 0.33 ms; fall time: 0.38 ms) and a high external quantum efficiency (4.13 × 10 3 %). It is also revealed that the RLPD has a very good device stability even after storage for 3 months under ambient conditions. In summary, we suggest that the CsBi 3 I 10 perovskite photodetector developed in this study may have potential applications in future optoelectronic systems.

  14. Kinetics of red blood cell rouleaux formation studied by light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolna-Chodór, Alicja; Bosek, Maciej; Grzegorzewski, Bronislaw

    2015-02-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux formation was experimentally studied using a light scattering technique. The suspensions of RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Hematocrit of the samples was adjusted ranging from 1% to 4%. Measurements of the intensity of the coherent component of light scattered by the suspensions were performed and the scattering coefficient of the suspensions was determined. The number of RBCs per rouleaux was obtained using anomalous diffraction theory. The technique was used to show the effect of time, hematocrit, and sample thickness on the process. The number of cells per rouleaux first increases linearly, reaches a critical value at ∼3 cells per rouleaux, and then a further increase in the rouleaux size is observed. The kinetic constant of the rouleaux growth in the linear region is found to be independent of hematocrit. The aggregation rate increases as the sample thickness increases. The time at which the critical region appears strongly decreases as the hematocrit of the suspension increases. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  15. Fluence dependence of the ultraviolet-light-induced accumulation of chalcone synthase mRNA and effects of blue and far-red light in cultured parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, B.; Hahlbrock, K.; Schäfer, E.

    1986-01-01

    The fluence dependence of the time course of accumulation of chalcone synthase mRNA in ultraviolet (UV)-light-irradiated cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and the additional effects of blue and far-red light have been investigated. Variations of the UV fluence had no detectable influence on the initial rate of increase in mRNA amount or translational activity, nor on the preceding lag period of approximately 3 h, but strongly influenced the duration of the transient increase. The effects were the same whether the fluence rate or the time of irradiation was varied to obtain a given fluence. Blue-light pretreatment of the cells resulted in increased amounts of mRNA and abolished the apparent lag period. This effect remained cryptic without the subsequent UV-light treatment. Irradiation with long-wavelength far-red light following UV-light pulses shortened the duration of the mRNA accumulation period. This effect was not altered by a preceding blue-light treatment. Thus, three photoreceptors, a UV-B receptor, a blue-light receptor and phytochrome, participate in the regulation of chalcone synthase mRNA accumulation in this system

  16. Pulpal blood flow recorded from exposed dentine with a laser Doppler flow meter using red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    To determine the percentage of the blood flow signal that is derived from dental pulp when recording from exposed dentine in a human premolar. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-33 yr.) with a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) using either a red (635 nm) or an infrared (780 nm) laser. After exposing dentine above the buccal pulpal horn (cavity diam. 1.6 mm, depth 3 mm) and isolating the crown with opaque rubber dam, blood flow was recorded alternately with infrared or red light from the exposed dentine under four conditions: before and after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine without vasoconstrictor) (LA) over the apex of the root of the tooth; after exposing the pulp by cutting a buccal, class V cavity in the tooth; and after sectioning the coronal pulp transversely through the exposure. There was no significant change in mean blood flow recorded with either light source when the tooth was anaesthetized or when the pulp was exposed. After the pulp had been sectioned, the blood flow recorded with infrared light fell by 67.8% and with red light, by 68.4%. The difference between these effects was not significant. When recording blood flow from exposed coronal dentine with either infrared or red light in a tooth isolated with opaque rubber dam, about 68% to the signal was contributed by the pulp. The signal:noise ratio was better with infrared than red light, and when recording from dentine than enamel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Red Light Combined with Blue Light Irradiation Regulates Proliferation and Apoptosis in Skin Keratinocytes in Combination with Low Concentrations of Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Ren, Qu; Wei, Lizhao

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a widely known natural phytochemical from plant Curcuma longa. In recent years, curcumin has received increasing attention because of its capability to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties in different cancer cells. However, the therapeutic benefits of curcumin are severely hampered due to its particularly low absorption via trans-dermal or oral bioavailability. Phototherapy with visible light is gaining more and more support in dermatological therapy. Red light is part of the visible light spectrum, which is able to deeply penetrate the skin to about 6 mm, and directly affect the fibroblast of the skin dermis. Blue light is UV-free irradiation which is fit for treating chronic inflammation diseases. In this study, we show that curcumin at low concentrations (1.25–3.12 μM) has a strong anti-proliferative effect on TNF-α-induced psoriasis-like inflammation when applied in combination with light-emitting-diode devices. The treatment was especially effective when LED blue light at 405 nm was combined with red light at 630 or 660 nm, which markedly amplified the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of curcumin. The experimental results demonstrated that this treatment reduced the viability of human skin keratinocytes, decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, inhibited NF-κB activity and activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 while preserving the cell membrane integrity. Moreover, the combined treatment also down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK. Taken together, our results indicated that the combination of curcumin with LED blue light united red light irradiation can attain a higher efficiency of regulating proliferation and apoptosis in skin keratinocytes. PMID:26382065

  18. Red Light Combined with Blue Light Irradiation Regulates Proliferation and Apoptosis in Skin Keratinocytes in Combination with Low Concentrations of Curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhui Niu

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a widely known natural phytochemical from plant Curcuma longa. In recent years, curcumin has received increasing attention because of its capability to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties in different cancer cells. However, the therapeutic benefits of curcumin are severely hampered due to its particularly low absorption via trans-dermal or oral bioavailability. Phototherapy with visible light is gaining more and more support in dermatological therapy. Red light is part of the visible light spectrum, which is able to deeply penetrate the skin to about 6 mm, and directly affect the fibroblast of the skin dermis. Blue light is UV-free irradiation which is fit for treating chronic inflammation diseases. In this study, we show that curcumin at low concentrations (1.25-3.12 μM has a strong anti-proliferative effect on TNF-α-induced psoriasis-like inflammation when applied in combination with light-emitting-diode devices. The treatment was especially effective when LED blue light at 405 nm was combined with red light at 630 or 660 nm, which markedly amplified the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of curcumin. The experimental results demonstrated that this treatment reduced the viability of human skin keratinocytes, decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, inhibited NF-κB activity and activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 while preserving the cell membrane integrity. Moreover, the combined treatment also down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK. Taken together, our results indicated that the combination of curcumin with LED blue light united red light irradiation can attain a higher efficiency of regulating proliferation and apoptosis in skin keratinocytes.

  19. Red carbon dots-based phosphors for white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuechen; Wang, Yi; Li, Di; Zhou, Ding; Jing, Pengtao; Shen, Dezhen; Qu, Songnan

    2018-05-29

    Exploration of solid-state efficient red emissive carbon dots (CDs) phosphors is strongly desired for the development of high performance CDs-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). In this work, enhanced red emissive CDs-based phosphors with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 25% were prepared by embedding red emissive CDs (PLQYs of 23%) into polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Because of the protection of PVP, the phosphors could preserve strong luminescence under long-term UV excitation or being mixed with conventional packaging materials. By applying the red emissive phosphors as the color conversion layer, WLEDs with high color rendering index of 92 and color coordinate of (0.33, 0.33) are fabricated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Yun-Jr; Yeh, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm 2 , and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  1. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang, E-mail: fsjuang@seed.net.tw [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yun-Jr [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Pei-Hsun [Raystar Optronics, Inc., 5F No. 25, Keya Rd. Daya Township, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yu-Sheng [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  2. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  3. May the variable magnetic field and pulse red light induce synergy effects in respiratory burst of neutrophils in vitro?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocka - Bogusz, H; Jaroszyk, F

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the red light (R) (630 nm), magnetic field (MF) and magnetic field combined with the red light (MF+R) upon reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by neutrophils in vitro. The object of the research was hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) formation during neutrophils respiratory burst or within steady-state. Blood from healthy volunteers was used for the purpose of the study. Flow cytometry method, using transformation of DCFH-DA (2'7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) to the fluorescent DCF (2'7'-dichlorofluorescin), was used for estimation of hydrogen peroxide production. The variable magnetic field of ELF range of the mean induction equals 26.7(μT), the red light at the energy density of 1.17(J/cm 2 ) and their combination were applied for 30 minutes each. The fundamental frequency of pulses was 180÷ 195 Hz. A statistically significant decrease of H 2 O 2 production by neutrophils was observed. The level of the decrease was in the range of 10-30% and was dependent on the kind of applied physical factors and whether neutrophils were stimulated or not. The observation showed that the variable magnetic field combined with red light do not induce the synergy effect.

  4. Red polymer light-emitting devices based on an oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yafei; Li, Chun; Huang, Ying; Dang, Dongfeng; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Cao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    A novel tris(dibenzoylmethanato)[5-(2-(4-tert-butylbenzenyl)-5-benzenyl-1,3, 4-oxadiazole-4′)-1,10-phenanthroline]europium(III) [Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen)] containing an electron-transporting oxadiazole-functionalized phenanthroline ligand was synthesized and characterized. Its UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL), as well as the electroluminescence (EL) in polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) were investigated. The double-layer PLEDs with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/PVK (40 nm)/PFO:PBD (30%):Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) (1–8 wt %) (80 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Saturated red Eu 3+ ion emission, based on the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition, is centered at a wavelength of 614 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The highest external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 1.26% at current density of 1.65 mA cm −2 , with a maximum brightness of 568 cd m −2 at 137.8 mA cm −2 was achieved from the device at 1 wt % dopant concentration. - Highlights: • An oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) was presented. • The optophysical properties of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) were investigated. • Saturated red emission was observed in the PLEDs. • An external quantum efficiency of 1.26% was obtained in these devices

  5. Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on solution processed emissive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baiquan; Xu, Miao; Tao, Hong; Ying, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic polymer light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) were fabricated based on a solution-processed small-molecule host 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) by doping an iridium complex, tris(1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)phthalazine)iridium (III) (Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 ). A hole blocking layer 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI) with a function of electron transport was thermally deposited onto the top of CBP layer. The diode with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/CBP:Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 (55 nm)/TPBI (30 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (120 nm) showed an external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 19.3% and luminous efficiency (LE) of 18.3 cd/A at a current density of 0.16 mA/cm 2 , and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.607, 0.375). It was suggested that the diodes using TPBI layer exhibited nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency and one order magnitude enhanced LE or QE ext efficiencies. -- Highlights: • Efficient red PhOLEDs based on a solution-processed small-molecule host were fabricated. • By altering volume ratio of chloroform/chlorobenzene solvent, we got best film quality of CBP. • EQE of the diode was 19.3%, indicating nearly 100% internal quantum yield was achieved

  6. Light scattering method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Szołna-Chodór, A.; Baryła, J.; DreŻek, D.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation can be observed both in vivo as well as in vitro. This process is a cause of alterations of blood flow in microvascular network. Enhanced RBC aggregation makes oxygen and nutrients delivery difficult. Measurements of RBC aggregation usually give a description of the process for a sample where the state of a solution and cells is well-defined and the system reached an equilibrium. Incubation of RBCs in various solutions is frequently used to study the effects of the solutions on the RBC aggregation. The aggregation parameters are compared before and after incubation while the detailed changes of the parameters during incubation remain unknown. In this paper we have proposed a method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation based on the well-known technique where backscattered light is used to assess the parameters of the RBC aggregation. Couette system consisting of two cylinders is adopted in the method. The incubation is observed in the Couette system. In the proposed method following sequence of rotations is adapted. Two minutes rotation is followed by two minutes stop. In this way we have obtained a time series of back scattered intensity consisting of signals respective for disaggregation and aggregation. It is shown that the temporal changes of the intensity manifest changes of RBC aggregation during incubation. To show the ability of the method to assess the effect of incubation time on RBC aggregation the results are shown for solutions that cause an increase of RBC aggregation as well as for the case where the aggregation is decreased.

  7. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  10. Regulation of Carbon Flow by Nitrogen and Light in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    The red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. photosynthetically fixed [14C] bicarbonate at high rates under defined conditions in unialgal laboratory culture. The fixation rate and flow of photosynthate into various end products were dependent on the nitrogen status of the tissue. Plants fed luxury levels of nitrogen (approximately 340 micromolar) showed fixation rates several-fold higher than those seen for plants starved for nitrogen. The addition of NO3− or NH4+ to such starved plants further inhibited fixation over at least the first several hours after addition. The majority of 14C after incubations of 30 minutes to 8 hours was found in the compounds floridoside, agar and floridean starch. In addition, amino acids and intermediate compounds of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were detected. Nitrogen affected the partitioning of labeled carbon into these compounds. Plants under luxury nitrogen conditions had higher floridoside levels and markedly lower amounts of agar and starch than found in plants limited for nitrogen. Amino acid, phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll levels were also significantly higher in nitrogen-enriched plants. Addition of NO3− to starved plants led to an increase in floridoside, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids within 1 hour and inhibited carbon flow into agar and starch. Carbon fixation in the dark was only 1 to 7% of that seen in the light. Dark fixation of [14C]bicarbonate yielded label primarily in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids and polysaccharides. Nitrogen stimulated amino acid synthesis at the expense of agar and starch. Floridoside was only a minor component in the dark. Pulse-chase experiments, designed to show carbon turnover, indicated a 2-fold increase in labeling of agar over 96 hours of chase in the light. No increases were seen in the dark. Low molecular weight pools, including floridoside, decreased 2- to 5-fold over this period

  11. Regulation of Carbon Flow by Nitrogen and Light in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, B A

    1986-09-01

    The red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. photosynthetically fixed [(14)C] bicarbonate at high rates under defined conditions in unialgal laboratory culture. The fixation rate and flow of photosynthate into various end products were dependent on the nitrogen status of the tissue. Plants fed luxury levels of nitrogen (approximately 340 micromolar) showed fixation rates several-fold higher than those seen for plants starved for nitrogen. The addition of NO(3) (-) or NH(4) (+) to such starved plants further inhibited fixation over at least the first several hours after addition. The majority of (14)C after incubations of 30 minutes to 8 hours was found in the compounds floridoside, agar and floridean starch. In addition, amino acids and intermediate compounds of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were detected. Nitrogen affected the partitioning of labeled carbon into these compounds. Plants under luxury nitrogen conditions had higher floridoside levels and markedly lower amounts of agar and starch than found in plants limited for nitrogen. Amino acid, phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll levels were also significantly higher in nitrogen-enriched plants. Addition of NO(3) (-) to starved plants led to an increase in floridoside, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids within 1 hour and inhibited carbon flow into agar and starch. Carbon fixation in the dark was only 1 to 7% of that seen in the light. Dark fixation of [(14)C]bicarbonate yielded label primarily in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids and polysaccharides. Nitrogen stimulated amino acid synthesis at the expense of agar and starch. Floridoside was only a minor component in the dark. Pulse-chase experiments, designed to show carbon turnover, indicated a 2-fold increase in labeling of agar over 96 hours of chase in the light. No increases were seen in the dark. Low molecular weight pools, including floridoside, decreased 2- to 5-fold

  12. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  13. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k ) of this algal species was less than 115  μ mol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200  μ mol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas...

  14. Measurement of elastic light scattering from two optically trapped microspheres and red blood cells in a transparent medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Kauppila, Antti; Karmenyan, Artashes; Myllylä, Risto

    2011-09-15

    Optical tweezers can be used to manipulate small objects and cells. A trap can be used to fix the position of a particle during light scattering measurements. The places of two separately trapped particles can also be changed. In this Letter we present elastic light scattering measurements as a function of scattering angle when two trapped spheres are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. This setup is suitable for trapping noncharged homogeneous spheres. We also demonstrate measurement of light scattering patterns from two separately trapped red blood cells. Two different illumination schemes are used for both samples.

  15. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  16. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  17. Riding through red lights: the rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilyn; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009. In total, 4225 cyclists faced a red light and 6.9% were non-compliant. The main predictive factor for infringement was direction of travel, cyclists turning left (traffic travels on the left-side in Australia) had 28.3 times the relative odds of infringement compared to cyclists who continued straight through the intersection. Presence of other road users had a deterrent effect with the odds of infringement lower when a vehicle travelling in the same direction was present (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.53) or when other cyclists were present (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36). Findings suggest that some cyclists do not perceive turning left against a red signal to be unsafe and the opportunity to ride through the red light during low cross traffic times influences the likelihood of infringement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  19. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ-carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (Ik of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  20. Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and their implications for light adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  1. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-06

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores.

  2. How counterfactuals of Red-Queen theory shed light on science and its historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, Joachim L

    2017-08-01

    A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science. The convergence in the first counterfactual is due to a horizontal transfer of knowledge. Similar transfers of knowledge are typical for innovations of actual science. This suggests that contingent choices can merge as well as fork research traditions both in actual research and counterfactual history. Neither the paths of the actual history of science nor those of its counterfactual alternatives will form a tree of exclusively diverging bifurcations, but a network instead. Convergencies in counterfactuals may, therefore, be due to the web-structure of science as much as to the aims of the historians in question. Furthermore, the difference in causal structure between the actual science and its convergent counterfactual might become diagnostic for external factors rather than internal aims forcing a historian towards convergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light: effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.

  4. Effect of casino-related sound, red light and pairs on decision-making during the Iowa gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Bechara, Antoine; Vanavermaete, Nora; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Casino venues are often characterized by "warm" colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light and casino-related sounds, with or without the presence of another participant, on gambling-related behaviors. Gambling behavior was estimated with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Eighty non-gamblers participants took part in one of four experimental conditions (20 participants in each condition); (1) IGT without casino-related sound and under normal (white) light (control), (2) IGT with combined casino-related sound and red light (casino alone), (3) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and in front of another participant (casino competition-implicit), and (4) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and against another participant (casino competition-explicit). Results showed that, in contrast to the control condition, participants in the three "casino" conditions did not exhibit slower deck selection reaction time after losses than after rewards. Moreover, participants in the two "competition" conditions displayed lowered deck selection reaction time after losses and rewards, as compared with the control and the "casino alone" conditions. These findings suggest that casino environment may diminish the time used for reflecting and thinking before acting after losses. These findings are discussed along with the methodological limitations, potential directions for future studies, as well as implications to enhance prevention strategies of abnormal gambling.

  5. Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Wu, Yukun; Yan, Pingrui; Wu, Qingyang; Qu, Dalong; Liu, Shiyong; Zhao, Yi

    2014-01-27

    Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a common simply double emitting layer (D-EML) structure are investigated. Our OLEDs without any out-coupling schemes as well as n-doping strategies show low driving voltage, e.g. white OLED, respectively. This work demonstrates that the low driving voltages and high efficiencies can be simultaneously realized with a common simply D-EML structure.

  6. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E.; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT624 induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT410 and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  7. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT₆₂₄ induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT₄₁₀ and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  8. Tuning the light emission of novel donor-acceptor phenoxazine dye-based materials towards the red spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaceanu, Mariana-Dana; Constantin, Catalin-Paul

    2018-04-01

    A novel red fluorescent push-pull system able to generate an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) complex was synthesized. The novel dye (R-POX) combines some structural features which are rarely encountered in the design of other push-pull systems: hexyl-substituted phenoxazine as donor moiety, divinylketone as π-linker, and p-fluorobenzene as electron acceptor group. The relationship between the structural motif, photo-physical and electrochemical properties by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence and cyclic voltammetry was thoroughly investigated both as red dopant in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or polyimide (PI) matrix, and non-doped host emitter. The molecular rigid cores of the synthesized dye formed supramolecular rod-like structures in condensed phase with a strong impact on the emissive centers. The aggregation was totally suppressed when the dye was used as dopant in an amorphous polymeric matrix, such as PMMA or PI. Electrochemical measurements revealed the dye ability for both hole and electron injection and transport. The fluorescence emission was found to be highly sensitive to solvent polarity, rendering blue-green, yellow, orange and red light emission in different organic solvents. The absolute fluorescence quantum yield reached 39.57% in solution, and dropped to 1.2% in solid state and to 14.01% when the dye was used as dopant in PMMA matrix. According to the available CIE 1931 standard, R-POX emitted pure and saturated red light of single wavelength with chromaticity coordinates very close to those of National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard red colour. The R-POX photo-optical features were compared to those of the commercial red emitter 6, 13-diphenylpentacene.

  9. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  10. Red light emission from ZnO:Eu"3"+|CuSCN hetero-junction under cathodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Minoura, H.

    2015-01-01

    Eu"3"+ ions were bonded to ZnO ceramic via organic ligand. Surface bonded Eu"3"+ ions were exhibited specific luminescence bands due to electron transitions between f–f intra-configurationally transitions. Further enhancement of luminescence bands was observed by attaching selected oligomers to Eu"3"+ ions. A hetero-junction was prepared by depositing copper-thiocyanate on Eu"3"+ ions bonded ZnO ceramic. Red light emission was observed from surface bonded Eu"3"+ ions in ZnO:Eu"3"+|CuSCN hetero-junction under reverse bias. - Highlights: • Europium doped ZnO ceramic exhibits photo-luminescence. • Semiconductor hetro-junction was prepared. • ZnO:Eu"3"+|CuSCN hetero-junction emits red light under reverse bias.

  11. Subcellular pigment distribution is altered under far-red light acclimation in cyanobacteria that contain chlorophyll f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Erica L-W; Wolf, Benjamin M; Liu, Haijun; Berg, R Howard; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Chen, Min; Blankenship, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Far-Red Light (FRL) acclimation is a process that has been observed in cyanobacteria and algae that can grow solely on light above 700 nm. The acclimation to FRL results in rearrangement and synthesis of new pigments and pigment-protein complexes. In this study, cyanobacteria containing chlorophyll f, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335 and Halomicronema hongdechloris, were imaged as live cells with confocal microscopy. H. hongdechloris was further studied with hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy (HCFM) and freeze-substituted thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under FRL, phycocyanin-containing complexes and chlorophyll-containing complexes were determined to be physically separated and the synthesis of red-form phycobilisome and Chl f was increased. The timing of these responses was observed. The heterogeneity and eco-physiological response of the cells was noted. Additionally, a gliding motility for H. hongdechloris is reported.

  12. Efficient red organic light-emitting diode sensitized by a phosphorescent Ir compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.R. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); You, H. [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Tang, H. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Ding, G.H. [Institute of Advanced Materials and Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ma, D.G. [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Tian, H. [Institute of Advanced Materials and Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Sun, R.G. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: runguangsun@126.com

    2008-01-15

    The efficiencies of red organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using tris-(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) as host and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyra n (DCJTB) as dopant were greatly increased by adding a small amount (0.3 wt%) of Ir compound, iridium(III) bis(3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethylamino)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-onato-N',C{sup 4}) (acetyl acetonate) (Ir(C6){sub 2}(acac)), as a sensitizer. The device has a sandwiched structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/4,4',4''-tris(N-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (T-NATA) (40 nm)/N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4' diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/Alq{sub 3}:DCJTB (0.7 wt%):Ir(C6){sub 2}(acac) (0.3 wt%) (40 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (120 nm). It can be seen that the current efficiencies of this device remained almost (13.8{+-}1) cd/A from 0.1 to 20,000 cd/m{sup 2} and the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates at (0.60, 0.37) in the range of wide brightness. The significant improvement was attributed to the sensitization effect of the doped Ir(C6){sub 2}(acac), thus the energy of singlet and triplet excitons is simultaneously transferred to the DCJTB.

  13. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P alopecia at a rate similar to that observed in males using the same parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  15. Visible-Light Degradation of Dyes and Phenols over Mesoporous Titania Prepared by Using Anthocyanin from Red Radish as Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is able to operate effectively to eliminate organic compounds from wastewater in the presence of semiconductor photocatalyst and a light source. Although photosensitization of titania by organic dyes is one of the conventional ways for visible-light utilization of titania, previous studies have not yet addressed the use of natural food coloring agents as templates in the synthesis of mesostructured materials, let alone the simultaneous achievement of highly crystalline mesoscopic framework and visible-light photocatalytic activity. In this work, anthocyanin, a natural pigment from red radish was directly used as template in synthesis of highly crystalline mesoporous titania. The synthesized mesoporous titania samples were characterized by a combination of various physicochemical techniques, such as XRD, SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis. The prepared mesoporous titania photocatalyst exhibited significant activity under visible-light irradiation for the degradation of dyes and phenols due to its red shift of band-gap-absorption onset and visible-light response as a result of the incorporation of surface carbon species.

  16. Non-invasive red light optogenetic pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging for drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac pacing could be a powerful tool for investigating mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, traditional electrical pacing using pacemaker requires an invasive surgical procedure. Electrical currents from the implanted electrodes can also cause damage to heart tissue, further restricting its utility. Optogenetic pacing has been developed as a promising, non-invasive alternative to electrical stimulation for controlling animal heart rhythms. It induces heart contractions by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins, which in turn activate the light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins in optogenetic pacing, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we performed optogenetic pacing by expression of recently engineered red-shifted microbial opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in a well-established animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, using the 617 nm stimulation light pulses. The OCM technique enables non-invasive optical imaging of animal hearts with high speed and ultrahigh axial and transverse resolutions. We integrated a customized OCM system with the optical stimulation system to monitor the optogenetic pacing noninvasively. The use of red-sifted opsins enabled deeper penetration of simulating light at lower power, which is promising for applications of optogenetic pacing in mammalian cardiac pathology studies or clinical treatments in the future.

