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Sample records for immature aedes albopictus

  1. The effects of simulated rainfall on immature population dynamics of Aedes albopictus and female oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rahman, G. M. Saifur; Abu Hassan, A.; Che Salmah, M. R.; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Boots, Michael; Sazaly, Abubakar

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).

  2. IDENTIFIKASI AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS

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    Diah Fitri Rahayu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus Dengue yangditularkan oleh nyamuk . Kabupaten Banjarnegara merupakan daerah endemis reseptif DBD. Dari tahun ketahun kasus DBD cenderung meningkat, terutama di tahun 2009 - 2010. Vektor DBD di Kabupaten Banjarnegaraadalah Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti secara makroskopis terlihat sama seperti Ae. albopictus,namun perbedaannya terletak pada morfologi kepala (mesonotum di mana Ae. aegypti memiliki gambar garisseperti kepala kecapi berbentuk dengan dua garis lengkung dan dua garis lurus putih sementara Ae. albopictushanya memiliki satu garis putih di mesonotum tersebut.Kata kunci: identifikasi, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictusABSTRACT. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a disease caused by the dengue virus transmitted by mosquito.Banjarnegara district is a Dengue receptive endemic area. From year to year the Dengue cases is likely toincrease, especially in 2009 - 2010. The main vector of dengue in Banjarnegara district is Aedes aegypti andAedes albopictus. Ae. aegypti morphologically look like with Ae. albopictus, but the difference lies in the headmorphology (mesonotum where A. aegypti has a picture of the line like a lyre-shaped head with two curved linesand two white straight line while A. albopictus has only one white stripe on the mesonotum.Key words:identification, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus

  3. Invasion of cemeteries in Florida by Aedes albopictus.

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    O'Meara, G F; Gettman, A D; Evans, L F; Scheel, F D

    1992-03-01

    Aedes albopictus has been found in 53 of the 67 Florida counties. The initial discoveries in 11 of these counties were made in cemeteries. At several locations, Ae. albopictus became well-established in cemeteries before appearing in nearby accumulations of waste tires. The recycling of plastic floral baskets may be aiding the spread of Ae. albopictus. Mosquitoes were commonly found in all types of flower-holding containers in cemeteries, except bronze vases. In the laboratory, most Aedes aegypti eggs laid in bronze vases hatched, but larvae subsequently died. The spread of Ae. albopictus in cemeteries seems to occur at the expense of Ae. aegypti populations. At one cemetery immature Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were found in about 70% of the Aedes-positive containers at the start of a monitoring program. In subsequent collections from this site, Ae. albopictus was found in nearly all Aedes-positive containers, whereas there was a progressive decrease in containers with Ae. aegypti. This trend did not appear to be the result of any seasonal pattern because in a nearby cemetery where Ae. albopictus was absent, Ae. aegypti did not show a similar decline. Limiting flower-holding containers to those with drain holes or to bronze vases would greatly limit mosquito production.

  4. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

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    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  5. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  6. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were

  7. Aedes albopictus and the reemergence of Dengue

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    Rezza Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue is a vector-borne disease that is estimated to affect millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas, and it is reemerging in areas that have been disease-free for relatively long periods of time. In this issue of the journal, Peng et al. report on a Dengue outbreak in a city in southern China that had been disease-free for more than two decades. The infection, which was due to serotype 1, was introduced by a traveler from South-east Asia and transmitted by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Compared to Aedes aegypti, which is the most important vector of Dengue, Ae albopictus is a less competent vector of arboviruses, and the epidemics it causes are milder. However, Ae albopictus is becoming an increasingly important vector because of its rapidly changing global distribution. In particular, the worldwide trade in second hand tires, which often contain water and are an ideal place for eggs and larvae, has been a key factor in the large-scale conquest of Ae albopictus, which easily adapts to new environments, even in a temperate climate. This expansion is creating new opportunities for viruses to circulate in new areas, becoming a common cause of epidemics in Ae aegypti-free countries, from Hawaii to Mauritius. The outbreak in China, like similar events, was mild and short-lived. Because epidemics due to Ae albopictus are milder, the replacement of Ae aegypti with the tiger mosquito could even result in public-health benefits. However, there is no solid evidence of this, and the milder course of the outbreak could be in part explained by the relatively short duration of the hot season in some affected areas. Since it is almost impossible to prevent Ae albopictus from being introduced in a country, mosquito-control measures at local level remain the most effective means of controlling arbovirus outbreaks.

  8. Dominância de Aedes aegypti sobre Aedes albopictus no litoral sudeste do Brasil Dominance of Aedes aegypti over Aedes albopictus in the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Ricardo A Passos

    2003-12-01

    was selected. It was used data from the Dengue and Yellow Fever Vector Control Program of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, that encompasses entomological surveillance at strategic positions, traps and foci demarcation. Strategic positions sites are fixed sites with containers in adequate conditions for larvae growth. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Fligne test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There was found an annual growth of positive traps and strategic positions of Ae. aegypti and a drop in Ae. albopictus population. An increase in immature Ae. aegypti and a drop of the other species were also seen. A gradual increase of positive dwellings for Ae. aegypti was noticed outgrowing Ae. albopictus population. There was a weak correlation of the Aedes species with abiotic factors. Higher numbers of immature mosquitoes of both species were found in artificial containers which could be eliminated. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed Ae. aegypti was predominant in urban areas, indicating that its growth seems to have affected the coexistence with other species. Natural selection could be in place contributing to Aedes aegypti and albopictus species separation.

  9. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M...truck-mounted ultra-low volume applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus...larval control, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever

  10. Programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    São Thiago, André Iwersen de; Kupek, Emil; Ferreira Neto, Joaquim Alves; São Thiago, Paulo de Tarso

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.Foi desenvolvido um programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, vetores biológicos de dengue e febre amarela. O programa possibilita rá...

  11. Mapping the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

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    Ding, Fangyu; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Lin, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases, such as Rift Valley fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika, have caused mass human death with the transnational expansion fueled by economic globalization. Simulating the distribution of the disease vectors is of great importance in formulating public health planning and disease control strategies. In the present study, we simulated the global distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at a 5×5km spatial resolution with high-dimensional multidisciplinary datasets and machine learning methods Three relatively popular and robust machine learning models, including support vector machine (SVM), gradient boosting machine (GBM) and random forest (RF), were used. During the fine-tuning process based on training datasets of A. aegypti and A. albopictus, RF models achieved the highest performance with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.973 and 0.974, respectively, followed by GBM (AUC of 0.971 and 0.972, respectively) and SVM (AUC of 0.963 and 0.964, respectively) models. The simulation difference between RF and GBM models was not statistically significant (p>0.05) based on the validation datasets, whereas statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for RF and GBM simulations compared with SVM simulations. From the simulated maps derived from RF models, we observed that the distribution of A. albopictus was wider than that of A. aegypti along a latitudinal gradient. The discriminatory power of each factor in simulating the global distribution of the two species was also analyzed. Our results provided fundamental information for further study on disease transmission simulation and risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

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    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  13. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L'Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring.

  14. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos.

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    Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W; Brey, Paul T

    2013-06-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.

  15. Comparison of BG-Sentinel Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    COMPARISON OF BG-SENTINELH TRAP AND OVIPOSITION CUPS FOR AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS SURVEILLANCE IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, USA JENNIFER A...trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could...best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae

  16. Breeding of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of adult mosquitoes, with humans acting as baits, was employed for the study. Environmental inspection and collection of larvae in the water-holding containers around the buildings were used to study the breeding sites of the mosquitoes. A total of 73 adult mosquitoes, made up of Aedes albopictus (76.71%) and A. aegypti ...

  17. Dispersion and oviposition of Aedes albopictus in a Brazilian slum: Initial evidence of Asian tiger mosquito domiciliation in urban environments.

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    Ayllón, Tania; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Gonçalves, Larissa da Silva; Saito Monteiro de Barros, Fábio; Brasil, Patrícia; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2018-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, originally considered as a secondary vector for arbovirus transmission, especially in areas where this species co-exist with Aedes aegypti, has been described in most regions of the world. Dispersion and domiciliation of Ae. albopictus in a complex of densely urbanized slums in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, was evidenced. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) Ae. albopictus distribution in urban slums is negatively related to distance from vegetation, and 2) these vectors have taken on a domestic life style with a portion of the population feeding, ovipositing, and resting indoors. To do this, we developed an integrated surveillance proposal, aiming to detect the presence and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. The study, based on a febrile syndrome surveillance system in a cohort of infants living in the slum complex, was performed on a weekly basis between February 2014 and April 2017. A total of 8,418 adult mosquitoes (3,052 Ae. aegypti, 44 Ae. albopictus, 16 Ae. scapularis, 4 Ae. fluviatilis and 5,302 Culex quinquefasciatus) were collected by direct aspiration and 46,047 Aedes spp. eggs were collected by oviposition traps. The Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, was aspirated in its adult form (n = 44), and immature forms of this species (n = 12) were identified from the eggs collected by the ovitraps. In most collection sites, co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was observed. Key-sites, such as junkyards, thrift stores, factories, tire repair shops and garages, had the higher abundance of Ae. albopictus, followed by schools and households. We collected Ae. albopictus at up to 400 meters to the nearest vegetation cover. The log transformed (n+1) number of females Ae. albopictus captured at each collection point was inversely related to the distance to the nearest vegetation border. These results show that Ae. albopictus, a competent vector for important arboviruses and more commonly found in areas with higher

  18. Role of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in local dengue epidemics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2016-11-09

    Aedes mosquitoes in Taiwan mainly comprise Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. However, the species contributing to autochthonous dengue spread and the extent at which it occurs remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we spatially analyzed real data to determine spatial features related to local dengue incidence and mosquito density, particularly that of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. We used bivariate Moran's I statistic and geographically weighted regression (GWR) spatial methods to analyze the globally spatial dependence and locally regressed relationship between (1) imported dengue incidences and Breteau indices (BIs) of Ae. albopictus, (2) imported dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (3) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (4) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (5) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (6) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (7) BI of Ae. albopictus and human population density, and (8) BI of Ae. aegypti and human population density in 348 townships in Taiwan. In the GWR models, regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti were significant and positive in most townships in Taiwan. However, Ae. albopictus had significant but negative regression coefficients in clusters of dengue epidemics. In the global bivariate Moran's index, spatial dependence between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti was significant and exhibited positive correlation in Taiwan (bivariate Moran's index = 0.51). However, Ae. albopictus exhibited positively significant but low correlation (bivariate Moran's index = 0.06). Similar results were observed in the two spatial methods between all dengue incidences and Aedes mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between imported dengue cases and Aedes mosquitoes

  19. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

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    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  20. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

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    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  1. Co-breeding Association of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Location and Container Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Nur Aida; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Talib, Anita; Athaillah, Farida; Krishnan, Kumara Thevan

    2018-03-01

    The occurrence of major outbreaks of dengue, and other vector borne diseases such as chikungunya and zika in tropical and subtropical regions has rendered control of the diseases a top-priority for many affected countries including Malaysia. Control of the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus through the reduction of breeding sites and the application of insecticides to kill immature forms and adults are the main control efforts to combat these diseases. The present study describes the association between Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in shared breeding sites. This study is important given that any measure taken against one species may affect the other. A yearlong larval survey was conducted in four dengue endemic areas of Penang Island. Sorenson's coefficient index indicated that no association between number of the immatures of the two species regardless of container size and study location. Therefore, the mean number Ae. albopictus immature was not decreased in the presence of Ae. aegypti in shared breeding container. However Ae. aegypti appeared to prefer breeding in habitats not occupied by Ae. albopictus , the two species sharing breeding sites only where available containers were limited. In control efforts, eliminating the preferred breeding containers for one species might not affect or reduce the population of the other species.

  2. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    (dez litros ou mais e de caráter permanente. A água acumulada no recipiente estudado apresentou-se rica em matéria orgânica, predominantemente de natureza vegetal. Neste particular, não há como compará-lo a reservatórios destinados ao armazenamento de água para uso doméstico. A falta de manutenção desses reservatórios poderá contribuir para levar a situação, se não idêntica, pelo menos próxima da evidenciada no trabalho. Embora se trate de espécie até agora não incriminada como vetora, é de se admitir que as observações encontradas possam ser utilizadas no programa de erradicação de Ae. aegypti que está em curso no Brasil.INTRODUCTION: Aedes albopictus has been found at Cananeia city in the Southeastern State of S. Paulo, Brazil. A study was carried out to evaluate the productivity of its breeding place. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A container classified as large and permament was chosen. Water had accumulated at the bottom and was rich in organic matter, mainly of vegetal origin. From November 1996 until May 1997, fortnightly observations were perfomed, sampling immature stages found in a seventh part of the container's total water volume (nearly 70 litres. Pupae were collected, identified and sexed. The productivity of the breeding place was estimated using Focks et al's. (1981 formula adapted for a single large container. At the same time adults were caught by using human bait and the aspiration of resting places. The first catch was performed at six meters from the breeding place studied. Williams' mean was calculated for the human bait and mean hourly density for the aspiration results of the resting places (Subbarao et al., 1988. RESULTS: Immature stages of Ae. albopictus represented 44.9% of the total collected through fifteen fortnightly regular samplings (November 1996 to May 1997. The pupae mean was 31.13 and so the emergence index was 2.1. Multiplied by seven the result was 14.7 as the estimated mean number of females per day produced in

  3. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  4. [Detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Istmina, Chocó, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, José Joaquín; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Díaz, Silvia Patricia; Ruiz, Edinso Rafael; Asprilla, Jimmy; Ardila, Susanne; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus is widely distributed around the world. Its introduction to the Americas occurred in 1985 and it is considered a potential vector of dengue viruses and one of the principal vectors of chikungunya virus. In Colombia, this species was reported for the first time in Leticia (Amazonas) in 1998, followed by Buenaventura (Valle del Cauca) in 2001, Barrancabermeja (Santander) in 2010, and Medellín (Antioquia) in 2011. So far, this species has been reported in ten departments of the country. Objective: To report the finding of A. albopictus in the city of Istmina, Chocó, and its implications for public health. Materials and methods: In January 2015, we conducted an inspection of immature stages of Aedes spp. in breeding sites in the neighborhoods of San Agustín, Santa Genoveva and Subestación in Istmina, Chocó. The immature stages collected in this municipality were identified at the Unidad de Entomología of the Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental de Chocó, and confirmed by the Laboratorio de Entomología, Red Nacional de Laboratorios, Instituto Nacional de Salud, in Bogotá. In January 2015, twelve A. albopictus larvae were found in the breeding sites located in Subestación and San Agustín neighborhoods. The occurrence of A. albopictus in the municipality of Istmina underlines the importance of strengthening continuous entomological surveillance strategies at national and local levels in the country, especially in Istmina and its surrounding municipalities.

  5. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  6. First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Francis; Van Bortel, Wim; Coosemans, Marc

    2004-06-01

    The 1st record of Aedes albopictus in Belgium was made in a village in Oost-Vlaanderen Province. Two preimaginal stages were collected on October 31, 2000, in the used tire stock of a recycling company that imports tires from the USA and Japan. The species has reproduced on site, and local environmental conditions make its establishment possible. Anopheles plumbeus was a common companion species found in tires in high densities.

  7. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Neto, Maria; Silva, Sílvia; Marques, Fátima; Silva, Ana Sofia; Alves, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE) is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:29690531

  8. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Costa Osório

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks.

  9. Weak Larval Competition Between Two Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes koreicus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Arnoldi, Daniele; Lapère, Charlotte; Rosà, Roberto; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (Edwards) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are two invasive mosquito species well established in northeastern Italy, and these two species may co-occur in artificial larval habitats such as tires, buckets, drums, and catch basins. Because Ae. albopictus has been shown experimentally to be a superior competitor to several mosquito species, we investigated larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus using two diet levels (low level and high level) and 10 Ae. albopictus: Ae. koreicus density combination levels (30:0, 60:0, 15:15, 30:30, 10:20, 20:10, 20:40, 40:20, 0:60, and 0:30). A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) demonstrated a significant effect of the density combination on Ae. koreicus survivorship, female development time, and female wing length considered simultaneously in low-level diet and high-level diet treatments. Pairwise comparisons across low-level diet treatments showed a significant reduction of Ae. koreicus survivorship in 20:10 combination treatments (i.e. 20 Ae. albopictus and 10 Ae. koreicus larvae) compared to 10:20, 20:40, and 30:30 combination treatments, while no difference was detected for Ae. albopictus between density combination treatments. Furthermore, Ae. albopictus developed faster than Ae. koreicus regardless of diet and density combination treatments. Our results show weak larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus with a slight advantage of the latter species. On the other hand, the presence of Ae. albopictus seems to favor the emergence of larger Ae. koreicus females. We suggest that factors such as habitats preferences or seasonal distributions may be determinant for the invasion success of Ae. koreicus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  11. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  12. Modeling the Environmental Suitability for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Haque, Ubydul; Monaghan, Andrew J; Eisen, Lars; Hahn, Micah B; Hayden, Mary H; Savage, Harry M; McAllister, Janet; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-11-07

    The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States. The predictive models for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus had an overall accuracy of 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Cumulative growing degree days (GDDs) during the winter months, an indicator of overall warmth, was the most important predictive variable for both species and was positively associated with environmental suitability. The number (percentage) of counties classified as environmentally suitable, based on models with 90 or 99% sensitivity, ranged from 1,443 (46%) to 2,209 (71%) for Ae. aegypti and from 1,726 (55%) to 2,329 (75%) for Ae. albopictus. Increasing model sensitivity results in more counties classified as suitable, at least for summer survival, from which there are no mosquito records. We anticipate that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus will be found more commonly in counties classified as suitable based on the lower 90% sensitivity threshold compared with the higher 99% threshold. Counties predicted suitable with 90% sensitivity should therefore be a top priority for expanded mosquito surveillance efforts while still keeping in mind that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may be introduced, via accidental transport of eggs or immatures, and potentially proliferate during the warmest part of the year anywhere within the geographic areas delineated by the 99% sensitivity model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work

  13. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  14. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Coexistence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Peninsular Florida Two Decades After Competitive Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L Philip; Bargielowski, Irka; Carrasquilla, María Cristina; Nishimura, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    The spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eastward in the mid-1980s from its initial establishment in Houston, TX, was associated with rapid declines and local disappearances of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Gulf Coast states and Florida where annual larval surveillance during the early 1990s described temporal and spatial patterns of competitive displacements in cemeteries and tire shops. Approximately 20 yr later in 2013-2014, we re-visited former collection sites and sampled aquatic immatures of these two species from tire shops in 10 cities on State Route 441 and from 9 cemeteries from Lakeland to Miami in southwest Florida. In the recent samples Ae. aegypti was recovered from three central Florida cities where it had not been detected in 1994, but its northern limit on Rte. 441, Apopka, did not change. Other evidence, such as trends at a few cemeteries, suggested a moderate resurgence of this species since 1994. Cage experiments that exposed female progeny of Ae. aegypti from recent Florida collection sites to interspecific mating by Ae. albopictus males showed that females from coexistence sites had evolved resistance to cross-mating, but Ae. aegypti from sites with no Ae. albopictus were relatively susceptible to satyrization. Habitat classifications of collection sites were reduced by principal component (PC) analysis to four variables that accounted for > 99% of variances; PCs with strong positive loadings for tree cover and ground vegetation were associated with collection sites yielding only Ae. albopictus Within the coexistence range of the two species, the numbers of Ae. aegypti among total Aedes collected were strongly correlated in stepwise logistic regression models with two habitat-derived PCs, distance from the coast, and annual rainfall and mean maximum temperatures at the nearest weather station. Subtle increases in the range of Ae. aegypti since its previous displacements are interpreted in the context of the evolution of resistance to mating

  16. Cruzamiento interespecífico entre Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en el laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez López, Yanisley; Martinez Pérez, Yanet; Acosta Rodríguez, Miriam; Fuentes González, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: existen algunos estudios realizados para verificar el posible apareamiento interespecífico, pero solo algunos trabajos han obtenido resultados positivos en este fenómeno. Objetivo: probar la posibilidad de obtener huevos viables del cruce entre Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Métodos: experimentos de apareamiento recíproco entre Aedes aegypti procedentes del insectario del Departamento de Control de Vectores del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí" y una población de A...