  17. High-efficiency red-light emission from polyfluorenes grafted with cyclometalated iridium complexes and charge transport moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiwen; Liao, Jin-Long; Liang, Yongmin; Ahmed, M O; Tseng, Hao-En; Chen, Show-An

    2003-01-22

    We report a new route for the design of electroluminescent polymers by grafting high-efficiency phosphorescent organometallic complexes as dopants and charge transport moieties onto alky side chains of fully conjugated polymers for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) with single layer/single polymers. The polymer system studied involves polyfluorene (PF) as the base conjugated polymer, carbazole (Cz) as the charge transport moiety and a source for green emission by forming an electroplex with the PF main chain, and cyclometalated iridium (Ir) complexes as the phosphorescent dopant. Energy transfer from the green Ir complex or an electroplex formed between the fluorene main chain and side-chain carbazole moieties, in addition to that from the PF main chain, to the red Ir complex can significantly enhance the device performance, and a red light-emitting device with the high efficiency 2.8 cd/A at 7 V and 65 cd/m2, comparable to that of the same Ir complex-based OLED, and a broad-band light-emitting device containing blue, green, and red peaks (2.16 cd/A at 9 V) are obtained.

  18. t-Butyl group-substituted triphenylamine-containing orange-red fluorescent emitters for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Chi Sik [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Efficient orange-red fluorescent compounds, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-adamantyl-6-(4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl) -N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene)vinyl-4H-pyran (DCATP) and 2,6-bis[4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene] vinyl-4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyran (BDCTP) containing the tert-butylated triphenylamine in donor moieties, were synthesized and characterized. In these red emitters, bulky groups, such as t-butyl group and adamantane were introduced to increase the steric hindrance between the red emitters. In particular, an efficient orange-red device containing the emitter DCATP as a dopant showed a luminous and power efficiency of 6.87 cd/A and 2.70 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} with the CIE coordinates of (0.48, 0.50) at 7.0 V. In addition, an efficient red organic light-emitting diode using BDCTP as a dopant exhibited a luminous and power efficiency of 2.30 cd/A and 1.31 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and CIE coordinates of (0.61, 0.39). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two orange-red emitters with t-butylated triphenylamine derivatives were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in electron D-A and electron D-A-D type in the terminal groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron D-A-D type material shows improved color chromaticity.

  19. Improved color purity and efficiency by a coguest emitter system in doped red light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jiangshan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ma Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)]. E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.jl.cn

    2007-01-15

    We demonstrate red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with improved color purity and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency by codoping a green fluorescent sensitizer 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-1H,5H,11H -(1)-benzopyropyrano(6,7-8-i,j)quinolizin-11-one (C545T) as the second dopant and a red fluorescent dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) as the lumophore into tris(8-hydroquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) host. It was found that the C545T dopant did not by itself emit but assisted the carrier trapping from the host Alq{sub 3} to the red emitting dopant. The red OLEDs realized by this approach not only kept the purity of the emission color, but also significantly improved the EL efficiency. The current efficiency and power efficiency, respectively, reached 12cd/A at a current density of 0.3mA/cm{sup 2} and 10lm/W at a current density of 0.02mA/cm{sup 2}, which are enhanced by 1.4 and 2.6 times compared with devices where the emissive layer is composed of the DCJTB doped Alq{sub 3}, and a stable red emission (chromaticity coordinates: x=0.64, y=0.36) was obtained in a wide range of voltage. Our results indicate that the coguest system is a promising method for obtaining high-efficiency red OLEDs.

  20. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  1. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  2. Introduction of Red-Green-Blue Fluorescent Dyes into a Metal-Organic Framework for Tunable White Light Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhuo, Chao; Su, Shaodong; Li, Haoran; Hu, Shengmin; Zhu, Qi-Long; Wu, Xintao

    2017-10-01

    The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively. Furthermore, this study introduces the red-, green-, and blue-emitting dyes into a MOF together for the first time, producing white-light materials with nearly ideal Commission International ed'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, high color-rendering index values (up to 92%) and quantum yields (up to 26%), and moderate correlated color temperature values. The white light is tunable by changing the content or type of the three dye guests, or the excitation wavelength. Significantly, the introduction of blue-emitting guests in the methodology makes the available MOF host more extensive, and the final white-light output more tunable and high-quality. Such strategy can be widely adopted to design and prepare white-light-emitting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in in vitro culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Liu, Ben; Chen, Xianyan; Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Wenjia; Yang, Changsheng; Ji, Bin; Wan, Miaojian

    2018-04-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair growth. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth in numerous clinical studies, in which 655-nm red light was found to be most effective and practical for stimulating hair growth. We evaluated whether 655-nm red light + light-emitting diode (LED) could promote human hair growth by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An in vitro culture of human hair follicles (HFs) was irradiated with different intensities of 655-nm red light + LED, 21 h7 (an inhibitor of β-catenin), or both. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression of β-catenin, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, and Lef1 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The 655-nm red light + LED not only enhanced hair shaft elongation, but also reduced catagen transition in human hair follicle organ culture, with the greatest effectiveness observed at 5 min (0.839 J/cm 2 ). Additionally, 655-nm red light + LED enhanced the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK3β, and Lef1, signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in the hair matrix. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in vitro and therefore may serve as an alternative therapeutic option for alopecia.

  4. The acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to blue and red light does not influence the photosynthetic light reaction but strongly disturbs the carbon allocation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jungandreas

    Full Text Available Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL to blue light (BL and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning.

  5. Red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a heteroleptic cyclometalated Iridium (III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Marc [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Dumur, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.dumur@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Wantz, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wantz@ims-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); Vila, Neus; Mbomekallé, Israel [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Mayer, Cédric R., E-mail: cmayer@lisv.uvsq.fr [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes de Versailles LISV – EA 4048, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 10/12 avenue de l’Europe, 78140 Vélizy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highly efficient red-emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a neutral vacuum-sublimatable heteroleptic iridium (III) complex have been designed and studied. Heteroleptic complex Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) was prepared in one step with acetylacetone (acac) as the ancillary ligand. Electronic and spectroscopic properties of Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) were investigated by UV–visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Electrophosphorescent devices comprising Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) as dopant of TCTA exhibited outstanding electroluminescence performance with a current efficiency of 10.0 cd A{sup −1}, a maximum power efficiency of 7.2 lm W{sup −1} and a maximal brightness of 3540 cd m{sup −2} was reached at 8.0 V. CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained (0.67, 0.33). -- Highlights: • A saturated red OLED has been prepared. • High power efficiency and brightness were obtained. • Thickness of the device was determined as a parameter determining the overall performance. • CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained.

  6. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Jones, Burton H.

    2018-02-01

    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and nonalgal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by nonalgal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ) + anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton-specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440), and aph∗(676) were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph∗(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph∗(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  7. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2018-01-10

    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and non-algal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by non-algal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ)+ anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440) and aph*(676), were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph*(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph*(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  8. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and non-algal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by non-algal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ)+ anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440) and aph*(676), were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph*(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph*(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  9. Red, green, blue and white light upconversion emission in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Meza, O; Salas, P

    2011-01-01

    Several Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ /Ho 3+ co-doped transparent TeO 2 -ZnO-Na 2 O-Yb 2 O 3 -Ho 2 O 3 -Tm 2 O 3 glasses were prepared and luminescence properties were characterized. Simultaneous red, green and blue (RGB) emission were obtained after excitation at 970 nm. Colour emission was tuned from multicolour to white light with colour coordinate (0.32, 0.33) matching very well with the white reference (0.33, 0.33). Changes in colour emission were obtained by varying the intensity ratios between RGB bands that are strongly concentration dependent because of the interaction of co-dopants. The colour tunability, high quality of white light and high intensity of the emitted signal make these transparent glasses excellent candidates for applications in solid-state lighting.

  10. Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, Christian; Rutloh, Michael; Stumpe, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of the light-induced orientation process of azobenzene-containing polymers caused by irradiation with linearly polarized red light is investigated. This process is surprising because there is almost no absorption at 633 nm. Depending on the photochemical pre-treatment and the exposure time, the azobenzene moieties can undergo two different orientation processes resulting in either a parallel or a perpendicular orientation with respect to the electric field vector of the incident light. The fast orientation of the photochromic groups with their long axis in the direction of the light polarization requires a photochemical pre-treatment in which non-polarized UV light generates Z-isomers. Due to this procedure the film becomes 'photochemically activated' for the subsequent polarized irradiation with red light. But on continued exposure a second, much slower reorientation process occurs which establishes an orientation of the azobenzene groups perpendicular to the electric field vector. The fast mechanism is probably caused by an angle-selective photo-isomerization of the Z-isomers to the E-isomers, while the subsequent slow reorientation process is caused by the well-known conventional photo-orientation taking place via the accumulation of a number of photoselection steps and the rotational diffusion minimizing the absorbance of the E-isomer. This process occurs in the steady state but at this wavelength with a very small concentration of Z-isomers. The competing mechanisms take place in the same polymer film under almost identical irradiation conditions, differing only in the actual concentration of the Z-isomers

  11. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES, MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allanson, Steven P.; Hudson, Michael J.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of understanding the typical star formation histories of red-sequence galaxies, using linestrength indices and mass-to-light ratios as complementary constraints on their stellar age distribution. We first construct simple parametric models of the star formation history that bracket a range of scenarios, and fit these models to the linestrength indices of low-redshift cluster red-sequence galaxies. For giant galaxies, we confirm the downsizing trend, i.e., the stellar populations are younger, on average, for lower σ galaxies. We find, however, that this trend flattens or reverses at σ ∼ -1 . We then compare predicted stellar mass-to-light ratios with dynamical mass-to-light ratios derived from the fundamental plane (FP), or by the SAURON group. For galaxies with σ ∼ 70 km s -1 , models with a late 'frosting' of young stars and models with exponential star formation histories have stellar mass-to-light ratios that are larger than observed dynamical mass-to-light ratios by factors of 1.7 and 1.4, respectively, and so are rejected. The single stellar population (SSP) model is consistent with the FP, and requires a modest amount of dark matter (between 20% and 30%) to account for the difference between stellar and dynamical mass-to-light ratios. A model in which star formation was 'quenched' at intermediate ages is also consistent with the observations, although in this case less dark matter is required for low mass galaxies. We also find that the contribution of stellar populations to the 'tilt' of the fundamental plane is highly dependent on the assumed star formation history: for the SSP model, the tilt of the FP is driven primarily by stellar-population effects. For a quenched model, two-thirds of the tilt is due to stellar populations and only one-third is due to dark matter or non-homology.

  12. Light quality and elongation growth. 1: Effect of duration and time of far red irradiation on stem elongation of Argyranthemum frutescens cv. Silver Leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatzkowski, M.; Zimmer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of stem elongation by far red irradiation was shown with Argyranthemum frutescens 'Silver Leaf'. Stem elongation was promoted by incandescent lighting (mainly far red) during the day and night period. More intense reactions were observed with the isolated application during the nighttime. Reaction was strongly modified by the point of time the application took place. No effect could be shown by lighting with incandescent lamps for two hours during the daytime given within the first six hours of the main light period. During the nighttime two hours of lighting (incandescent lamps) promoted stem elongation atany point of time, especially in the middle of the dark period

  13. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eHerbst

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at 2 selected wavelengths (660 nm and 470 nm, intensity 300 cd/m2 presented continuously for 20 seconds. Pupil responses were recorded in real time before, during and after light exposure. Maximal contraction amplitude and sustained contraction amplitude were calculated. In addition, we quantified the summed pupil response during continuous light stimulation as the total area between a reference line representing baseline pupil size and the line representing actual pupil size over 20 seconds (area under the curve. There was no significant difference in the repeated measure compared to the first test for any of the pupil response parameters. In conclusion, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus.

  14. Efficient fluorescent red, green, and blue organic light-emitting devices with a blue host of spirobifluorene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.-H. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lerongho@yuntech.edu.tw; Huang, Y.-W.; Wang, Y.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.-Y. [EChem Hightech CO., LTD, Hsin-Chu Industrial Park, Hu-Kou, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-02

    Efficient fluorescent blue, green, and red (RGB) organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated using a blue host material of pyrimidine-containing spirobifluorene derivative 2,7-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrimidine-5-yl]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (TBPSF) doped with blue dye perylene, green dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H, 11H-benzo[l] pyrano[6,7,8-ij] quinolizin-11-one (C545T), and red dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB), respectively. The brightness and current efficiency of the perylene doped blue device reached 10117 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.97 cd/A. Green emission of the C545T doped device reached 8500 cd/m{sup 2} and 13.0 cd/A. Red emission of the DCJTB doped device can be as high as 9000 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.0 cd/A, respectively. High color purity of the blue (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates (CIE, x = 0.27, y = 0.24)), green (CIE, x = 0.19, y = 0.63) and red (CIE, x = 0.62, y = 0.37) emissions were achieved for RGB dyes doped TBPSF OLEDs. High brightness, large current efficiency, and good color purity of TBPSF-based RGB OLEDs were obtained by the configuration optimization device, such as inserting the hole and electron-injection materials, and suitable dopant content and light emitting layer thickness.

  15. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Li

    Full Text Available The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively. Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure. The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, endothelial marker (CD31, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67 and macrophagocyte (CD68 infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min and blue (15 min and 30 min groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and

  16. Immersive Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Immersive Learning Technologies Mr. Peter Smith Lead, ADL Immersive Learning Team 08/20/2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immersive Learning Technologies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Why Immersive Learning Technologies

  17. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  18. High-irradiance responses induced by far-red light in grass seedlings of the wild type or overexpressing phytochrome A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, J.J.; Clough, R.C.; Vierstra, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of phytochrome-mediated high irradiance responses (HIR), previously characterised largely in dicotyledonous plants, was investigated in Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in both wild-type Oryza sativa L. and in transgenic plants overexpressing oat phytochrome A under the control of a 35S promoter. Coleoptile growth was promoted (maize, ryegrass) or inhibited (wild-type rice) by continuous far-red light (FRc). However, at equal fluences, hourly pulses of far-red light (FRp) were equally effective, indicating that the growth responses to FRc were not true HIR. In contrast, in maize and rice, FRc increased anthocyanin content in the coleoptile in a fluence-rate dependent manner. This response was a true HIR as FRp had reduced effects. In maize, anthocyanin levels were significantly higher under FRc than under continuous red light. In rice, overexpression of phytochrome A increased the inhibition of coleoptile growth and the levels of anthocyanin under FRc but not under FRp or under continuous red light. The effect of FRc was fluence-rate dependent. In light-grown rice, overexpression of phytochrome A reduced leaf-sheath length, impaired the response to supplementary far-red light, but did not affect the response to canopy shade-light. In grasses, typical HIR, i.e. fluence-rate dependent responses showing reciprocity failure, can be induced by FRc. Under FRc, overexpressed phytochrome A operates through this action mode in transgenic rice. (author)

  19. Enhancement of Color Rendering Index for White Light LED Lamps by Red Y2O3:EU3+ Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Quang Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of the red Y2O3:Eu3+ dopant phosphor compound for reaching the color rendering index as high as 86. The Multi-Chip White LED lamps (MCW-LEDs with high Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs including 7000 K and 8500 K are employed in this study. Besides, the impacts of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor on the attenuation of light through phosphor layers of the various packages is also demonstrated based on the Beer-Lambert law. Simulation results provide important conclusion for selecting and developing the phosphor materials in MCW-LEDs manufacturing.

  20. Red-light-emitting laser diodes operating CW at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressel, H.; Hawrylo, F. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Heterojunction laser diodes of AlGaAs have been prepared with threshold current densities substantially below those previously achieved at room temperature in the 7200-8000-A spectral range. These devices operate continuously with simple oxide-isolated stripe contacts to 7400 A, which extends CW operation into the visible (red) portion of the spectrum.

  1. Red-light-emitting laser diodes operating cw at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kressel, H.; Hawrylo, F.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Heterojunction laser diodes of AlGaAs have been prepared with threshold current densities substantially below those previously achieved at room temperature in the 7200 to 8000-A spectral range. These devices operate cw with simple oxide-isolated stripe contacts to 7400 A, which extends cw operation for the first time into the visible (red) portion of the spectrum

  2. Lubricated immersed boundary method in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas G.; Rycroft, Chris H.

    2018-03-01

    Many biological examples of fluid-structure interaction, including the transit of red blood cells through the narrow slits in the spleen and the intracellular trafficking of vesicles into dendritic spines, involve the near-contact of elastic structures separated by thin layers of fluid. Motivated by such problems, we introduce an immersed boundary method that uses elements of lubrication theory to resolve thin fluid layers between immersed boundaries. We demonstrate 2nd-order accurate convergence for simple two-dimensional flows with known exact solutions to showcase the increased accuracy of this method compared to the standard immersed boundary method. Motivated by the phenomenon of wall-induced migration, we apply the lubricated immersed boundary method to simulate an elastic vesicle near a wall in shear flow. We also simulate the dynamics of a vesicle traveling through a narrow channel and observe the ability of the lubricated method to capture the vesicle motion on relatively coarse fluid grids.

  3. Super RLuc8: A novel engineered Renilla luciferase with a red-shifted spectrum and stable light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Somaieh; Saffar, Behnaz; Kahrani, Zahra Fanaei; Nazari, Mahboobeh; Emamzadeh, Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Renilla luciferase is a bioluminescent enzyme which is broadly used as a reporter protein in molecular biosensors. In this study, a novel luciferase with desired light emission wavelength and thermostability is reported. The results indicated that the new luciferase, namely super RLuc8, had a red-shifted spectrum and showed stable light emission. Super RLuc8 showed a 10-fold (p-value=0.0084) increase in the thermostability at 37°C after 20min incubation, in comparison to the native enzyme. The optimum temperature of the mutant increased from 30 to 37°C. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicated that the increased thermostability was most probably caused by a better structural compactness and more local rigidity in the regions out of the emitter site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Red Emission of SrAl2O4:Mn4+ Phosphor for Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, N. T. K.; Tuan, N. T.; Lien, N. T. K.; Nguyen, D. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor is prepared by co-precipitation. The phase structure, morphology, composition and luminescent performance of the phosphor are investigated in detail with x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and temperature-dependent PL measurements. The phosphor shows a strong red emission peak at ˜ 690 nm, which is due to the transition between electronic levels and the electric dipole transition 2Eg to 4A2g of Mn4+ ions located at the sites with D3d local symmetry. The sample doped with 0.04 mol.% Mn4+ exhibits intense red emission with high thermal stability and appropriate International Commission on Illumination (CIE) coordinates (x = 0.6959, y = 0.2737). It is also found that the phosphor absorption in an extended band from 250 nm to 500 nm has three peaks at 320 nm, 405 nm, and 470 nm, which match well with the emission band of ultraviolet (UV) lighting emission diode (LED) or blue LED chips. These results demonstrate that SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor can play the role of activator in narrow red-emitting phosphor, which is potentially useful in UV (˜ 320 nm) or blue (˜ 460 nm) LED.

  5. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  6. Haustoria of Cuscuta japonica, a holoparasitic flowering plant, are induced by the cooperative effects of far-red light and tactile stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Y.; Sugai, M.; Furuhashi, K.

    1996-01-01

    When seedlings of Cuscuta japonica were grown with Vigna radiata in a flower pot for 6 d under white light and then irradiated with far-red or blue light, the seedlings parasitized V. radiata. However, no parasitism of the seedlings was observed under red or white light or in darkness. The parasitic behavior of seedlings of C. japonica was observed even if an acrylic rod was used as a substitute for the host plant. Upon incubation under far-red light, the seedling twined tightly around the rod and developed haustoria towards it. Haustoria also developed when apical and subapical regions of seedlings were held between two glass plants that were about 0.7 mm apart and were irradiated with far-red light. However, no haustoria were induced by either the hold or irradiation alone. These results indicate that parasitism of cuscuta japonica is controlled by the cooperative effects of two physical signals, far-red light and appropriate tactile pressure. Our findings suggest that parasitism by the genus Cuscuta involves a novel strategy

  7. Study of the influence of ultraviolet radiation on aggregative properties of blood red cell by light backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhnaj, L.; Chueltehm, D.

    1988-01-01

    The method based on the fact of measurable intensity of backscattered laser beam resulting from the angular distribution of scattered light is investigated. The method permits study of the mechanisms of aggregation and disaggregation processes by ultraviolet radiation and action of some inductors. The ultraviolet light acting directly on erythrocyte rouleaus of 10 x 100 μ causes the scattering of laser beam of wavelength 632,8 nm. According the above mentioned fact at an agle of approximately 180 0 the light intensity is measured. Stabilized blood sample is exposed to laser beam by means of fiber optics. Backscattering light transmitted through the photomultiplier and direct current supply is recorded. Quantitative concept of erythrocyte aggregation process is calculated from the plot. Blood sample is mixed by magnetic mixer and the measuring temperature is kept constantly at 37 0 C. Accordingly, the present model can adequately reproduce complex blood red cells kinetics. The influence of ultraviolet radiation and different kinds of inductors on erythrocytes' aggregation is experimentally studied depending on time. 2 figs. (B.Sh.)

  8. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee; Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ng, Tien Khee; Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent

  9. Response of bats to light with different spectra: light-shy and agile bat presence is affected by white and green, but not red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, K.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Ferguson, Kim B.; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary

  10. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-11-01

    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  11. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022.

  12. UV light induced red emission in Eu3+-doped zincborophosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hima Bindu, S.; Siva Raju, D.; Vinay Krishna, V.; Rajavardhana Rao, T.; Veerabrahmam, K.; Linga Raju, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of transparent zincborophosphate (ZBP) glasses doped with Eu3+ ions by the conventional melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized using powder XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay curves. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters calculated under various constraints using absorption and emission spectra. These JO intensity parameters have been used to predict the radiative properties such as radiative life time, branching ratios and stimulated emission cross section of the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0-4) transitions. Decay curves for the 5D0 level of Eu3+ ions shows single exponential for all concentrations. Luminescence properties of 5D0→7F2 transitions of Eu3+ions have revealed that the present ZBP:Eu3+ glasses have significant in optical applications at around 613 nm. An intense red luminescence has been observed due to 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ ion in these glasses. From the CIE color coordinate diagram, it is observed that the present glass system is prominent material for red emission.

  13. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  14. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  15. Influence of UV irradiation on the blue and red light photoinduced processes in azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.; Villacampa, B.

    2004-01-01

    light that yields the films into the isotropic state at room temperature (RT) was compared with the quenching from temperatures above the isotropic transition temperature Ti. UV–visible spectra of the thermally quenched films show the presence of aggregates when measured at RT. We have found that UV......Birefringence induced in a series of liquid crystalline side-chain azobenzene polyesters with different substituent groups was investigated under irradiation with 488 and 633 nm linearly polarized lights. Two different initial conditions have been used: the effect of a previous irradiation with UV...

  16. A comparison between red and infrared light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-55 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, because of technical limitations, data were obtained for the first three conditions only. The dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 82%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. With red light, dam produced a decrease of 56%, and the resulting signal was reduced by 33% after LA and cavity preparation. The remaining signal fell by 46% after pulp removal and replacement. This contribution of the pulp is similar to that recorded previously with infrared light. There was no significant further change when the pulp was finally removed. The importance of using opaque rubber dam is confirmed. With dam, there is no advantage to using red rather than infrared light, and in each case the pulp contributes less than 50% to the blood flow signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sympathetic influence on the pupillary light response in three red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearworth, James R; Cooper, Lori J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of phenylephrine and its combination with vecuronium bromide on the iris of turtles to determine if the pupillary light response is affected by sympathetic innervation. Three red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans. Diameters of light-adapted pupils were tracked before and after topical application of drugs to eyes. Phenylephrine was applied independently; in a second group of trials, vecuronium bromide was applied with phenylephrine. Rates of pupil dilation in response to drugs were quantified by fitting data with time constant (tau) equations. Phenylephrine dilated the pupil 24%, tau = 29 min. Combination of phenylephrine with vecuronium bromide increased the pupil size 35%, and dilation was more rapid, tau = 14 min. We also were able to predict these time constants by performing different mathematical operations with an equation developed from a prior study using only vecuronium bromide. When this equation was subtracted from the equation for eyes treated with both vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine, the difference gave the observed tau for phenylephrine; when added to phenylephrine, the sum closely matched the tau for eyes treated with vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine. Further, the tau for vecuronium bromide treated eyes was predicted by subtracting the equation for phenylephrine from that of eyes treated with both vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine. Our results suggest that sympathetic innervation interacts with the parasympathetic pathway to control the pupillary light response in turtles.

  18. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Tanya S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Mallik, S.; Kshirsagar, P.R.; Khadge, N.H.; Nath, B.N.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dagar, A.K.; Kaur, P.; Ray, D.; Shukla, A.D.; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Fernandes, S.O.; Thomas, T.R.A.; Mamatha, S.S.; Mourya, B.S.; Meena, R.M.

    belongs to the FeS reaction centre of photosys- tem II (PS-II; van Thor et al., 1998; Adams et al., 2013 ) and other metal sulphides that also produce light by chemiluminiscence via the catalysis of oxidation of HS − free radical by the nano...

  19. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  20. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  1. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium–benzotriazole orange–red and fluorescent blue emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan; Su, Jian-Hua; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange–red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N 1 ,C 3 ] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1′;4′,1″]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N′-(4,4′-(1E,1′E)-2,2′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange–red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy) 3 ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: ► An iridium-based orange–red phosphor Ir(TBT) 2 (acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. ► Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. ► Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  2. High-efficiency and heavily doped organic light-emitting devices based on quench-resistant red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices had been fabricated using a new iridium complex, bis[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl) benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as phosphor. With a high doping concentration of 15 wt%, the device exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35.2 cd/A, 21.3 lm/W, 18.2%, respectively, indicating an excellent quench-resistant property of (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The results are appealing towards the development of 'easy-to-make' OLEDs. It has been demonstrated that the high efficiency arises from more balanced charge carriers in the emissive layer. - Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained efficient OLEDs based on newly synthesized quench-resistant phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak performance was obtained with 15 wt% (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) doped device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our devices gave one of the best performance among heavily-doped red devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Balanced carrier transport is crucial for the high performance of our devices.