  17. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro. Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

  18. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  19. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  20. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  1. Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ian H; Manuel, Menchie; Moorthy, Mahesh; Lee, Theodore T M; Low, Dolyce H W; Missé, Dorothée; Gubler, Duane J; Ellis, Brett R; Ooi, Eng Eong; Pompon, Julien

    2017-06-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection. We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses. Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore's vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has not sustainably reduced arboviral incidence

  2. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

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    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  3. Primeiro registro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus no Estado do Ceará, Brasil First report of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in the state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Víctor Emanuel Pessoa Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus em área urbana da cidade de Fortaleza, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. De janeiro a julho de 2005 foram utilizadas ovitrampas para a coleta de ovos de Aedes spp., os quais foram mantidos em laboratório para desenvolvimento até a fase adulta. Os mosquitos resultantes foram identificados e submetidos a testes para o isolamento dos vírus da dengue. Foram identificados 13 espécimes de Aedes albopictus, todos fêmeas. Não foi isolado vírus da dengue em nenhum dos pools de mosquitos. Apesar de o Aedes albopictus não ter sido incriminado por surtos de dengue no Brasil, não se pode descartar a possibilidade da transmissão dos vírus da dengue por tais mosquitos.For the first time, the occurrence of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in an urban area of the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern, Brazil, is reported. From January to July 2005, ovitraps were used to collect eggs from Aedes spp., which were kept under laboratory conditions to develop into the adult phase. The resultant mosquitoes were identified and subjected to dengue virus isolation tests. Thirteen specimens of Aedes albopictus, all females, were identified. No dengue virus was isolated in any of the mosquito pools. Even though Aedes albopictus has not been incriminated in Brazilian dengue outbreaks, the possibility of dengue virus transmission by these mosquitoes cannot be dismissed.

  4. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. EKSISTENSI DAN SEBARAN NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN MAKASSAR

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    Yosefina Dota T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi dan sebaran nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus telah dilakukan di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Kec. Tamalanrea, Makassar. Penelitian bersifat eksploratif dengan melakukan sampling terhadap lima lokasi yaitu : a Fak. Peternakan (Utara, b Fak. Hukum (Timur, c Pusat Kegiatan Penelitian/PKP (Selatan, d Workshop/Dekat Pondokan mahasiswa (Barat dan e Fak. MIPA (Tengah. Sampling nyamuk menggunakan metode ovitrap (menggunakan attraktan Eluisine Indica L. dan survei terhadap berbagai tempat penampungan air. Sampel telur dan larva nyamuk yang diperoleh disimpan dalam microtube berisi alkohol 70% kemudian diidentifikasi berdasarkan Rueda (2004. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus ditemukan hidup dan berkembang biak di kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. Eksistensi dan sebaran kedua jenis nyamuk tersebut dipengaruhi oleh faktor adanya manusia/masyarakat kampus yang beraktivitas baik di dalam ruangan (indoor maupun di luar ruangan (outdoor, adanya berbagai tempat penampungan air baik buatan (bak mandi, ember maupun barang bekas (botol/kaleng bekas, tempurung kelapa, vegetasi/tanaman dan berbagai macam hewan yang berada di sekitaran kampus. Hasil penelitian dalam ruangan (indoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di dalam ruangan gedung PKP sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di Fak. Hukum. Hasil penelitian di luar ruangan (outdoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di area Workshop sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di area PKP.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  7. Biologi dan Peranan Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 sebagai Penular Penyakit

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    Hasan Boesri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts. Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 days with a temperature of 24-30 0 C, the eggs usually form elus ters of 49-60 eggs Larvae and pupae usually found in contain­ers, pieces of bambo containing water. The period of the larvae to adults between 20-25 days. The spread of Ae albopictus mosquitoes from Africa, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thai­land, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and Indonesia. Role in disease transmission is a secondary vector or as the primary vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. On viral diseases that attack the nerves like encephalistis Japanese, Western or East­ern encephalistis, and Chikuguya has been demonstrated by laboratories, as well as on ani­mal diseases caused by Dirofilaria immitis agent, Plasmodium lophurae, P. gallinaceum, and P. fallax.Keyword : Aedes albopictus mosquito, bionomic, the habit of biting / looking for blood, the ability to fly

  8. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  9. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18degrees C to 22degrees C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  10. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

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    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  12. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  13. Characterization of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitacea) and its impact against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus eggs at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the growth characteristics of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum IBT 41712 and its potential to infect eggs of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes at low temperature (15 deg C). When grown on sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract, IBT 41712 formed w...

  14. Impact of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on eggs of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the potential of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum IBT 41712 to infect eggs of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes at low temperature (15 deg C). To determine the optimum temperature for the fungus, we cultured the fungus at eight temperatures (4, 12, 15, 21, 28, 33...

  15. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines

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    Jennifer Duncombe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF. Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. and Ae. (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  16. Modelling the Dynamics of an Aedes albopictus Population

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    Thomas Anung Basuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for modelling population dynamics with formal means of computer science. This allows unambiguous description of systems and application of analysis tools such as simulators and model checkers. In particular, the dynamics of a population of Aedes albopictus (a species of mosquito and its modelling with the Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (Stochastic CLS are considered. The use of Stochastic CLS to model population dynamics requires an extension which allows environmental events (such as changes in the temperature and rainfalls to be taken into account. A simulator for the constructed model is developed via translation into the specification language Maude, and used to compare the dynamics obtained from the model with real data.

  17. Seasonal monitoring of Aedes albopictus: practical applications and outcomes

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    Stefano Gavaudan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae into temperate regions poses serious concerns for the risk of the spreading of arboviral epidemics, as confirmed by the Chikungunya fever outbreak in Italy. This article describes the implementation and the results of a strategy for the pest management implemented over 4 years in Pesaro (a city in the Marche region, Italy. The strategy used 60 integrated wide‑sized ovitraps for monitoring purposes. Twenty-day larvicide-based treatment cycles were implemented for the manholes of the urban area and also the inhabitants were involved in pest control relating to their own properties. It was observed that the weekly median of eggs laid decreased consistently from 2008 to 2011, indicating the good performance of the vector control and a reduction in the related epidemics risk.

  18. The Climate Range Expansion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Asia Inferred From the Distribution of Albopictus Subgroup Species of Aedes (Stegomyia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, M; Armbruster, P A; Tuno, N; Aranda, C; Yong, H S

    2017-11-07

    We compared climatic distribution ranges between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the five wild (nondomesticated) species of Albopictus Subgroup of Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia) in southern Asia. Distribution sites of the wild species concentrate in seasonal forest and savannah climate zones in India, Indochina, and southern China. The distribution of Ae. albopictus is broader than the wild species under 1) tropical rain-forest climate, 2) steppe and temperate savannah climate, and 3) continental climate with large seasonal temperature variation (hot summer and cold winter) at temperate lowlands (northernmost sites 40°N in Ae. albopictus vs 32°N in the wild species). However, the distribution of Ae. albopictus is more limited at tropical and subtropical highlands where the climate is cool but less continental (small seasonal variation, mild summer, and winter). We discuss a possibility that the broader climate ranges of Ae. albopictus are ecological or eco-evolutionary consequences of adaptation to human habitats. We also propose a general scenario for the origin, dispersal, and adaptation of Ae. albopictus in Asia as a hypothesis for future research. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C.; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de

    2007-01-01

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  20. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States.

  1. La Crosse Encephalitis Virus Infection in Field-Collected Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, and Aedes triseriatus in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Fritzen, Charissa; Paulsen, Dave; Poindexter, Stephanie; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2015-09-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-borne virus and a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the USA. La Crosse virus emerged in Tennessee and other states in the Appalachian region in 1997. We investigated LACV infection rates and seasonal abundances of the native mosquito vector, Aedes triseriatus, and 2 recently introduced mosquito species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, in an emerging disease focus in Tennessee. Mosquitoes were collected using multiple trapping methods specific for Aedes mosquitoes at recent human case sites. Mosquito pools were tested via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the S segment to detect multiple Bunyamwera and California serogroup viruses, including LACV, as well as real-time RT-PCR of the M segment. A total of 54 mosquito pools were positive, including wild-caught adult females and laboratory-reared adults, demonstrating transovarial transmission in all 3 species. Maximum likelihood estimates (per 1,000 mosquitoes) were 2.72 for Ae. triseriatus, 3.01 for Ae. albopictus, and 0.63 for Ae. japonicus. We conclude that Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus are important LACV vectors and that Ae. japonicus also may be involved in virus maintenance and transmission.

  2. Estimates of public health risks through import of Aedes albopictus via Dracaena's in the Netherlands : Investigation in the establlishment of Aedes albopictus : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Jacobs, F.H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Between September 2005 and October 2007 studies were done in six horticultural companies in the Netherlands to assess the presence of the exotic Aedes albopictus and to determine whether the species had become established. Adult mosquitoes were sampled with liberty plus carbon dioxide traps. The

  3. Multiple blood feeding and host-seeking behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjana, Thahsin; Tuno, Nobuko

    2013-07-01

    The body size of mosquitoes can influence a number of bionomic factors, such as their blood-feeding ability, host attack rate, and fecundity. All of these traits are important determinants of their potential to transmit diseases. Among abiotic and biotic factors, high temperature and low nutrition in the developing stages of mosquitoes generally result in small adults. We studied the relationship between body size and multiple feeding in a gonotrophic cycle and some fecundity attributes by using three strains of two competent vector species, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We raised small and large mosquitoes under low and high food conditions in the laboratory to measure parameters of fecundity and blood-feeding behavior. Fecundity was positively correlated with body size in both species, whereas the number of bloodmeals, the frequency of host-seeking behavior, and egg retention were negatively correlated with body size in the Ae. albopictus Nagasaki strain. We found that multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior were negatively correlated with body size, i.e., small mosquitoes tended to have more contact with hosts. We found that two mechanisms that inhibit engorged mosquitoes from seeking out hosts, distension-induced and oocyte-induced inhibition, were not strong enough to limit host-seeking behavior, and multiple feeding increased fecundity. Size-dependent multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior affect contact frequency with hosts and should be considered when predicting how changes in mosquito body size affect disease transmission.

  4. Invasiveness of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Vectorial Capacity for Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, Leon Philip; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-12-15

    In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations thus far tested confer vector competence for CHIKV. VC, an entomological analog of the pathogen's basic reproductive rate (R 0 ), is epidemiologically more important than vector competence but less frequently measured, owing to challenges in obtaining valid estimates of parameters such as vector survivorship and host feeding rates. Understanding the complexities of these factors will be pivotal in curbing CHIKV transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Widespread evidence for interspecific mating between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargielowski, I E; Lounibos, L P; Shin, D; Smartt, C T; Carrasquilla, M C; Henry, A; Navarro, J C; Paupy, C; Dennett, J A

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of the dengue and chikungunya viruses to humans, often come in contact in their invasive ranges. In these circumstances, a number of factors are thought to influence their population dynamics, including resource competition among the larval stages, prevailing environmental conditions and reproductive interference in the form of satyrization. As the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have profound epidemiological implications, understanding the competitive interactions that influence these patterns in nature is important. While evidence for resource competition and environmental factors had been gathered from the field, the evidence for reproductive interference, though strongly inferred through laboratory trials, remained sparse (one small-scale field trial). In this paper we demonstrate that low rates (1.12-3.73%) of interspecific mating occur in nature among populations of these species that have co-existed sympatrically from 3 to 150yrs. Finally this report contributes a new species-specific primer set for identifying the paternity of sperm extracted from field collected specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Avaliação da influência da temperatura sobre o desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus Evaluation of the temperature influence on the development of Aedes albopictus

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    Daniéla Cristina Calado

    2002-04-01

    assessed at constant temperatures, 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC and 30ºC, inside acclimatized chambers with 70-85% of relative humidity, and LD 12:12 h. The effect of the four constant temperatures was assessed using variance analysis. RESULTS: The incubation periods of eggs were 38.38, 19.09, 13.10, and 10.44 days. Larval periods for males lasted 30.13, 13.83, 7.36, and 5.57 days; for females it lasted 33.22, 15.00, 8.06, and 6.16 days. Pupil period for males lasted 8.01, 4.92, 2.40, and 1.76 days; and for females it lasted 8.15, 5.11, 2.60, and 1.88 days under the temperatures of 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC and 30ºC, respectively. In all development stages for all temperatures, significant differences were found at the level of 5%. The development period was inversely associated to the temperature, and the larval period was shorter in males than in females. Under the temperatures of 20ºC and 30ºC, the development of immature stages was shorter and their viability was greater than at 15ºC. CONCLUSIONS: In the conditions the experiment was performed, the temperature affected significantly and inversely proportional Aedes albopictus immature stages. These results show that immature stages are more susceptible at low temperatures due to the longer time required completing their development. This could be used in vector control strategies.

  7. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.

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    Thais Chouin-Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe, North America (southern United States, South America (Brazil, French Guiana for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia.Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132. Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28° ± 1 °C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi. Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen, heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level.This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

  9. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine ...

  10. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-05

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel.

  11. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  12. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M; Amenu, Kebede; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Revie, Crawford W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of

  13. Bioefficacy of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidea) From Sarawak, Malaysia: A Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-28

    The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.

  14. Aedes albopictus mosquito: the main vector of the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak in Gabon.

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    Frédéric Pagès

    Full Text Available The primary vector at the origin of the 2007 outbreak in Libreville, Gabon is identified as Aedes albopictus, trapped around the nearby French military camp. The Chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the A226V circulating human strain. This is the first field study showing the role of the recently arrived species Aedes albopictus in Chikungunya virus transmission in Central Africa, and it demonstrates this species' role in modifying the epidemiological presentation of Chikungunya in Gabon.

  15. POTENSI DAUN PANDAN (PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS DAN MANGKOKAN (NOTOPHANAX SCUTELLARIUM SEBAGAI REPELEN NYAMUK AEDES ALBOPICTUS

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    Rina Marina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF. Various efJort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness ofP. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaf as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on i-hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (p. amaryllifolius was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly dijJerent of power protection between N. scutellarium leafs and P. amaryllifolius leafs extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may efJectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector. Keywords: P. amaryllifolius, N. scutellarium, repellent, Ae. albopictus, dengue Abstrak. Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Ae. albopictus merupakan vektor dari Demam Berdarah Dengue. Pengendalian nyamuk vektor untuk memutus rantai penularan di antaranya menggunakan repelen tanaman. Daun pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius dan mangkokan (Notophanax scutellarium adalah tanaman lokal yang mempunyai potensi sebagai repelensi nyamuk. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui tentang efektivitas daun F amaryllifolius dan N scutellarium sebagai bahan repelen nyamuk Ae. albopictus. Daya proteksi daun pandan (N scutellarium pada jam satu jam pertama perlakuan adalah 93,55%, sedangkan daun mangkokan (F amaryllifolius sebesar 87,5%. Hasil analisis ANOVA menunjukan bahwa daya proteksi ekstrak daun pandan dan mangkokan terhadap nyamuk Ae.albopictus berdasarkan jam perlakuan tidak berbeda nyata. Kedua tanaman uji tersebut mempunyai potensi sebagai repelen atau dapat menghalau kedatangan nyamuk Ae

  16. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

    2009-12-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  17. Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and dengue in Argentina: current knowledge and future directions

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    Darío Vezzani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the reinfestation of South American countries by Ae. aegypti, dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF have become a major public health concern. The aim of this paper was to review the information related with Aedes vectors and dengue in Argentina since the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti in 1986. The geographic distribution of Ae. albopictus is restricted to the Northeast, and that of Ae. aegypti has expanded towards the South and the West in comparison with the records during the eradication campaign in the 1960s. Since 1998, 4,718 DF cases have been reported concentrated in the provinces of Salta, Formosa, Misiones, Jujuy and Corrientes. Despite the circulation of three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, -2 and -3 in the North of the country, DHF has not occurred until the present. The information published over the last two decades regarding mosquito abundance, temporal variations, habitat characteristics, competition, and chemical and biological control, was reviewed. Considering the available information, issues pending in Argentina are discussed. The presence of three DENV, the potential spread of Ae. albopictus, and the predicted climate change suggest that dengue situation will get worse in the region. Research efforts should be increased in the Northern provinces, where DHF is currently an actual risk.

  18. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano

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    Forattini Oswaldo Paulo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  19. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  20. Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) in the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Jaal, Zairi; Ranson, Hilary; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-03-25

    Knowledge on the extent, distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance is essential for successful insecticide-based dengue control interventions. Here, we report an extensive resistance profiling of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Malaysia and establish the contribution of knockdown resistance mechanism revealing significant contrast between both species. Aedes mosquitoes were collected from four states in Malaysia in 2010 using ovitraps and tested against six major insecticides using WHO bioassays. Knockdown resistance (kdr) was investigated in both species. A moderate resistance to temephos was detected from samples collected in 2010 in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu and Kota Bharu (1.5 Malaysia but neither of these mutations were found in Ae. albopictus. Additionally, signatures of selection were detected on the Voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Ae. aegypti but not in Ae. albopictus. The presence of the 1534C allele was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance and an additive effect to pyrethroid resistance was observed in individuals containing both kdr alleles. Findings from this study will help to design and implement successful insecticide-based interventions against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to improve dengue control across Malaysia.

  1. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  2. [Detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Jiménez, María Elena; Velásquez-Escobar, Olga Lucía; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Morales-Reichmann, Carlos Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is the second most important dengue virus vector in the Asian southeast after Aedes aegypti. Its entrance into the Americas occurred in 1985, and laboratory studies performed show its potential as a vector in this continent as well. In Colombia, this species has been reported in Leticia (Amazonas) in 1998 and Buenaventura (Valle del Cauca) in 2001. The latest discoveries show that this mosquito continues to advance toward the country's interior. To inform that the presence of A. albopictus is documented in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Since 2002, weekly sampling has been performed using larval traps located at seventeen stations. The identification of the A. albopictus species, was carried out in the Unidad de Entomología, Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental. These identifications were confirmed in the Entomology Laboratory at Universidad del Valle and the National Institute of Health in Bogotá. From April to June of 2006, larvae of A. albopictus were found in six sampling stations located between northwest and northeast of Cali, one of them in the suburban area of the Yumbo city. The control of A. aegypti and A. albopictus must be integrated into a single program. The surveillance in the cities and nearest departments must be intensified with the objective of limiting the advancement of A. albopictus.

  3. Introduction, scenarios for establishment and seasonal activity of Aedes albopictus in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Katsuhisa; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Braks, Marieta; Reusken, Chantal; Avenell, David; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2009-04-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was detected for the first time in the Netherlands in the summer of 2005. Aedes albopictus is a competent vector of several human viral diseases, and therefore the recent appearance of the vector is a concern to local public health authorities. In 2006 and 2007, the mosquito was found repeatedly and regularly at Lucky bamboo import companies. To assess whether imported Ae. albopictus could establish to produce subsequent generations in the following years or whether the winter conditions in the Netherlands would prove too cold to allow overwintering of diapausing eggs, predictions were made using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) model based on January average temperature and the annual precipitation recorded in 2006. Seasonal activity of overwintering Ae. albopictus was estimated for temperate strains based on the weekly average temperature and weekly photoperiod using spring egg hatching thresholds of 10.5 degrees C and 11.25 hours, and egg diapause and adult survival thresholds of 9.5 degrees C and 13.5 hours. The analyses indicate that the climate conditions in the Netherlands over the past 10 years were favorable to allow overwintering of diapausing eggs of temperate strains of Ae. albopictus, particularly in the western coastal region. This region was also the area where adult Ae. albopictus were intercepted inside and surrounding plant glasshouses. The estimated number of weeks elapsing between first egg hatching in spring and the production of diapausing eggs in autumn ranged between 17 and 22 weeks in 2006.

  4. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential new Dengue vector in southern Cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenille, D.; Toto, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of Dengue virus, has been recorded for the first time in Cameroon. Entomologic surveys in 2000 demonstrated that it is widespread in southern Cameroon, colonizing a wide variety of breeding sites and biting humans in every district surveyed. The presence of this vector increases the risk for emergence of dengue in Cameroon.

  5. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  6. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat

  7. Occurrence and distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Netherlands; survey 2006-2007 : report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2005, the Asian tigermosquito (Aedes albopictus) was found for the first time in the Netherlands. It was intercepted in several horticultural companies that import the ornamental plant Lucky bamboo from southern China, an endemic area for this mosquito species. The current report

  8. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu

  9. Evaluation of pyriproxyfen dissemination via Aedes albopictus from a point source larvicide application in northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, ranks among the most important vectors of dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya virus. With no specific medications or vaccines available, vector control is the only way to combat these diseases. Autodissemination of the insect growth regulator pyripro...

  10. A MIDGUT DIGESTIVE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN LARVAL MOSQUITOES, AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophopholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PL...

  11. Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Bialosuknia, Sean M; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Kramer, Laura D

    2017-05-01

    To determine the potential role of vertical transmission in Zika virus expansion, we evaluated larval pools of perorally infected Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus adult female mosquitoes; ≈1/84 larvae tested were Zika virus-positive; and rates varied among mosquito populations. Thus, vertical transmission may play a role in Zika virus spread and maintenance.

  12. An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 43 (2012), s. 20301 ISSN 1560-7917 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive mosquito species * Aedes albopictus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.491, year: 2012 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20301

  13. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  14. Updated Reported Distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States, 1995-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Eisen, Lars; McAllister, Janet; Savage, Harry M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are potential vectors of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses in the United States. A Zika virus outbreak in Florida in the summer of 2016, driven by Ae. aegypti and resulting in > 200 locally acquired cases of human illness, underscored the need for up-to-date information on the geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States. In early 2016, we conducted a survey and literature review to compile county records for presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States from 1995 to 2016. Surveillance for these vectors was intensified across the United States during the summer and fall of 2016. At the end of 2016, we therefore conducted a follow-up survey of mosquito control agencies, university researchers, and state and local health departments to document new collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The repeated survey at the end of the year added Ae. aegypti collection records from 38 new counties and Ae. albopictus collection records from 127 new counties, representing a 21 and 10 percent increase, respectively, in the number of counties with reported presence of these mosquitoes compared with the previous report. Moreover, through our updated survey, 40 and 183 counties, respectively, added additional years of collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from 1995 to 2016. Our findings underscore the continued need for systematic surveillance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  17. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  18. Taming a Tiger in the City: Comparison of Motorized Backpack Applications and Source Reduction Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TAMING A TIGER IN THE CITY: COMPARISON OF MOTORIZED BACKPACK APPLICATIONS AND SOURCE REDUCTION AGAINST THE ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO, AEDES ALBOPICTUS...FONSECA2 AND ARY FARAJOLLAHI2,3,7 ABSTRACT. We evaluated 2 strategies to manage Aedes albopictus: 1) motorized backpack applications and 2) source...the community level. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti, methoprene, hand applications, backpack applications INTRODUCTION Aedes

  19. Vector competence of Malaysian Aedes albopictus with and without Wolbachia to four dengue virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Tan, Kim-Kee; Wong, Meng-Li; Yugavathy, Nava; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2017-09-01

    To determine the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus with and without Wolbachia to the four dengue virus serotypes. Two newly colonised colonies of Ae. albopictus from the wild were used for the study. One colony was naturally infected with Wolbachia while in the other Wolbachia was removed by tetracycline treatment. Both colonies were orally infected with dengue virus-infected fresh blood meal. Dengue virus load was measured using quantitative RT-PCR at four-time intervals in the salivary glands, midguts and ovaries. Wolbachia did not significantly affect Malaysian Ae. albopictus dengue infection or the dissemination rate for all four dengue virus serotypes. Malaysian Ae. albopictus had the highest replication kinetics for DENV-1 and the highest salivary gland and midgut infection rate for DENV-4. Wolbachia, which naturally exists in Malaysian Ae. albopictus, does not significantly affect dengue virus replication. Malaysian Ae. albopictus is susceptible to dengue virus infections and capable of transmitting dengue virus, especially DENV-1 and DENV-4. Removal of Wolbachia from Malaysian Ae. albopictus would not reduce their susceptibility status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Survey on aedes mosquito density and pattern distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in high and low incidence districts in north sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Fazidah A.; Makmur, Tri

    2018-03-01

    Transmission and control of dengue hemorrhagic fever are related to its vectors. This study investigated vector density and distribution patterns of Aedes aegypty and Aedes albopictus in Medan and Langkat as high and low incidence district, respectively. An entomological survey was carried out in 304 households both in Medan and Langkat. The results showed that adult Ae. aegypti were predominantly in Medan, while adult Ae. albopictus was only in Langkat. Larvae indices (HI, CI, BI) for Aedes in Medan ( 35,13 and 43) were higher than langkat ( 22,8 and 30). Adult indices (AHI, AD, RR) for Ae. aegypti in Medan and for Ae. albopictus in Langkat were 20,38,24 and 3,5, and 5, respectively. Pattern distribution of Aedes larvae and adult mosquitoes in both district had similar pattern. Aedes larval indices and adult indices both in HIDs and LIDs were above the critical level, indicating potential high risk for DHF transmission. By multiple regression analysis, HI is predictor for DHF transmission in North Sumatera. Thus, in designing an effective control measures for dengue hemorrhagic fever, monitoring distribution and vector density is crucial.

  1. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  2. Spinosad as an effective larvicide for control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, vectors of dengue in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Carlos F; Bond, J Guillermo; Casas, Mauricio; Muñoz, José; Orozco, Arnoldo; Valle, Javier; Williams, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Field trials were conducted during the wet and dry seasons in periurban and semi-rural cemeteries in southern Mexico to determine the efficacy of a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad (Tracer 480SC) on the inhibition of development of Aedes albopictus L. and Ae. aegypti Skuse. For this, oviposition traps were treated with spinosad (1 or 5 mg L(-1)), Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti, VectoBac 12AS), a sustained release formulation of temephos and a water control. Ae. albopictus was subordinate to Ae. aegypti during the dry season, but became dominant or codominant during the wet season at both sites. The two species could not be differentiated in field counts on oviposition traps. Mean numbers of larvae + pupae of Aedes spp. in Bti-treated containers were similar to the control at both sites during both seasons. The duration of complete absence of aquatic stages varied from 5 to 13 weeks for the spinosad treatments and from 6 to 9 weeks for the temephos treatment, depending on site, season and product concentration. Predatory Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar and Knab suffered low mortality in control and Bti treatments, but high mortality in spinosad and temephos treatments. Egg counts and percentage of egg hatch of Aedes spp. increased significantly between the dry and wet seasons, but significant treatment differences were not detected. Temephos granules and a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad were both highly effective larvicides against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. These compounds merit detailed evaluation for inclusion in integrated control programs targeted at Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in regions where they represent important vectors of human diseases. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  4. Consequences of the expanding global distribution of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lambrechts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic global expansion of Aedes albopictus in the last three decades has increased public health concern because it is a potential vector of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including the most prevalent arboviral pathogen of humans, dengue virus (DENV. Ae. aegypti is considered the primary DENV vector and has repeatedly been incriminated as a driving force in dengue's worldwide emergence. What remains unresolved is the extent to which Ae. albopictus contributes to DENV transmission and whether an improved understanding of its vector status would enhance dengue surveillance and prevention. To assess the relative public health importance of Ae. albopictus for dengue, we carried out two complementary analyses. We reviewed its role in past dengue epidemics and compared its DENV vector competence with that of Ae. aegypti. Observations from "natural experiments" indicate that, despite seemingly favorable conditions, places where Ae. albopictus predominates over Ae. aegypti have never experienced a typical explosive dengue epidemic with severe cases of the disease. Results from a meta-analysis of experimental laboratory studies reveal that although Ae. albopictus is overall more susceptible to DENV midgut infection, rates of virus dissemination from the midgut to other tissues are significantly lower in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti. For both indices of vector competence, a few generations of mosquito colonization appear to result in a relative increase of Ae. albopictus susceptibility, which may have been a confounding factor in the literature. Our results lead to the conclusion that Ae. albopictus plays a relatively minor role compared to Ae. aegypti in DENV transmission, at least in part due to differences in host preferences and reduced vector competence. Recent examples of rapid arboviral adaptation to alternative mosquito vectors, however, call for cautious extrapolation of our conclusion. Vector status is a dynamic

  5. Molecular analysis and genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Peien, Leng; Xuejun, Wang; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species, which can carry Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and more than twenty arboviruses. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and samples collected from 17 populations, we investigated the molecular character and genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus from China. Altogether, 25 haplotypes were detected, including 10 shared haplotypes and 15 private haplotypes. H1 was the dominant haplotype, which is widely distributed in 13 populations. Tajima'D value of most populations was significantly negative, demonstrating that populations experienced rapid range expansion recently. Most haplotypes clustered together both in phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis without clear phylogeographic patterns. However, neutrality tests revealed shallow divergences among Hainan and Guangxi with other populations (0.15599 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.75858), which probably due to interrupted gene flow, caused by geographical isolations. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus populations showed low genetic diversity in China.

  6. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  7. Identification and characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Kathryn E Boes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4% of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus.

  8. Assessing the potential risk of Zika virus epidemics in temperate areas with established Aedes albopictus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Poletti, Piero; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frederic; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano

    2016-04-14

    Based on 2015 abundance of Aedes albopictus in nine northern Italian municipalities with temperate continental/oceanic climate, we estimated the basic reproductive number R0 for Zika virus (ZIKV) to be systematically below the epidemic threshold in most scenarios. Results were sensitive to the value of the probability of mosquito infection after biting a viraemic host. Therefore, further studies are required to improve models and predictions, namely evaluating vector competence and potential non-vector transmissions.

  9. How does the dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus respond to global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Pengfei; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Jin; Lu, Liang; Liu, Qiyong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2017-01-01

    Background Global warming has a marked influence on the life cycle of epidemic vectors as well as their interactions with human beings. The Aedes albopictus mosquito as the vector of dengue fever surged exponentially in the last decade, raising ecological and epistemological concerns of how climate change altered its growth rate and population dynamics. As the global warming pattern is considerably uneven across four seasons, with a confirmed stronger effect in winter, an emerging need arises...

  10. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakoun?, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopict...

  11. Targeting a Hidden Enemy: Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Strategy for the Control of the Container Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Cryptic Habitats.

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    Kshitij Chandel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a vector of dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses. This mosquito inhabits a wide range of artificial water-holding containers in urban and suburban areas making it difficult to control. We tested the hypothesis that female-driven autodissemination of an insect growth regulator could penetrate cryptic oviposition habitats difficult to treat with conventional insecticidal sprays.Oviposition preferences of Ae. albopictus females for open and cryptic cups were tested in semi-field experiments. Two conventional larvicidal sprayers were tested to determine droplet penetration and larvicidal efficacy in open and cryptic habitats using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti in the field. Finally, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations was assessed in cryptic and open cups in residential areas during 2013 and 2014.Gravid females strongly preferred cryptic (53.1±12.9 eggs/cup over open (10.3±4.3 eggs/cup cups for oviposition. Cryptic cups showed limited droplet penetration and produced 0.1-0.3% larval mortality with a conventional backpack and low-volume sprays of Bti. The autodissemination stations effectively contaminated these cryptic cups (59.3-84.6% and produced 29.7-40.8% pupal mortality during 2013-2014. Significant pupal mortality was also observed in open cups.The autodissemination station effectively exploits the oviposition behavior of wild gravid females to deliver pyriproxyfen to targeted oviposition habitats. Although the pupal mortality in cryptic cups was relatively lower than expected for the effective vector control. Autodissemination approach may be a suitable supporting tool to manage Ae. albopictus immatures in the cryptic habitats those are less accessible to conventional larvicidal sprays.

  12. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  13. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  14. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-03-21

    The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood). Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  15. miRNA genes of an invasive vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Jinbao Gu

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a vector of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, is a robust invasive species in both tropical and temperate environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection. While a number of miRNAs have been discovered in some mosquitoes, no comprehensive effort has been made to characterize them from different developmental stages from a single species. Systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. albopictus will improve our understanding of its basic biology and inform novel strategies to prevent virus transmission. Between 10-14 million Illumina sequencing reads per sample were obtained from embryos, larvae, pupae, adult males, sugar-fed and blood-fed adult females. A total of 119 miRNA genes represented by 215 miRNA or miRNA star (miRNA* sequences were identified, 15 of which are novel. Eleven, two, and two of the newly-discovered miRNA genes appear specific to Aedes, Culicinae, and Culicidae, respectively. A number of miRNAs accumulate predominantly in one or two developmental stages and the large number that showed differences in abundance following a blood meal likely are important in blood-induced mosquito biology. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of the targets of all Ae. albopictus miRNAs provides a useful starting point for the study of their functions in mosquitoes. This study is the first systematic analysis of miRNAs based on deep-sequencing of small RNA samples of all developmental stages of a mosquito species. A number of miRNAs are related to specific physiological states, most notably, pre- and post-blood feeding. The distribution of lineage-specific miRNAs is consistent with mosquito phylogeny and the presence of a number of Aedes-specific miRNAs likely reflects the divergence between the Aedes and Culex genera.

  16. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil The Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse breeding in Bromeliaceae on the outskirts of an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Delsio Natal

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.Larvae of Aedes albopictus from a plant of the Bromeliaceae family on the outskirts of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil, were collected. This occurrence sheds new light on the attempt to determine the potential of this plants as a breeding site for this mosquito in Brazil.

  17. Relevancia del mosquito tigre (Aedes Albopictus) como vector de enfermedades.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Rivera, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    El mosquito tigre (Ae. Albopictus) es uno de los vectores de las enfermedades causadas por arbovirus, siendo actualmente, la especie vectorial más invasiva del mundo. Se introdujo en Europa en 1979 localizándose en España por primera vez en agosto de 2004 en San Cugat del Vallés en Barcelona, desde donde no ha dejado de extenderse. Es vector del virus del dengue, virus del chikungunya, virus Zika y virus de la fiebre amarilla. El objetivo principal de este Trabajo de Fin de Grado será realiza...