  3. Tuning Ag29 nanocluster light emission from red to blue with one and two-photon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Franck; Hamouda, Ramzi; Rayane, Driss; Dugourd, Philippe; Sanader, Željka; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Brevet, Pierre-François; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate that the tuning of the light emission from red to blue in dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped Ag29 nanoclusters can be trigged with one and two photon excitations. The cluster stoichiometry was determined with mass spectrometry and found to be Ag29(DHLA)12. In a detailed optical investigation, we show that these silver nanoclusters exhibit a strong red photoluminescence visible to the naked eye and characterized by a quantum yield of nearly ∼2% upon one-photon excitation. In the nonlinear optical (NLO) study of the properties of the clusters, the two-photon excited fluorescence spectra were recorded and their first hyperpolarizability obtained. The two-photon absorption cross-section at ∼800 nm for Ag29(DHLA)12 is higher than 10(4) GM and the hyperpolarizability is 106 × 10(-30) esu at the same excitation wavelength. The two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum appears strongly blue-shifted as compared to the one-photon excited spectrum, displaying a broad band between 400 and 700 nm. The density functional theory (DFT) provides insight into the structural and electronic properties of Ag29(DHLA)12 as well as into interplay between metallic subunit or core and ligands which is responsible for unique optical properties.

  4. The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, N. H.; Ul Hasan, Kamran; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) annealed in different ambients (argon, air, oxygen, and nitrogen) have been investigated. The ZnO nanotubes by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique on p-GaN substrates were obtained. The as-grown ZnO nanotubes were annealed in different ambients at 600°C for 30 min. The EL investigations showed that air, oxygen, and nitrogen annealing ambients have strongly affected the deep level emission bands in ZnO. It was concluded from the EL investigation that more than one deep level defect is involved in the red emission appearing between 620 and 750 nm and that the red emission in ZnO can be attributed to oxygen interstitials (Oi) appearing in the range from 620 nm (1.99 eV) to 690 nm (1.79 eV), and to oxygen vacancies (Vo) appearing in the range from 690 nm (1.79 eV) to 750 nm (1.65 eV). The annealing ambients, especially the nitrogen ambient, were also found to greatly influence the color-rendering properties and increase the CRI of the as - grown LEDs from 87 to 96.

  5. RED FRACTION AMONG SATELLITE GALAXIES WITH DISK-LIKE LIGHT PROFILES: EVIDENCE FOR INFLOW IN THE H I DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between color, characterized with respect to the g - r red sequence; stellar structure, as determined using the i-band Sersic index; and group membership are explored using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new results place novel constraints on theories of galaxy evolution, despite the strong correlation between color and stellar structure. Observed correlations are of three independent types-those based on stellar structure, on the color of disk-like galaxies, and on the color of elliptical galaxies. Of particular note, the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence measured among galaxies with disk-like light profiles is enhanced for satellite galaxies compared to central galaxies. This fraction increases with group mass. When these new results are considered, theoretical treatments of galaxy evolution that adopt a gas accretion model centered on the hot galactic halo cannot consistently account for all observations of disk galaxies. The hypothesis is advanced that inflow within the extended H I disk prolongs star formation in satellite galaxies. When combined with partial ram pressure stripping (RPS) of this disk, this new scenario is consistent with the observations. This is demonstrated by applying an analytical model of RPS of the extended H I disk to the SDSS groups. These results motivate incorporating more complex modes of gas accretion into models of galaxy evolution, including cold mode accretion, an improved treatment of gas dynamics within disks, and disk stripping.

  6. The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the electroluminescence (EL spectra of zinc oxide (ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs annealed in different ambients (argon, air, oxygen, and nitrogen have been investigated. The ZnO nanotubes by aqueous chemical growth (ACG technique on p-GaN substrates were obtained. The as-grown ZnO nanotubes were annealed in different ambients at 600°C for 30 min. The EL investigations showed that air, oxygen, and nitrogen annealing ambients have strongly affected the deep level emission bands in ZnO. It was concluded from the EL investigation that more than one deep level defect is involved in the red emission appearing between 620 and 750 nm and that the red emission in ZnO can be attributed to oxygen interstitials (Oi appearing in the range from 620 nm (1.99 eV to 690 nm (1.79 eV, and to oxygen vacancies (Vo appearing in the range from 690 nm (1.79 eV to 750 nm (1.65 eV. The annealing ambients, especially the nitrogen ambient, were also found to greatly influence the color-rendering properties and increase the CRI of the as - grown LEDs from 87 to 96.

  7. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2017-07-12

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021) substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  8. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021¯)  substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  9. Consensual pupillary light response in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearworth, James R; Sipe, Grayson O; Cooper, Lori J; Brune, Erin E; Boyd, Angela L; Riegel, Rhae A L

    2010-03-17

    Purpose of this study was to determine if the turtle has a consensual pupillary light response (cPLR), and if so, to compare it to its direct pupillary light response (dPLR). One eye was illuminated with different intensities of light over a four log range while keeping the other eye in darkness. In the eye directly illuminated, pupil diameter was reduced by as much as approximately 31%. In the eye not stimulated by light, pupil diameter was also reduced but less to approximately 11%. When compared to the directly illuminated eye, this generated a ratio, cPLR-dPLR, equal to 0.35. Ratio of slopes for log/linear fits to plots of pupil changes versus retinal irradiance for non-illuminated (-1.27) to illuminated (-3.94) eyes closely matched at 0.32. cPLR had time constants ranging from 0.60 to 1.20min; however, they were comparable and not statistically different from those of the dPLR, which ranged from 1.41 to 2.00min. Application of mydriatic drugs to the directly illuminated eye also supported presence of a cPLR. Drugs reduced pupil constriction by approximately 9% for the dPLR and slowed its time constant to 9.58min while simultaneous enhancing constriction by approximately 6% for the cPLR. Time constant for the cPLR at 1.75min, however, was not changed. Results support that turtle possesses a cPLR although less strong than its dPLR. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Luminescence properties of novel red-emitting phosphor InNb1-xPxO4:Eu3+ for white light emitting-diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available InNb1-xPxO4:Eu3+ red phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and their luminescence properties were also studied through photoluminescence spectra. The excitation and emission spectra make it clear that the as-prepared phosphors can be effectively excited by near-ultraviolet (UV 394 nm light and blue 466 nm light to emit strong red light located at 612 nm, due to the Eu3+ transition of 5D0 → 7F2. The luminescence intensity is dependent on phosphorus content, and it achieves the maximum at x = 0.4. Excessive phosphorus in the phosphors can result in reduction of luminescence intensity owing to concentration quenching.With the increasing content of phosphorus, the phosphors are prone to emit pure red light. This shows that the InNb1.6P0.4O4:0.04Eu3+ phosphor may be a potential candidate as a red component for white light emitting-diodes.

  11. Effect of audio in-vehicle red light-running warning message on driving behavior based on a driving simulator experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    Drivers' incorrect decisions of crossing signalized intersections at the onset of the yellow change may lead to red light running (RLR), and RLR crashes result in substantial numbers of severe injuries and property damage. In recent years, some Intelligent Transport System (ITS) concepts have focused on reducing RLR by alerting drivers that they are about to violate the signal. The objective of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the effectiveness of the red light violation warning system using a voice message. In this study, the prototype concept of the RLR audio warning system was modeled and tested in a high-fidelity driving simulator. According to the concept, when a vehicle is approaching an intersection at the onset of yellow and the time to the intersection is longer than the yellow interval, the in-vehicle warning system can activate the following audio message "The red light is impending. Please decelerate!" The intent of the warning design is to encourage drivers who cannot clear an intersection during the yellow change interval to stop at the intersection. The experimental results showed that the warning message could decrease red light running violations by 84.3 percent. Based on the logistic regression analyses, drivers without a warning were about 86 times more likely to make go decisions at the onset of yellow and about 15 times more likely to run red lights than those with a warning. Additionally, it was found that the audio warning message could significantly reduce RLR severity because the RLR drivers' red-entry times without a warning were longer than those with a warning. This driving simulator study showed a promising effect of the audio in-vehicle warning message on reducing RLR violations and crashes. It is worthwhile to further develop the proposed technology in field applications.

  12. Immobilized/P25/DSAT and Immobilized/Kronos/DSAT on Photocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Under Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 (RR4 using immobilized P25 and kronos were performed under fluorescent light sources. The photocatalysis activity for both catalysts was investigated under fluorescent lamp source which consist UV and Visible light. The effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, initial pH and strenght of immobilized plate were studied. The result showed that 90% of RR4 dye was degrade in 1 hr using immobilized/kronos/DSAT at 100 mg L-1 of RR4 dye while 81% degradation was achieved by immobilized/P25/DSAT at the same condition. The lowest pH showed the higher photocatalytic activity. Hence, the effect of dye concentration and pH on the photocatalysis study can be related with the behavior of environmental pollution. The low strength showed by immobilized/P25/DSAT where it remain 37 % as compared with strength of immobilized/kronos/DSAT (52 wt.%. For the future work, the polymer binder like Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, Polyethylene glycol (PEG, and others polymers can be apply in immobilized study to overcome the strength problem.

  13. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis with red light emitting diode absorbance detection for the analysis of basic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ali Reza; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-11-24

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the separation of five hydrophobic basic blue dyes for application in forensic dye analysis. The use of a red light emitting diode as a high intensity, low-noise light source provided sensitive detection of the blue dyes while also allowing the evaluation of solvents that absorb strongly in the UV region. Excellent peak shapes and separation selectivity were obtained in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide, however water, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide and acetone were unsuitable as solvents due to poor peak shapes and a lack of sensitivity, most likely due to adsorption onto the capillary wall. Due to the known compatibility of methanol with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, this solvent was examined further with the relative acidity/basicity of the electrolyte being optimised with an artificial neural network. The optimised method was examined for the separation of ink samples from 6 fibre tip and 2 ball point blue or black pens and showed that a unique migration time for the main dye component in seven of the eight pens could be obtained.

  14. Red-Light-Driven Water Splitting by Au(Core)-CdS(Shell) Half-Cut Nanoegg with Heteroepitaxial Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Shin-Ichi; Kume, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Fujishima, Musashi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2018-01-31

    A key material for artificial photosynthesis including water splitting is heteronanostructured (HNS) photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity depends on the geometry and dimension, and the quality of junctions between the components. Here we present a half-cut Au(core)-CdS(shell) (HC-Au@CdS) nanoegg as a new HNS plasmonic photocatalyst for water splitting. UV-light irradiation of Au nanoparticle (NP)-loaded ZnO (Au/ZnO) at 50 °C induces the selective deposition of hexagonal CdS on the Au surface of Au/ZnO with an epitaxial (EPI) relation of CdS{0001}/Au{111}. The subsequent selective dissolution of the ZnO support at room temperature yields HC-Au@CdS with the Au NP size and EPI junction (#) retained. Red-light irradiation (λ ex = 640 nm) of HC-Au@#CdS gives rise to continuous stoichiometric water splitting with an unprecedentedly high external quantum yield of 0.24%.

  15. Red light generation through the lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses activated by Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Suriya Murthy, N.; Muralidharan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses containing 0.05 to 2.0 wt% of Eu3+ ions were prepared through melt quenching technique. Structural characteristics of title glasses were identified through XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. The optical properties of the prepared glasses were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectra. From the resultant spectra, we have obtained the bonding parameters (δ), nephelauxetic ratio (β), direct and indirect band gaps and Urbach energy (ΔE) values. A deep red luminescence due to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions could be observed for the title glasses. The local site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions and the degree of Eu3+-O2- covalence were assessed from the luminescence intensity ratio of 5D0 → 7F2/5D0 → 7F1 transitions. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, calculated from the luminescence spectra, were used to estimate the radiative parameters like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βexp, βcal) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) concerning the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions. The important laser parameters, gain bandwidth and optical gain are also estimated. The decay curves associated with the transition from 5D0 state was found to be single-exponential at all Eu3+ ion concentrations. CIE colour coordinates and colour purity of the prepared glasses were estimated from the CIE chromaticity diagram.

  16. Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers

  17. In vivo viability of stored red blood cells derived from riboflavin plus ultraviolet light-treated whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelas, Jose A; Rugg, Neeta; Fletcher, Dana; Pratt, P Gayle; Worsham, D Nicole; Dunn, Susan K; Marschner, Susanne; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2011-07-01

    A novel system using ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin (Mirasol System, CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) to fragment nucleic acids has been developed to treat whole blood (WB), aiming at the reduction of potential pathogen load and white blood cell inactivation. We evaluated stored red blood cell (RBC) metabolic status and viability, in vitro and in vivo, of riboflavin/UV light-treated WB (IMPROVE study). The study compared recovery and survival of RBCs obtained from nonleukoreduced WB treated using three different UV light energies (22, 33, or 44 J/mL(RBC)). After treatment, WB from 12 subjects was separated into components and tested at the beginning and end of component storage. After 42 days of storage, an aliquot of RBCs was radiolabeled and autologously reinfused into subjects for analysis of 24-hour recovery and survival of RBCs. Eleven subjects completed the in vivo study. No device-related adverse events were observed. By Day 42 of storage, a significant change in the concentrations of sodium and potassium was observed. Five subjects had a 24-hour RBC recovery of 75% or more with no significant differences among the energy groups. RBC t(1/2) was 24 ± 9 days for the combined three groups. Significant correlations between 24-hour RBC recovery and survival, hemolysis, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and CO(2) levels were observed. This study shows that key RBC quality variables, hemolysis, and ATP concentration may be predictive of their 24-hour recovery and t(1/2) survival. These variables will now be used to assess modifications to the system including storage duration, storage temperature, and appropriate energy dose for treatment. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, H.; Watanabe, J.; Kadoya, K.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

  19. Fluorene-based narrow-band-gap copolymers for red light- emitting diodes and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang SUN; Li WANG; Yangjun XIA; Bin DU; Ransheng LIU; Yong CAO

    2008-01-01

    A series of narrow band-gap conjugated copo-lymers (PFO-DDQ) derived from 9,9-dioctylfluorene (DOF) and 2,3-dimethyl-5,8-dithien-2-yl-quinoxalines (DDQ) is prepaid by the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction with the molar feed ratio of DDQ at around 1%,5%,15%,30% and 50%,respectively.The obtained polymers are readily soluble in common organic solvents.The solutions and the thin solid films of the copolymers absorb light from 300-590 nm with two absorbance.peaks at around 380 and 490 nm.The intens-ity of 490 nm peak increases with the increasing DDQ content in the polymers.Efficient energy transfer due to exciton trapping on narrow-band-gap DDQ sites has been observed.The PL emission consists exclusively of DDQ unit emission at around 591 643 nm depending on the DDQ content in solid film.The EL emission peaks are red-shifted from 580 nm for PFO-DDQ1 to 635 nm for PFO-DDQ50.The highest external quantum efficiency achieved with the device configuration ITO/PEDOT/ PVK/PFO-DDQt5/Ba/A1 is 1.33% with a luminous effi-ciency 1.54 cd/A.Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells fabricated from composite films of PFO-DDQ30 copoly-mer and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and electron acceptor,respect-ively in device configuration:ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO-DDQ30:PCBM/PFPNBr/Al shows power conversion effi-ciencies of 1.18% with open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.90 V and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.66 mA/cm2 under an AM1.5 solar simulator (100 mW/cm2).The photocurrent response wavelengths of the PVCs based on PFO-DDQ30/PCBM blends covers 300-700 nm.This indicates that these kinds of low band-gap polymers are promising candidates for polymeric solar cells and red light-emitting diodes.

  20. Water immersion in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvan-Taşpinar, Ayten; Franx, Arie; Delprat, Constance C; Bruinse, Hein W; Koomans, Hein A

    2006-12-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with profound vasoconstriction in most organ systems and reduced plasma volume. Because water immersion produces a marked central redistribution of blood volume and suppresses the renin-angiotensin system response and sympathetic activity, we hypothesized that water immersion might be useful in the treatment of preeclampsia. The effects of thermoneutral water immersion for 3 hours on central and peripheral hemodynamics were evaluated in 7 preeclamptic patients, 7 normal pregnant control patients, and 7 nonpregnant women. Finger plethysmography was used to determine hemodynamic measurements (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance), and forearm blood flow was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. Postischemic hyperemia was used to determine endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Analysis was by analysis of variance for repeated measurements. During water immersion cardiac output increased while diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased, although systolic blood pressure remained unchanged in each group. Forearm blood flow increased significantly in the normal pregnant and preeclamptic subjects. Total peripheral resistance decreased in all groups, but values in preeclamptic patients remained above those of normotensive pregnant women. Water immersion had no effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the preeclamptic group, and most hemodynamic changes that were observed reversed to baseline within 2 hours of completion of the procedure. Although water immersion results in hemodynamic alterations in a manner that is theoretically therapeutic for women with preeclampsia, the effect was limited and short-lived. In addition water immersion had no effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in women with preeclampsia. The therapeutic potential for water immersion in preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  1. [Immersion pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgraz, Benoît; Sartori, Claudio; Saubade, Mathieu; Héritier, Francis; Gabus, Vincent

    2017-07-12

    Immersion pulmonary edema may occur during scuba diving, snorke-ling or swimming. It is a rare and often recurrent disease, mainly affecting individuals aged over 50 with high blood pressure. However it also occurs in young individuals with a healthy heart. The main symptoms are dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis. The outcome is often favorable under oxygen treatment but deaths are reported. A cardiac and pulmonary assessment is necessary to evaluate the risk of recurrence and possible contraindications to immersion.

  2. Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL. However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI] in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Methods Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8–21 d+latter HI (22–35 d; T2 = early DI (8–28 d+latter HI (29–35 d, T3 = early HI (8–21 d+latter DI (22–35 d, T4 = early HI (8–28 d+latter DI (29–35 d and T5 = control (white light; WT (8–35 d at medium intensity (20 lux. Body weight (BW, weight gain (WG, water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR were assessed. Common behaviours (15 were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. Results On 35 d, the highest BW (2,155.72±176 g, WG (1,967.78±174 g were recorded by T2 compared to WT (BWWT = 1,878.22±155, WGWT = 1,691.83±160. But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength (218.5±120 s was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength (64.58±33 s and the highest ocular weight (2.48±1 g were recorded by T1. Significantly (p<0.05 the highest skin weight (162.17±6 g but the lowest fat% in meat (13.03%±5% was recorded by T2. Conclusion Early exposure to DI-RL up to 28 days followed by exposure to HI-RL is the most favorable lighting regimen for

  3. Opinion: the red-light response of stomatal movement is sensed by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian A

    2014-02-01

    Guard cells regulate CO2 uptake and water loss of a leaf by controlling stomatal movement in response to environmental factors such as CO2, humidity, and light. The mechanisms by which stomata respond to red light are actively debated in the literature, and even after decades of research it is still controversial whether stomatal movement is related to photosynthesis or not. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the red-light response of stomata. A comparison of published evidence suggests that stomatal movement is controlled by the redox state of photosynthetic electron transport chain components, in particular the redox state of plastoquinone. Potential consequences for the modeling of stomatal conductance are discussed.

  4. Highly Efficient Red and White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency beyond 20% by Employing Pyridylimidazole-Based Metallophosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yanqin; Tao, Peng; Wang, Kexiang; Li, Hongxin; Zhao, Bo; Gao, Long; Wang, Hua; Xu, Bingshe; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Two highly efficient red neutral iridium(III) complexes, Ir1 and Ir2, were rationally designed and synthesized by selecting two pyridylimidazole derivatives as the ancillary ligands. Both Ir1 and Ir2 show nearly the same photoluminescence emission with the maximum peak at 595 nm (shoulder band at about 638 nm) and achieve high solution quantum yields of up to 0.47 for Ir1 and 0.57 for Ir2. Employing Ir1 and Ir2 as emitters, the fabricated red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show outstanding performance with the maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE), current efficiency (CE), and power efficiency (PE) of 20.98%, 33.04 cd/A, and 33.08 lm/W for the Ir1-based device and 22.15%, 36.89 cd/A, and 35.85 lm/W for the Ir2-based device, respectively. Furthermore, using Ir2 as red emitter, a trichromatic hybrid white OLED, showing good warm white emission with low correlated color temperature of white device also realizes excellent device efficiencies with the maximum EQE, CE, and PE reaching 22.74%, 44.77 cd/A, and 46.89 lm/W, respectively. Such high electroluminescence performance for red and white OLEDs indicates that Ir1 and Ir2 as efficient red phosphors have great potential for future OLED displays and lightings applications.

  5. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  6. Shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells measured with dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of intravascular microscopic dynamics, such as absolute blood flow velocity, shear stress and the diffusion coefficient of red blood cells (RBCs), are fundamental in understanding the blood flow behavior within the microcirculation, and for understanding why diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow are dominantly sensitive to the diffusive motion of RBCs. Dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained three-dimensional volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of ~0.1 to 0.5 × 10 -6  mm 2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Red organic light emitting devices with reduced efficiency roll-off behavior by using hybrid fluorescent/phosphorescent emission structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Tianhang; Choy, Wallace C.H., E-mail: chchoy@eee.hku.h

    2010-11-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) with a fluorescence-interlayer-phosphorescence emissive structure (FIP EML) is proposed to solve efficiency roll-off issue effectively. By doping fluorescent emitter of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) and phosphorescent emitter of tris(1-phenylisoquinolinolato-C2,N)iridium(III) (Ir(piq){sub 3}) into the different regions of emission zone to form FIP EML in red OLED, an improvement of more than 20% in luminance efficiency roll-off compared with that of typical phosphorescent OLED with single EML in 10-500 mA/cm{sup 2} range has been obtained. Detailed mechanisms have been studied. Such improvement should be attributed to the distinct roles of the two emitters, where DCJTB mainly used to influence the carrier transport leading to an improved balance of charge carriers while Ir(piq){sub 3} functions as the radiative decay sites for most generated excitons. Meanwhile, with the help of the formation of FIP EML, the redistribution of excitons in recombination zone, the suppression of non-radiative exciton quenching processes and the elimination of energy transfer loss also contribute to the enhancement of efficiency roll-off. The method proposed here may provide a route to develop efficient OLED for high luminance applications.

  8. The impact of red light running camera flashes on younger and older drivers' attention and oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Timothy J; Vitale, Thomas; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Recent empirical evidence has suggested that the flashes associated with red light running cameras (RLRCs) distract younger drivers, pulling attention away from the roadway and delaying processing of safety-relevant events. Considering the perceptual and attentional declines that occur with age, older drivers may be especially susceptible to the distracting effects of RLRC flashes, particularly in situations in which the flash is more salient (a bright flash at night compared with the day). The current study examined how age and situational factors potentially influence attention capture by RLRC flashes using covert (cuing effects) and overt (eye movement) indices of capture. We manipulated the salience of the flash by varying its luminance and contrast with respect to the background of the driving scene (either day or night scenes). Results of 2 experiments suggest that simulated RLRC flashes capture observers' attention, but, surprisingly, no age differences in capture were observed. However, an analysis examining early and late eye movements revealed that older adults may have been strategically delaying their eye movements in order to avoid capture. Additionally, older adults took longer to disengage attention following capture, suggesting at least 1 age-related disadvantage in capture situations. Findings have theoretical implications for understanding age differences in attention capture, especially with respect to capture in real-world scenes, and inform future work that should examine how the distracting effects of RLRC flashes influence driver behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2018-01-01

    Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL). However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI]) in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8-21 d)+latter HI (22-35 d); T2 = early DI (8-28 d)+latter HI (29-35 d), T3 = early HI (8-21 d)+latter DI (22-35 d), T4 = early HI (8-28 d)+latter DI (29-35 d) and T5 = control (white light; WT) (8-35 d) at medium intensity (20 lux). Body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR) were assessed. Common behaviours (15) were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. On 35 d, the highest BW (2,155.72±176 g), WG (1,967.78±174 g) were recorded by T2 compared to WT (BW WT = 1,878.22±155, WG WT = 1,691.83±160). But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength (218.5±120 s) was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength (64.58±33 s) and the highest ocular weight (2.48±1 g) were recorded by T1. Significantly (plighting regimen for optimizing production, better welfare of broilers and improving health benefits of meat.

  10. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  11. « Comme à l’époque de Suzie Wong ». Les mutations du red-light district de Wan Chai

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Le roman exotique Le monde de Suzie Wong et ses nombreuses adaptations immortalisent le red-light district de Wan Chai à Hong Kong à la fin des années 1950, mettant en scène marins américains, expatriés de l’Empire britannique et prostituées hongkongaises. Aujourd’hui, avec la mondialisation, Wan Chai est fréquenté par des migrantes de plusieurs pays d’Asie du Sud-Est. Pourtant, le red-light district est toujours associé dans la presse et les guides de voyage à « l’époque de Suzie Wong ». Ces...