  18. Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-06-01

    The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants.

  19. Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-12-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED50) value was 1.5 microg/cm2 at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 sec (2.1 microg/cm2) and 120 sec (1.8 microg/cm2) of exposure. At 0.4 g, the essential oil gave a high protection (95.2%) against Ae. albopictus bites or landing at 2 h postapplication. The percentage of protection was reduced to 83.3% after 4 h, 64.5% after 6 h, and 51.6% after 8 h postapplication. As a comparison, treatment with 10% deet gave 100% protection against mosquito biting/landing for 4 h postapplication. There was no significant difference in percentage protection reduction between the plant extract and the commercial product deet, respectively (P = 0.739). The essential oil, which was not as good as deet, still gave moderate protection against Ae. albopictus biting even until 4 h postapplication. In conclusion, the P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as a repellent against the dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever vector, Ae. albopictus.

  20. Efficacy of residual bifenthrin applied to landscape vegetation against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L; Allan, Sandra A; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2009-06-01

    The daytime biting mosquito Aedes albopictus is a nuisance pest commonly found in suburban yards. The recommended course of treatment for Ae. albopictus is to keep yards free of water-holding containers; however, infestations may require additional control methods such as residual pesticide applications to vegetation. Five plants commonly found in yards or in uncultivated areas in Gainesville, FL were chosen as substrates for evaluation of the effectiveness of residual bifenthrin against 5-7-day-old female Ae. albopictus. Knockdown of mosquitoes after 1 h of exposure was highest the day of and 7 days after treatment. Plant species clearly impacted the effectiveness of residual bifenthrin. One-hour knockdown 7 days after treatment remained high (>62%) only on azalea and holly bush vegetation. Knockdown counts 24 h after exposure demonstrated that residual efficacy of bifenthrin was highest on azalea, with >77% mortality for up to 35 days. Additional bioassays revealed significant differences in the knockdown rates of male, female, gravid, and blood-fed Ae. albopictus exposed to residual bifenthrin treatments, with the highest knockdown observed on the day of and 7 days after treatment.

  1. An experimental field study of delayed density dependence in natural populations of Aedes albopictus.

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    Rachael K Walsh

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation.

  2. Population genetics of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325

  3. Photoperiodic Diapause and the Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and range expansion of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in North America represents an outstanding opportunity to study processes of invasion, range expansion, and climatic adaptation. Furthermore, knowledge obtained from such research is relevant to developing novel strategies to control this important vector species. Substantial evidence indicates that the photoperiodic diapause response is an important adaptation to climatic variation across the range of Ae. albopictus in North America. Photoperiodic diapause is a key determinant of abundance in both space and time, and the timing of entry into and exit out of diapause strongly affects seasonal population dynamics and thus the potential for arbovirus transmission. Emerging genomic technologies are making it possible to develop high-resolution, genome-wide genetic markers that can be used for genetic mapping of traits relevant to disease transmission and phylogeographic studies to elucidate invasion history. Recent work using next-generation sequencing technologies (e.g., RNA-seq), combined with physiological experiments, has provided extensive insight into the transcriptional basis of the diapause response in Ae. albopictus. Applying this knowledge to identify novel targets for vector control represents an important future challenge. Finally, recent studies have begun to identify traits other than diapause that are affected by photoperiodism. Extending this work to identify additional traits influenced by photoperiod should produce important insights into the seasonal biology of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27354438

  4. Characteristics of replication and radiation response of Aedes Albopictus cell line in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.

    1974-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the line of Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by scoring x-ray-induced chromosome aberrations as a function of dose and of time after irradiation as well as the modification by dose fractionation. In order to obtain these data, a series of studies, e.g., karyotype, cell life cycle, radiation- induced mitotic delay, and frequency and type of spontaneous aberrations, were carried out. Cells from this line had three pairs of chromosomes as a stem line chromosome number. The morphology of the chromosomes is metacentric. Somatic pairing between homologous chromosomes was observed as a common event and there was a high frequency of achromatic gaps on the chromosomes. These observations are in good agreement with those made in other laboratories. The generation time of A. albopictus cell line was approximately 32 hours, in which G 1 , S, and G 2 phases were 2 1 / 2 , 24 and 5 1 / 2 hours respectively. This generation time is in agreement with the population doubling time observed in our cell growth studies. By contrast, in most mammalian cells, G 1 usually is the longest phase and S is comparatively short. Dose fractionation studies indicated that A. albopictus cells in culture may have a faster chromosome repair system than mammalian and other cell systems. This may, at least in part; explain the difference in radiosensitivity between A. albopictus cell line and other cell systems. (Diss. Abstr.)

  5. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  6. Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?

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    Pablo Tortosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria have invaded many arthropod species by inducing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI. These symbionts represent fascinating objects of study for evolutionary biologists, but also powerful potential biocontrol agents. Here, we assess the density dynamics of Wolbachia infections in males and females of the mosquito Aedes albopitcus, an important vector of human pathogens, and interpret the results within an evolutionary framework.Wolbachia densities were measured in natural populations and in age controlled mosquitoes using quantitative PCR. We show that the density dynamics of the wAlbA Wolbachia strain infecting Aedes albopictus drastically differ between males and females, with a very rapid decay of infection in males only.Theory predicts that Wolbachia and its hosts should cooperate to improve the transmission of infection to offspring, because only infected eggs are protected from the effects of CI. However, incompatible matings effectively lower the fertility of infected males, so that selection acting on the host genome should tend to reduce the expression of CI in males, for example, by reducing infection density in males before sexual maturation. The rapid decay of one Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus males, but not in females, is consistent with this prediction. We suggest that the commonly observed reduction in CI intensity with male age reflects a similar evolutionary process. Our results also highlight the importance of monitoring infection density dynamics in both males and females to assess the efficiency of Wolbachia-based control strategies.

  7. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

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    Mutsuo Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan.

  8. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre Aedes albopictus in rural zone of Brazil and its implication in the sylvatic yellow fever transmission

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.Larvae and adult forms of Aedes albopictus were found during ecological study of anopheline mosquitos in the rural zone of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. This occurrence was registered, for the first time in Brazil, in an enzoootic area if sylvatic yellow fever virus. This implies a potential risk of the transfer of this virus to an urban area infested with Aedes aegypti.

  9. Inhibition of Mayaro virus replication by cerulenin in Aedes albopictus cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, H.S.; Rebello, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The antibiotic cerulenin, an inhibitor of lipid synthesis, was shown to suppress Mayaro virus replication in Aedes albopictus cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Cerulenin blocked the incorporation of [ 3 H]glycerol into lipids when present at anytime post infection. Cerulenin added at the beginning of infection inhibited the synthesis of virus proteins. However, when this antibiotic was added at later stages of infection, it had only a mild effect on the virus protein synthesis. The possibility that cerulenin acts by blocking an initial step in the Mayaro virus replication after virus entry and before late viral translation is discussed. (authors)

  10. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

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    Mélissanne de Wispelaere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5.After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease.In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds.

  11. The "auto-dissemination" approach: a novel concept to fight Aedes albopictus in urban areas.

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    Beniamino Caputo

    Full Text Available The main constraint to the fight against container-breeding mosquito vectors of human arboviruses is the difficulty in targeting the multiplicity of larval sources, mostly represented by small man-made water containers. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of the "auto-dissemination" approach, already tested for Aedes aegypti, as a possible alternative to traditional, inefficient control tools, against Ae. albopictus in urban areas. The approach is based on the possibility that wild adult females, exposed to artificial resting sites contaminated with pyriproxyfen, can disseminate this juvenile hormone analogue to larval habitats, thus interfering with adult emergence.We carried out four field experiments in two areas of Rome that are typically highly infested with Ae. albopictus, i.e. the main cemetery and a small green area within a highly urbanised neighbourhood. In each area we used 10 pyriproxyfen "dissemination" stations, 10 "sentinel" sites and 10 covered, control sites. The sentinel and control sites each contained 25 Ae. albopictus larvae. These were monitored for development and adult emergence.When a 5% pyriproxyfen powder was used to contaminate the dissemination sites, we observed significantly higher mortality at the pupal stage in the sentinel sites (50-70% than in the controls (<2%, showing that pyriproxyfen was transferred by mosquitoes into sentinel sites and that it had a lethal effect.The results support the potential feasibility of the auto-dissemination approach to control Ae. albopictus in urban areas. Further studies will be carried out to optimize the method and provide an effective tool to reduce the biting nuisance caused by this aggressive species and the transmission risk of diseases such as Dengue and Chikungunya. These arboviruses pose an increasing threat in Europe as Ae. albopictus expands its range.

  12. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

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    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  13. Comprehensive proteome profiling in Aedes albopictus to decipher Wolbachia-arbovirus interference phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucereau, Yoann; Valiente Moro, Claire; Dieryckx, Cindy; Dupuy, Jean-William; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Girard, Vincent; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses that cause severe diseases in humans such as Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika fevers. The vector competence of Ae. albopictus varies depending on the mosquito population involved and the virus transmitted. Wolbachia infection status in believed to be among key elements that determine viral transmission efficiency. Little is known about the cellular functions mobilized in Ae. albopictus during co-infection by Wolbachia and a given arbovirus. To decipher this tripartite interaction at the molecular level, we performed a proteome analysis in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells mono-infected by Wolbachia wAlbB strain or Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and bi-infected. We first confirmed significant inhibition of CHIKV by Wolbachia. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 600 unique differentially expressed proteins mostly related to glycolysis, translation and protein metabolism. Wolbachia infection had greater impact on cellular functions than CHIKV infection, inducing either up or down-regulation of proteins associated with metabolic processes such as glycolysis and ATP metabolism, or structural glycoproteins and capsid proteins in the case of bi-infection with CHIKV. CHIKV infection inhibited expression of proteins linked with the processes of transcription, translation, lipid storage and miRNA pathways. The results of our proteome profiling have provided new insights into the molecular pathways involved in tripartite Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction and may help defining targets for the better implementation of Wolbachia-based strategies for disease transmission control.

  14. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

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    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin.Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups.The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  15. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya

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    Jalil Nejati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015 meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  16. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp.

  17. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Camara, Tamara N; Lima, José B P; Bruno, Rafaela V; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little...

  18. Comparison of BG-Sentinel® Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer A; Larson, Ryan T; Richardson, Alec G; Cote, Noel M; Stoops, Craig A; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The BG-Sentinel® (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics.

  19. Field evaluation of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent (metofluthrin) against Aedes albopictus and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Michael L; Gaines, Marcia K; Weaver, James H; Debboun, Mustapha

    2012-05-01

    Repellent efficacy of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent device (S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, WI) containing Metofluthrin was evaluated on six human volunteers against the container-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the salt marsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) at two field locations in northeastern Florida. The device repelled mosquitoes by releasing a vaporized form of the pyrethroid insecticide metofluthrin ([AI] 31.2%) and provided 70% protection from Ae. albopictus bites for > 3 h. For the second field trial, a repellent device that was used in the first trial was tested after being open for >1 wk. This device provided 79% protection from Ae. taeniorhynchus bites for 3 h. Our field results showed that the repellent device was 70 and 79% effective at repelling Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus from human test subjects in both field locations in northeastern Florida.

  20. The USDA-ARS area-wide project for management of the asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is among the most invasive species in the world. Established in the U.S. since 1985, this species now infests 30 states and continues to spread internationally. Concerned public health officials recognize this species as an important vector of chikunguny...

  1. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  2. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  3. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  4. Genome sequence of the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, reveals insights into its biology, genetics, and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chena, X.G.; Jiang, X.; Gu, J.; Xu, M.; Wu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bonizzoni, M.; Dermauw, W.; Vontas, J.; Armbruster, P.; Huang, X.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, H.; He, W.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Wu, K.; Chen, J.; Lirakis, M.; Topalis, P.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Hall, B.A.; Thorpe, C.; Mueller, R.L.; Sun, C.; Waterhouse, R.M.; Yan, G.; Tu, Z.J.; Fang, X.; James, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined

  5. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  6. Forecasting the spatial and seasonal dynamic of Aedes albopictus oviposition activity in Albania and Balkan countries.

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    Clément Tisseuil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84 and temporal (weekly resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors. The model was satisfactorily calibrated and validated over Albania based observed eggs abundance data weekly monitored during three years. For a given week of the year, eggs abundance was mainly predicted by the number of eggs and the mean temperature recorded in the preceding weeks. That is, results are in agreement with the biological cycle of the mosquito, reflecting the effect temperature on eggs spawning, maturation and hatching. The model, seeded by initial egg values derived from a second model, was then used to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of eggs abundance over the selected Balkan countries, weekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The present study is a baseline to develop an easy-handling forecasting model able to provide information useful for promoting active surveillance and possibly prevention of Ae. albopictus colonization in presently non-infested areas in the Balkans as well as in other temperate regions.

  7. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Uk; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-09-01

    Thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the Republic of Korea. The volatile compounds extracted by SPME from T. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The volatile compounds of T. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), alpha-thujene (2.7%), camphene (1.3%), carvacrol (1.2%), and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Among these candidates, thymol exhibited complete (100%) repellent activity against female Ae. albopictus, an effect that was confirmed through evaluating the electrophysiological response on the antenna of Ae. albopictus. The effectiveness of a binary 1:2 mixture of thymol and vanillin (0.05:0.1 microl per cm2) was found to be significantly more effective than thymol alone for a period of 120 min. In addition, thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol showed high larvicidal activity against on the third-stage larvae with LC50 values of 0.9 microl per 100 ml.

  8. Mosquito Larvicidal Constituents from the Ethanol Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. Roots against Aedes albopictus

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    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Compositae roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, 11,13-dihydroisoalantolactone (1, macrophyllilactone E (2, 5α-epoxyalantolactone (3, and epoxyisoalantolactone (4 were isolated and identified as the active constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 21.86 μg/mL and 18.65 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC50 value of 25.23 μg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of 29.37 μg/mL and 35.13 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. racemosa and the four isolated constituents have potential for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  9. Suitability of European climate for the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: recent trends and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Medlock, Jolyon M.; Ducheyne, Els; McIntyre, K. Marie; Leach, Steve; Baylis, Matthew; Morse, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species that has the potential to transmit infectious diseases such as dengue and chikungunya fever. Using high-resolution observations and regional climate model scenarios for the future, we investigated the suitability of Europe for A. albopictus using both recent climate and future climate conditions. The results show that southern France, northern Italy, the northern coast of Spain, the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and western Turkey were climatically suitable areas for the establishment of the mosquito during the 1960–1980s. Over the last two decades, climate conditions have become more suitable for the mosquito over central northwestern Europe (Benelux, western Germany) and the Balkans, while they have become less suitable over southern Spain. Similar trends are likely in the future, with an increased risk simulated over northern Europe and slightly decreased risk over southern Europe. These distribution shifts are related to wetter and warmer conditions favouring the overwintering of A. albopictus in the north, and drier and warmer summers that might limit its southward expansion. PMID:22535696

  10. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  11. Genetic evidence for a worldwide chaotic dispersion pattern of the arbovirus vector, Aedes albopictus.

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    Mosè Manni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species represent a global concern for their rapid spread and the possibility of infectious disease transmission. This is the case of the global invader Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV, dengue (DENV and Zika (ZIKV. The reconstruction of the complex colonization pattern of this mosquito has great potential for mitigating its spread and, consequently, disease risks.Classical population genetics analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approaches were combined to disentangle the demographic history of Aedes albopictus populations from representative countries in the Southeast Asian native range and in the recent and more recently colonized areas. In Southeast Asia, the low differentiation and the high co-ancestry values identified among China, Thailand and Japan indicate that, in the native range, these populations maintain high genetic connectivity, revealing their ancestral common origin. China appears to be the oldest population. Outside Southeast Asia, the invasion process in La Réunion, America and the Mediterranean Basin is primarily supported by a chaotic propagule distribution, which cooperates in maintaining a relatively high genetic diversity within the adventive populations.From our data, it appears that independent and also trans-continental introductions of Ae. albopictus may have facilitated the rapid establishment of adventive populations through admixture of unrelated genomes. As a consequence, a great amount of intra-population variability has been detected, and it is likely that this variability may extend to the genetic mechanisms controlling vector competence. Thus, in the context of the invasion process of this mosquito, it is possible that both population ancestry and admixture contribute to create the conditions for the efficient transmission of arboviruses and for outbreak establishment.

  12. [Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Nuevo León, México, 2001-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Pesina, Héctor; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Elizondo-Leal, José Fernando

    2005-01-01

    To determine the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Nuevo Leon between 2001 and 2004. Standardized methods were used to collect 6371 samples of mosquito's larvae from 167 sites. The proportions of samples positive for Ae. albopictus were obtained by municipality and year, using the software program Excel. There were 1179 samples positive for Ae. albopictus. This species was distributed over 10 municipalities, as follows: Five on the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plains, which predominantly have a semi-warm, sub-humid climate, and precipitations almost year round (Allende, Montemorelos, Linares, General Teran, and Santiago); two (Sabinas Hidalgo, and Cadereyta) localized on the North American Great Plains, which have a warm, semiarid climate, and scarce precipitations. The final three were Apodaca, San Nicolas, and Escobedo distributed over the metropolitan area of Monterrey City. Up to January 2004, the second most important epidemiological vector in the transmission cycle of Ae. albopictus worldwide was found in ten municipalities of Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

  13. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

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    Kamil Erguler

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.

  14. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  15. Geospatial analysis of invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: competition with Aedes japonicus japonicus in its northern limit area in Japan

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    Naoko Nihei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata’s new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored.

  16. Local extinction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) following rat eradication on Palmyra Atol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Bogar, Taylor A.; Bui, An; Childress, Jasmine N.; Espinoza, Magaly; Forbes, Elizabeth S.; Johnston, Cora A.; Klope, Maggie; Kuile, Ana Miller-ter; Lee, Michelle; Plummer, Katherine A.; Weber, David A.; Young, Ronald T.; Young, Hillary S.