  12. Influential factors of red-light running at signalized intersection and prediction using a rare events logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Ding, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Red light running (RLR) has become a major safety concern at signalized intersection. To prevent RLR related crashes, it is critical to identify the factors that significantly impact the drivers' behaviors of RLR, and to predict potential RLR in real time. In this research, 9-month's RLR events extracted from high-resolution traffic data collected by loop detectors from three signalized intersections were applied to identify the factors that significantly affect RLR behaviors. The data analysis indicated that occupancy time, time gap, used yellow time, time left to yellow start, whether the preceding vehicle runs through the intersection during yellow, and whether there is a vehicle passing through the intersection on the adjacent lane were significantly factors for RLR behaviors. Furthermore, due to the rare events nature of RLR, a modified rare events logistic regression model was developed for RLR prediction. The rare events logistic regression method has been applied in many fields for rare events studies and shows impressive performance, but so far none of previous research has applied this method to study RLR. The results showed that the rare events logistic regression model performed significantly better than the standard logistic regression model. More importantly, the proposed RLR prediction method is purely based on loop detector data collected from a single advance loop detector located 400 feet away from stop-bar. This brings great potential for future field applications of the proposed method since loops have been widely implemented in many intersections and can collect data in real time. This research is expected to contribute to the improvement of intersection safety significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solution processed multilayer red, green and blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using carbazole dendrimer as a host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Zainal Abidin; Woon, Kai Lin; Wong, Wah Seng; Ariffin, Azhar; Chen, Show-An

    2017-01-01

    4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3, 6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl, a novel carbazole dendrimer, has been synthesized. This compound shows an excellent thermal stability with a high glass transition temperature of 283 °C and decomposition temperature of 487 °C. Density functional theory is used to investigate the frontier orbitals. It was found that the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital levels of 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3, 6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl are nearly degenerate to the next highest or lowest frontier orbitals. The electron rich outer dendrons along with Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital level of 5.24 eV as determined from cyclic voltammetry makes 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3,6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2, 2'-dimethylbiphenyl a good hole transporting material. This compound also shows a triplet energy of 2.83 eV. Solution processable multilayer red, green and blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are fabricated having 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3,6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl) carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl as a hole transporting host. It was found that the CIE-coordinates remain constant within a wide range of brightness.

  14. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  16. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  17. Electroplex as a New Concept of Universal Host for Improved Efficiency and Lifetime in Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wook; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo; Yu, Hyeonghwa; Aziz, Hany; Lee, Kang Mun

    2018-02-01

    A new concept of host, electroplex host, is developed for high efficiency and long lifetime phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by mixing two host materials generating an electroplex under an electric field. A carbazole-type host and a triazine-type host are selected as the host materials to form the electroplex host. The electroplex host is found to induce light emission through an energy transfer process rather than charge trapping, and universally improves the lifetime of red, yellow, green, and blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by more than four times. Furthermore, the electroplex host shows much longer lifetime than a common exciplex host. This is the first demonstration of using the electroplex as the host of high efficiency and long lifetime phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

  18. $f$-Biminimal immersions

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRLER, FATMA; ÖZGÜR, CİHAN

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we define $f$-biminimal immersions. We consider $f$-biminimal curves in a Riemannian manifold and $f$-biminimal submanifolds of codimension $1$ in a Riemannian manifold, and we give examples of $f$-biminimal surfaces. Finally, we consider $f$-biminimal Legendre curves in Sasakian space forms and give an example.

  19. Light-induced energetic decoupling as a mechanism for phycobilisome-related energy dissipation in red algae: a single molecule study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ning Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to prevent photodamage in vivo under high-light conditions. Cyanobacteria and red algae use phycobilisomes (PBsomes as their major light-harvesting antennae complexes. The orange carotenoid protein in some cyanobacteria has been demonstrated to play roles in the photoprotective mechanism. The PBsome-itself-related energy dissipation mechanism is still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, single-molecule spectroscopy is applied for the first time on the PBsomes of red alga Porphyridium cruentum, to detect the fluorescence emissions of phycoerythrins (PE and PBsome core complex simultaneously, and the real-time detection could greatly characterize the fluorescence dynamics of individual PBsomes in response to intense light. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data revealed that strong green-light can induce the fluorescence decrease of PBsome, as well as the fluorescence increase of PE at the first stage of photobleaching. It strongly indicated an energetic decoupling occurring between PE and its neighbor. The fluorescence of PE was subsequently observed to be decreased, showing that PE was photobleached when energy transfer in the PBsomes was disrupted. In contrast, the energetic decoupling was not observed in either the PBsomes fixed with glutaraldehyde, or the mutant PBsomes lacking B-PE and remaining b-PE. It was concluded that the energetic decoupling of the PBsomes occurs at the specific association between B-PE and b-PE within the PBsome rod. Assuming that the same process occurs also at the much lower physiological light intensities, such a decoupling process is proposed to be a strategy corresponding to PBsomes to prevent photodamage of the photosynthetic reaction centers. Finally, a novel photoprotective role of gamma-subunit-containing PE in red algae was discussed.

  20. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  1. A single-blind, dose escalation, phase I study of high-fluence light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) on human skin: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Derek; Kraeva, Ekaterina; Wun, Ted; Isseroff, R. Rivkah; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin fibrosis is involved in a variety of pathologic conditions ranging from scar formation secondary to surgery or trauma to immune-mediated processes. Skin fibrosis is a significant international health problem with an estimated incidence of greater than 100 million people affected per year worldwide with few effective treatment options available. Preliminary in vitro data generated by our research group suggests that red light can function as a stand-alone treatment for skin fib...

  2. Red organic light-emitting diodes based on wide band gap emitting material as the host utilizing two-step energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq Khizarul; Shanpeng Liu; Khan, M A; Jiang, X Y; Zhang, Z L; Zhu, W Q

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated efficient red organic light-emitting diodes based on a host emitting system of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) co-doped with 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-t-butyle-6- (1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) as a red dopant and 2,3,6,7- tetrahydro-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-1H,5H,1 1H-10(2-benzothiazolyl)-quinolizine-[9,9a,1gh] coumarin (C545T) as an assistant dopant. The typical device structure was glass substrate/ITO/4,4',4''-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenylamino) triphenylamine(m-MTDATA)/N,N'-bis-(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB)/[ADN: DCJTB: C545T/Alq 3 /LiF/Al]. It was found that C545T dopant did not emit by itself but did assist the energy transfer from the host (ADN) to the red emitting dopant. The red OLEDs realized by this approach not only enhanced the emission color, but also significantly improved the EL efficiency. The EL efficiency reached 3.5 cd A −1 at a current density of 20 mA cm −2 , which is enhanced by three times compared with devices where the emissive layer is composed of the DCJTB doped ADN. The saturated red emission was obtained with CIE coordinates (x = 0.618, y = 0.373) at 621 nm, and the device driving voltage is decreased as much as 38%. We attribute these improvements to the assistant dopant (C545T), which leads to the more efficient energy transfer from ADN to DCJTB. These results indicate that the co-doped system is a promising method for obtaining high-efficiency red OLEDs

  3. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  4. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  5. Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Deep-Red Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on an Exciplex Host Composed of a Hole Transporter and a Bipolar Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manli; Jiang, Bei; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2017-10-19

    With the aim to achieve highly efficient deep-red emission, we introduced an exciplex forming cohost, 4,4',4″-tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA): 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) (1:1). Due to the efficient triplet up-conversion processes upon the exciplex forming cohost, excellent performances of the devices were achieved with deep-red emission. Using the heteroleptic iridium complexes as the guest dopants, the solution-processed deep-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with the iridium(III) bis(6-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)phenanthridine)acetylacetonate [(TP-BQ) 2 Ir(acac)]-based phosphorescent emitter exhibited an electroluminescent peak at 656 nm and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%, which is 6.6 times that of the device based on the guest emitter doped in the polymer-based cohost. The unique exciplex with a typical hole transporter and a bipolar material is ideal and universal for hosting the red PhOLEDs and tremendously improves the device performances.

  6. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia hlg mutants have a mutation in a PHYB-type phytochrome gene: they have elongated hypocotyls in red light, but are not elongated as adult plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Robson, P R; Kraepiel, Y; Caboche, M; Smith, H

    1997-11-01

    Two new allelic mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been isolated which display a hypocotyl which is long (hlg) when seedlings are grown in continuous white light (W). This can be accounted for by the decreased response to red light (R) of the hypocotyl elongation rate in these mutants. Responses to other wavelengths are unaffected in the mutants. When grown in white light, mature hlg mutants are not elongated with respect to the wild-type; they also bolt and flower later. The shade-avoidance responses to red/far red ratio (R:FR) are intact in these mutants. Both mutants are deficient in phyB-like polypeptide that is immunodetectable in the wild-type; both have wild-type levels of a phyA-like polypeptide. These alleles are inherited in a partially dominant manner, and correspond to single-base missense mutations in a gene highly homologous to N. tabacum PHYB, which codes for a phytochrome B-type photoreceptor. One allele, hlg-1, has an introduced amino acid substitution; this may define a residue essential for phytochrome protein stability. The other allele, hlg-2, has a stop codon introduced C-terminal to the chromophore binding domain. As these phyB mutants are unaffected in shade-avoidance responses, but deficient in perception of R, it is concluded that the phyB absent in these mutants is responsible for R perception in the N. plumbaginifolia seedling, but is not a R:FR sensor in light-grown plants.

  7. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  8. Pitfalls and artifacts in measuring absorption spectra and kinetics: the effect of stray light in the UV and red regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, Gideon; Ozeri, Yair; Goldstein, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Effects of stray light on absorption spectrum and kinetics are discussed. The extent of the stray light depends on the light source, monochromator, wavelength set by the instrument and the absorption of the sample at this wavelength. Effects of the stray light on the shape of the spectrum and the extinction coefficients are shown. Methods for determining the existence and extent of stray light are suggested and are especially relevant for studies using pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and stopped-flow techniques. The literature examples for artifacts due to stray light are presented for kinetics and absorption spectra

  9. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignone, Bruna Coser; Silva, Ludimila Karsbergen; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Akaki, Emilio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA) and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA). Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0), 24 hours (T1), 72 hours (T2), as well as 7 days (T3) and 14 days (T4) of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%. The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations. Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  10. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Coser Guignone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions.METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18 according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva. The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA, Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA, Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA. Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0, 24 hours (T1, 72 hours (T2, as well as 7 days (T3 and 14 days (T4 of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%.RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations.CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  11. Animal imaging using immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Rand, Kendra; Faris, Gregory W.

    2003-07-01

    We are using rodent animal models to study and compare contrast mechanisms for detection of breast cancer. These measurements are performed with the animals immersed in a matching scattering medium. The matching scattering medium or liquid tissue phantom comprises a mixture of Ropaque (hollow acrylic/styrene microspheres) and ink. We have previously applied matched imaging to imaging in humans. Surrounding the imaged region with a matched tissue phantom compensates for variations in tissue thickness and geometry, provides more uniform illumination, and allows better use of the dynamic range of the imaging system. If the match is good, the boundaries of the imaged region should almost vanish, enhancing the contrast from internal structure as compared to contrast from the boundaries and surface topography. For our measurements in animals, the immersion plays two additional roles. First, we can readily study tumors through tissue thickness similar to that of a human breast. Although the heterogeneity of the breast is lost, this is a practical method to study the detection of small tumors and monitor changes as they grow. Second, the immersion enhances our ability to quantify the contrast mechanisms for peripheral tumors on the animal because the boundary effects on photon migration are eliminated. We are currently developing two systems for these measurements. One is a continuous-wave (CW) system based on near-infrared LED illumination and a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera. The second system, a frequency domain system, can help quantify the changes observed with the CW system.

  12. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p < 0.05) after the three exercise tests, but only active LEDT decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.0065) and CK activity (p = 0.0044) significantly after treatment. There were no significant differences in CRP values after treatments. We concluded that treating the leg muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  13. Bidentate Ligand-passivated CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Stable Near-unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Efficient Red Light-emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2017-12-17

    Although halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for optoelectronic devices, they suffer severely from chemical and phase instabilities. Moreover, the common capping ligands like oleic acid and oleylamine that encapsulate the NCs will form an insulating layer, precluding their utility in optoelectronic devices. To overcome these limitations, we develop a post-synthesis passivation process for CsPbI3 NCs by using a bidentate ligand, namely 2,2’-Iminodibenzoic acid. Our passivated NCs exhibit narrow red photoluminescence with exceptional quantum yield (close to unity) and substantially improved stability. The passivated NCs enabled us to realize red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 5.02% external quantum efficiency and 748 cd/m2 luminance, surpassing by far LEDs made from the non-passivated NCs.

  14. The study of 670.7 nm red light generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a Q-switched Nd : YAlO3 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haiyong; Zhang Ge; Huang Chenghui; Wei Yong; Huang Lingxiong; Huang Yidong

    2009-01-01

    High-power 670.7 nm red light was obtained by intracavity frequency doubling of a Q-switched Nd : YAlO 3 (Nd : YAP) laser with a critical phase matching (θ = 85.9 0 , φ = 0 0 ) cut LBO. Experimental configurations using V-cavity and Z-cavity have been adopted for comparison. The highest output power of 19.7 W was achieved in the Z-cavity with optical-optical efficiency of 4%. Compared with the laser using an Nd : YAG crystal, the adoption of Nd : YAP simplified the laser system in the absence of a solid etalon and the Brewster plate. The output power stability of the red laser was investigated and the fluctuation was lower than 3% at the output power of 18 W an hour.

  15. Bidentate Ligand-passivated CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Stable Near-unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Efficient Red Light-emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Shang, Yuequn; Yin, Jun; de Bastiani, Michele; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Sinatra, Lutfan; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Ning, Zhijun; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Although halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for optoelectronic devices, they suffer severely from chemical and phase instabilities. Moreover, the common capping ligands like oleic acid and oleylamine that encapsulate the NCs will form an insulating layer, precluding their utility in optoelectronic devices. To overcome these limitations, we develop a post-synthesis passivation process for CsPbI3 NCs by using a bidentate ligand, namely 2,2’-Iminodibenzoic acid. Our passivated NCs exhibit narrow red photoluminescence with exceptional quantum yield (close to unity) and substantially improved stability. The passivated NCs enabled us to realize red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 5.02% external quantum efficiency and 748 cd/m2 luminance, surpassing by far LEDs made from the non-passivated NCs.

  16. Solution-processable red-emission organic materials containing triphenylamine and benzothiodiazole units: synthesis and applications in organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhou, Yi; He, Qingguo; He, Chang; Yang, Chunhe; Bai, Fenglian; Li, Yongfang

    2009-06-04

    Three solution-processable red-emissive organic materials with a hole-transporting unit triphenylamine (TPA) as the core part and a D-pi-A bipolar structure as the branch part, TPA-BT (single-branched molecule), b-TPA-BT (bibranched molecule), and t-TPA-BT (tribranched molecule), were synthesized by the Heck coupling reaction. Herein, for the D-pi-A push-pull structure, we use TPA as the electron donor, benzothiodiazole (BT) as the electron acceptor, and the vinylene bond as the pi-bridge connecting the TPA and BT units. The compounds exhibit good solubility in common organic solvents, benefited from the three-dimensional spatial configuration of TPA units and the branch structure of the molecules. TPA-BT, b-TPA-BT, and t-TPA-BT show excellent photoluminescent properties with maximum emission peaks at ca. 630 nm. High-performance red-emission organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated with the active layer spin coated from a solution of these compounds. The OLED based on TPA-BT displayed a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, a maximum luminance of 12192 cd/m2, and a maximum current efficiency of 1.66 cd/A, which is among the highest values for the solution-processed red-emission OLEDs. In addition, high-performance white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with maximum luminance around 4400 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiencies above 4.5 cd/A were realized by separately doping the three TPA-BT-containing molecules as red emitter and poly(6,6'-bi-(9,9'-dihexylfluorene)- co-(9,9'-dihexylfluorene-3-thiophene-5'-yl)) as green emitter into blue poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) host material with suitable weight ratios.

  17. Red emitting phosphors of Eu3+ doped Na2Ln2Ti3O10 (Ln = Gd, Y) for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Niumiao; Guo, Chongfeng; Yin, Luqiao; Zhang, Jianhua; Wu, Mingmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Layered red phosphors Na 2 Ln 2 Ti 3 O 10 (Ln = Gd, Y):Eu 3+ were prepared. • The synthesis parameters of phosphors were optimized. • PL and thermal stability of the samples were investigated. • LED devices were also fabricated including the present red phosphor. - Abstract: A series of Eu 3+ doped Na 2 Ln 2 Ti 3 O 10 (Ln = Gd, Y) red-emitting phosphors for application in ultraviolet based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were successfully synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. Their structure and luminescent properties were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra and absorption spectra, according to these results the optimal compositions and synthesis parameters were determined. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the phosphors were investigated according to the temperature-dependent PL spectra. The red and white-LEDs (W-LEDs) comprising the Na 2 Ln 2 Ti 3 O 10 :Eu 3+ (Ln = Gd, Y) red emitting phosphors were fabricated with a near-ultraviolet (n-UV) chip. In comparison with Na 2 Y 1.4 Eu 0.6 Ti 3 O 10 , the Na 2 Gd 0.6 Eu 1.4 Ti 3 O 10 phosphor offers higher brightness, quantum efficiency, and excellent thermal stability. W-LEDs comprising Na 2 Gd 0.6 Eu 1.4 Ti 3 O 10 showed bright white emission with a color rendering index (Ra) of 82, a color temperature of 2151 K, and Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.34, 0.37). The phosphor Na 2 Gd 0.6 Eu 1.4 Ti 3 O 10 is more suitable candidate for application in LEDs

  18. Red-light-controllable liquid-crystal soft actuators via low-power excited upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Ming; Li, Fuyou; Yu, Yanlei

    2013-11-06

    A red-light-controllable soft actuator has been achieved, driven by low-power excited triplet-triplet annihilation-based upconversion luminescence (TTA-UCL). First, a red-to-blue TTA-based upconversion system with a high absolute quantum yield of 9.3 ± 0.5% was prepared by utilizing platinum(II) tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP) as the sensitizer and 9,10-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)anthracene (BDPPA) as the annihilator. In order to be employed as a highly effective phototrigger of photodeformable cross-linked liquid-crystal polymers (CLCPs), the PtTPBP&BDPPA system was incorporated into a rubbery polyurethane film and then assembled with an azotolane-containing CLCP film. The generating assembly film bent toward the light source when irradiated with a 635 nm laser at low power density of 200 mW cm(-2) because the TTA-UCL was effectively utilized by the azotolane moieties in the CLCP film, inducing their trans-cis photoisomerization and an alignment change of the mesogens via an emission-reabsorption process. It is the first example of a soft actuator in which the TTA-UCL is trapped and utilized to create photomechanical effect. Such advantages of using this novel red-light-controllable soft actuator in potential biological applications have also been demonstrated as negligible thermal effect and its excellent penetration ability into tissues. This work not only provides a novel photomanipulated soft actuation material system based on the TTA-UCL technology but also introduces a new technological application of the TTA-based upconversion system in photonic devices.

  19. High efficiency green/yellow and red InGaN/AlGaN nanowire light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Philip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the achievement of high efficiency green, yellow, and red InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111 by molecular beam epitaxy. The peak emission wavelengths were altered by varying the growth conditions, including the substrate temperature, and In/Ga flux ratio. The devices demonstrate relatively high (>40% internal quantum efficiency at room temperature, relative to that measured at 5 K. Moreover, negligible blue-shift in peak emission spectrum associated with no efficiency droop was measured when injection current was driven up to 556 A/cm2.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Red-Light Emitting Au Nanoclusters with the Use of Egg White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinghan; Yan, Lei; Sang, Aohua; Yuan, Hongyan; Zheng, Baozhan; Xiao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method to synthesize gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with red fluorescence. The experiment was performed using HAuCl[subscript 4], egg white, Na[subscript 2]CO[subscript 3] (known as soda ash or washing soda), and a microwave oven. In our experiment, fluorescent AuNCs were prepared within a…

  1. Characterization of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper layer of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Sarma, Y. V. B.; Tiwari, Surya P.; Jones, Burton H.

    2018-03-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major variable used in developing robust bio-optical models and understanding biogeochemical processes. Over the last decade, the optical properties of CDOM in the open sea have been intensely studied. However, their variations in clear water are poorly documented, particularly in the Red Sea, owing to the absence of in situ measurements. We performed several cruises in the Red Sea to investigate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient of CDOM. The spectral absorption coefficients were determined from 400 nm to 740 nm using a WETLabs ac-s hyper-spectral spectrophotometer. In general, we found a latitudinal gradient in the CDOM absorption coefficient at 443 nm (aCDOM(443)) from south to north that is likely influenced by the exchange of water through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb and the thermohaline circulation of the Red Sea. However, high aCDOM(443) values were observed in the northern Red Sea due to the existence of a sub-mesoscale feature that may induce an increase in phytoplankton production and lead to CDOM production. The aCDOM(443) covaried with the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a],) despite a high scatter. Furthermore, the aCDOM(443) for a given [Chl a] concentration was higher than those predicted by global ocean bio-optical models. This study advances our understanding of CDOM concentration in the Red Sea and may help improve the accuracy of the algorithms used to obtain CDOM absorption from ocean color.

  2. Characterization of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper layer of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2018-02-07

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major variable used in developing robust bio‐optical models and understanding biogeochemical processes. Over the last decade, the optical properties of CDOM in the open sea have been intensely studied. However, their variations in clear water are poorly documented, particularly in the Red Sea, owing to the absence of in situ measurements. We performed several cruises in the Red Sea to investigate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient of CDOM. The spectral absorption coefficients were determined from 400nm to 740nm using a WETLabs ac-s hyper-spectral spectrophotometer. In general, we found a latitudinal gradient in the CDOM absorption coefficient at 443nm (aCDOM(443)) from south to north that is likely influenced by the exchange of water through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb and the thermohaline circulation of the Red Sea. However, high aCDOM(443) values were observed in the northern Red Sea due to the existence of a sub-mesoscale feature that may induce an increase in phytoplankton production and lead to CDOM production. The aCDOM(443) covaried with the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a],) despite a high scatter. Furthermore, the aCDOM(443) for a given [Chl a] concentration was higher than those predicted by global ocean bio-optical models. This study advances our understanding of CDOM concentration in the Red Sea and may help improve the accuracy of the algorithms used to obtain CDOM absorption from ocean color.

  3. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of light scattering by individual mature red blood cells by use of scanning flow cytometry and a discrete dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Semyanov, Konstantin A; Tarasov, Peter A; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2005-09-01

    Elastic light scattering by mature red blood cells (RBCs) was theoretically and experimentally analyzed by use of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and scanning flow cytometry (SFC), respectively. SFC permits measurement of the angular dependence of the light-scattering intensity (indicatrix) of single particles. A mature RBC is modeled as a biconcave disk in DDA simulations of light scattering. We have studied the effect of RBC orientation related to the direction of the light incident upon the indicatrix. Numerical calculations of indicatrices for several axis ratios and volumes of RBC have been carried out. Comparison of the simulated indicatrices and indicatrices measured by SFC showed good agreement, validating the biconcave disk model for a mature RBC. We simulated the light-scattering output signals from the SFC with the DDA for RBCs modeled as a disk-sphere and as an oblate spheroid. The biconcave disk, the disk-sphere, and the oblate spheroid models have been compared for two orientations, i.e., face-on and rim-on incidence, relative to the direction of the incident beam. Only the oblate spheroid model for rim-on incidence gives results similar to those of the rigorous biconcave disk model.

  5. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2017-02-16

    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of ∼2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of ∼39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  6. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien K.; Zhao, Chao; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Shen, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-02-01

    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce3+ phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm2 with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of 2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of 39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  7. Immersive viewing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  8. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  9. Red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that hybrid with Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs by electrostatic spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Tang, Jianguo; Li, Haidong; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yanxin; Huang, Linjun; Belfiore, Laurence A.

    2018-04-01

    This work demonstrated red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that incorporated with novel three-layer nanostructure of Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs), and the hybrid nano-PVP fibers were fabricated via a remarkably simple electrostatic spinning method. For Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs, the thickness of SiO2 is optimized to obtain the maximum luminescent intensity, as results, the optimized thickness of SiO2 is 20 nm. And the corresponding luminescent intensity (612 nm) of the Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs is enhanced up to 10 times compared with the pure Eu(tta)3phen complex, which indicates that with 20 nm SiO2 thickness, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Ag@SiO2 exhibits highest performance for enhancing luminescence. Moreover, the luminescent PVP fibers emit bright red light under the fluorescence microscope, which definitely confirms that the microenvironment provided by PVP polymer is absolutely suitable for the fluorescent composites.

  10. Museum lighting for golden artifacts, with low correlated color temperature, high color uniformity and high color rendering index, using diffusing color mixing of red, cyan, and white-light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2012-01-01

    at the Royal Danish Collection at Rosenborg Castle. Color mixing of red, cyan, and white LEDs was employed to achieve the spectral power distribution needed for the required CCT and a CRI above 90. Color uniformity is achieved by the use of a highly diffusing reflector. The system has shown energy saving above......Museum lighting presents challenges mainly due to the demand for precise color rendering and the damaging effects of radiation. Golden objects must normally be illuminated by the non-standard CCT of 2200 K. An LED system that conforms to these requirements has been developed and implemented...