    2018-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, appears to have been extirpated from Palmyra Atoll following rat eradication. Anecdotal biting reports, collection records, and regular captures in black-light traps showed the species was present before rat eradication. Since then, there have been no biting reports and no captures over 2 years of extensive trapping (black-light and scent traps). By contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, was abundant before and after rat eradication. We hypothesize that mammals were a substantial and preferred blood meal for Aedes, whereas Culex feeds mostly on seabirds. Therefore, after rat eradication, humans and seabirds alone could not support positive population growth or maintenance of Aedes. This seems to be the first documented accidental secondary extinction of a mosquito. Furthermore, it suggests that preferred host abundance can limit mosquito populations, opening new directions for controlling important disease vectors that depend on introduced species like rats.

  17. Adulticidal Susceptibility Evaluation of Aedes albopictus Using New Diagnostic Doses in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Junaid; Ahmad, Abu H; Ahmad, Hamdan; Ishak, Intan H; Rus, Adanan Che; Maimusa, Hamisu A

    2017-09-01

    Insecticide-based vector control approaches are facing challenges due to the development of resistance in vector mosquitoes. Therefore, a proper resistance surveillance program using baseline lethal concentrations is crucial for resistance management strategies. Currently, the World Health Organization's (WHO) diagnostic doses established for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles species are being used to study the resistance status of Aedes albopictus. In this study, we established the diagnostic doses for permethrin, deltamethrin, and malathion using a known susceptible reference strain. Five field-collected populations were screened against these doses, following the WHO protocol. This study established the diagnostic dose of malathion at 2.4%, permethrin at 0.95%, and deltamethrin at 0.28%, which differ from the WHO doses for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles spp. Among the insecticides tested on the 5 wild populations, only deltamethrin showed high effectiveness. Different susceptibility and resistance patterns were observed with permethrin, malathion, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) at 4%. This study may assist the health authorities to improve future chemical-based vector control operations in dengue-endemic areas.

  18. Spatial and temporal heterogeneities of Aedes albopictus density in La Reunion Island: rise and weakness of entomological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sebastien; Foray, Coralie; Dehecq, Jean-Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2006 Chikungunya disease in La Reunion, questions were raised concerning the monitoring survey of Aedes albopictus populations and the entomological indexes used to evaluate population abundance. The objectives of the present study were to determine reliable productivity indexes using a quantitative method to improve entomological surveys and mosquito control measures on Aedes albopictus. Between 2007 and 2011, 4 intervention districts, 24 cities, 990 areas and over 850,000 houses were used to fulfil those objectives. Four indexes including the classical Stegomyia index (House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index) plus an Infested Receptacle Index were studied in order to determine whether temporal (year, month, week) and/or spatial (districts, cities, areas) heterogeneities existed. Temporal variations have been observed with an increase of Ae. albopictus population density over the years, and a seasonality effect with a highest population during the hot and wet season. Spatial clustering was observed at several scales with an important autocorrelation at the area scale. Moreover, the combination among these results and the breeding site productivity obtained during these 5 years allowed us to propose recommendations to monitor Aedes albopictus by eliminating not the most finding sites but the most productive ones. As the other strategies failed in La Reunion, this new approach should should work better.

  19. Spatial and temporal heterogeneities of Aedes albopictus density in La Reunion Island: rise and weakness of entomological indices.

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    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available Following the 2006 Chikungunya disease in La Reunion, questions were raised concerning the monitoring survey of Aedes albopictus populations and the entomological indexes used to evaluate population abundance. The objectives of the present study were to determine reliable productivity indexes using a quantitative method to improve entomological surveys and mosquito control measures on Aedes albopictus. Between 2007 and 2011, 4 intervention districts, 24 cities, 990 areas and over 850,000 houses were used to fulfil those objectives. Four indexes including the classical Stegomyia index (House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index plus an Infested Receptacle Index were studied in order to determine whether temporal (year, month, week and/or spatial (districts, cities, areas heterogeneities existed. Temporal variations have been observed with an increase of Ae. albopictus population density over the years, and a seasonality effect with a highest population during the hot and wet season. Spatial clustering was observed at several scales with an important autocorrelation at the area scale. Moreover, the combination among these results and the breeding site productivity obtained during these 5 years allowed us to propose recommendations to monitor Aedes albopictus by eliminating not the most finding sites but the most productive ones. As the other strategies failed in La Reunion, this new approach should should work better.

  20. Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sugunan, A P; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N; Kartik, C; Vijayachari, P

    2016-04-01

    From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein expression in the midgut of sugar-fed Aedes albopictus females

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    Saboia-Vahia Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus is a vector for several fatal arboviruses in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The midgut of the mosquito is the first barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection and represents one of the main immunologically active sites of the insect. Nevertheless, little is known about the proteins involved in the defense against pathogens, and even in the processing of food, and the detoxification of metabolites. The identification of proteins exclusively expressed in the midgut is the first step in understanding the complex physiology of this tissue and can provide insight into the mechanisms of pathogen-vector interaction. However, identification of the locally expressed proteins presents a challenge because the Ae. albopictus genome has not been sequenced. Methods In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE was combined with liquid chromatography in line with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and data mining to identify the major proteins in the midgut of sugar-fed Ae. albopictus females. Results Fifty-six proteins were identified by sequence similarity to entries from the Ae. aegypti genome. In addition, two hypothetical proteins were experimentally confirmed. According to the gene ontology analysis, the identified proteins were classified into 16 clusters of biological processes. Use of the STRING database to investigate protein functional associations revealed five functional networks among the identified proteins, including a network for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, a group associated with ATP production and a network of proteins that interact during detoxification of toxic free radicals, among others. This analysis allowed the assignment of a potential role for proteins with unknown function based on their functional association with other characterized proteins. Conclusion Our findings represent the first proteome map of the Ae. albopictus midgut and denotes the

  2. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  3. Ten years of the Tiger: Aedes albopictus presence in Australia since its discovery in the Torres Strait in 2005

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    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian tiger mosquito”, Aedes albopictus, is highly invasive, an aggressive biter and a major arbovirus vector. It is not currently present on mainland Australia despite being intercepted on numerous occasions at international ports and infesting the Torres Strait of Australia since at least 2004. In the current paper, we describe the invasion and current status of Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait, as well as research conducted to assess the threat of this species becoming established in arbovirus transmission cycles on the Australian mainland. Genetic analysis of the invading population demonstrated that the Indonesian region was the likely origin of the invasion and not Papua New Guinea (PNG as initially suspected. There was also intermixing between Torres Strait, PNG and Indonesian populations, indicating that the species could be re-introduced into the Torres Strait compromising any successful eradication programme. Vector competence experiments with endemic and exotic viruses revealed that Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait are efficient alphavirus vectors, but less efficient flavivirus vectors. Ae. albopictus obtains blood meals from a range of vertebrate hosts (including humans, indicating that it could play a role in both zoonotic and human-mosquito arbovirus transmission cycles in Australia. Predictive models coupled with climate tolerance experiments suggest that a Torres Strait strain of Ae. albopictus could colonise southern Australia by overwintering in the egg stage before proliferating in the warmer months. Cohabitation experiments demonstrated that the presence of Aedes notoscriptus larvae in containers would not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus. Evidence from these studies, coupled with global experience suggests that we need to be prepared for the imminent invasion of Australia by Ae. albopictus by thoroughly understanding its biology and being willing to embrace emerging control technologies.

  4. Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga

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    Guillaumot Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.

  5. Occurrence and spread in Italy of Aedes albopictus, with implications for its introduction into other parts of Europe.

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    Knudsen, A B; Romi, R; Majori, G

    1996-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered second only to Ae. aegypti in its importance to man as a disease vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The first sighting in 1979 of the vector species in Europe came from Albania; however, it was only when Ae. albopictus was introduced into Italy in 1990, through the importation of used tires, followed by its subsequent spread, that the species was considered as a threat to public health. At the close of 1995, Ae. albopictus infestations have been reported from 10 Italian regions and 19 provinces. The risk for greater distribution of Ae. albopictus in Europe can potentially be projected, based on well-established criteria such as: where the winter monthly mean temperature is 0 degree C, where at least 50 cm of mean annual rainfall occurs, and where the mean summer temperature is approximately 20 degrees C. Those countries where climatic conditions meet such criteria and that may be vulnerable to a potential introduction of Ae. albopictus include Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, France, Albania, and the former Republic of Yugoslavia. The Italian plan of action, established for the surveillance and control of Ae. albopictus, is presented in detail.

  6. Growth and viability of Aedes albopictus cell line in vitro after cesium-137 gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the cultured mosquito cell line Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was investigated. Population growth was followed by total cell counts and by viable cell counts on aliquots of cultures exposed to various doses of gamma radiation during exponential growth. Viable cell determinations were based on the cellular exclusion of the dye, alcian blue, in a procedure adapted to the insect cells in culture. Viability determinations in the irradiated exponential cultures indicated that initially there was some increase in the gestation, suggesting that gonadal steroids may have unusual effects on uterine physiology and biochemistry in this species. Consequently, studies were undertaken to elucidate some of the basic responses of hamster uteri to estradiol benzoate and progesterone under conditions of protein malnutrition, actinomycin D administration and corticosterone injection. Furthermore, the effects of gonadal steroids on uteri of pregnant ovariectomized hamsters were studied

  7. The invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future perspectives

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    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Chen, Xioaguang; James, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most dynamic events in public health is being mediated by the global spread of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus. Its rapid expansion and vectorial capacity for various arboviruses affect an increasingly larger proportion of the world population. Responses to the challenges of controlling this vector are expected to be enhanced by an increased knowledge of its biology, ecology, and vector competence. Details of population genetics and structure will allow following, and possibly predicting, the geographical and temporal dynamics of its expansion, and will inform the practical operations of control programs. Experts are coming together now to describe the history, characterize the present circumstances, and collaborate on future efforts to understand and mitigate this emerging public health threat. PMID:23916878

  8. Mitigating Zika Risk: Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus Risk Mapping in Brownsville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation is intended to (1) engage audiences on a “System’s” approach to model Aedes species risks at a community level, (2) highlight US EPA EnviroAtlas ecosystem services and data rich capacity, and (3) present ORD research that is directly support EPA...

  9. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  10. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  11. How does the dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus respond to global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengfei; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Jin; Lu, Liang; Liu, Qiyong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2017-03-11

    Global warming has a marked influence on the life cycle of epidemic vectors as well as their interactions with human beings. The Aedes albopictus mosquito as the vector of dengue fever surged exponentially in the last decade, raising ecological and epistemological concerns of how climate change altered its growth rate and population dynamics. As the global warming pattern is considerably uneven across four seasons, with a confirmed stronger effect in winter, an emerging need arises as to exploring how the seasonal warming effects influence the annual development of Ae. albopictus. The model consolidates a 35-year climate dataset and designs fifteen warming patterns that increase the temperature of selected seasons. Based on a recently developed mechanistic population model of Ae. albopictus, the model simulates the thermal reaction of blood-fed adults by systematically increasing the temperature from 0.5 to 5 °C at an interval of 0.5 °C in each warming pattern. The results show the warming effects are different across seasons. The warming effects in spring and winter facilitate the development of the species by shortening the diapause period. The warming effect in summer is primarily negative by inhibiting mosquito development. The warming effect in autumn is considerably mixed. However, these warming effects cannot carry over to the following year, possibly due to the fact that under the extreme weather in winter the mosquito fully ceases from development and survives in terms of diapause eggs. As the historical pattern of global warming manifests seasonal fluctuations, this study provides corroborating and previously ignored evidence of how such seasonality affects the mosquito development. Understanding this short-term temperature-driven mechanism as one chain of the transmission events is critical to refining the thermal reaction norms of the epidemic vector under global warming as well as developing effective mosquito prevention and control strategies.

  12. Biology and Role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 as Vector of Diseases

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    Hasan Boesri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 days with a temperature of 24-30 0 C, the eggs usually form elus ters of 49-60 eggs Larvae and pupae usually found in contain­ers, pieces of bambo containing water. The period of the larvae to adults between 20-25 days. The spread of Ae albopictus mosquitoes from Africa, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thai­land, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and Indonesia. Role in disease transmission is a secondary vector or as the primary vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. On viral diseases that attack the nerves like encephalistis Japanese, Western or East­ern encephalistis, and Chikuguya has been demonstrated by laboratories, as well as on ani­mal diseases caused by Dirofilaria immitis agent, Plasmodium lophurae, P. gallinaceum, and P. fallax.

  13. History and updating on the spread of Aedes albopictus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, R

    1995-12-01

    The present distribution in Italy of Aedes albopictus, the Asian mosquito recently introduced, is described. Until now this mosquito species has been established in 8 regions of our country: Liguria, Veneto, Lazio, Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana, Piemonte and recently Sardegna. The established populations have been able to overcome the winter season. These populations, certainly imported from temperate areas, have reconfirmed the great adaptation of the species, reaching the high latitude of 46 degrees North of the Padova area in Northern Italy. The origin of the infestation in Veneto region was shown to be strictly related to the importation of used tires and demonstrated at least for one load of tires from USA. The internal trading of tires from Veneto is the source of infestation of the other Italian regions, with the exception of Liguria and Lazio. Since the introduction and the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Italy represent a new problem of public health, a centre for the surveillance and control of this species has been set up at the Department of Parasitology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma.

  14. Genetic analysis of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) reveals a deep divergence in the original regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Tongkai, Liu; Zhendong, Huang; Guifen, Zhuang; Dezhen, Ma; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-02

    Aedes albopictus has been described as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. This mosquito originated from southeastern Asia and currently has a widespread presence in every continent except Antarctica. The rapid global expansion of Ae. albopictus has increased public health concerns about arbovirus-related disease threats. Adaptation, adaption to novel areas is a biological challenge for invasive species, and the underlying processes can be studied at the molecular level. In this study, genetic analysis was performed using mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), based on both native and invasive populations. Altogether, 38 haplotypes were detected with H1 being the dominant and widely distributed in 21 countries. Both phylogenetic and network analyses supported the existence of five clades, with only clade I being involved in the subsequent global spread of Asian tiger mosquito. The other four clades (II, III, IV and V) were restricted to their original regions, which could be ancestral populations that had diverged from clade I in the early stages of evolution. Neutrality tests suggested that most of the populations had experienced recent expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and the population-pair statistic F ST revealed that most populations lacked genetic structure, while high variability was detected within populations. Multiple and independent human-mediated introductions may explain the present results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPLICACIONES SANITARIAS DEL ESTABLECIMIENTOY EXPANSION EN ESPAÑA DEL MOSQUITO AEDES ALBOPICTUS

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    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La expansión de Aedes albopictus por el Levante español no ha cesado desde su primigenia detección en nuestro país en el año 2004, habiéndose constatado ya su presencia en las provincias de Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Castellón, Alicante y Murcia. La elevada sinantropía de la especie, unida al alto grado de antropofília y extensa capacidad vectorial para transmitir diversas arbovirosis, han propiciado el retorno al sur de Europa de ciclos de transmisión activa de enfermedades frecuentes en el pasado como el Dengue o la aparición de virosis tropicales inéditas hasta entonces como Chikungunya. El presente manuscrito analiza de forma pormenorizada las implicaciones para la salud pública de la previsible expansión de Ae. albopictus por gran parte del territorio peninsular, en el contexto climático y sociodemográfico actual. Adicionalmente, también se discuten diversas cuestiones relativas al control poblacional de la especie en ambientes urbanos y periurbanos, así como los datos preliminares existentes acerca de otros aedinos invasores de reciente hallazgo en el continente europeo.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  17. Primeiro registro de Aedes albopictus em área da Mata Atlântica, Recife, PE, Brasil First report of Aedes albopictus in areas of rain forest in Brazil

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    Cleide MR de Albuquerque

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a presença do Aedes albopictus em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, localizada em área urbana em Recife (Pernambuco, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas em isca humana e em criadouros de formas jovens (ocos de árvores, bambus, bromélias e pneu. A presença de Ae. albopictus na região metropolitana do Recife representa um risco potencial do inter-relacionamento dessa espécie de mosquito com a população.This is the first report of the presence of Aedes albopictus in the native rain forest, near the urban area of Recife (State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Adult female mosquitoes were collected using human bait. Mosquitoes in aquatic stages were looked for in treeholes, bamboos, bromeliads and old tires. The existence of Ae. albopictus in the metropolitan area of Recife poses a potential risk for the interaction of this mosquito species with the urban human population.