  11. Efficient solar light-driven degradation of Congo red with novel Cu-loaded Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priya; Fermah, Alisha; Rajput, Jaspreet Kaur; Singh, Harminder; Badhan, Jigyasa

    2017-08-01

    In this work, Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 core shell nanoparticles were prepared in a single pot by coating of TiO 2 on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles followed by Cu loading. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS) techniques were used for characterization of as prepared nanoparticles. Synergism between copper and titania was evaluated by studying the solar light-driven photodegradation of Congo red dye solution in the presence of Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles on one side and Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles on the other side. The latter performed better than the former catalyst, indicating the enhanced activity of copper-loaded catalyst. Further photodegradation was studied by three means, i.e., under ultraviolet (UV), refluxing, and solar radiations. Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 enhanced the degradation efficiency of Congo red dye. Thus, Cu act possibly by reducing the band gap of TiO 2 and widening the optical response of semiconductor, as a result of which solar light could be used to carry out photocatalysis. Graphical abstract Photodegradation of congo red over Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  12. Inactivation of Orientia tsutsugamushi in red blood cells, plasma, and platelets with riboflavin and light, as demonstrated in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentas, Francisco; Harman, Ronald; Gomez, Charlotte; Salata, Jeanne; Childs, Joseph; Silva, Tonya; Lippert, Lloyd; Montgomery, Joshua; Richards, Allen; Chan, Chye; Jiang, Ju; Reddy, Heather; Li, John; Goodrich, Raymond

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of blood products with riboflavin and light has been used to reduce the number of certain pathogens. Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, the scrub typhus agent, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows free in the cytoplasm of infected cells. This study evaluated the capability of riboflavin and light to inactivate O. tsutsugamushi in red blood cells (RBCs), platelets (PLTs), and plasma, as measured by mouse infectivity. A total of 108 mice, equally divided into groups receiving RBCs, plasma, and PLTs, received untreated products infected with 10(0) to 10(5) organisms. Eighteen mice received products infected with 10(5) organisms and were subsequently treated with riboflavin and light. Mice were monitored daily for up to 17 days for signs and symptoms of infection (e.g., lethargy, labored breathing, rough coat) and killed upon appearance of symptoms or on Day 17 after infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood and Giemsa stains from peritoneal exudates were performed. A total of 102 of 108 mice receiving the untreated products developed signs and symptoms of infection and had positive PCR and Giemsa stain results. None of the 18 animals receiving riboflavin and light-treated blood products exhibited signs or symptoms of infection, nor was infection observed by PCR testing or Giemsa staining. Riboflavin and light are effective in reducing O. tsutsugamushi. Mice injected with blood products inoculated with 10(5) organisms and treated with riboflavin and light did not experience any signs or symptoms of infection, 17 days after inoculation. A 5-log reduction of this organism in blood was achieved as assayed in an animal model.

  13. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  14. Light-grown plants of transgenic tobacco expressing an introduced oat phytochrome A gene under the control of a constitutive viral promoter exhibit persistent growth inhibition by far-red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, A.; Whitelam, G.; Smith, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the photoregulation of development has been made for etiolated and light-grown plants of wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacun L.) and an isogenic transgenic line which expresses an introduced oat phytochrome gene (phyA) under the control of a constitutive viral promoter. Etiolated seedlings of both the WT and transgenic line showed irradiance-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl growth under continuous far-red (FR) light; transgenic seedlings showed a greater level of inhibition under a given fluence rate and this is considered to be the result of the heterologous phytochrome protein (PhyA) functioning in a compatible manner with the native etiolated phytochrome. Deetiolation of WT seedlings resulted in a loss of responsiveness to prolonged FR. Light-grown transgenic seedlings, however, continued to respond in an irradiance-dependent manner to prolonged FR and it is proposed that this is a specific function of the constitutive PhyA. Mature green plants of the WT and transgenic lines showed a qualitatively similar growth promotion to a brief end-of-day FR-treatment but this response was abolished in the transgenic plants under prolonged irradiation by this same FR source. Growth inhibition (McCormac et al. 1991, Planta 185, 162-170) and enhanced levels of nitrate-reductase activity under irradiance of low red:far-red ratio, as achieved by the FR-supplementation of white light, emphasised that the introduced PhyA was eliciting an aberrant mode of photoresponse compared with the normal phytochrome population of light-grown plants. Total levels of the oat-encoded phytochrome in the etiolated transgenic tobacco were shown to be influenced by the wavelength of continuous irradiation in a manner which was qualitatively similar to that seen for the native, etiolated tobacco phytochrome, and distinct from that seen in etiolated oat tissues. These results are discussed in terms of the proposal that the constitutive oat-PhyA pool in the transgenic plants

  15. Immersion in narrative games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Fragoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the expressions used to refer to the experience of immersive in narrative games. The starting point is a review of the meanings associated with the suspension of disbelief in literature, cinema and television, challenging the myth of the naïve audience that cannot distinguish between representation and reality. Two characteristics of interactive media narratives – the possibility of agency and the disparities between hardware and software interfaces – reveal the active nature of the audience’s involvement with media representations. It is proposed that, in the case of games, this ability, which allows for simultaneous actions in the world of games and in the real world, is better described as a performance of belief.

  16. A webcam in Bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infra-red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gregor; Hochreiner, Armin; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Beam profiles are commonly measured with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) or charge coupled devices (CCD). The devices are fast and reliable but expensive. By making use of the fact that the Bayer-filter in commercial webcams is transparent in the near infra-red (>800 nm) and their CCD chips are sensitive up to about 1100 nm, we demonstrate a cheap and simple way to measure laser beam profiles with a resolution down to around ±1 μm, which is close to the resolution of the knife-edge technique.

  17. Immersive Technologies and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Carl

    2018-01-01

    This article briefly traces the historical conceptualization of linguistic and cultural immersion through technological applications, from the early days of locally networked computers to the cutting-edge technologies known as virtual reality and augmented reality. Next, the article explores the challenges of immersive technologies for the field…

  18. Hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes combining blue-fluorescent polymer and red phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes as active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germino, Jose Carlos; Faleiros, Marcelo Meira; Moraes, Emmanuel Santos; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon, E-mail: kakagermino@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Domingues, Raquel Aparecida [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Quites, Fernando Junior [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Freitas, Jilian Nei de [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we proposed a PFO composite with two salicylidene based Pt(II) coordination compounds, the [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] (red emitters), as emissive layer (EML) for Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), combining a blue-fluorescent polymer (PFO) with red-phosphorescent Pt(II) coordination complexes in order to obtain an efficient white electroluminescent EML for WOLEDs application. Firstly, [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] were synthesized, purified and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, yielding their respective expected molecular structures. The photoluminescence properties of the devices were evaluated by steady-state (electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies) and transient (fluorescence decays and TRES) measurements. It was observed the presence of non-radiative energy transfer processes between the PFO derivative and Pt(II) complexes. Posteriorly, the Pt(II) complexes were blended with PVK at 1% mol:mol ratio and OLEDs were made, leading to red-emitting devices with high color purity for the two coordination compounds. However, the two devices present low current efficiency values. In order to improve the electroluminescence properties of Pt(II) complexes PhOLEDs, PVK host was substituted by PFO at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% mol:mol ratios of complex and it was observed a great improvement of their optical-electronic properties in terms of luminance, voltage, current density and current efficiency in comparison to PVK composites or pure PFO devices. At 2.5% concentration, predominant bands of Pt(II) complexes were observed at low and high voltages. For the other concentrations, a different behavior was observed: the emission bands and device color were function of applied electrical field, exhibiting a red color at lower voltages (5 to 9V) and the PFO characteristic emission between 9 and 13V, leading to a white light emission at 13V. The best results were obtained for [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] coordination compound

  19. Light emission ranging from blue to red from a series of Iguana/GaN single quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; Edwards, P.R.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; O'Donnell, K.P.; Liu, C.; Deatcher, C.J.; Watson, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the growth and characterization of InGaN single quantum wells with emission peaks in the blue, green, amber and red spectral regions, grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Starting from the growth of a blue-emitting (peak ∼430 nm) InGaN quantum well at 860 deg. C the InGaN growth temperature was progressively reduced. The photoluminescence peak wavelength, measured at low temperature, shifts through the green and orange spectral regions and reaches 670 nm for an InGaN growth temperature of 760 deg. C. This corresponds to an energy lower than the currently accepted band-gap of the binary compound, InN. Spectral characteristics of the luminescence peaks will be discussed, including an analysis of the phonon-assisted contribution. Low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis provides information on the indium content and thickness of the 'blue' and 'red' quantum wells. The results are combined to discuss the origin of the 'sub-band-gap' luminescence in terms of the combined influence of InN-GaN segregation and the effect of intense piezoelectric fields. (author)

  20. Light emission ranging from blue to red from a series of Iguana/GaN single quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.W. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.w.martin@strath.ac.uk; Edwards, P.R.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; O' Donnell, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Liu, C.; Deatcher, C.J.; Watson, I.M. [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-07

    In this paper, we describe the growth and characterization of InGaN single quantum wells with emission peaks in the blue, green, amber and red spectral regions, grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Starting from the growth of a blue-emitting (peak {approx}430 nm) InGaN quantum well at 860 deg. C the InGaN growth temperature was progressively reduced. The photoluminescence peak wavelength, measured at low temperature, shifts through the green and orange spectral regions and reaches 670 nm for an InGaN growth temperature of 760 deg. C. This corresponds to an energy lower than the currently accepted band-gap of the binary compound, InN. Spectral characteristics of the luminescence peaks will be discussed, including an analysis of the phonon-assisted contribution. Low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis provides information on the indium content and thickness of the 'blue' and 'red' quantum wells. The results are combined to discuss the origin of the 'sub-band-gap' luminescence in terms of the combined influence of InN-GaN segregation and the effect of intense piezoelectric fields. (author)

  1. Quantitative modeling of the dynamics and intracellular trafficking of far-red light-activatable prodrugs: implications in stimuli-responsive drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Thapa, Pritam; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D; You, Youngjae; Woo, Sukyung

    2017-12-01

    The combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with anti-tumor agents is a complimentary strategy to treat local cancers. We developed a unique photosensitizer (PS)-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug in which a PS is excited by near-infrared wavelength light to site-specifically release PTX while generating singlet oxygen (SO) to effectively kill cancer cells with both PTX and SO. The aim of the present study was to identify the determinants influencing the combined efficacy of this light-activatable prodrug, especially the bystander killing effects from released PTX. Using PS-conjugated PTX as a model system, we developed a quantitative mathematical model describing the intracellular trafficking. Dynamics of the prodrug and the model predictions were verified with experimental data using human cancer cells in vitro. The sensitivity analysis suggested that parameters related to extracellular concentration of released PTX, prodrug uptake, target engagement, and target abundance are critical in determining the combined killing efficacy of the prodrug. We found that released PTX cytotoxicity was most sensitive to the retention time of the drug in extracellular space. Modulating drug internalization and conjugating the agents targeted to abundant receptors may provide a new strategy for maximizing the killing capacity of the far-red light-activatable prodrug system. These results provide guidance for the design of the PDT combination study in vivo and have implications for other stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems.

  2. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  3. Effect of light on the kinetics and equilibrium of the textile dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by Helianthus annuus hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantan, Chitra; Suraishkumar, G K; Srivastava, Smita

    2018-06-01

    The study demonstrates for the first time that light influences the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of a dye by root culture system. The azo dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium parameters were best estimated using Langmuir isotherm. The maximum dye adsorption capacity of the roots increased 6-fold, from 0.26 mg g -1 under complete dark conditions to 1.51 mg g -1 under 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. Similarly, adsorption rate of the dye and removal (%) also increased in the presence of light, irrespective of the initial concentration of the dye (20-110 mg L -1 ). The degradation of the azo dye upon adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus was also confirmed. In addition, a strategy for simultaneous dye removal and increased alpha-tocopherol (industrially relevant) production by H. annuus hairy root cultures has been proposed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Red and Blue Light Effects during Growth on Hydraulic and Stomatal Conductance in Leaves of Young Cucumber Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.; Savvides, A.; Fanourakis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Many horticultural crops (food and ornamental) are produced year-round in greenhouses at high latitudes, where the limited availability of natural sunlight restricts plant production during large parts of the year. To enable year-round plant production supplemental light is necessary to enhance

  5. Influence of blue and red light illumination on the holographic storage in an azopolyester–PMMA blend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berges, C.; Díez, I.; Javakhishvili, Irakli

    2014-01-01

    . The dependence of holographic storage on the recording condition has been studied. No stable gratings can be recorded in thermally quenched films. The presence of cis isomers that can be induced by blue light irradiation seems to be necessary to store stable gratings. The cis isomer content and consequently...

  6. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  7. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  8. The colour-tuning effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue-red organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jian; Xia, Yi-Jie; Tang Chao; Yin Kun; Zhong Gaoyu; Ni Gang; Peng Bo; Hou Xiaoyuan; Gan Fuxi; Huang Wei

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and measurement of organic light-emitting devices comprised of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/4,4',4-prime-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA, 8 nm)/2-pyrenyl-9-phenyl-9-pyrenylfluorene(2P9PPF, 30 nm)/ bathocuproine (BCP, with different thickness)/Alq 3 : DCJTB (DCJTB = 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7- tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran, Alq 3 = tris(8-hydroxyquinolino) aluminium(III), 2% in mass ratio, 30 nm)/Mg : Ag(250 nm). The dependence of electroluminescence (EL) spectra on the BCP layer thickness and operating voltage has been investigated quantitatively. It is shown that the emission colour of the devices changes from red to blue at 8 V when the BCP layer thickness changes from 1 to 10 nm. The emission colour of the devices also varies with the applying voltage even in a given device. The ratio of blue emission originating from 2P9PPF to the red emission originating from DCJTB increases with the applying voltage. Based on the hole blocking effect of the BCP layer, we deduced the dependence of this ratio on the BCP layer thickness and simulated the experimental result well. It is also proposed that the variation of the EL spectrum with the voltage can be attributed to the varying hole blocking effect under the varying electric field, which resulted in a recombination zone shift, and the exciton dissociation effect in the electric field

  9. Improved performances of red organic light-emitting devices by co-doping a rubrene derivative and DCJTB into tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tianle [Physics Department, School of Science, Maoming University, Maoming 525000 (China); Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Li Wenlian, E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Li Xiao [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Chu Bei, E-mail: beichubox@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Su Zisheng; Han Liangliang; Chen Yiren [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Hu Zhizhi; Zhang Zhiqiang [Optic Photo-Electronic Materials and Research Development Center, Liaoning University of Science and Technology, Anshan 114044 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Performances of red organic light-emitting device were improved by co-doping 2-formyl-5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (2FRb) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetra-methyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) host as the emitting layer. The device with 1 wt% DCJTB and 2.4 w% 2FRb in Alq{sub 3} host gave a saturated red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.65, 0.35) and a maximum current efficiency as high as 6.45 cd/A, which are 2 and 2.4 fold larger than that of the device with 1 wt% DCJTB (3.28 cd/A) in Alq{sub 3} host and the device with 2.4 wt% 2FRb (2.72 cd/A) in Alq{sub 3} host at the current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The improvement could be attributed to the effective utilization of host energy by both energy transfer and trapping in the electroluminescence process and the depression of concentration quenching between the dopants molecules.

  10. The colour-tuning effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue-red organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jian [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xia, Yi-Jie [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Tang Chao [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), 66 XinMoFan Road, Nanjing 210003 (China); Yin Kun [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhong Gaoyu [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni Gang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Peng Bo [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hou Xiaoyuan [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gan Fuxi [Institute of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), 66 XinMoFan Road, Nanjing 210003 (China)

    2007-08-07

    This paper reports the fabrication and measurement of organic light-emitting devices comprised of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/4,4',4-prime-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA, 8 nm)/2-pyrenyl-9-phenyl-9-pyrenylfluorene(2P9PPF, 30 nm)/ bathocuproine (BCP, with different thickness)/Alq{sub 3} : DCJTB (DCJTB = 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7- tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran, Alq{sub 3} = tris(8-hydroxyquinolino) aluminium(III), 2% in mass ratio, 30 nm)/Mg : Ag(250 nm). The dependence of electroluminescence (EL) spectra on the BCP layer thickness and operating voltage has been investigated quantitatively. It is shown that the emission colour of the devices changes from red to blue at 8 V when the BCP layer thickness changes from 1 to 10 nm. The emission colour of the devices also varies with the applying voltage even in a given device. The ratio of blue emission originating from 2P9PPF to the red emission originating from DCJTB increases with the applying voltage. Based on the hole blocking effect of the BCP layer, we deduced the dependence of this ratio on the BCP layer thickness and simulated the experimental result well. It is also proposed that the variation of the EL spectrum with the voltage can be attributed to the varying hole blocking effect under the varying electric field, which resulted in a recombination zone shift, and the exciton dissociation effect in the electric field.

  11. Exciplex-Forming Co-Host-Based Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Long Operational Stability and High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2017-02-01

    The use of exciplex forming cohosts and phosphors incredibly boosts the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by providing a barrier-free charge injection into an emitting layer and a broad recombination zone. However, most of the efficient OLEDs based on the exciplex forming cohosts has suffered from the short operational lifetime. Here, we demonstrated phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) having both high efficiency and long lifetime by using a new exciplex forming cohost composed of N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-3,1-diyl))tris(diphenylphosphine oxide) (PO-T2T). The red-emitting PhOLEDs using the exciplex forming cohost achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 34.1% and power efficiency of 62.2 lm W 1- with low operating voltages and low efficiency roll-offs. More importantly, the device demonstrated a long lifetime around 2249 h from 1000 cd m -2 to 900 cd m -2 (LT 90 ) under a continuous flow of constant current. The efficiencies of the devices are the highest for red OLEDs with an LT 90 > 1000 h.

  12. Heat treatment on keruing and light red meranti: The effect of heat exposure at different levels of temperature on bending strength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nur Ilya Farhana Md; Ahmad, Zakiah

    2017-11-01

    Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers namely Keruing and Light Red Meranti which are in green condition were heat treated at temperature 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C, in a specially designed electronic furnace within one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated timbers in terms of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature level. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Keruing were increased when subjected to the temperature levels at 150°C, 170°C and 190°C except at 210°C. Heat treated Light Red Meranti shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels applied and the values dropped at 210°C. However, for both of species, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C, the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber.

  13. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  15. Synthesis of a red electrophosphorescent heteroleptic iridium complex and its application in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuju; Xu Yunhua; Sun Yiheng; Shi Huahong; Zhu Xuhui; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a heteroleptic iridium complex [2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine]Ir(III)[2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) pyridine] [(Btp) 2 Ir(PZ)] were reported (2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine = Btp; 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine = PZ). Electrophosphorescence was investigated in the device structure [indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly(ethlenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(vinylcarbazole)(PVK)/Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) end capped with dimethylphenyl (PFO): (Btp) 2 Ir(PZ)/Ba/Al] by using this iridium complex as guest and PFO as host. The red electrophosphorescent devices showed a peak emission at approximately 604 nm and shoulder at 654 nm with the Commission International de'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.64, 0.35) and external quantum efficiency of 7.7% at a doping concentration of 8 wt.% without an electron-transporting material in the emitting layer

  16. Complete spacelike immersions with topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fairly large class of Lorentz manifolds is defined, called WH normal manifolds, which are approximately those for which timelike infinity is a single point. It is shown that, in such a space, an immersed spacelike hypersurface which is complete must, if it is self-intersecting, not achronal or proper, satisfy strong topological conditions; in particular, if the immersion is injective in the fundamental group, then the hypersurface must be closed, embedded and achronal (i.e. a partial Cauchy surface). WH normal spaces include products of any Riemannian manifold with Minkowski 1-space; in such space, a complete immersed spacelike hypersurface must be immersed as a covering space for the Riemannian factor. (author)

  17. Immersion Music: a Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakra, Teresa M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the artistic projects undertaken at ImmersionMusic, Inc. (www.immersionmusic.org) during its three-yearexistence. We detail work in interactive performance systems,computer-based training systems, and concert production.

  18. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  19. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, M.S.; Assafrao, A.C.; Scharf, T.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Brun, M.; Olivier, S.; Nicoletti, S.; Herzig, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (?-SIL) made of SiO2. Such structured focal spots are characterized by a

  20. A Theory of Immersion Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2017-01-01

    Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.

  1. Visible-light photocatalytic decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B on Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites prepared via one step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@yahoo.cn [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Li; Zhu, Huayue [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua; Gao, Lin [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites (Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs) were in situ prepared via a simple one-step liquid phase precipitation–reduction process and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, BET, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The characterization results showed that Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs were almost similar spherical or ellipsoidal and the surface was rough and porous because Cu{sub 2}O particle was wrapped in chitosan. The chitosan layer was especially favorable for improving the adsorption ability of dye and molecular oxygen and restraining the recombination of electrons–holes pair. The visible-light photocatalytic decolorization behavior on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs was evaluated using reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) as a model pollutant. The influences of various experimental factors on X-3B decolorization were investigated. It was found that the photocatalytic decolorization process on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs followed apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The dye X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in alkaline media. Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared with other photocatalysts reported before under similar experimental conditions.

  2. Red shift in the spectrum of a chlorophyll species is essential for the drought-induced dissipation of excess light energy in a poikilohydric moss, Bryum argenteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Mohamed, Ahmed; Taniyama, Koichiro; Kanatani, Kentaro; Kosugi, Makiko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats. A global target analysis was applied to a large set of data on the fluorescence-quenching dynamics for the 430-nm (chlorophyll-a selective) and 460-nm (chlorophyll-b and carotenoid selective) excitations in the temperature region from 5 to 77 K. This analysis strongly suggested that the quencher is formed in the major peripheral antenna of photosystem II, whose emission spectrum is significantly broadened and red-shifted in its quenched form. Two emission components at around 717 and 725 nm were assigned to photosystem I (PS I). The former component at around 717 nm is mildly quenched and probably bound to the PS I core complex, while the latter at around 725 nm is probably bound to the light-harvesting complex. The dehydration treatment caused a blue shift of the PS I emission peak via reduction of the exciton energy flow to the pigment responsible for the 725 nm band.

  3. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Lesecque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC, which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  4. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesecque, Yann; Glémin, Sylvain; Lartillot, Nicolas; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Duret, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan) to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC), which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  5. Measurement of shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A.; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic Light Scattering-Optical Coherence Tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained 3D volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile, and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of 0.1 to 0.5 × 10-6 mm2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion.

  6. Lights and shadows of the red gold. An integrated assessment of Spanish strawberry production and its impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Lopez, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Spanish strawberries are an export success. Spain is the second largest producer of this fruit and it has been the world's leading strawberry exporter for years. In 2012, strawberry exports were approximately 95% of total strawberry production in Spain. The production of the red gold is concentrated in around 7000 hectares of intensive farming in the province of Huelva (south west Spain). At least 85% of all Spanish strawberries are produced in this region, in an area close to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Doñana National Park. The case of the strawberry production in Huelva makes an interesting case study for the integrated analysis of the water-food-land-political economy nexus. Its combination of bio-physical and socio-economic characteristics (local climatic conditions, agricultural techniques, environmental issues, food value chains, trade networks and socio-economic factors) are quite particular and form a case where social and natural issues coevolve. Supporters of the activity argue a high contribution to local GDP and job market and its strategic position in international markets. Critics maintain that this industry creates social and environmental conflicts. The strawberry from Huelva supplies early season strawberries to the richer markets of Germany and France and at the same time seems to fail in alleviating a provincial unemployment rate of 34%. The viability of the system is in danger: production costs are 70% higher than 20 years ago while the price per kilo has not changed or even decreased. In environmental terms, the strawberries of Huelva are irrigated with ground water withdrawn from aquifers that feed the water streams of the natural park. Half of the wells that extract the water are not legally registered for what the total amount of water withdrawal remains unknown. Should we promote the continuity of this activity? In this work, I perform a Multi-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) of Water for the

  7. Spectral-directional reflectivity of Tyvek immersed in water

    CERN Document Server

    Filevich, A; Bianchi, H; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Torlasco, G

    1999-01-01

    Spectral-directional relative intensity of the light scattered by a Tyvek sample, immersed in water, has been measured for visible and UV wavelengths. The obtained information is useful to simulate the behavior of light in water Cherenkov detectors, such as those proposed for the observation of high energy cosmic ray air showers. In this work a simple empirical dependence of the scattering pattern on the angle was found, convenient to be used in Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  8. Cardiovascular regulation during water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K S; Choi, J K; Park, Y S

    1999-11-01

    Head-out water immersion at thermoneutral temperature (34-35 degrees C) increases cardiac output for a given O2 consumption, leading to a relative hyperperfusion of peripheral tissues. To determine if subjects immersed in water at a colder temperature show similar responses and to explore the significance of the hyperperfusion, cardiovascular functions were investigated (impedance cardiography) on 10 men at rest and while performing exercise on a leg cycle ergometer (delta M = approximately 95 W.m-2) in air and in water at 34.5 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively. In subjects resting in water, the cardiac output increased by approximately 50% compared to that in air, mainly due to a rise in stroke volume. The stroke volume change tended to be greater in 30 degrees C water than in 34.5 degrees C water, and this was due to a greater increase in cardiac preload, as indicated by a significantly greater left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Arterial systolic pressure rose slightly during water immersion. Arterial diastolic pressure remained unchanged in 34.5 degrees C water, but it rose in 30 degrees C water. The total peripheral resistance fell 37% in 34.5 degrees C water and 32% in 30 degrees C water. Both in air and in water, mild exercise increased the cardiac output, and this was mainly due to an increase in heart rate. Since, however, the stroke volume increased with water immersion, cardiac output at a given work load appeared to be significantly higher in water than in air. The arterial pressures did not decrease with water immersion, despite a marked reduction in total peripheral resistance. These results suggest that 1) during cold water immersion, peripheral vasoconstriction provides an additional increase in cardiac preload, leading to a further increase in the stroke volume compared to that of the thermoneutral water immersion, 2) the mechanism of cardiovascular adjustment during dynamic exercise is not changed by the persistent increase in cardiac

  9. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O3 under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.; Skelly, J.M.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O 3 ) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O 3 concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O 3 concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 μmol m -2 s -1 , respectively. Ambient O 3 exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O 3 exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g wv ). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g wv , which resulted in greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O 3 exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions. - Under natural forest conditions and ambient O 3 exposures, available light plays a significant role in determining O 3 uptake and

  10. Calbindin-D28k and calretinin in chicken inner retina during postnatal development and neuroplasticity by dim red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosser, Nicolás Sebastián; Ronco, Laura; Bejarano, Alejandro; Paganelli, Alejandra R; Ríos, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    Members of the family of calcium binding proteins (CBPs) are involved in the buffering of calcium (Ca2+) by regulating how Ca2+ can operate within synapses or more globally in the entire cytoplasm and they are present in a particular arrangement in all types of retinal neurons. Calbindin D28k and calretinin belong to the family of CBPs and they are mainly co-expressed with other CBPs. Calbindin D28k is expressed in doubles cones, bipolar cells and in a subpopulation of amacrine and ganglion neurons. Calretinin is present in horizontal cells as well as in a subpopulation of amacrine and ganglion neurons. Both proteins fill the soma at the inner nuclear layer and the neuronal projections at the inner plexiform layer. Moreover, calbindin D28k and calretinin have been associated with neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system. During pre and early postnatal visual development, the visual system shows high responsiveness to environmental influences. In this work we observed modifications in the pattern of stratification of calbindin immunoreactive neurons, as well as in the total amount of calbindin through the early postnatal development. In order to test whether or not calbindin is involved in retinal plasticity we analyzed phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression, which showed a decrease in p-p38 MAPK, concomitant to the observed decrease of calbindin D28k. Results showed in this study suggest that calbindin is a molecule related with neuroplasticity, and we suggest that calbindin D28k has significant roles in neuroplastic changes in the retina, when retinas are stimulated with different light conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Far red/near infrared light-induced protection against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury remains intact under diabetic conditions and is independent of nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes eKeszler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Far red/near-infrared light (NIR promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS-/- mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO in a wavelength (660-830 nm and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.