  18. A comparative modeling study on non-climatic and climatic risk assessment on Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Kumar, Lalit

    2018-01-01

    Aedes albopictus , the Asian Tiger Mosquito, vector of Chikungunya, Dengue Fever and Zika viruses, has proven its hardy adaptability in expansion from its natural Asian, forest edge, tree hole habitat on the back of international trade transportation, re-establishing in temperate urban surrounds, in a range of water receptacles and semi-enclosures of organic matter. Conventional aerial spray mosquito vector controls focus on wetland and stagnant water expanses, proven to miss the protected hollows and crevices favoured by Ae. albopictus. New control or eradication strategies are thus essential, particular in light of potential expansions in the southeastern and eastern USA. Successful regional vector control strategies require risk level analysis. Should strategies prioritize regions with non-climatic or climatic suitability parameters for Ae. albopictus ? Our study used current Ae. albopictus distribution data to develop two independent models: (i) regions with suitable non-climatic factors, and (ii) regions with suitable climate for Ae. albopictus in southeastern USA. Non-climatic model processing used Evidential Belief Function (EBF), together with six geographical conditioning factors (raster data layers), to establish the probability index. Validation of the analysis results was estimated with area under the curve (AUC) using Ae. albopictus presence data. Climatic modeling was based on two General Circulation Models (GCMs), Miroc3.2 and CSIRO-MK30 running the RCP 8.5 scenario in MaxEnt software. EBF non-climatic model results achieved a 0.70 prediction rate and 0.73 success rate, confirming suitability of the study site regions for Ae. albopictus establishment. The climatic model results showed the best-fit model comprised Coldest Quarter Mean Temp, Precipitation of Wettest Quarter and Driest Quarter Precipitation factors with mean AUC value of 0.86. Both GCMs showed that the whole study site is highly suitable and will remain suitable climatically, according

  19. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus): Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist. Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae. This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring the future spread

  20. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus: Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Armstrong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist.Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae.This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring

  1. A comparative modeling study on non-climatic and climatic risk assessment on Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian Tiger Mosquito, vector of Chikungunya, Dengue Fever and Zika viruses, has proven its hardy adaptability in expansion from its natural Asian, forest edge, tree hole habitat on the back of international trade transportation, re-establishing in temperate urban surrounds, in a range of water receptacles and semi-enclosures of organic matter. Conventional aerial spray mosquito vector controls focus on wetland and stagnant water expanses, proven to miss the protected hollows and crevices favoured by Ae. albopictus. New control or eradication strategies are thus essential, particular in light of potential expansions in the southeastern and eastern USA. Successful regional vector control strategies require risk level analysis. Should strategies prioritize regions with non-climatic or climatic suitability parameters for Ae. albopictus? Our study used current Ae. albopictus distribution data to develop two independent models: (i regions with suitable non-climatic factors, and (ii regions with suitable climate for Ae. albopictus in southeastern USA. Non-climatic model processing used Evidential Belief Function (EBF, together with six geographical conditioning factors (raster data layers, to establish the probability index. Validation of the analysis results was estimated with area under the curve (AUC using Ae. albopictus presence data. Climatic modeling was based on two General Circulation Models (GCMs, Miroc3.2 and CSIRO-MK30 running the RCP 8.5 scenario in MaxEnt software. EBF non-climatic model results achieved a 0.70 prediction rate and 0.73 success rate, confirming suitability of the study site regions for Ae. albopictus establishment. The climatic model results showed the best-fit model comprised Coldest Quarter Mean Temp, Precipitation of Wettest Quarter and Driest Quarter Precipitation factors with mean AUC value of 0.86. Both GCMs showed that the whole study site is highly suitable and will remain suitable climatically

  2. Larval development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in peri-urban brackish water and its implications for transmission of arboviral diseases.

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    Ranjan Ramasamy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with 30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively. Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats.

  3. Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

  4. Evaluating the Vector Control Potential of the In2Care® Mosquito Trap Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Under Semifield Conditions in Manatee County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Eva A; Williams, Katie F; Marsicano, Ambyr L; Latham, Mark D; Lesser, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Successful integrated vector management programs may need new strategies in addition to conventional larviciding and adulticiding strategies to target Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which can develop in small, often cryptic, artificial and natural containers. The In2Care® mosquito trap was recently developed to target and kill larval and adult stages of these invasive container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes by utilizing autodissemination. Gravid females that visit the trap pick up pyriproxyfen (PPF) that they later transfer to nearby larval habitats as well as Beauveria bassiana spores that slowly kill them. We assessed the efficacy of the In2Care mosquito trap in a semifield setting against locally sourced strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. We found that the In2Care mosquito trap is attractive to gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females and serves as an egg sink, preventing any adult emergence from the trap (P = 0.0053 for both species). Adult females successfully autodisseminated PPF to surrounding water-filled containers, leading to a statistically significant reduction in new mosquito emergence (P ≤ 0.0002 for both species). Additionally, we found effective contamination with Beauveria bassiana spores, which significantly reduced the survivorship of exposed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (P ≤ 0.008 for both species in all experimental setups). In summary, the In2Care mosquito trap successfully killed multiple life stages of 2 main mosquito vector species found in Florida under semifield conditions.

  5. Characterization of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) and Its Impact Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Eggs at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Rooney, Alejandro P; Behle, Robert W; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2017-09-01

    We examined the growth characteristics of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum IBT 41712 and its potential to infect eggs of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus at a low temperature (15°C). When grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract, the IBT 41712 formed white colonies turning to a slightly darker, off-white color when mature. The mycelia bore swollen conidiophores producing smooth-walled, oblong to cylindrical conidia with varying sizes, ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 μm long. To determine the optimum temperature for the fungus, we cultured the fungus at eight temperatures (4°C, 12°C, 15°C, 21°C, 28°C, 33°C, 37°C, and 40°C) and measured the diametric growth. The optimum temperature for growth was 28°C since it had the highest diametric growth rate (2.1 ± 0.05 mm/day) and the fastest sporulation period (within 8-10 days of incubation). There was no fungal growth at the 3 highest temperatures (33°C, 37°C, and 40°C) but plates incubated at 33°C, when shifted to optimal temperature (28°C), showed visible growth indicating that following incubation at 33°C, the fungus remained viable. The IBT 41712 successfully infected mosquito eggs at 15°C. Fungal treatment induced egg hatch on moist seed-germination paper and this effect was more pronounced in Ae. aegypti compared to Ae. albopictus. When treated eggs were immersed in dH 2 O 21 days posttreatment, larval hatch of both Ae. aegypti (control = 91%, 1 × 10 7 conidia/ml, fungal treatment = 0%) and Ae. albopictus (control = 85%, fungal treatment = 28%) was significantly lower in fungal treatment compared to the controls. The ability of the strain to grow in a wide temperature range, and effectively infect mosquito eggs and induce egg hatch at a low temperature warrants further investigation for its potential as a mosquito control agent targeting eggs that overwinter or undergo long diapause.

  6. piggybac- and PhiC31-mediated genetic transformation of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

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    Geneviève M C Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, is a vector of several arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya. This highly invasive species originating from Southeast Asia has travelled the world in the last 30 years and is now established in Europe, North and South America, Africa, the Middle East and the Caribbean. In the absence of vaccine or antiviral drugs, efficient mosquito control strategies are crucial. Conventional control methods have so far failed to control Ae. albopictus adequately. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Germline transformation of Aedes albopictus was achieved by micro-injection of embryos with a piggyBac-based transgene carrying a 3xP3-ECFP marker and an attP site, combined with piggyBac transposase mRNA and piggyBac helper plasmid. Five independent transgenic lines were established, corresponding to an estimated transformation efficiency of 2-3%. Three lines were re-injected with a second-phase plasmid carrying an attB site and a 3xP3-DsRed2 marker, combined with PhiC31 integrase mRNA. Successful site-specific integration was observed in all three lines with an estimated transformation efficiency of 2-6%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both piggybac- and site-specific PhiC31-mediated germline transformation of Aedes albopictus were successfully achieved. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus germline transformation and engineering, a key step towards studying and controlling this species using novel molecular techniques and genetic control strategies.

  7. Failure of Aedes albopictus to overwinter following introduction and seasonal establishment at a tire recycling plant in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G

    2009-03-01

    In July 2006, an introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, was documented for the first time at a commercial tire recycling plant in northeastern Connecticut, USA. The introduction likely occurred via transport of infested tires originating from northern New Jersey or metropolitan New York City. Efforts were made to determine seasonal establishment and overwintering success by assessing adult biting and oviposition activity in the surrounding woodlands. The first adult female was collected in a CO2-baited Mosquito Magnet Liberty trap within the confines of the tire plant during the week of July 28. Additional females were collected intermittently thereafter through October 16. Host-seeking female Ae. albopictus attempting to alight on human subjects and larvae hatching from eggs collected in ovitraps placed in the woodlands surrounding the tire plant were detected weekly from August 21 through October 2, denoting seasonal establishment in the adjoining woodlands. However, no larvae of Ae. albopictus were recovered from eggs collected in ovitraps that were placed in the surrounding woodlands or in traps placed 1.0-1.6 km away, nor were any host-seeking females detected by human subjects the following season (July to October 2007), indicating that the species did not survive winter conditions to enable successful colonization. The failure of Ae. albopictus to overwinter and establish itself in the forested woodlands following several weeks of seasonal breeding and oviposition during the summer and early fall were most likely due to winter egg mortality, interspecific competition from Aedes triseriatus and Aedes japonicus, and/or other ecological barriers. Permanent establishment of Ae. albopictus in New England is unlikely despite the recurring importation of infested used tires into recycling facilities. However, continued monitoring of such facilities for potential reinvasion is warranted especially in urban/suburban environs where global warming

  8. Dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Hitoshi Tsujimoto

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal.We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses.Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of Ae. albopictus.

  9. Spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated multilayer paper strip against Aedes albopictus under outdoor conditions, Nagasaki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Argueta, Tamara Belzabel Obispo; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Spatial repellency of a new device in which metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, is impregnated into a multilayer paper strip, against Aedes albopictus was evaluated under outdoor conditions. High spatial repellency (>80%) with the metofluthrin-impregnated (200 mg) device lasted for more than 6 weeks, while the repellency with the same device impregnated with the same amount of transfluthrin declined within 5 weeks after treatment.

  10. Functional characterization of three MicroRNAs of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporal and stage specific expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in embryos, larvae, pupae and adults of Aedes albopictus showed differential expression levels across the four developmental stages, indicating their potential regulatory roles in mosquito development. The functional characterization of these miRNAs was not known. Accordingly our study evaluated the functional characterization of three miRNAs, which are temporally up-regulated in the various developmental stages of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Methods miRNA mimics, inhibitors and negative controls were designed and their knock-in and knock-down efficiency were analyzed by qRT-PCR after transfecting the mosquito cell lines C6/36, and also by injecting in their specific developmental stages. The functional role of each individual miRNA was analyzed with various parameters of development such as, hatching rate and hatching time in embryos, eclosion rate in larvae, longevity and fecundity in the adult mosquitoes. Results The knock-in with the specifically designed miRNA mimics showed increased levels of expression of miRNA compared with their normal controls. We confirmed these findings using qRT-PCR, both by in vitro expression in C6/36 mosquito cell lines after transfection as well as in in vivo expression in developmental stages of mosquitoes by microinjection. The knock-down of expression with the corresponding inhibitors showed a considerable decrease in the expression levels of these miRNAs and obvious functional effects in Ae. albopictus development, detected by a decrease in the hatching rate of embryos and eclosion rate in larvae and a marked reduction in longevity and fecundity in adults. Conclusion This study carried out by knock-in and knock-down of specifically and temporally expressed miRNAs in Ae. albopictus by microinjection is a novel study to delineate the importance of the miRNA expression in regulating mosquito development. The knock-down and loss of function of endogenously

  11. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

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    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  12. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruchi; Tyagi, Varun; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Jain, Ashok K; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory. Methods: Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20–400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior) against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50), while OAI (Oviposition activity index) was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts. Results: Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466) at 100ppm. Conclusion: Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito. PMID:26114131

  13. Genetic analysis of invasive Aedes albopictus populations in Los Angeles County, California and its potential public health impact.

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    Daibin Zhong

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an anthropophilic aggressive daytime-biting nuisance and an efficient vector of certain arboviruses and filarial nematodes. Over the last 30 years, this species has spread rapidly through human travel and commerce from its native tropical forests of Asia to every continent except Antarctica. In 2011, a population of Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus was discovered in Los Angeles (LA County, California. To determine the probable origin of this invasive species, the genetic structure of the population was compared against 11 populations from the United States and abroad, as well as preserved specimens from a 2001 introduction into California using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 gene. A total of 66 haplotypes were detected among samples and were divided into three main groups. Aedes albopictus collected in 2001 and 2011 from LA County were genetically related and similar to those from Asia but distinct from those collected in the eastern and southeastern United States. In view of the high genetic similarities between the 2001 and 2011 LA samples, it is possible that the 2011 population represents in part the descendants of the 2001 introduction. There remains an imperative need for improved surveillance and control strategies for this species.

  14. Vapor toxicity of five volatile pyrethroids against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Tsikolia, Maia; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Bernier, Ulrich R; Xue, Rui-De; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2018-05-25

    Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2h, 4h, and 24h with mortality recorded at each time point. A second experiment involved exposing mosquitoes to vapors for 2h, then transferring them to untreated holding containers and held for 24h. For these mosquitoes, readings were only taken after 24h to allow for metabolic detoxification and recovery. The LC 50 and LC 90 data indicated that transfluthrin and meperfluthrin had the greatest toxicity across all species, followed by metofluthrin, prallethrin, and flumethrin. Our findings, through the direct comparison of these compounds, suggest that transfluthrin, meperfluthrin, and metofluthrin be considered for further development. The vapor toxicity for the aforementioned compounds significantly exceeds prallethrin, which is currently market available as an adulticidal active ingredient in public health pest control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribución de Aedes albopictus (Skuse en Nuevo León, México, 2001-2004 Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse in Nuevo Leon, México, 2001-2004

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    Héctor Orta-Pesina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la distribución de Aedes albopictus (Skuse en Nuevo León, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre 2001 y 2004, utilizando métodos estandarizados de recolección de larvas de mosquitos, se analizaron 6 371 muestras, de 167 localidades. Se estimaron proporciones de muestras positivas de Ae. albopictus, por municipio, por año, utilizando Excel. RESULTADOS: Hubo 1 179 muestras positivas para larvas de Ae. albopictus distribuidas en 10 municipios: cinco localizados en la llanura costera del Golfo de México, con clima semicálido, subhúmedo y con lluvias casi todo el año (Allende, Montemorelos, Linares, General Terán y Santiago; otros, Sabinas Hidalgo y Cadereyta, se localizan en las grandes llanuras del norte de América, con clima cálido, semiseco y con lluvias poco frecuentes y, finalmente, Apodaca, San Nicolás y Escobedo en el área metropolitana de la ciudad de Monterrey. CONCLUSIONES: Hasta noviembre de 2004, el segundo vector de mayor importancia epidemiológica en el ciclo de la transmisión de Ae. albopictus a escala mundial se encontró en 10 municipios del estado de Nuevo León.OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse in Nuevo Leon between 2001 and 2004. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standardized methods were used to collect 6371 samples of mosquito's larvae from 167 sites. The proportions of samples positive for Ae. albopictus were obtained by municipality and year, using the software program Excel. RESULTS: There were 1 179 samples positive for Ae. albopictus. This species was distributed over 10 municipalities, as follows: Five on the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plains, which predominantly have a semi-warm, sub-humid climate, and precipitations almost year round (Allende, Montemorelos, Linares, General Teran, and Santiago; two (Sabinas Hidalgo, and Cadereyta localized on the North American Great Plains, which have a warm, semiarid climate, and scarce precipitations. The final three were Apodaca

  16. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; Marini, Francesca; Bongiorno, Gioia; Facchinelli, Luca; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Maroli, Michele; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.

  17. Scorpion neurotoxin AaIT-expressing Beauveria bassiana enhances the virulence against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sheng-Qun; Cai, Qun-Di; Deng, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2017-12-01

    To improve the insecticidal efficacy of this entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, the fungus was genetically modified to express an insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin AaIT. The virulence of the recombinant B. bassiana strain (Bb-AaIT) against Aedes albopictus adults (which occurs via penetration through the cuticle during spore germination or by conidia ingestion), and the larvae (by conidia ingestion) was measured with bioassays. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of Bb-AaIT against A. albopictus larvae was 313.3-fold lower on day 4 and 11.3-fold lower on day 10 than that of the wild type (WT). Through conidia feeding or body contact, Bb-AaIT killed 50% of adult female mosquitoes at 3.9- or 1.9-fold reduced concentrations on day 4 and at 2.1- or 2.4-fold reduced concentrations on day 10. Compared with the results for the WT, the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of Bb-AaIT was reduced by 28.6% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 and 34.3% at 1 × 10 6 conidia ml -1 in the larvae bioassay by conidia ingestion, while it decreased 32.3% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 by conidia ingestion and 24.2% at 1 × 10 8 conidia ml -1 by penetrating through the cuticle in the adult bioassay. All the differences were significant. Our findings indicated that Bb-AaIT had higher virulence and faster action than the WT in killing the larval and adult mosquitoes, and therefore, it is valuable for development as a commercial mosquito pesticide.

  18. Socio-Ecological Mechanisms Supporting High Densities of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Baltimore, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E; Biehler, D; Leisnham, P T; Jordan, R; Wilson, S; LaDeau, S L

    2017-09-01

    Social, ecological, and climatic factors interact creating a heterogeneous matrix that determines the spatiotemporal distribution of mosquitoes and human risks of exposure to the diseases they transmit. We explore linkages between the social and institutional processes behind residential abandonment, urban ecology, and the interactions of socio-ecological processes with abiotic drivers of mosquito production. Specifically, we test the relative roles of infrastructure degradation and vegetation for explaining the presence of Aedes albopictus Skuse 1894 to better predict spatial heterogeneity in mosquito exposure risk within urban environments. We further examine how precipitation interacts with these socially underpinned biophysical variables. We use a hierarchical statistical modeling approach to assess how environmental and climatic conditions over 3 years influence mosquito ecology across a socioeconomic gradient in Baltimore, MD. We show that decaying infrastructure and vegetation are important determinants of Ae. albopictus infestation. We demonstrate that both precipitation and vegetation influence mosquito production in ways that are mediated by the level of infrastructural decay on a given block. Mosquitoes were more common on blocks with greater abandonment, but when precipitation was low, mosquitoes were more likely to be found in higher-income neighborhoods with managed container habitat. Likewise, although increased vegetation was a negative predictor of mosquito infestation, more vegetation on blocks with high abandonment was associated with the largest mosquito populations. These findings indicate that fine spatial scale modeling of mosquito habitat within urban areas is needed to more accurately target vector control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria associated with wild tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: a pilot study

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    Guillaume eMinard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya albopictus is an invasive species that has spread across the world in the last two decades, showing a great capacity to adapt to contrasting climates and environments. While demonstrated in many insects, the contribution of bacterial symbionts in Aedes ecology is a challenging aspect that needs to be investigated however. Some bacterial species have already been identified in Ae. albopictus using classical methods, but a more accurate survey of mosquito-associated bacterial diversity is needed to decipher the potential biological functions of bacterial symbionts in mediating or constraining insect adaptation. We surveyed the bacteria associated with field populations of Ae. albopictus from Madagascar by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Different aspects of amplicon preparation and sequencing depth were tested to optimise the breadth of bacterial diversity identified. The results revealed that all mosquitoes collected from different sites have a bacterial microbiota dominated by a single taxon, Wolbachia pipientis, which accounted for about 99% of all 98,520 sequences obtained. Ae. albopictus is known to harbour two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB, and quantitative PCR was used to estimate the relative densities, i.e. the bacteria-to-host gene ratios, of the strains in individual mosquitoes. Relative densities were between 6.25 × 100.01 and 5.47 × 100.1 for wAlbA and between 2.03 × 100.1 and 1.4 × 101 for wAlbB. Apart from Wolbachia, a total of 32 bacterial taxa were identified at the genus level using the different in method variations. Diversity index values were low and probably underestimated the true diversity due to the high abundance of Wolbachia sequences vastly outnumbering sequences from other taxa. Further studies should implement alternative strategies to specifically discard from analysis any sequences from Wolbachia, the dominant endosymbiotic bacterium in Ae. albopictus from

  20. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  1. Infection of a French Population of Aedes albopictus and of Aedes aegypti (Paea Strain with Zika Virus Reveals Low Transmission Rates to These Vectors’ Saliva

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    Faustine Ryckebusch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV is a public health emergency of international concern. Recent epidemics have emerged in different regions of the world and attest to the ability of the virus to spread wherever its vector, Aedes species mosquitoes, can be found. We have compared the transmission of ZIKV by Ae. aegypti (PAEA strain originating from Tahiti and by a French population of Ae. albopictus to better assess their competence and the potential risk of the emergence of ZIKV in Europe. We assessed the transmission of ZIKV by Ae. albopictus in temperatures similar to those in Southern France during the summer. Our study shows that the extrinsic incubation period of Ae. aegypti for transmission was shorter than that of Ae. albopictus. Both vectors were able to transmit ZIKV from 10 to 14 days post-infection. Ae. aegypti, however, had a longer transmission period than the French population of Ae. albopictus. Although the salivary glands of both vectors are highly infected, transmission rates of ZIKV to saliva remain relatively low. These observations may suggest that the risk of emergence of ZIKV in Europe could be low.