  12. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT VARIATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL FUNDAMENTAL PLANE SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies is observed to have finite thickness and to be tilted from the virial relation. Both of these represent departures from the simple assumption that dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M dyn /L) are constant for all early-type galaxies. We use a sample of 16,000 quiescent galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to map out the variations in M dyn /L throughout the three-dimensional FP space defined by velocity dispersion (σ), effective radius (R e ), and effective surface brightness (I e ). Dividing M dyn /L into multiple components allows us to separately consider the contribution to the observed M dyn /L variation due to stellar population effects, initial mass function (IMF) variations, and variations in the dark matter fraction within one R e . Along the FP, we find that the stellar population contribution given some constant IMF (M *,IMF /L) scales with σ such that M *,IMF /L ∝ f(σ). Meanwhile, the dark matter and/or IMF contribution (M dyn /M *,IMF ) scales with M dyn such that M dyn /M *,IMF ∝ g(M dyn ). This means that the two contributions to the tilt of the FP rotate the plane around different axes in the three-dimensional space. The observed tilt of the FP requires contributions from both, with dark matter/IMF variations likely comprising the dominant contribution. Looking at M dyn /L variations through the thickness of the FP, we find that M dyn /L variations must be dominated either by IMF variations or by real differences in the dark matter fraction with R e . This means that the finite thickness of the FP is due to variations in the stellar mass surface density within R e (Σ *,IMF ), not the fading of passive stellar populations. It therefore represents genuine structural differences between early-type galaxies. These structural variations are correlated with galaxy star formation histories such that galaxies with higher M dyn /M *,IMF have higher [Mg/Fe], lower metallicities, and older mean

  13. Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive organic light-emitting devices based on self-quenching-resistant orange–red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Orange–red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) with high efficiency and concentration insensitivity based on a novel iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C{sup 2}′]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], were fabricated. With the heavily doped emissive layer (EML) of 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazolylbiphenyl (CBP): (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) in a wide and easily controlled dopant concentration range from 12 wt% to 24 wt%, a maximum power efficiency of 29 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of >16% of the PHOLEDs were obtained, implying the insensitivity of electroluminescence (EL) properties to doping concentration. Meanwhile, a maximum power efficiency of 5.0 lm/W was achieved from a non-doped device with neat (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the EML, indicating a superior property of self-quenching resistance. The mechanism of direct exciton formation, in which exciton-formation regions are distributed throughout the EML, is responsible for the significant alleviation of triplet–triplet annihilation and superior EL performance. - Highlights: • Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive PHOLEDs were obtained. • The high efficiency of non-doped PHOLEDs indicated a quenching-resistant property. • The independence of EL spectra on doping concentration was observed. • The heavily doped devices were dominated by mechanism of direct exciton formation.

  14. [Effect of low-energy 633 nm red light stimulation on proliferation and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Li, D L; Duan, X D; Peng, D Z

    2016-09-20

    To investigate the changes of proliferative activity and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT after being irradiated with low-energy 633 nm red light. Irradiation distance was determined through preliminary experiment. HaCaT cells were conventionally sub-cultured with RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. Cells of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into blank control group and 0.082, 0.164, 0.245, 0.491, 1.472, 2.453, 4.910, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were not irradiated, while cells in the latter 8 irradiation groups were irradiated with 633 nm red light for 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300, 600, and 1 200 s in turn. Cells were reirradiated once every 8 hours. After being irradiated for 48 hours (6 times) in irradiation groups, the proliferative activity of cells in 9 groups was determined with cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (2) Another batch of cells were grouped and irradiated as in experiment (1). After being irradiated for once in irradiation groups, cells in 9 groups were conventionally cultured for 60 min with detection reagent of reactive oxygen species. At post culture minute (PCM) 0 (immediately), 30, 60, and 120, reactive oxygen species level of cells was determined with microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) Another batch of cells were divided into blank control group, 0.082, 0.491, 2.453, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups, and positive control group. Cells in blank control group and positive control group were not irradiated (positive control reagent of reactive oxygen species was added to cells in positive control group), and cells in irradiation groups were irradiated as in experiment (1) for once. The expression of reactive oxygen species in cells of each

  15. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann; Li, Haoning; Kusch, Gunnar; Zhao, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.; Paul, Edwards; Martin, Robert; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  16. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  17. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann

    2016-03-10

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  18. Effect of Red Light-Emitting Diodes Irradiation on Hemoglobin for Potential Hypertension Treatment Based on Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red light-emitting diodes (LED were used to irradiate the isolated hypertension hemoglobin (Hb and Raman spectra difference was recorded using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Differences were observed between the controlled and irradiated Hb by comparing the spectra records. The Raman spectrum at the 1399 cm−1 band decreased following prolonged LED irradiation. The intensity of the 1639 cm−1 band decreased dramatically in the first five minutes and then gradually increased in a time-dependent manner. This observation indicated that LED irradiation increased the ability of oxygen binding in Hb. The appearance of the heme aggregation band at 1399 cm−1, in addition to the oxygen marker band at 1639 cm−1, indicated that, in our study, 30 min of irradiation with 15.0 mW was suitable for inhibiting heme aggregation and enhancing the oxygen-carrying capacity of Hb. Principal component analysis showed a one-to-one relationship between irradiated Hb at different time points and the corresponding Raman spectra. Our approach could be used to analyze the hemoglobin from patients with confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy and is helpful for developing new nondrug hypertension therapy.

  19. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  20. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  1. Learning immersion without getting wet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  2. Immersive Learning: Realism, Authenticity & Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Digital Design Studio has been exploring and applying virtual reality for a wide range of industrial, commercial and educational applications. Drawing from a range of recent projects, we explore the complex relationships between realism, authenticity and audience for effective engagement and education in immersive learning.

  3. Grism and immersion grating for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Oka, Kiko; Yamada, Akiko; Ishikawa, Mami; Kashiwagi, Masako; Kodate, Kashiko; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Sato, Shuji; Kawabata, Koji S.; Wakaki, Moriaki; Morita, Shin-ya; Simizu, Tomoyuki; Yin, Shaohui; Omori, Hitoshi; Iye, Masanori

    2017-11-01

    The grism is a versatile dispersion element for an astronomical instrument ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. Major benefit of using a grism in a space application, instead of a reflection grating, is the size reduction of optical system because collimator and following optical elements could locate near by the grism. The surface relief (SR) grism is consisted a transmission grating and a prism, vertex angle of which is adjusted to redirect the diffracted beam straight along the direct vision direction at a specific order and wavelength. The volume phase holographic (VPH) grism consists a thick VPH grating sandwiched between two prisms, as specific order and wavelength is aligned the direct vision direction. The VPH grating inheres ideal diffraction efficiency on a higher dispersion application. On the other hand, the SR grating could achieve high diffraction efficiency on a lower dispersion application. Five grisms among eleven for the Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS) of the 8.2m Subaru Telescope with the resolving power from 250 to 3,000 are SR grisms fabricated by a replication method. Six additional grisms of FOCAS with the resolving power from 3,000 to 7,000 are VPH grisms. We propose "Quasi-Bragg grism" for a high dispersion spectroscopy with wide wavelength range. The germanium immersion grating for instance could reduce 1/64 as the total volume of a spectrograph with a conventional reflection grating since refractive index of germanium is over 4.0 from 1.6 to 20 μm. The prototype immersion gratings for the mid-InfraRed High dispersion Spectrograph (IRHS) are successfully fabricated by a nano-precision machine and grinding cup of cast iron with electrolytic dressing method.

  4. Integrating modular mechatronic systems for immersive performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and video output in a very easy manner, thanks to mechatronical wearable interfaces. In this light, we describe two of our systems that explore the concept of run-time composition of a variety of input and output modalities, e.g. both music and graphical expression. Indeed, we developed both hardware......As a branch of mechatronic research in interactivity, and in robot art, we describe the concept of implementing Playware based tools inspired by modern AI robotic systems for audio-video performances. We develop immersive and personalizable tools that can allow any user to manipulate both audio...... to create a run-time audio-video performance that is original and unique. This can further be combined with modular wearable – inspired by modular robotics – to interact and control the performance. This mechatronic wearable concept and its implementations exemplify how to convey a user-centered experience...

  5. Embedding Versus Immersion in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Monte, Edmundo M.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly discuss the concepts of immersion and embedding of space-times in higher-dimensional spaces. We revisit the classical work by Kasner in which he constructs a model of immersion of the Schwarzschild exterior solution into a six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold. We show that, from a physical point of view, this model is not entirely satisfactory since the causal structure of the immersed space-time is not preserved by the immersion.

  6. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices

  7. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasch, M.; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, Dennis; Reidsma, D.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In this paper we investigate how the concept of immersion

  8. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded

  9. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Takemura, Y.; Furuta, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Nakamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  10. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Y., E-mail: kasiwagi@omtri.or.jp; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M. [Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K. [Okuno Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., 2-1-25 Hanaten-nishi, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-0011 (Japan); Furuta, S. [Tomoe Works Co., Ltd., 7-13 Tsurumachi, Amagasaki 660-0092 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  11. The necessary contradictions of 'community-led' health promotion: a case study of HIV prevention in an Indian red light district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Flora; Ghosh, Riddhi

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion interventions with marginalised groups are increasingly expected to demonstrate genuine community participation in their design and delivery. However, ideals of egalitarian democratic participation are far removed from the starting point of the hierarchical and exploitative social relations that typically characterise marginalised communities. What scope is there for health promotion projects to implement ideals of community leadership within the realities of marginalisation and inequality? We examine how the Sonagachi Project, a successful sex-worker-led HIV prevention project in India, has engaged with the unequal social relations in which it is embedded. Our ethnographic study is based on observation of the Project's participatory activities and 39 interviews with a range of its stakeholders (including sex worker employees of the Project, non-sex-worker development professionals, brothel managers, sex workers' clients). The analysis shows that the project is deeply shaped by its relationships with non-sex-worker interest groups. In order to be permitted access to the red light district, it has had to accommodate the interests of local men's clubs and brothel managers. The economic and organisational capacity to run such a project has depended upon the direct input of development professionals and funding agencies. Thus, the 'community' that leads this project is much wider than a local grouping of marginalised sex workers. We argue that, given existing power relations, the engagement with other interest groups was necessary to the project's success. Moreover, as the project has developed, sex workers' interests and leadership have gained increasing prominence. We suggest that existing optimistic expectations of participation inhibit acknowledgement of the troubling work of balancing power relations. Rather than denying such power relations, projects should be expected to plan for them.

  12. A simple and portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode and its application to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutada; Aruga, Terutomi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Miki; Kuwabara, Tetsuo; Kawakubo, Susumu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2004-06-01

    A portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode as a light source has been developed. An embedded controller sequentially turns emitters on and off, and acquires the signals detected by two photo diodes synchronized with their blinking. The controller calculates the absorbance and displays it on a liquid-crystal display. The whole system, including a 006P dry cell, is contained in a 100 x 70 x 50 mm aluminum case and its mass is 280 g. This colorimeter was successfully applied to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

  13. Metal deposition on porous silicon by immersion plating to improve photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel, E-mail: haded.ikbel@yahoo.fr; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Whibi, Seif El; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-05-15

    Metal deposition into porous silicon (PS) by immersion plating in aqueous solution during different times was investigated. The influence of immersion time on optical properties of porous silicon treated with Lithium (Li) was studied by photoluminescence (PL). From experimental results, we suggest that the treatment, for critical immersion time provides an easy way to achieve an improvement in the PL intensity. To identify surface modification, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were performed. The reflectivity spectra showed that the variation of light absorption can be probably due to the newly formed layer during the chemical deposition of Li. - Highlights: • We have varied the immersion time of PS in LiBr solution. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of immersion time. • We observe reduction of Si–O–Li bands with increasing treatment time. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  14. Metal deposition on porous silicon by immersion plating to improve photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddadi, Ikbel; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Whibi, Seif El; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Metal deposition into porous silicon (PS) by immersion plating in aqueous solution during different times was investigated. The influence of immersion time on optical properties of porous silicon treated with Lithium (Li) was studied by photoluminescence (PL). From experimental results, we suggest that the treatment, for critical immersion time provides an easy way to achieve an improvement in the PL intensity. To identify surface modification, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were performed. The reflectivity spectra showed that the variation of light absorption can be probably due to the newly formed layer during the chemical deposition of Li. - Highlights: • We have varied the immersion time of PS in LiBr solution. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of immersion time. • We observe reduction of Si–O–Li bands with increasing treatment time. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  15. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  16. Influence of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold-water immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadarette, B.S.; Prusaczyk, W.K.; Sawka, M.N. (Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of an oral 30 mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses during cold stress. Six men were immersed in chilled stirred water for up to 180 minutes; once 2 hours following ingestion of PYR and once 2 hours following ingestion of a placebo (CON). With PYR, mean ({plus minus} SD) red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition was 33 ({plus minus}12)% at 110 minutes post-ingestion. Cholinesterase inhibition was negatively related to lean body mass. Abdominal discomfort caused termination in 3 of 6 PYR experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 117 min) but in no CON experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 142 min, p > 0.05). During immersion, metabolic rate increased significantly over pre-immersion levels, and increased with duration of immersion, but did not differ between conditions. PYR had no significant effect on rectal temperature, mean body temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentration. It was concluded that a 30 mg dose of PYR does not increase susceptibility to hypothermia in humans immersed in cold-water; however, in combination with cold-stress, PYR may result in marked abdominal cramping and limit cold tolerance.

  17. Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Gambin, Yann; Legrand, Olivier; Quake, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    We show here a technique of soft lithography to microfabricate efficient solid immersion lenses (SIL) out of rubber elastomers. The light collection efficiency of a lens system is described by its numerical aperture (NA), and is critical for applications as epifluorescence microscopy [B. Herman, Fluorescence Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford/Springer, United Kingdom, 1998). While most simple lens systems have numerical apertures less than 1, the lenses described here have NA=1.25. Better pe...

  18. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  19. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  20. Red blood cells derived from whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light maintain adequate survival in vivo after 21 days of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelas, Jose A; Slichter, Sherrill J; Rugg, Neeta; Pratt, P Gayle; Nestheide, Shawnagay; Corson, Jill; Pellham, Esther; Huntington, Marty; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2017-05-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) of whole blood (WB) may increase blood safety when applied before component separation. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of red blood cells (RBCs) derived from WB treated with the riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light PR (Mirasol) system. This was a prospective, two-center, single-blind, randomized, two-period, crossover clinical trial designed to evaluate autologous 51 Cr/ 99m Tc-radiolabeled recovery and survival of RBCs derived from Mirasol-treated WB compared to untreated WB. RBCs were stored in AS-3 for 21 days at 1 to 6°C. In vitro RBC variables were characterized. Frequency and severity of treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and neoantigenicity were determined. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers (n = 12 per site) were evaluated. The Mirasol 24-hr RBC recoveries were 82.5 ± 3.9% with one-sided 95% lower confidence limit of 80.9%, meeting US Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria, albeit at lower level than controls (91.7 ± 6.8%, p < 0.001). Mean RBC survival and T 50 were reduced in the Mirasol group (61 and 23 days, respectively) versus controls (82 and 36 days, respectively; p < 0.001) with a mean area under the curve survival of treated RBCs of 83% of untreated controls. End-of-storage hemolysis in the Mirasol group was 0.22 ± 0.1% (control, 0.15 ± 0.1%; p < 0.001). No neoantigenicity or differences in TEAEs were found. RBCs derived from Mirasol WB and stored for up to 21 days in AS-3 maintained acceptable cell quality and recovery, albeit modestly reduced compared with untreated RBCs. Mirasol WB may represent a valid single WB PR platform that allows manufacture of RBC for storage for up to 21 days. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Justo Polli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed, Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00. Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05 and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

  2. Forcing clique immersions through chromatic number

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Gregory; Le, Tien-Nam; Wollan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent work of Dvo\\v{r}\\'ak and Yepremyan, we show that every simple graph of minimum degree $7t+7$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion and that every graph with chromatic number at least $3.54t + 4$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion. We also show that every graph on $n$ vertices with no stable set of size three contains $K_{2\\lfloor n/5 \\rfloor}$ as an immersion.

  3. Photoorientation of a liquid-crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups: Effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, Ingo; Rutloh, Michael; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    light. The polyester is characterized by smectic and nematic phases g24SX26SA34N46i and a strong tendency to form J-aggregates. The process requires a photochemical pretreatment by irradiation with UV light or an exposure to visible light of high power density to produce a certain concentration of the Z...

  4. [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine as Building Blocks for Universal Host Materials for High-Performance Red, Green, Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenxuan; Shi, Lijiang; Gao, Lei; Hu, Peijun; Mu, Haichuan; Xia, Zhenyuan; Huang, Jinhai; Su, Jianhua

    2018-02-14

    The electron-accepting [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (TP) moiety was introduced to build bipolar host materials for the first time, and two host materials based on this TP acceptor and carbazole donor, namely, 9,9'-(2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (o-CzTP) and 9,9'-(5-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (m-CzTP), were designed and synthesized. These two TP-based host materials possess a high triplet energy (>2.9 eV) and appropriate highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels as well as the bipolar transporting feature, which permits their applicability as universal host materials in multicolor phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). Blue, green, and red PhOLEDs based on o-CzTP and m-CzTP with the same device configuration all show high efficiencies and low efficiency roll-off. The devices hosted by o-CzTP exhibit maximum external quantum efficiencies (η ext ) of 27.1, 25.0, and 15.8% for blue, green, and red light emitting, respectively, which are comparable with the best electroluminescene performance reported for FIrpic-based blue, Ir(ppy) 3 -based green, and Ir(pq) 2 (acac)-based red PhOLEDs equipped with a single-component host. The white PhOLEDs based on the o-CzTP host and three lumophors containing red, green, and blue emitting layers were fabricated with the same device structure, which exhibit a maximum current efficiency and η c of 40.4 cd/A and 17.8%, respectively, with the color rendering index value of 75.

  5. Kinetic study of the plastoquinone pool availability correlated with H2O2 release in seawater and antioxidant responses in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii exposed to single or combined high light, chilling and chemical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marcelo P; Necchi, Orlando; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    Under biotic/abiotic stresses, the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii reportedly releases massive amounts of H(2)O(2) into the surrounding seawater. As an essential redox signal, the role of chloroplast-originated H(2)O(2) in the orchestration of overall antioxidant responses in algal species has thus been questioned. This work purported to study the kinetic decay profiles of the redox-sensitive plastoquinone pool correlated to H(2)O(2) release in seawater, parameters of oxidative lesions and antioxidant enzyme activities in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii under the single or combined effects of high light, low temperature, and sub-lethal doses of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which are inhibitors of the thylakoid electron transport system. Within 24 h, high light and chilling stresses distinctly affected the availability of the PQ pool for photosynthesis, following Gaussian and exponential kinetic profiles, respectively, whereas combined stimuli were mostly reflected in exponential decays. No significant correlation was found in a comparison of the PQ pool levels after 24 h with either catalase (CAT) or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, although the H(2)O(2) concentration in seawater (R=0.673), total superoxide dismutase activity (R=0.689), and particularly indexes of protein (R=0.869) and lipid oxidation (R=0.864), were moderately correlated. These data suggest that the release of H(2)O(2) from plastids into seawater possibly impaired efficient and immediate responses of pivotal H(2)O(2)-scavenging activities of CAT and APX in the red alga K. alvarezii, culminating in short-term exacerbated levels of protein and lipid oxidation. These facts provided a molecular basis for the recognized limited resistance of the red alga K. alvarezii under unfavorable conditions, especially under chilling stress.

  6. Photoluminescence properties of blue light excited Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yongzheng; Liu, Fengxin; Hou, Jingshan; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Xinfeng; Zhang, Na [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Zhao, Guoying, E-mail: zhaogy135@sit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Liao, Meisong [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Powder Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Dai, Guozhang; Long, Mengqiu [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Yufeng, E-mail: yfliu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A series of red emitting Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:xEu{sup 3+} (0≤x≤0.4) phosphors were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction, and their photoluminescence properties were investigated in this work. Upon excitation of blue light, the Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:xEu{sup 3+} phosphors exhibit strong red emission at 616 nm, which corresponds to the dominant transition of Eu{sup 3+} ions in Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} host, originating from the electric dipole transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2}. Moreover, Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:0.3Eu{sup 3+} phosphor shows more intense photoluminescence than that of other phosphors, where the concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ion is not equal to 0.3. The CIE chromaticity coordinate (0.657, 0.343) of Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:0.3Eu{sup 3+} phosphor is close to National Television Standard Committee standard value (0.670, 0.330) of red phosphors, which indicates Ca{sub 8}La{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:0.3Eu{sup 3+} is potential to apply in white light-emitting diodes as an excellent red emitting phosphor.

  7. A new program of work to conduct research in support of gene conservation, restoration, and proactive deployment of red spruce in light of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Johnsen; J.R. Butnor; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Red spruce’s (Picea rubens Sarg.) range extends from the southern and central Appalachians north into Vermont and Maine and then to the Canadian Maritime provinces with relic populations as far west as Ontario. Due to heavy logging and resultant severe fires in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and more recent declines related to air pollution and...

  8. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304546313; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  9. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  10. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...... the commercial product Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR (SEPPIC), and a soluble and ≥98% pure β-glucan from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Sigma-Aldrich). Hence, five experimental groups in duplicate were established and exposed to vaccine and adjuvants in the following combinations: AquaVac™ Relera (alone); Aqua......Vac™ Relera + Montanide™; AquaVac™ Relera + β-glucan; Montanide™ (alone); and β-glucan (alone). Approximately 450 degree days post-vaccination, the fish were bath-challenged with live Yersinia ruckeri to produce survival curves. Blood, skin and gills were sampled at selected time points during the course...

  11. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  12. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  13. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  14. Finite-volume discretizations and immersed boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. Hassen (Yunus); B. Koren (Barry)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this chapter, an accurate method, using a novel immersed-boundary approach, is presented for numerically solving linear, scalar convection problems. As is standard in immersed-boundary methods, moving bodies are embedded in a fixed `Cartesian' grid. The essence of the present method

  15. Finite-volume discretizations and immersed boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. Hassen (Yunus); B. Koren (Barry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter, an accurate method, using a novel immersed-boundary approach, is presented for numerically solving linear, scalar convection problems. As is standard in immersed-boundary methods, moving bodies are embedded in a fixed Cartesian grid. The essence of the present method is

  16. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

  17. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed.

  18. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  19. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  20. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M-S; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P; Assafrao, A C; Wachters, A J H; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P; Brun, M; Olivier, S; Nicoletti, S

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (μ-SIL) made of SiO 2 . Such structured focal spots are characterized by a doughnut-shaped intensity distribution, whose central dark region is of great interest for optical trapping of nano-size particles, super-resolution microscopy and lithography. In this work, we have used a high-resolution interference microscopy technique to measure the structured immersed focal spots, whose dimensions were found to be significantly reduced due to the immersion effect of the μ-SIL. In particular, a reduction of 37% of the dark central region was verified. The measurements were compared with a rigorous finite element method model for the μ-SIL, revealing excellent agreement between them. (paper)

  1. Immersion and Gameplay Experience: A Contingency Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Örtqvist

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between immersion and gameplay experience is investigated, focusing primarily on the literature related to flow. In particular, this paper proposes that immersion and gameplay experience are conceptually different, but empirically positively related through mechanisms related to flow. Furthermore, this study examines gamers' characteristics to determine the influence between immersion and gameplay experiences. The study involves 48 observations in one game setting. Regression analyses including tests for moderation and simple slope analysis are used to reveal gamers' age, experience, and understanding of the game, which moderate the relationship between immersion and gameplay experience. The results suggest that immersion is more positive for gameplay experience when the gamer lacks experience and understanding of the game as well as when the gamer is relatively older. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed at length in the paper.

  2. The light-harvesting complexes of higher plant Photosystem I: Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.E.; Croce, R.

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) a1-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  3. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I : Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) al-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  4. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno,; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Hadi, Syamsul; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru

    2016-01-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  6. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  7. Ferredoxin-dependent and antimycin A-sensitive reduction of cytochrome b-559 by far-red light in maize [Zea mays] thylakoids; participation of a meladiol-reducible cytochrome b-559 in cyclic electron flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, C.; Schreiber, U.; Asada, K.

    1995-01-01

    Thylakoids from mesophyll cells of maize showed a high rate of the ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent and antimycin A (AntiA)-sensitive cyclic electron flow as determined by the quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence which indicates the formation of ΔpH across the membranes. Spectrophotometric survey of the thylakoids showed the reduction of a Cyt having an α-peak at 559 nm [Cyt b-559(Fd)] by far-red light, which depended on Fd and was sensitive to AntiA. Dose dependencies of Fd and AntiA on the photoreduction of Cyt b-559(Fd) were the same as those of the formation of ΔpH. Cyt b-559(Fd) occurred in an oxidized form even in the presence of ascorbate and was reduced by far-red light. In darkness, it was reduced only by menadiol (E m,7 = –10mV). Thus, Cyt b-559(Fd) was distinguished from Cyt b-559 in the PSII complex by its low redox potential. The present results indicate that Cyt b-559(Fd) mediates electron transfer from Fd to plastoquinone during Fd-dependent cyclic electron flow around PSI. (author)

  8. Luminescent properties of MAl(SO4)2 Br:Eu(3+) (M = Sr or Mg) red phosphors for near-UV light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Priti B; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-02-01

    Eu(3+) -activated MAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors (where M = Mg or Sr) are successfully prepared using a wet chemical reaction technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The XRD pattern revealed that both the samples are microcrystalline in nature. PL of Eu(3+) -doped SrAl(SO4 )2 Br and MgAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors exhibited characteristic red emission coming from the (5) D0  → (7) F2 (616 nm) electron transition, when excited by 396 nm wavelength of light. The maximum intensity of luminescence was observed at a concentration of 1 mol% Eu(3+) . The intensity of the electric dipole transition at 616 nm is greater than that of the magnetic dipole transition at 594 nm. The results showed that MAl(SO4 )2 Br:Eu(3+) , (M = Mg, Sr) phosphors have potential application in near-UV light-emitting diodes as efficient red-emitting phosphor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Study on Surface Permeability of Concrete under Immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Xing, Feng; Dong, Biqin; Ma, Hongyan; Pan, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, concrete specimens are immersed in ultrapure water, to study the evolutions of surface permeability, pore structure and paste microstructure following the prolonging of immersion period. According to the results, after 30-day immersion, the surface permeability of concrete becomes higher as compared with the value before immersion. However, further immersion makes the surface permeability decrease, so that the value measured after 150-day immersion is only half that measured af...

  10. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  11. Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Valery V

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to review recent results on the optical clearing of the naturally turbid biological tissues and blood using the optical immersion technique, which is well known in physical science and is applied for the reduction of light scattering and undesirable reflections in the optical system. Basic principles of the technique, its advantages, limitations and future are discussed. The refractive index matching concept for enhancement of in-depth light penetration into tissues and blood is presented on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies using optical spectroscopy, polarization and coherence-domain techniques. The index matching of scatterers and ground matter by means of administration of clearing agents is under discussion. The optical properties of tissues with basic multiple scattering, which are transformed to a low scattering mode, are analysed. It is shown that light reflection, transmission, scattering and polarization can be effectively controlled. The possibilities of using the optical immersion method for diagnostic purposes based on contrasting of abnormalities, on in-depth profiling of tissue and blood and on monitoring of endogenous and exogenous matter diffusion within tissue are demonstrated

  12. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  13. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  14. An Unusual Strong Visible-Light Absorption Band in Red Anatase TiO2 Photocatalyst Induced by Atomic Hydrogen-Occupied Oxygen Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-07-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the possibility of anammox at BSI sites using metagenomic shotgun sequencing of DNA obtained from the BSI above the Discovery Deep brine pool. Analysis of sequencing reads matching the 16S rRNA and hzsA genes confirmed presence of anammox bacteria of the genus Scalindua. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this Scalindua sp. belongs to a distinct group, separate from the anammox bacteria in the seawater column, that contains mostly sequences retrieved from high-salt environments. Using coverage- and composition-based binning, we extracted and assembled the draft genome of the dominant anammox bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that this Scalindua species uses compatible solutes for osmoadaptation, in contrast to other marine anammox bacteria that likely use a salt-in strategy. We propose the name Candidatus Scalindua rubra for this novel species, alluding to its discovery in the Red Sea.

  16. Photoluminescence Properties of Red-Emitting Ca3Sr3-x(PO4)4:xEu3+ Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, D A; Park, K

    2015-07-01

    The photoluminescent properties of the Eu(3+)-activated Ca3Sr3(PO4)4 phosphors prepared by a solution combustion method were investigated. The excitation spectra of Ca3Sr3-x(PO4)4:xEu3+ (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) phosphors under 614 nm wavelength showed a broad band centered at 266 nm along with other peaks at 320, 362, 381, 394, 414, 464, and 534 nm. The emission spectra observed in the range of 450 to 750 nm under excitation at 394 nm were ascribed to the 5D0-7F1-4 transitions of Eu3+ ions. The Ca3Sr3-x(PO4)4:xEu3+ phosphors showed the strongest red emission at 614 nm due to the electric dipole 5DO -->7F2 transition of Eu3+. The strongest emission intensity was obtained for the Eu3+ ions of x = 0.5. The prepared Ca3Sr3-x(PO4)4:xEu3+ can be used as an efficient red phosphor for UV-based white LEDs.

  17. Electroluminescence properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a red dye doped into Alq{sub 3} : rubrene mixed host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We have studied the electroluminescence (EL) properties of devices with a red fluorescent dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6- (1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)--4H-py ran (DCJTB), doped into a mixed matrix of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) and rubrene. The devices doped with DCJTB in the Alq{sub 3}:rubrene mixed host show an efficient red emission from DCJTB with negligible EL emission from both Alq{sub 3} and rubrene. The QE increases with increasing rubrene concentration and reaches a maximum of about 3.6 % for a DCJTB doping concentration of about 5 % in the Alq3:rubrene mixed (50:50 % ratio by weight) host, and then decreases at higher rubrene concentration, due to the concentration quenching effect. At a given bias voltage, the current density increases with increasing rubrene doping concentration, but it decreases with increasing DCJTB doping concentration. The results imply that the injected electrons and holes can transport via hopping through the energy levels of rubrene molecules while DCJTB acts as traps.

  18. Red emitting phosphors of Eu{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} (Ln = Gd, Y) for white light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Niumiao [National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials Culture Base in Shaanxi Province, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Guo, Chongfeng, E-mail: guocf@nwu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials Culture Base in Shaanxi Province, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yin, Luqiao; Zhang, Jianhua [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications (Shanghai University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wu, Mingmei, E-mail: ceswmm@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 135, Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Layered red phosphors Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} (Ln = Gd, Y):Eu{sup 3+} were prepared. • The synthesis parameters of phosphors were optimized. • PL and thermal stability of the samples were investigated. • LED devices were also fabricated including the present red phosphor. - Abstract: A series of Eu{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} (Ln = Gd, Y) red-emitting phosphors for application in ultraviolet based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were successfully synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. Their structure and luminescent properties were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra and absorption spectra, according to these results the optimal compositions and synthesis parameters were determined. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the phosphors were investigated according to the temperature-dependent PL spectra. The red and white-LEDs (W-LEDs) comprising the Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}:Eu{sup 3+} (Ln = Gd, Y) red emitting phosphors were fabricated with a near-ultraviolet (n-UV) chip. In comparison with Na{sub 2}Y{sub 1.4}Eu{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}, the Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 1.4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} phosphor offers higher brightness, quantum efficiency, and excellent thermal stability. W-LEDs comprising Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 1.4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} showed bright white emission with a color rendering index (Ra) of 82, a color temperature of 2151 K, and Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.34, 0.37). The phosphor Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 1.4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} is more suitable candidate for application in LEDs.

  19. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology ... Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India ...

  20. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2007-01-01

    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  1. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  2. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  3. Immersion Pulmonary Edema in Female Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema has been reported in SCUBA divers, apnea divers, and long-distance swimmers however, no instances of pulmonary edema in triathletes exist in the scientific literature. Pulmonary edema may cause seizures and loss of consciousness which in a water environment may become life threatening. This paper describes pulmonary edema in three female triathletes. Signs and symptoms including cough, fatigue, dyspnea, haemoptysis, and rales may occur within minutes of immersion. Contributing factors include hemodynamic changes due to water immersion, cold exposure, and exertion which elevate cardiac output, causing pulmonary capillary stress failure, resulting in extravasation of fluid into the airspace of the lung. Previous history is a major risk factor. Treatment involves immediate removal from immersion and in more serious cases, hospitalization, and oxygen administration. Immersion pulmonary edema is a critical environmental illness of which triathletes, race organizers, and medical staff, should be made aware.

  4. Immersive journalism: immersive virtual reality for the first-person experience of news

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Nonny de la; Weil, Peggy; Llobera, Joan; Giannopoulos, Elias; Pomés Freixa, Ausiàs; Spanlang, Bernhard; Friedman, Doron; Sánchez-Vives, María Victoria; Slater, Mel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept, and discusses the implications of Immersive Journalism, that is the production of news in a form in which people can gain first- 2 person experiences of the events or situation described in news stories. The fundamental idea of Immersive Journalism is to allow the participant, typically represented as a digital avatar, to actually enter a virtually recreated scenario representing the news story. The sense of presence obtained through an immersive system (whe...

  5. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to ov...

  6. Plasma immersion ion implantation into insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin

    2006-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is an effective surface modification tool. During PIII processes, the objects to be treated are immersed in plasmas and then biased to negative potential. Consequently the plasma sheath forms and ion implantation may be performed. The pre-requirement of plasma implantation is that the object is conductive. So it seems difficult to treat the insulating materials. The paper focuses on the possibilities of plasma implantation into insulting materials and presents some examples. (authors)

  7. An evaluation of hand immersion for rewarming individuals cooled by immersion in cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, C J; Balmi, P J; Tipton, M J

    1995-05-01

    The hypothesis that hypothermic individuals can be actively rewarmed in the field by immersion of the extremities in hot water was investigated. Three techniques for rewarming subjects with lowered deep body temperatures were compared: a) whole body immersion to the neck in water at 40 degrees C; b) immersion of two hands plus forearms only in water at 42 degrees C; and c) passive rewarming. The suggestion that the fall in deep body temperature resulting from immersion to the neck in water at 15 degrees C could be arrested by immersing both arms in water at 42 degrees C was also investigated. Results indicated that immersion to the neck in hot water was clearly the most effective rewarming technique. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the deep body temperature response during passive rewarming or during immersion of both hands and forearms in water at 42 degrees C. In the later condition some increase in peripheral blood flow to the hands may have occurred and resulted in a heat input of approximately 12 W, but any benefit from this was negated by an associated significant decrease (p > 0.05) in intrinsic heat production. Immersing the arms in hot water during immersion to the neck in cold water appeared to accelerate rather than decelerate the rate of fall of deep body temperature. We concluded that hand rewarming, although theoretically attractive, is ineffective in practice and could be detrimental in some circumstances, by suppressing intrinsic heat production or precipitating rewarming collapse.

  8. Effect of red and blue light on the timing of cyclin-dependent kinase activity and the timing of cell division in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oldenhof, H.; Bišová, Kateřina; Ende, H.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2004), s. 341-348 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : blue light * chlamydomonas reingardtii * cell cycle Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2004

  9. Continuous ultra-low-intensity artificial daylight is not as effective as red LED light in photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine Regin; Heydenreich, Jakob; Fabricius, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT...

  10. Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantis, Filippos; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67

  11. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  12. Highly efficient red phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes for organic light- emitting diodes based on aryl(6-arylpyridin-3-yl)methanone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kum Hee [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Seo, Ji Hyun [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    A series of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes 1-4 were synthesized based on aryl(6-arylpyridin-3-yl)methanone ligands, and their photophysical and electroluminescent properties were characterized. Multilayer devices with the configuration, Indium tin oxide/4,4',4''-tris(N-(naphthalene-2-yl)-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (60 nm)/4,4'-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (20 nm)/Ir(III) complexes doped in N,N'-dicarbazolyl-4,4'-biphenyl (30 nm, 8%)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-phenathroline (10 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (20 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm), were fabricated. Among these, the device employing complex 2 as a dopant exhibited efficient red emission with a maximum luminance, luminous efficiency, power efficiency and quantum efficiency of 16200 cd/m{sup 2} at 14.0 V, 12.20 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, 4.26 lm/W and 9.26% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, with Commission Internationale de l'Enclairage coordinates of (0.63, 0.37) at 12.0 V.

  13. Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven G.; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

    1998-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

  14. Reshaping Spectatorship: Immersive and Distributed Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Bartlem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although discourses of immersive aesthetics and distributed aesthetics may evoke associations with different media, creative processes, modes of audience engagement and even political ideologies, artists using these aesthetics often share similar interests in transforming and enhancing notions of the body and perception through technological intervention. This paper undertakes a comparison between immersive and distributed aesthetics in relation to Virtual Reality (VR and Networked Art (net.art, particularly networked installation art. It focuses on the ways in which both VR and networked installations immerse the viewer in states of perceptual and cognitive transition. Central to this article is the argument that VR and net.art are able to generate immersive experiences in the viewer by creating the sensation of being (tele-present in an electronically mediated environment that is illusionistic and sometimes remote from the physical body of the participant. Furthermore, the immersive and distributed aesthetics generated by specific VR and net.art projects have revolutionary consequences for traditional aesthetic theories of spectatorship and art appreciation that assert the need for critical and physical distance.

  15. Personal protective clothing against accidental immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, David; Tipton, Michael [Surrey Univ., Robens Inst. of Health and Safety, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The requirements for protective clothing against accidental immersion are discussed and the advantages and limitations of the main types of immersion protection available are analysed. The variety of designs available reflects the various circumstances under which they may be used. In broad terms in the offshore industry these include the following activities: normal work without risk of immersion but with a possible need to abandon the rig or ship; work in areas where there is risk of accidentally falling into the sea; flying over the sea in a helicopter. The first response to sudden immersion in sea water, which must usually be considered to be cold, is a sudden gasp often followed by an immediate phase of uncontrolled breathing. Since control of ones breathing between and under the breaking waves is essential to staying alive, this is a critical time. After surviving this initial ``cold shock`` phase, the effects of body heat loss become hazardous. Protection against hypothermia has been the priority for those providing survival suits and protective clothing while the hazard of the immediate response to cold immersion has been unrecognised to a large extent. (UK)

  16. Metal ion implantation: Conventional versus immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum-arc-produced metal plasma can be used as the ion feedstock material in an ion source for doing conventional metal ion implantation, or as the immersing plasma for doing plasma immersion ion implantation. The basic plasma production method is the same in both cases; it is simple and efficient and can be used with a wide range of metals. Vacuum arc ion sources of different kinds have been developed by the authors and others and their suitability as a metal ion implantation tool has been well established. Metal plasma immersion surface processing is an emerging tool whose characteristics and applications are the subject of present research. There are a number of differences between the two techniques, both in the procedures used and in the modified surfaces created. For example, the condensibility of metal plasma results in thin film formation and subsequent energetic implantation is thus done through the deposited layer; in the usual scenario, this recoil implantation and the intermixing it produces is a feature of metal plasma immersion but not of conventional energetic ion implantation. Metal plasma immersion is more suited (but not limited) to higher doses (>10 17 cm -2 ) and lower energies (E i < tens of keV) than the usual ranges of conventional metal ion implantation. These and other differences provide these vacuum-arc-based surface modification tools with a versatility that enhances the overall technological attractiveness of both

  17. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  18. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  19. A novel orange-red emitting NaCaVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj79biswas@gmail.com; Kumar, Vinay, E-mail: vinaykdhiman@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra-182320 J& K (India); Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-05-06

    The samarium doped NaCaVO{sub 4} phosphor was synthesized by the combustion method. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the phosphor powder crystallized as orthorhombic structure belonging to space group Cmcm. From Williamson-Hall analysis the grain size and microstrain in the powder was estimated. The Fourier- transform infrared (FT-IR) studies further validated the formation of vanadate phase of the phosphor. Photoluminescence (PL) study revealed that the phosphor could be efficiently excited by UV-VIS from 200 nm to 500 nm. The 565 nm, 602 nm, 648 nm and 713 nm emissions were ascribed to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to {sup 6}H{sub J} (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. The present material may be explored as a novel phosphor to be excited by UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) chips for solid-state lighting and display applications.

  20. Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success

    OpenAIRE

    Bantis, Filippos; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67 (moderate blue and red and low red:far-red), and NS1 (high blue and green, high red:far-red and 1% ultraviolet)] with different colors mixing UV, blue, green, red and far-red, and fluorescent tubes (FL, high...

  1. But Do They Speak French? A Comparison of French Immersion Programs in Immersion Only and English/Immersion Settings. Research Report 79-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    Students' use of French in unsupervised classroom situations and outside the classroom was investigated in immersion center schools (all students are involved in French immersion programs) and dual track schools (French immersion programs co-exist with regular English language programs). A total of 414 students in grades 3 and 4 were observed…

  2. Immersion microcalorimetry of a carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelbaum, Georges

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis first reports a detailed bibliographical study on various topics (fabrication of carbon black, oxidation, immersion heat, adsorptions, main existing theories, and thermodynamics) and then the development of immersion and adsorption microcalorimetry apparatuses aimed at studying the surface of a carbon black and the influence of the oxidation of this carbon black on the adsorption of polar and non-polar solvents. Immersion heats of a raw or oxidised carbon black have been measured in water, in cyclohexane and in methanol. The adsorption of methanol at 20 C and that of nitrogen at -196 C have also been measured. The author outlines that degassing conditions had to be taken into account before performing measurements [fr

  3. Immersive Virtual Environments and Multisensory Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslie, Ståle

    2009-01-01

    Based on my work with virtual environments dating back to the early 1990s, and with practical and engineering limitations on building tactile bodysuits that enhance the sense of immersion within detailed and dynamic virtual worlds overcome, this paper will take as its subject the example of my...... immersive artwork the Erotogod experiment (2001). A key aspect of interaction and immersion for the participant was the use of tactile bodysuit. I will analyze the multisensory nature of this experience, how tactility was engendered and, in fact, engineered through a mixture of technologies and approaches....... The paper will focus on the multisensory aspect of my interfaces as they have evolved through my projects, discussing how engineering problems were overcome to enhance tactility, the experimentations with tactile technologies in order to engineer the right feeling, and what is involved in the multisensory...

  4. Aberration characteristics of immersion lenses for LVSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the on-axis aberration characteristics of various immersion objective lenses for low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). A simple aperture lens model is used to generate smooth axial field distributions. The simulation results show that mixed field electric-magnetic immersion lenses are predicted to have between 1.5 and 2 times smaller aberration limited probe diameters than their pure-field counterparts. At a landing energy of 1 keV, mixed field immersion lenses operating at the vacuum electrical field breakdown limit are predicted to have on-axis aberration coefficients between 50 and 60 μm, yielding an ultimate image resolution of below 1 nm. These aberrations lie in the same range as those for LVSEM systems that employ aberration correctors

  5. Impact of immersion oils and mounting media on the confocal imaging of dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brittni M; Mermelstein, Paul G; Meisel, Robert L

    2015-03-15

    Structural plasticity, such as changes in dendritic spine morphology and density, reflect changes in synaptic connectivity and circuitry. Procedural variables used in different methods for labeling dendritic spines have been quantitatively evaluated for their impact on the ability to resolve individual spines in confocal microscopic analyses. In contrast, there have been discussions, though no quantitative analyses, of the potential effects of choosing specific mounting media and immersion oils on dendritic spine resolution. Here we provide quantitative data measuring the impact of these variables on resolving dendritic spines in 3D confocal analyses. Medium spiny neurons from the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens are used as examples. Both choice of mounting media and immersion oil affected the visualization of dendritic spines, with choosing the appropriate immersion oil as being more imperative. These biologic data are supported by quantitative measures of the 3D diffraction pattern (i.e. point spread function) of a point source of light under the same mounting medium and immersion oil combinations. Although not a new method, this manuscript provides quantitative data demonstrating that different mounting media and immersion oils can impact the ability to resolve dendritic spines. These findings highlight the importance of reporting which mounting medium and immersion oil are used in preparations for confocal analyses, especially when comparing published results from different laboratories. Collectively, these data suggest that choosing the appropriate immersion oil and mounting media is critical for obtaining the best resolution, and consequently more accurate measures of dendritic spine densities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immersive Learning Simulations in Aircraft Maintenance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-15

    You might just get a “serious game,” or “as proposed by the eLearning Guild, you could get an Immersive Learning Simulation.”3 Quoting the... eLearning Guild, Caspian Learning, in a report for the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense, defined an Immersive Learning Simulation (ILS) as “an optimized...training is necessary, and will be for the foreseeable future , our current computer systems can provide realistic training that could save substantial time

  7. Through-flow cell of immersion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svandelik, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cell consists of a jacket in shape of a triangular pyramid whose two opposite and skew edges are truncated. It is provided with inlet and outlet openings. The measuring immersion sensor is inserted through the outlet opening or through an opening provided in one of the jacket side walls. The immersion sensor cell is mainly used for in-service inspection of radioactivity of the ion exchanger at the output of the elution column in the manufacture of chemical concentrates of uranium from ores. (J.B.). 4 figs

  8. Immersion Suit Usage Within the RAAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS 202. in 12 Sizes, held by ALSS 492SQN REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE POLICY REFERENCE DIRAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C...held by ALSS 492SQN. REQUIREMENTS No comment ISACE POLICY REFERENCE DIIAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C Flight Manual) RAAF Supplement No 92 USAGE POUICY UVIC...TYPE P3C REFERENCE Telecon FLTLT Toft I I SQNfRESO AVMED Dated 22 Mar 91 IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS No comment REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE

  9. Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography is a new technique intended to enhance the quality of the photographs provided to families following their loss. Water immersion appears to be most helpful following a second trimester fetal demise. This technique can be used by nurses, professional photographers and others in addition to more traditional neonatal bereavement photography. It does not require special skills or equipment and can be implemented in virtually any perinatal setting. The enhanced quality of photographs produced with this method can potentially provide a source of comfort to grieving families. © 2014 AWHONN.

  10. Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...

  11. Near-field microscopy with a microfabricated solid immersion lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Daniel Alden

    2001-07-01

    Diffraction of focused light prevents optical microscopes from resolving features in air smaller than half the wavelength, λ Spatial resolution can be improved by passing light through a sub-wavelength metal aperture scanned close to a sample, but aperture-based probes suffer from low optical throughput, typically below 10-4. An alternate and more efficient technique is solid immersion microscopy in which light is focused through a high refractive index Solid Immersion Lens (SIL). This work describes the fabrication, modeling, and use of a microfabricated SIL to obtain spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit in air with high optical throughput for infrared applications. SILs on the order of 10 μm in diameter are fabricated from single-crystal silicon and integrated onto silicon cantilevers with tips for scanning. We measure a focused spot size of λ/5 with optical throughput better than 10-1 at a wavelength of λ = 9.3 μm. Spatial resolution is improved to λ/10 with metal apertures fabricated directly on the tip of the silicon SIL. Microlenses have reduced spherical aberration and better transparency than large lenses but cannot be made arbitrarily small and still focus. We model the advantages and limitations of focusing in lenses close to the wavelength in diameter using an extension of Mie theory. We also investigate a new contrast mechanism unique to microlenses resulting from the decrease in field-of-view with lens diameter. This technique is shown to achieve λ/4 spatial resolution. We explore applications of the microfabricated silicon SIL for high spatial resolution thermal microscopy and biological spectroscopy. Thermal radiation is collected through the SIL from a heated surface with spatial resolution four times better than that of a diffraction- limited infrared microscope. Using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, we observe absorption peaks in bacteria cells positioned at the focus of the silicon SIL.