  2. Proteomic Identification of Dengue Virus Binding Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus Cells

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    Maria de Lourdes Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main vector of dengue in America is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is infected by dengue virus (DENV through receptors of midgut epithelial cells. The envelope protein (E of dengue virus binds to receptors present on the host cells through its domain III that has been primarily recognized to bind cell receptors. In order to identify potential receptors, proteins from mosquito midgut tissue and C6/36 cells were purified by affinity using columns with the recombinant E protein domain III (rE-DIII or DENV particles bound covalently to Sepharose 4B to compare and evaluate their performance to bind proteins including putative receptors from female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. To determine their identity mass spectrometric analysis of purified proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Our results indicate that both viral particles and rE-DIII bound proteins with the same apparent molecular weights of 57 and 67 kDa. In addition, viral particles bound high molecular weight proteins. Purified proteins identified were enolase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK, translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha/Tu, and cadherin.

  3. Genome-Wide SNPs Reveal the Drivers of Gene Flow In An Urban Population of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoying; Hoffmann, Ary; Xi, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dongjing; Rasic, Gordana; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive disease vector with an expanding worldwide distribution. Genetic assays using low to medium resolution markers have found little evidence of spatial genetic structure even at broad geographic scales, suggesting frequent passive movement along human transportation networks. Here we analysed genetic structure of Ae. albopictus collected from 12 sample sites in Guangzhou, China, using thousands of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found ...

  4. Determination of Insecticidal Effect (LC50 and LC90) of Organic Fatty Acids Mixture (C8910+Silicone) Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, James C; Falconer, Aneika; Leite, Laura N; Wirtz, Robert A; Brogdon, William G

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue and associated Aedes vectors are expanding their historical ranges; thus, there is a need for the development of novel insecticides for use in vector control programs. The mosquito toxicity of a novel insecticide and repellent consisting of medium-chain carbon fatty acids (C8910) was examined. Determination of LC 50 and LC 90 was made against colony-reared Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) using probit analysis on mortality data generated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays. Six different concentrations of C8910 + silicone oil yielded an LC 50 of 160.3 µg a.i/bottle (147.6-182.7) and LC 90 of 282.8 (233.2-394.2) in Ae. aegypti; five concentrations yielded an LC 50 of 125.4 (116.1-137.6) and LC 90 of 192.5 (165.0-278.9) in Ae. albopictus. Further development of C8910 and similar compounds could provide vector control specialists novel insecticides for controlling insect disease vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Polypeptide synthesis in alphavirus-infected aedes albopictus cells during the establishment of persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.A.; Boulton, R.W.; Raghow, R.S.; Dalgarno, L.

    1980-01-01

    Polypeptide synthesis was examined in mosquito cells during the establishment of a persistent infection with two alphaviruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and in vertebrate cells cytopathically-infected with the same viruses. In Aedes albopictus cells, RRV reached peak titres at 34-48 hours p.i. At 12 hours 85 per cent of cells assayed as infected by infective centre assay; by 48 hours when persistence was established, virus production was reduced and <5 per cent of cells assayed as infected. There was not shutdown of host polypeptide synthesis during infection. Viral polypeptide synthesis was maximal between 10 and 24 hours p.i. The major viral polypeptides labelled were nucleocapsid protein and envelope protein(s).The precursor polypeptide p95 which was prominent in infected BHK cells was not detected in mosquito cells. Similar results were obtained on SFV infection. During the establishment of persistence there was a coordinate decline in the synthesis of RRV polypeptides, reaching undetectable levels by 72 hours p.i. Subculturing persistently-infected cells led to a small increase in viral polypeptide synthesis and virus titre. In contrast, during RRV growth in BHK cells host protein synthesis was severely inhibited and by 9-11 hours p.i. virus-specific polypeptide synthesis represented more than 90 per cent of total protein synthetic activity. (author)

  6. Cytoarchitecture of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and Aedes albopictus cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Dorward, David W.; Hansen, Bryan T.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. This mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of ZIKV is limited. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36), we characterized ZIKV infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET) to better understand infection in these disparate host cells. ZIKV replicated well in both cell lines, but infected SK-N-SH cells suffered a lytic crisis. Flaviviruses scavenge host cell membranes to serve as replication platforms and ZIKV showed the hallmarks of this process. Via TEM, we identified virus particles and 60–100 nm spherular vesicles. ET revealed these vesicular replication compartments contain smaller 20–30 nm spherular structures. Our studies indicate that SK-N-SH and C6/36 cells are relevant models for viral cytoarchitecture study. - Highlights: •First electron tomography of Zika virus cytoarchitecture. •Comparison of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and mosquito cells. •Ultrastructure of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and mosquito cells.

  7. The Effect of Parasitism and Interpopulation Hybridization on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Recent research in mosquito population genetics suggests that interpopulation hybridization has likely contributed to the rapid spread of the container-breeding mosquitoes. Here, I used laboratory experiments to investigate whether interpopulation Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) F1 and F2 hybrids exhibit higher fitness than parental populations, and whether hybrid mosquito performance is related to infection by the coevolved protozoan parasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Lien and Levine). Overall, there were significant differences in development time, wing length, and survival between the two parental mosquito populations, but no difference in per capita growth rate r. Hybrid mosquitoes were generally intermediate in phenotype to the parentals, except that F2 females were significantly larger than the midparent average. In addition, As. taiwanensis parasites produced fewest oocysts when they were reared in hosts of hybrid origin. These data suggest that hybridization between previously isolated mosquito populations can result in slight increases in potential mosquito reproductive success, via increased hybrid body size, and via the temporary escape from coevolved parasites. These findings are significant because studies have shown that even slight hybrid vigor can have positive fitness consequences for population persistence. Although this was a laboratory experiment extending only to the F2 generation, many other invasive insects also carry coevolved parasites, and thus the patterns seen in this mosquito system may be broadly relevant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cytoarchitecture of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and Aedes albopictus cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K; Dorward, David W; Hansen, Bryan T; Bloom, Marshall E

    2017-01-15

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. This mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of ZIKV is limited. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36), we characterized ZIKV infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET) to better understand infection in these disparate host cells. ZIKV replicated well in both cell lines, but infected SK-N-SH cells suffered a lytic crisis. Flaviviruses scavenge host cell membranes to serve as replication platforms and ZIKV showed the hallmarks of this process. Via TEM, we identified virus particles and 60-100nm spherular vesicles. ET revealed these vesicular replication compartments contain smaller 20-30nm spherular structures. Our studies indicate that SK-N-SH and C6/36 cells are relevant models for viral cytoarchitecture study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Aedes albopictus Movement Behavior Following Sublethal Exposure To Prallethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye-Braumuller, Kyndall C; Haynes, Kenneth F; Brown, Grayson C

    2017-12-01

    The pyrethroid prallethrin, an AI in DUET™ (Clarke Mosquito Control, St. Charles, IL), is widely marketed ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticide. Volatilized prallethrin is intended to stimulate mosquito flight, increasing its adulticide effectiveness. However, field tests using volatilized prallethrin have not produced significant differences in mosquito trap catches, leading to questions regarding prallethrin's behavioral impact efficacy. Thus, we conducted laboratory tests of prallethrin's effect on flight behavior of adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus. Mosquitoes were divided into 3 groups: untreated control, exposed to volatilized prallethrin, and exposed to a liquid spray calibrated to simulate a ULV application at label rates. After exposure, mosquito behavior in an airstream of 0.5 m/sec was recorded and analyzed using motion-tracking software. No significant differences in flight behavior were found between the control and treated mosquitoes exposed to volatilized prallethrin. The ULV-sprayed mosquitoes exhibited a significant increase in the number of flight events, the turning frequency, overall movement speed, and flight speed compared to the control-a significant difference in locomotor stimulation response that would increase exposure to a ULV spray cloud. However, our results showed that volatilization alone was insufficient to increase ULV efficacy in the field and suggested that incorporating a more volatile flight stimulant into ULV adulticides would provide a measurable improvement in mosquito control.

  11. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  12. Cytoarchitecture of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and Aedes albopictus cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K. [Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT (United States); Dorward, David W.; Hansen, Bryan T. [Microscopy Unit, Research Technology Branch, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT (United States); Bloom, Marshall E., E-mail: mbloom@nih.gov [Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. This mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of ZIKV is limited. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36), we characterized ZIKV infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET) to better understand infection in these disparate host cells. ZIKV replicated well in both cell lines, but infected SK-N-SH cells suffered a lytic crisis. Flaviviruses scavenge host cell membranes to serve as replication platforms and ZIKV showed the hallmarks of this process. Via TEM, we identified virus particles and 60–100 nm spherular vesicles. ET revealed these vesicular replication compartments contain smaller 20–30 nm spherular structures. Our studies indicate that SK-N-SH and C6/36 cells are relevant models for viral cytoarchitecture study. - Highlights: •First electron tomography of Zika virus cytoarchitecture. •Comparison of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and mosquito cells. •Ultrastructure of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and mosquito cells.

  13. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  14. First record in America of Aedes albopictus naturally infected with dengue virus during the 1995 outbreak at Reynosa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Briseño, B; Mutebi, J P; Argot, E; Rodríguez, G; Martínez-Campos, C; Paz, R; de la Fuente-San Román, P; Tapia-Conyer, R; Flisser, A

    1997-10-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted during a dengue outbreak in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico, July-December 1995. A total of 6694 adult mosquitoes (four genera and nine species) were captured, of which 2986 (78.3% females and 21.7% males) were Aedes albopictus and 2339 (39.7% females and 60.3% males) were Ae.aegypti. These two species comprised 84.2% of the total collection. Specimens were grouped into pools, nearly 50% of them processed for detection of virus by cythopathic effect in C6-36 and VERO cell cultures and by haemagglutination test. Five pools gave positive haemagglutination reactions and were examined by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies to flavivirus and to dengue virus. One pool of ten Ae.albopictus males was positive for dengue virus: serotypes 2 and 3 were identified by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies and confirmed by RT-PCR. This is the first report of Ae.albopictus naturally infected with dengue virus in America. Also, it is the very first time Ae.albopictus males have been found infected with dengue virus in the wild.

  15. Modelling the breeding of Aedes Albopictus species in an urban area in Pulau Pinang using polynomial regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd.; Baharum, Adam; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Sulaiman, Husna Mahirah; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W.

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial regression is used to model a curvilinear relationship between a response variable and one or more predictor variables. It is a form of a least squares linear regression model that predicts a single response variable by decomposing the predictor variables into an nth order polynomial. In a curvilinear relationship, each curve has a number of extreme points equal to the highest order term in the polynomial. A quadratic model will have either a single maximum or minimum, whereas a cubic model has both a relative maximum and a minimum. This study used quadratic modeling techniques to analyze the effects of environmental factors: temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall distribution on the breeding of Aedes albopictus, a type of Aedes mosquito. Data were collected at an urban area in south-west Penang from September 2010 until January 2011. The results indicated that the breeding of Aedes albopictus in the urban area is influenced by all three environmental characteristics. The number of mosquito eggs is estimated to reach a maximum value at a medium temperature, a medium relative humidity and a high rainfall distribution.

  16. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  17. Aedes albopictus may not be vector of dengue virus in human epidemics in Brazil Aedes albopictus pode não ser vetor da dengue durante epidemias no Brasil

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    Nicolas Degallier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 60,500 dengue cases were reported in the state of Espírito Santo (ES, Brazil, between 1995 and 1998. The study's purpose was to identify whether Aedes albopictus was transmitting the dengue virus during an epidemic in the locality of Vila Bethânia (Viana County,Vitória, ES. From April 3 to 9, 1998, blood and serum samples were collected daily for virus isolation and serological testing. Four autochthonous cases were confirmed through DEN 1 virus isolation and two autochthonous cases through MAC ELISA testing. Of 37 Ae. aegypti and 200 Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes collected and inoculated, DEN1 virus was isolated only from a pool of two Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes. The study results suggest that Ae. albopictus still cannot be considered an inter-human vector in dengue epidemics in Brazil.Mais de 60.500 casos de dengue foram notificados no Espírito Santo, entre 1995 e 1998. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de averiguar se o mosquito Aedes albopictus estava transmitindo o vírus durante uma epidemia em Vila Bethânia (Viana, no sudeste de Vitória, capital capixaba. De 3 a 9 de abril de 1998, amostras de sangue e (ou soro de pacientes foram coletadas e os mosquitos foram capturados diariamente, tanto para isolamento viral como para testes sorológicos. Em onze casos autóctonos, quatro foram confirmados por isolamento do vírus DEN 1, e dois por reação MAC ELISA Dos 37 Ae. aegypti e 200 Ae. albopictus adultos capturados e inoculados, apenas uma amostra de vírus DEN 1 foi obtida de um lote de duas fêmeas de Ae. aegypti. Os resultados sugerem que a espécie Ae. albopictus ainda não pode ser considerada um vetor inter-humano durante epidemias de dengue no Brasil.

  18. Ecological interactions in Aedes species on Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, L; Delatte, H; Juliano, S A; Fontenille, D; Quilici, S

    2013-12-01

    Two invasive, container-breeding mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), have different distribution patterns on Reunion Island. Aedes albopictus occurs in all areas and Ae. aegypti colonizes only some restricted areas already occupied by Ae. albopictus. This study investigates the abiotic and biotic ecological mechanisms that determine the distribution of Aedes species on Reunion Island. Life history traits (duration of immature stages, survivorship, fecundity, estimated finite rate of increase) in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were compared at different temperatures. These fitness measures were characterized in both species in response to competitive interactions among larvae. Aedes aegypti was drastically affected by temperature, performing well only at around 25 °C, at which it achieved its highest survivorship and greatest estimated rate of increase. The narrow distribution of this species in the field on Reunion Island may thus relate to its poor ability to cope with unfavourable temperatures. Aedes aegypti was also more negatively affected by high population densities and to some extent by interactions with Ae. albopictus, particularly in the context of limited food supplies. Aedes albopictus exhibited better population performance across a range of environmental conditions. Its ecological plasticity and its superior competitive ability relative to its congener may further enhance its invasion success on Reunion Island. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Detección de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Istmina, Chocó, Colombia

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    José Joaquín Carvajal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Aedes albopictus se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en el mundo. Su introducción en las Américas ocurrió en 1985 y se le considera vector potencial de los virus del dengue y uno de los principales vectores del virus del chikungunya. En Colombia, su primer reporte fue en Leticia, Amazonas, en 1998, seguido de Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, en 2001, Barrancabermeja, Santander, en 2010 y Medellín, Antioquia, en 2011. La especie se ha reportado en diez departamentos del país. Objetivo. Notificar el hallazgo de A. albopictus en el municipio de Istmina, Chocó, y dar cuenta de su importancia en salud pública. Materiales y métodos. En enero de 2015 se inspeccionaron criaderos de los barrios de San Agustín, Santa Genoveva y Subestación del municipio de Istmina para la detección de formas inmaduras de Aedes spp. Las larvas recolectadas fueron identificadas en la Unidad de Entomología del Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental de Chocó y confirmadas en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud en Bogotá. Resultados. Se encontraron doce larvas de A. albopictus en criaderos ubicados en los barrios Subestación y San Agustín en el municipio de Istmina. Conclusión. La detección de A. albopictus en el municipio de Istmina resalta la importancia del fortalecimiento de las estrategias de vigilancia entomológica continua a nivel municipal y departamental en el país, y especialmente en Istmina y los municipios aledaños.

  20. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  1. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

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    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  2. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

    2014-04-01

    To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further

  3. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Estrella, Sarah Delacour; Arrondo, Ignacio Ruiz; Collantes, Francisco; Iniesta, Juan Antonio Delgado; Morales-Bueno, José; Sánchez-López, Pedro Francisco; Amela, Carmen; Sierra-Moros, María José; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia. PMID:25317706

  4. Blood-feeding preferences of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural settings within the province of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, L; Marini, F; Bongiorno, G; Facchinelli, L; Pombi, M; Caputo, B; Maroli, M; della Torre, A

    2008-06-01

    We here report the results of field trials carried out in Rome with the aim to obtain data on the feeding behaviour of Aedes albopictus, in relation to different availability and abundance of putative hosts. Human Blood Index values were found higher than 75% in urban areas, where humans represented the most abundant hosts, and lower than 60% in rural areas, where host alternative to humans were frequent. The overall results confirm the generalist feeding-behaviour shown by this species in its original range of distribution and highlighting its high potential as vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy.