  12. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  13. Comparative effectiveness of light-microscopic techniques and PCR in detecting Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia) infections in red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milks, Maynard L; Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Isakova, Irina A; Fuxa, James R; Mitchell, Forrest; Snowden, Karen F; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three staining techniques (calcofluor white M2R, Giemsa and modified trichrome), and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting the microsporidium Thelohania solenopsae in red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). The effect of the number of ants in a sample on the sensitivity of the staining techniques and the PCR, and the effect of three DNA extraction protocols on the sensitivity of PCR were also examined. In the first protocol, the ants were macerated and the crude homogenate was used immediately in the PCR. In the second protocol, the homogenate was placed on a special membrane (FTA card) that traps DNA, which is subsequently used in the PCR. In the third protocol, the DNA was purified from the homogenate by traditional phenol-chloroform extraction. Except for PCR using FTA cards, the sensitivity (number of samples positive for T. solenopsae) of all detection techniques increased with the number of ants in the sample. Overall, Giemsa was the least sensitive of all detection techniques. Calcofluor was more sensitive than modified trichrome with ants from one site and was equally as sensitive as PCR with crude DNA or a FTA card with ants from both sites. Trichrome staining was equally as sensitive as PCR with a FTA card at both sites, but it was less sensitive than PCR with crude DNA at one site. PCR on FTA cards was less sensitive than PCR with crude DNA for ants from one site but not the other. There was no difference whether crude or phenol-chloroform purified DNA was used as template. In summary, the results of this study show that PCR based on a crude DNA solution is equal to or more sensitive in detecting T. solenopsae than the other detection techniques investigated, and that it can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for screening field samples of S. invicta for T. solenopsae. Nevertheless, ant smear stained with calcofluor or modified trichrome should be used to buttress findings

  14. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  15. Photonic nanojet super-resolution in immersed ordered assembly of dielectric microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geints, Y.E.; Zemlyanov, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ordered microassemblies of dielectric microspheres immersed in a transparent matrix exposed to a light wave produce an array of the “photonic nanojets” coupled through the field interference. • “Photonic nanojet” parameters depend on the inter-sphere gap and immersion depth. • Sphere microassembly can produce the jets with the sub-diffraction spatial resolution if the particles are loosely packed and semi-immersed. - Abstract: Specific spatially-localized optical field structure, which is often referred to as a photonic nanojet (PNJ), is formed in the near-field scattering area of non-absorbing dielectric micron-sized particle exposed to an optical radiation. By virtue of the finite-difference time-domain technique we numerically simulate the two-dimensional array of PNJs created by an ordered single-layer microassembly of glass microspheres immersed in a transparent polymer matrix. The behavior of the main PNJ parameters (length, diameter, and intensity) is analyzed subject to the immersion depth of the microparticles and cooperative interference effects of the neighboring microspheres. We show that depending on microassembly configuration, the PNJ quality can be significantly improved; in particular, the PNJ spatial resolution better than λ/5 can be achieved.

  16. Immersive visualization of rail simulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The prime objective of this project was to create scientific, immersive visualizations of a Rail-simulation. This project is a part of a larger initiative that consists of three distinct parts. The first step consists of performing a finite element a...

  17. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  18. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  19. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  20. The Role of Agency in Ludoacoustic Immersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    to antecedents of immersion that depend on emotional arousal and personality traits of the listener. After having outlined a conceptual framework describing the mediation and agency detection of sonic expression within the acoustic properties of situational contexts, the paper provides an outlook on how...... these agents may be translated to meaningful structures that are yet to be studied in video games....

  1. Thermally stable green Ba(3)Y(PO(4))3:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) and red Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))4:Eu(3+) phosphors for white-light fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-01-03

    A class of thermal stable of green-emitting phosphors Ba(3)Y(PO(4))(3):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) (BYP:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)) and red-emitting phosphors Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4):Eu(3+) (CYAB:Eu(3+)) for white-light fluorescent lamps were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. We observed a decay of only 3% at 150 °C for BYP:0.25Ce3+,0.25Tb3+ (3% for LaPO4:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)), and a decay of 4% for CYAB:0.5Eu(3+) (7% for Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+), 24% for Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+)). The emission intensity of composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) is 70% of that of commercial LaPO(4):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are found to be (0.323, 0.534). The emission intensity of Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) is 70% and 83% of those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) phosphors, respectively, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are redder (0.652, 0.342) than those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) (0.645, 0.347) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) (0.647, 0.343). A white-light fluorescent lamp is fabricated using composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) and Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) phosphors and matching blue-emitting phosphors. The results indicate that the quality of the brightness and color reproduction is suitable for application in shortwave UV fluorescent lamps. The white-light fluorescent lamp displays CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.35, a warm white light with a correlated color temperature of 5646 K, and a color-rendering index of Ra = 70.

  2. Study on Surface Permeability of Concrete under Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xing, Feng; Dong, Biqin; Ma, Hongyan; Pan, Dong

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, concrete specimens are immersed in ultrapure water, to study the evolutions of surface permeability, pore structure and paste microstructure following the prolonging of immersion period. According to the results, after 30-day immersion, the surface permeability of concrete becomes higher as compared with the value before immersion. However, further immersion makes the surface permeability decrease, so that the value measured after 150-day immersion is only half that measured after 30-day immersion. The early increase in surface permeability should be mainly attributed to the leaching of calcium hydroxide, while the later decrease to the refinement of pore structure due to hydration. The two effects work simultaneously and compete throughout the immersion period. The proposed mechanisms get support from microscopic measurements and observations.

  3. Interaction with virtual crowd in Immersive and semi‐Immersive Virtual Reality systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakou, Marios; Pan, Xueni; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos

    2016-01-01

    This study examines attributes of virtual human behavior that may increase the plausibility of a simulated crowd and affect the user's experience in Virtual Reality. Purpose-developed experiments in both Immersive and semi-Immersive Virtual Reality systems queried the impact of collision and basic interaction between real-users and the virtual crowd and their effect on the apparent realism and ease of navigation within Virtual Reality (VR). Participants' behavior and subjective measurements i...

  4. Effects of soluble immunostimulants on mucosal immune responses in rainbow trout immersion-vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Jaafar, Rzgar M.

    2018-01-01

    elevate the immune response and the present work elucidates how ERM immersion vaccination of trout in combination with exposure to soluble adjuvants, Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR and β-glucan, affects immune reactions. The former adjuvant, when used alone, induced a slightly increased protection (not......Immersion vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri infection is an established method to prevent enteric red mouth disease (ERM) but the effect is inferior to injection vaccination and the duration of protection is limited to less than six months. Adjuvants in vaccines may in general...... weeks no vaccine induced reaction was seen and after challenge with bacteria mainly unvaccinated fish responded. Adjuvants used in combination with immersion vaccine clearly influences immune reactions and may improve duration and protection but further potency tests should be performed....

  5. FIJI: A Framework for the Immersion-Journalism Intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Hardee, Gary M.; McMahan, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As journalists experiment with developing immersive journalism—first-person, interactive experiences of news events—guidelines are needed to help bridge a disconnect between the requirements of journalism and the capabilities of emerging technologies. Many journalists need to better understand the fundamental concepts of immersion and the capabilities and limitations of common immersive technologies. Similarly, developers of immersive journalism works need to know the fundamentals that define...

  6. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  7. The emotional and cognitive effect of immersion in film viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Tan, E.S.; Molenaar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief report presents an experiment testing the effect of immersion on emotional responses and cognitive genre categorisation of film viewers. Immersion of a film presentation was varied by presenting an animated movie either in a 3D-viewing condition (low immersive condition) or in a CAVE

  8. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  9. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  10. Sol–gel assisted synthesis and photoluminescence property of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} red phosphor for white light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wentao, E-mail: zhangwentao2005@163.com [College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Mineral Resources Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, Chengdu 610059 (China); Wang, Yulong; Gao, Yang [College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Long, Jianping [College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Mineral Resources Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, Chengdu 610059 (China); Li, Junfeng [College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} co-doped Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} red phosphors were prepared using a sol–gel-nitridation method at a lower temperature comparing with traditional solid state reaction. Effects of synthesis process, Eu{sup 2+} and Dy{sup 3+} doping concentration on the crystal structure and luminescence property of as-prepared phosphors were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that all Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphors have the standard phase of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} structure. With a broad excitation from UV to blue light, a strong emission of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} with 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}→4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} ions was obtained at red region in photoluminescence spectra. Emission peaks in spectra were red-shifted from 611 to 632 nm for all Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:xEu{sup 2+} as Eu{sup 2+} ion concentrations increased, which due to Eu{sup 2+} ions occupying from the tenfold coordinated site (Sr1) to the eightfold coordinated site (Sr2). These Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors with Dy{sup 3+} co-doping showed excellent luminescence properties, included emission intensity and luminescence quenching. It is potential that Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphors can be applied in white LEDs combining with blue InGaN LEDs. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}/Dy{sup 3+} co-doped Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8} red phosphor were prepared by sol–gel-nitridation. • Sol–gel-nitridation method decreased the crystallization temperature of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} effectively. • Luminescence properties of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} were improved obviously by Dy{sup 3+} co-doping. • Luminescence properties of Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphors are superior to commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu{sup 3+}.

  11. L'expression orale apres treize ans d'immersion francaise (Oral Expression After Thirteen Years of French Immersion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Micheline; Hammerly, Hector

    1986-01-01

    Conversations with six twelfth graders who had been in French immersion since kindergarten found a high rate of incorrect sentences, suggesting a faulty interlanguage fossilized at grade six and a need for immersion program revision. (MSE)

  12. High efficiency orange-red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex from a structure optimized for charge balance and reduced efficiency roll-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; McDougald, Roy Jr.; Arvapally, Ravi; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report a high power efficiency (PE) of 44.7 {+-} 0.5 lm/W, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.7 {+-} 0.1% at 500 Cd/m{sup 2}, and efficiency roll-off of only 4% of the peak value at a useful brightness of 1000 Cd/m{sup 2} from orange-red emitting, organic light emitting diodes featuring 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) as the hole transport layer/electron blocking layer, an emissive layer consisting of 65% bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) (Pt(ptp){sub 2}) doped into 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (CBP), and 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazolyl)-benzene (TPBI) as the electron transport layer (ETL). Based on a comparison of these structures with devices that did not incorporate an electron/exciton blocker and devices featuring N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) as the electron/exciton blocking layer, we ascribe the high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off to better charge balance, and enhanced confinement of excitons and the recombination zone to the emissive layer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  14. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion and single alternating hot–cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot–cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (T{sub 5%}) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  15. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  16. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  17. Damping system immersed in a fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a damping system which is immersed in a fluid and allows slow motion, while opposing fast motion of a mobile or deformable system immersed in a fluid. Nuclear reactors utilize fabricated assemblies immmersed in the spent fuel storage pool to support the fuel elements placed in the pool, e.g., when refueling the reactor. These fabricated assemblies must be held in position, relative to the concrete walls of the pool, so as to allow slow deformation of the assemblies due to thermal expansion, while curbing fast motion, e.g., earthquake-induced motion. Such fast motion due to earthquakes might be the cause of resonance phenomena involving the fuel storage rack structure and the pool walls, should the rack structure and pool walls have the same resonant frequency. In the event of an earthquake, the damping system would provide for fast curbing of structure motion to prevent uncontrolled deformation which might result in breaks and destruction [fr

  18. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Cluett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2011 and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis: We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 12 trials (3,243 women: 8 related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1,254 versus 529/1,245; risk ratio (RR 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.82 to 0.99, six trials. There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference -32.4 minutes; 95% CI -58.7 to -6.13. There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials, caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0

  19. Warming by immersion or exercise affects initial cooling rate during subsequent cold water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Chris G; Ducharme, Michel B; Haman, François; Kenny, Glen P

    2004-11-01

    We examined the effect of prior heating, by exercise and warm-water immersion, on core cooling rates in individuals rendered mildly hypothermic by immersion in cold water. There were seven male subjects who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) seated rest for 15 min (control); 2) cycling ergometry for 15 min at 70% Vo2 peak (active warming); or 3) immersion in a circulated bath at 40 degrees C to an esophageal temperature (Tes) similar to that at the end of exercise (passive warming). Subjects were then immersed in 7 degrees C water to a Tes of 34.5 degrees C. Initial Tes cooling rates (initial approximately 6 min cooling) differed significantly among the treatment conditions (0.074 +/- 0.045, 0.129 +/- 0.076, and 0.348 +/- 0.117 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming conditions, respectively); however, secondary cooling rates (rates following initial approximately 6 min cooling to the end of immersion) were not different between treatments (average of 0.102 +/- 0.085 degrees C x min(-1)). Overall Tes cooling rates during the full immersion period differed significantly and were 0.067 +/- 0.047, 0.085 +/- 0.045, and 0.209 +/- 0.131 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming, respectively. These results suggest that prior warming by both active and, to a greater extent, passive warming, may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold water. Thus, functional time and possibly survival time could be reduced when cold water immersion is preceded by whole-body passive warming, and to a lesser degree by active warming.

  20. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  1. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  2. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve

    2016-03-01

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  3. Immersion and identity in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Terzioglu, Yaman

    2015-01-01

    The video gaming industry is an ever-expanding one. According to Reuters, the global net worth of the industry in 2011 was US$65 billion (Reuters, 2011). Every year developers race to deliver the best game ever produced. There are various factors, which render a game successful and a successful formulation of those factors means a satisfying game experience for the players. Immersion, the mental involvement between the game and the player, is one of the broader phenomena, which includes most ...

  4. Helicon plasma with additional immersed antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A; Charles, C; Boswell, R W; Fredriksen, A

    2004-01-01

    A 'primary' RF power (H-power) at 13.56 MHz is coupled to a plasma source excited by an external double saddle field Helicon antenna. A 'secondary' RF power (S-power), also at 13.56 MHz but with variable phase, is additionally coupled by inserting a second antenna in contact with the plasma through one end of the source. The immersed antenna can be grounded or floating, allowing a self-bias to form in the latter case. Changes in the plasma density and electron temperature are measured in both cases with varying power on the immersed antenna. The plasma potential increases dramatically with S-power in the grounded case, and is found to be similar in size to the sum of the plasma potential and the self-bias formed in the floating case for all powers. Hence, the sheath between the immersed antenna and the plasma is shown to be equal in both the grounded and floating cases. Although the power efficiency does not vary significantly as a function of the S-power, it is consistently lower for the grounded case possibly as a result of a dc current to ground. The plasma parameters are drastically changed as the phase between the two antennae are varied (floating case), and a sinusoidal function was fitted to the plasma parameters as a function of the phase shift. The calculated power loss to the antenna indicates that the power efficiency of the immersed antenna, as the phase is changed, is altered from 80% to 10%

  5. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Steve [Los Alamos Visualization Associates

    2017-05-25

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  6. FIJI: A Framework for the Immersion-Journalism Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Hardee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As journalists experiment with developing immersive journalism—first-person, interactive experiences of news events—guidelines are needed to help bridge a disconnect between the requirements of journalism and the capabilities of emerging technologies. Many journalists need to better understand the fundamental concepts of immersion and the capabilities and limitations of common immersive technologies. Similarly, developers of immersive journalism works need to know the fundamentals that define journalistic professionalism and excellence and the key requirements of various types of journalistic stories. To address these gaps, we have developed a Framework for the Immersion-Journalism Intersection (FIJI. In FIJI, we have identified four domains of knowledge that intersect to define the key requirements of immersive journalism: the fundamentals of immersion, common immersive technologies, the fundamentals of journalism, and the major types of journalistic stories. Based on these key requirements, we have formally defined four types of immersive journalism that are appropriate for public dissemination. In this article, we discuss the history of immersive journalism, present the four domains and key intersection of FIJI, and provide a number of guidelines for journalists new to creating immersive experiences.

  7. Is Learning in Low Immersive Environments Carried over to High Immersive Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror David Lev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the more debated issues regarding training simulators is their validity for transfer of skills to sensory environments that differ from the simulator. In two experiments, the advantages of three-dimensional (3D and collocated (Col visual displays were evaluated in a realistic and complex visuomotor task. The two factors were evaluated independently, comparing Col-2D with dislocated-2D (experiment 1 and with Col-3D (experiment 2. As expected, in both cases the more immersive presentation condition facilitated better performance. Furthermore, improvement following training in the more immersive condition carried over to the following less immersive condition but there was no carry over in the opposing order of presentation. This is taken as an indication for the differential development of skills conditioned by the level of immersiveness of the training environment. This further suggests that learning of complex realistic tasks is not carried over from less immersive simulator to the complex sensory environment of reality, due to the large gap in sensory patterns.

  8. Immersion Revisited: A Review of Existing Definitions of Immersion and Their Relation to Different Theories of Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Christian Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term immersion continues to be applied inconsistently within and across different fields of research connected with the study of virtual reality and interactive media. Moreover, immersion is oftentimes used interchangeably with the terms presence and engagement. This article details a review of existing definitions of immersion originating within the study of video games, virtual environments, and literary works of fiction. Based on this review, a three-dimensional taxonomy of the various conceptualizations of immersion is proposed. That is, the existing definitions of immersion may be broadly divided into three categories, each representing a dimension of the taxonomy: immersion as a property of a system, a subjective response to narrative contents, or a subjective response to challenges within the virtual environment. Finally, four distinct theories of presence are introduced and, based on the established taxonomy, we discuss how the individual theories relate to existing definitions of immersion.

  9. Loading forces in shallow water running in two levels of immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Ruschel, Caroline; Hubert, Marcel; de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Roesler, Helio

    2010-07-01

    To analyse the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force during shallow water running at 2 levels of immersion. Twenty-two healthy adults with no gait disorders, who were familiar with aquatic exercises. Subjects performed 6 trials of water running at a self-selected speed in chest and hip immersion. Force data were collected through an underwater force plate and running speed was measured with a photocell timing light system. Analysis of covariance was used for data analysis. Vertical forces corresponded to 0.80 and 0.98 times the subject's body weight at the chest and hip level, respectively. Anteroposterior forces corresponded to 0.26 and 0.31 times the subject's body weight at the chest and hip level, respectively. As the water level decreased the subjects ran faster. No significant differences were found for the force values between the immersions, probably due to variability in speed, which was self-selected. When thinking about load values in water running professionals should consider not only the immersion level, but also the speed, as it can affect the force components, mainly the anteroposterior one. Quantitative data on this subject could help professionals to conduct safer aqua-tic rehabilitation and physical conditioning protocols.

  10. Immersion cooling of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) for nuclear medicine imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, R.R.; Stolin, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are compact, high amplification light detection devices that have recently been incorporated into magnetic field-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To take full advantage of these devices, it is preferable to cool them below room temperature. Most current methods are limited to the cooling of individual detector modules, increasing complexity and cost of scanners made-up of a large number of modules. In this work we investigated a new method of cooling, immersion of the detector modules in non-electrically conductive, cooled liquid. A small-scale prototype system was constructed to cool a relatively large area SiPM-based, scintillator detector module by immersing it in a circulating bath of mineral oil. Testing demonstrated that the system rapidly decreased and stabilized the temperature of the device. Operation of the detector illustrated the expected benefits of cooling, with no apparent degradation of performance attributable to immersion in fluid. - Highlights: • Immersion cooling is new, simple and inexpensive method to cool solid state based nuclear medicine scanner. • Method successfully tested on a scaled version of an SiPM-based PET detector module. • Can be scaled up to cool a complete PET scanner.

  11. Probability in Action: The Red Traffic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Emphasis on problem solving in mathematics has gained considerable attention in recent years. While statistics teaching has always been problem driven, the same cannot be said for the teaching of probability where discrete examples involving coins and playing cards are often the norm. This article describes an application of simple probability…

  12. Red lights flash in nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the main objections of South Africa - and other countries - to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which was opened for signature in 1968. The Kremlin has recently claimed that South Africa is about to explode a nuclear bomb in spite of the fact that South Africa has been relying on the American Energy and Research Development Agency to honour its contract to provide a few kilograms of enriched uranium to start up Koeberg A and also a little plutonium for the research reactors of Safari 1, which is open to full international scrutiny and safeguards. The article considers the amount of nuclear materials which will have been produced by 1980, and what this could mean in terms of nuclear weapons

  13. Excited-State Conformational/Electronic Responses of Saddle-Shaped N,N'-Disubstituted-Dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazines: Wide-Tuning Emission from Red to Deep Blue and White Light Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyun; Wu, Yu-Sin; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chen, Chi-Lin; Ho, Jr-Wei; Su, Jianhua; Tian, He; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2015-07-08

    A tailored strategy is utilized to modify 5,10-dimethylphenazine (DMP) to donor-acceptor type N,N'-disubstituted-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazines. The representative compounds DMAC (N,N'-dimethyl), DPAC (N,N'-diphenyl), and FlPAC (N-phenyl-N'-fluorenyl) reveal significant nonplanar distortions (i.e., a saddle shape) and remarkably large Stokes-shifted emission independent of the solvent polarity. For DPAC and FlPAC with higher steric hindrance on the N,N'-substituents, normal Stokes-shifted emission also appears, for which the peak wavelength reveals solvent-polarity dependence. These unique photophysical behaviors are rationalized by electronic configuration coupled conformation changes en route to the geometry planarization in the excited state. This proposed mechanism is different from the symmetry rule imposed to explain the anomalously long-wavelength emission for DMP and is firmly supported by polarity-, viscosity-, and temperature-dependent steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. Together with femtosecond early dynamics and computational simulation of the reaction energy surfaces, the results lead us to establish a sequential, three-step kinetics. Upon electronic excitation of N,N'-disubstituted-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazines, intramolecular charge-transfer takes place, followed by the combination of polarization stabilization and skeletal motion toward the planarization, i.e., elongation of the π-delocalization over the benzo[a,c]phenazines moiety. Along the planarization, DPAC and FlPAC encounter steric hindrance raised by the N,N'-disubstitutes, resulting in a local minimum state, i.e., the intermediate. The combination of initial charge-transfer state, intermediate, and the final planarization state renders the full spectrum of interest and significance in their anomalous photophysics. Depending on rigidity, the N,N'-disubstituted-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazines exhibit multiple emissions, which can be widely tuned from red to deep blue and

  14. Visible light optical coherence microscopy imaging of the mouse cortex with femtoliter volume resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Conrad W.; Chong, Shau Poh; Kho, Aaron M.; Zhu, Jun; Kholiqov, Oybek; Dubra, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2018-02-01

    Most flying-spot Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) systems use a symmetric confocal geometry, where the detection path retraces the illumination path starting from and ending with the spatial mode of a single mode optical fiber. Here, we describe a visible light OCM instrument that breaks this symmetry to improve transverse resolution without sacrificing collection efficiency in scattering tissue. This was achieved by overfilling a 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) water immersion objective on the illumination path, while maintaining a conventional Gaussian mode detection path (1/e2 intensity diameter 0.82 Airy disks), enabling 1.1 μm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) transverse resolution. At the same time, a 0.9 μm FWHM axial resolution in tissue, achieved by a broadband visible light source, enabled femtoliter volume resolution. We characterized this instrument according to paraxial coherent microscopy theory, and then used it to image the meningeal layers, intravascular red blood cell-free layer, and myelinated axons in the mouse neocortex in vivo through the thinned skull. Finally, by introducing a 0.8 NA water immersion objective, we improved the lateral resolution to 0.44 μm FWHM, which provided a volumetric resolution of 0.2 fL, revealing cell bodies in cortical layer I of the mouse brain with OCM for the first time.

  15. Immersed in media telepresence theory, measurement & technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matthew; Freeman, Jonathan; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand; Schaevitz, Rachel J

    2015-01-01

    Highlights key research currently being undertaken within the field of telepresence, providing the most detailed account of the field to date, advancing our understanding of a fundamental property of all media - the illusion of presence; the sense of "being there" inside a virtual environment, with actual or virtual others. This collection has been put together by leading international scholars from America, Europe, and Asia. Together, they describe the state-of-the-art in presence theory, research and technology design for an advanced academic audience. Immersed in Media provides research t

  16. Sodium immersible high temperature microphone design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Janicek, J.J.

    1975-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a rugged high-temperature (HT) microphone for use as a sodium-immersed acoustic monitor in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Microphones of this design have been extensively tested in room temperature water, in air up to 1200 0 F, and in sodium up to 1200 0 F. They have been successfully installed and employed as acoustic monitors in several operating liquid metal systems. The design, construction sequence, calibration, and testing of these microphones are described. 6 references. (U.S.)

  17. Teaching and Learning Immersion and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    It is known since Socrates that people learn better by experiencing a problem by themselves and by finding a (the) solution(s) by their own. It is however not always possible to offer such freedom to students when teaching the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments due......-presence, and observe the inherent problems liked to  communication, field of view, or latency issues. The test performed shows that such experimentation have positive pedagogical impacts, both from the learning and students motivation perspectives....

  18. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  19. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  20. A Study on Immersion and Presence of a Portable Hand Haptic System for Immersive Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyu; Jeon, Changyu; Kim, Jinmo

    2017-05-17

    This paper proposes a portable hand haptic system using Leap Motion as a haptic interface that can be used in various virtual reality (VR) applications. The proposed hand haptic system was designed as an Arduino-based sensor architecture to enable a variety of tactile senses at low cost, and is also equipped with a portable wristband. As a haptic system designed for tactile feedback, the proposed system first identifies the left and right hands and then sends tactile senses (vibration and heat) to each fingertip (thumb and index finger). It is incorporated into a wearable band-type system, making its use easy and convenient. Next, hand motion is accurately captured using the sensor of the hand tracking system and is used for virtual object control, thus achieving interaction that enhances immersion. A VR application was designed with the purpose of testing the immersion and presence aspects of the proposed system. Lastly, technical and statistical tests were carried out to assess whether the proposed haptic system can provide a new immersive presence to users. According to the results of the presence questionnaire and the simulator sickness questionnaire, we confirmed that the proposed hand haptic system, in comparison to the existing interaction that uses only the hand tracking system, provided greater presence and a more immersive environment in the virtual reality.