  5. Maternal invasion history of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus into the Isthmus of Panama: Implications for the control of emergent viral disease agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Gilberto A.; Rovira, Jose R.; Smith, Octavio; Miller, Matthew J.; Bennett, Kelly L.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increase in dengue outbreaks and the arrival of chikungunya and Zika disease in Panama, studies on the demographic history of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes that are the principle vectors of these diseases are still lacking in this region. Here, we assess the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes in order to decipher their invasion histories into the Isthmus of Panama. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene obtained from 30 localities in 10 provinces confirmed the presence of more than one mitochondrial haplogroup (i.e., maternal lineage) in each species. The invasion of Aedes albopictus was likely from temperate European countries, as the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Panama harbored variants that are uncommon elsewhere in the Americas. Two infrequent and geographically restricted Ae. albopictus haplotypes appear to have subsequently invaded Panama from neighboring Costa Rica and the USA, respectively. In addition, we recovered two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in Panamanian Aedes aegypti. The geographic origins of these clades is unknown, given that divergence in the mitochondrial genome is probably due to ancient population processes within the native range of Ae. aegypti, rather than due to its global expansion out of Africa. However, Panamanian Ae. aegypti mitochondrial sequences within the first clade were closely related to others from Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and the USA, suggesting two separate invasions from Western Hemisphere source populations. The pattern of increased genetic diversity in Aedes mosquitoes in Panama is likely facilitated by the numerous land and water inter-connections across the country, which allows them to enter via sea- and land-transportation from Europe, North, Central and South America. Our results here should be considered in disease mitigation programs if emergent arboviruses are to be effectively diminished in Panama through vector suppression. PMID:29579112

  6. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

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    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  7. C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response.

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    Doug E Brackney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes rely on RNA interference (RNAi as their primary defense against viral infections. To this end, the combination of RNAi and invertebrate cell culture systems has become an invaluable tool in studying virus-vector interactions. Nevertheless, a recent study failed to detect an active RNAi response to West Nile virus (WNV infection in C6/36 (Aedes albopictus cells, a mosquito cell line frequently used to study arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Therefore, we sought to determine if WNV actively evades the host's RNAi response or if C6/36 cells have a dysfunctional RNAi pathway. C6/36 and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were infected with WNV (Flaviviridae, Sindbis virus (SINV, Togaviridae and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae and total RNA recovered from cell lysates. Small RNA (sRNA libraries were constructed and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In S2 cells, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs from all three viruses were predominantly 21 nt in length, a hallmark of the RNAi pathway. However, in C6/36 cells, viRNAs were primarily 17 nt in length from WNV infected cells and 26-27 nt in length in SINV and LACV infected cells. Furthermore, the origin (positive or negative viral strand and distribution (position along viral genome of S2 cell generated viRNA populations was consistent with previously published studies, but the profile of sRNAs isolated from C6/36 cells was altered. In total, these results suggest that C6/36 cells lack a functional antiviral RNAi response. These findings are analogous to the type-I interferon deficiency described in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells and suggest that C6/36 cells may fail to accurately model mosquito-arbovirus interactions at the molecular level.

  8. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  9. Screening of some weeds for larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R; Tikar, S N; Sharma, A K; Tyagi, V; Sukumaran, D; Jain, A K; Veer, V

    2015-03-01

    Screening of crude extracts of plants facilitates the establishment of highly effective extract for mosquito control. This practice should be preferred before in depth study of plant extracts rather than spending much efforts and energy in detailed examinations for practically ineffective extracts. In this study, leaf powders of four weed plants were used for the quick screening of effective plant extract as larvicide against III instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. At the same time, effect of different seasons on the larvicidal efficacy of plants and selection of proper solvents for further investigation were also studied. Leaves of Vernonia cinerea, Prosopis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens and Malvastrum coromandelianum plants were collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons from Madhya Pradesh region (India). To assess the larvicidal efficacy the suspensions of leaf powders in different solvents (isopropanol, methanol, acetone, dimethylsulfoxide and water) were used for larvicidal bioassay. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results showed that leaf powder of V. cinerea in acetone collected during summer showed highest efficacy with LC50 value of 0.22 g/l and LC90 of 0.96 g/l followed by methanolic solution of P. juliflora with LC50 of 0.44 g/l and LC90 value as 1.85 g/l. Amongst all solvents, leaf powder in acetone; while among seasons, summer collected plant materials were found to be more effective larvicides as compared to others. Summer and winter collected leaves of V. cinerea and P. juliflora dissolved in the solvents of medium polarity range showed significant larval toxicity and thus suggests a detailed study on these plants as potential larval control agents.

  10. A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R J

    1995-12-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.

  11. [Behavior of immatures Aedes aegypti in the coast State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Carmen Moreno; Arduino, Marylene de Brito; Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario de Carvalho; Domingos, Maria de Fátima; Oliveira, Cleide Dantas; Pereira, Marisa; Silva, Marcos; Trevisan, Alexandra Myuki Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    In a region of high dengue incidence, on the coast of the State of São Paulo, 9 areas were selected to evaluate the behavior of immature Aedes aegypti. The 9 areas were grouped into 4 strata according to soil use and occupation. Larvae and pupas were collected in a sample of approximately 500 buildings in each area. Although tires and canvas presented the highest positive rates for Aedes aegypti, drains and other containers fixed to the buildings were highly predominant among positive containers; 32 to 76% of the positive containers in the 4 study strata. Public areas of apartment buildings and large non-residential premises presented the highest positive rates for Aedes Aegypti, while apartments presented the lowest. Infestation levels were greater in residential areas with predominance of apartment buildings, where 76% of the breeding sites detected were containers fixed to the buildings. This knowledge is an important tool in the control strategy, since it reinforces the need for special attention regarding certain types of buildings and the adjustment of technical norms for pluvial water drains and improvement of building maintenance. Moreover, systematic observations are required to follow-up the occupancy dynamic of different buildings and containers by Aedes aegypti and the incorporation of this knowledge in the control of vectors in the region.

  12. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo em Ilhabela, litoral do Estado de São Paulo Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in Ilhabela, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença de Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo localizadas em ambientes ecologicamente distintos, em termos de positividade, densidade e volume de água. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Realizaram-se coletas quinzenais, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999, em tanques de bromélias localizadas nos ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata; o conteúdo aquático das plantas foi medido e registrado. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise da freqüência de bromélias com presença de Ae. albopictus (ANOVA, abundância (Kruskal-Wallis e volume de água das bromélias positivas (Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A presença e a densidade de Ae. albopictus em bromélias de solo variou com o tipo de ambiente. Os maiores percentuais de positividade (85% e abundância (81% foram observados nas plantas localizadas em ambiente urbano. Constatou-se ainda preferência dos mosquitos pelas bromélias com maiores volumes de água (média de 300 ml. CONCLUSÕES: As diferentes freqüências com que Ae. albopictus foi registrado nos ambientes e suas respectivas densidades mostraram sua capacidade de invasão a novos habitats. Recomenda-se intensificar a vigilância entomológica nessas plantas, dada a sua capacidade em traduzir-se em criadouros permanentes. A presença desse mosquito de importância médica em bromélias em área preservada da Mata Atlântica poderá resultar em agravo à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in ecologically distinct environments in terms of positivity, density and volume of water. METHODS: The study was carried out in the municipality of Ilhabela, North coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections were fortnightly performed between March 1998 and July 1999, in containers of bromeliads located in urban, peri-urban and forest environments. The water content in plants was measured and recorded

  13. A differentially displayed mRNA related to restistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis of Aedes albopictus selected in vitro-activated CYT1AA6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Huang, E.; Li, M.; Huang, T.; Xu, L.; Wu, Ch.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2012), s. 327-329 ISSN 8756-971X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis * resistence * Aedes albopictus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2987/12-6263R.1

  14. Integrated analysis of miRNAs and transcriptomes in Aedes albopictus midgut reveals the differential expression profiles of immune-related genes during dengue virus serotype-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Fen-Xiang; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Jia, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Yan-He; Zhang, Hao; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Xian-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-virus interaction, and have been reported to be altered by dengue virus (DENV) infection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Aedes albopictus midgut-the first organ to interact with DENV-involved in its resistance to DENV. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in Aedes albopictus midgut in response to dengue virus serotype 2. A total of three miRNAs and 777 mRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed upon DENV infection. For the mRNAs, we identified 198 immune-related genes and 31 of them were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses also showed that the differentially expressed immune-related genes were involved in immune response. Then the differential expression patterns of six immune-related genes and three miRNAs were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, seven known miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs were identified by aligning our two datasets. These analyses of miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes provide valuable information for uncovering the DENV response genes and provide a basis for future study of the resistance mechanisms in Aedes albopictus midgut. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Diversity of Cultivable Midgut Microbiota at Different Stages of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus from Tezpur, India.

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    Kamlesh K Yadav

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are among the most important vectors of arboviral diseases, worldwide. Recent studies indicate that diverse midgut microbiota of mosquitoes significantly affect development, digestion, metabolism, and immunity of their hosts. Midgut microbiota has also been suggested to modulate the competency of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses, malaria parasites etc. Interestingly, the midgut microbial flora is dynamic and the diversity changes with the development of vectors, in addition to other factors such as species, sex, life-stage, feeding behavior and geographical origin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the midgut bacterial diversity among larva, adult male, sugar fed female and blood fed female Ae. albopictus collected from Tezpur, Northeastern India. Based on colony morphological characteristics, we selected 113 cultivable bacterial isolates for 16S rRNA gene sequence based molecular identification. Of the 113 isolates, we could identify 35 bacterial species belonging to 18 distinct genera under four major phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes accounted for majority (80% of the species, while phylum Actinobacteria constituted 17% of the species. Bacteroidetes was the least represented phylum, characterized by a single species- Chryseobacterium rhizoplanae, isolated from blood fed individuals. Dissection of midgut microbiota diversity at different developmental stages of Ae. albopictus will be helpful in better understanding mosquito-borne diseases, and for designing effective strategies to manage mosquito-borne diseases.

  16. Influence of Age and Nutritional Status on Flight Performance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Lauren F. Collins

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for arboviruses and recently was implicated as the vector of the first autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in southern Europe. The objective of this study was to analyze the flight performance of female Ae. albopictus of different ages that were starved, sugar-fed, or sugar-fed and blood-fed, using flight mills. After three days of starvation post emergence, females flew an average distance of 0.7 ± 0.5 km in 1.9 ± 1.5 h during a 16 h trial period, whereas sugar- or sugar- and blood-fed females of this age covered a significantly higher distance of around 3 km with a mean total flight time of around 6 h. The age of females (up to four weeks had no effect on performance. The average of maximal continuous flight segments of sugar-fed (2.14 ± 0.69 h and blood-fed (3.17 ± 0.82 h females was distinctly higher than of starved females (0.38 ± 0.15 h of which most flyers (83% performed maximal flight segments that lasted no longer than 0.5 h. Overall, the results for the laboratory monitored flight performance of Ae. albopictus confirm their ability to disperse a few kilometres between breeding site and host.

  17. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, from Pakistan

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    Shehzad Khurram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  18. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan.

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    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shehzad, Khurram; Shaalan, Essam A

    2011-07-22

    Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  19. Analysis of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 genome provides insight into cell line utility for viral propagation.

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    Miller, Jason R; Koren, Sergey; Dilley, Kari A; Puri, Vinita; Brown, David M; Harkins, Derek M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Rosen, Benjamin; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Tu, Zhijian; Sharakhov, Igor V; Sharakhova, Maria V; Sebra, Robert; Stockwell, Timothy B; Bergman, Nicholas H; Sutton, Granger G; Phillippy, Adam M; Piermarini, Peter M; Shabman, Reed S

    2018-03-01

    The 50-year-old Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line is a resource for the detection, amplification, and analysis of mosquito-borne viruses including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. The cell line is derived from an unknown number of larvae from an unspecified strain of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Toward improved utility of the cell line for research in virus transmission, we present an annotated assembly of the C6/36 genome. The C6/36 genome assembly has the largest contig N50 (3.3 Mbp) of any mosquito assembly, presents the sequences of both haplotypes for most of the diploid genome, reveals independent null mutations in both alleles of the Dicer locus, and indicates a male-specific genome. Gene annotation was computed with publicly available mosquito transcript sequences. Gene expression data from cell line RNA sequence identified enrichment of growth-related pathways and conspicuous deficiency in aquaporins and inward rectifier K+ channels. As a test of utility, RNA sequence data from Zika-infected cells were mapped to the C6/36 genome and transcriptome assemblies. Host subtraction reduced the data set by 89%, enabling faster characterization of nonhost reads. The C6/36 genome sequence and annotation should enable additional uses of the cell line to study arbovirus vector interactions and interventions aimed at restricting the spread of human disease.

  20. Effects of temephos resistance on life history traits of Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae, a vector of arboviruses

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    Junaid Rahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temephos resistance on the fitness cost of the wild populations of Aedes albopictus was evaluated. The larvae of two wild populations were exposed to the diagnostic dose of 0.02 mg and 0.012 mg/L. The larvae which survived after the 24 h exposure to diagnostic dose were considered as resistant and F1 generations were chosen for the comparisons of fitness parameters with the control strain, which includes larval developmental time, adult longevity, fecundity, wing length and hatchability. We found that temephos resistance had negative effects on larval developmental time which was longer for Gelugor strain among the populations with the median range of 10 days and a shorter longevity was observed with the median range of 13 days for males and 16 days for females. Whereas, an effective reduction of 29.8 and 38.6% was observed in fertility and fecundity of Gelugor strain as compared to control strain. In contrast, no clear differences were found in biological parameters of Balik Palau and USM strain, except fecundity and fertility with a reduction of 13.4 and 15.5%, respectively. Whereas, no significant differences were seen in the wing size between the populations with the mean length (mm of 2.40 for Gelugor, 2.44 for Balik Palau and 2.46 for USM control (p > 0.05. Present results indicated that the temephos resistance is associated with the developmental and reproduction potential of resistant population of A. albopictus and the fitness has been compromised. Keywords: Temephos, Insecticides resistance, Fitness cost, Aedes albopictus, Dengue

  1. Identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and symbiotic bacteria from Nam Nao National Park in Thailand and larvicidal activity of symbiotic bacteria against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

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    Yooyangket, Temsiri; Muangpat, Paramaporn; Polseela, Raxsina; Tandhavanant, Sarunporn; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Vitta, Apichat

    2018-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) that are symbiotically associated with Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria can kill target insects via direct infection and toxin action. There are limited reports identifying such organisms in the National Park of Thailand. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify EPNs and symbiotic bacteria from Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun Province, Thailand and to evaluate the larvicidal activity of bacteria against Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. A total of 12 EPN isolates belonging to Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were obtained form 940 soil samples between February 2014 and July 2016. EPNs were molecularly identified as S. websteri (10 isolates) and H. baujardi (2 isolates). Symbiotic bacteria were isolated from EPNs and molecularly identified as P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii (13 isolates), X. stockiae (11 isolates), X. vietnamensis (2 isolates) and X. japonica (1 isolate). For the bioassay, bacterial suspensions were evaluated for toxicity against third to early fourth instar larvae of Aedes spp. The larvae of both Aedes species were orally susceptible to symbiotic bacteria. The highest larval mortality of Ae. aegypti was 99% after exposure to X. stockiae (bNN112.3_TH) at 96 h, and the highest mortality of Ae. albopictus was 98% after exposure to P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii (bNN121.4_TH) at 96 h. In contrast to the control groups (Escherichia coli and distilled water), the mortality rate of both mosquito larvae ranged between 0 and 7% at 72 h. Here, we report the first observation of X. vietnamensis in Thailand. Additionally, we report the first observation of P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii associated with H. baujardi in Thailand. X. stockiae has potential to be a biocontrol agent for mosquitoes. This investigation provides a survey of the basic diversity of EPNs and symbiotic bacteria in the National Park of Thailand, and it is a bacterial resource for further studies of bioactive compounds.

  2. Dengue virus detection by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in saliva and progeny of experimentally infected Aedes albopictus from Brazil

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    Márcia Gonçalves de Castro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral susceptibility and vertical transmission of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 in an Aedes albopictus sample from Rio de Janeiro was estimated. The infection (36.7% and transmission (83.3% rates for Ae. albopictus were higher than those of an Ae. aegypti colony used as control, 32.8 and 60%, respectively. Fourth instar larvae and females descendants of 48.5 and 39.1% of experimentally infected Ae. albopictus showed to harbor the virus. The oral susceptibility and the high capacity to assure vertical transmission exhibited by Ae. albopictus from Brazil reinforce that this species may play a role in the maintenance of the virus in nature and be a threat for dengue control in the country.

  3. Glacial history of a modern invader: phylogeography and species distribution modelling of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Daniele Porretta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species' native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history

  4. The dengue preface to endemic in mainland China: the historical largest outbreak by Aedes albopictus in Guangzhou, 2014.

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    Luo, Lei; Jiang, Li-Yun; Xiao, Xin-Cai; Di, Biao; Jing, Qin-Long; Wang, Sheng-Yong; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Ming; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Zhi-Cong

    2017-09-22

    Dengue was regarded as a mild epidemic in mainland China transmitted by Aedes albopictus. However, the 2014 record-breaking outbreak in Guangzhou could change the situation. In order to provide an early warning of epidemic trends and provide evidence for prevention and control strategies, we seek to characterize the 2014 outbreak through application of detailed cases and entomological data, as well as phylogenetic analysis of viral envelope (E) gene. We used case survey data identified through the Notifiable Infectious Disease Report System, entomological surveillance and population serosurvey, along with laboratory testing for IgM/IgG, NS1, and isolation of viral samples followed by E gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to examine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the outbreak. The 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangzhou accounted for nearly 80% of total reported cases that year in mainland China; a total of 37,376 cases including 37,340 indigenous cases with incidence rate 2908.3 per million and 36 imported cases were reported in Guangzhou, with 14,055 hospitalized and 5 deaths. The epidemic lasted for 193 days from June 11 to December 21, with the highest incidence observed in domestic workers, the unemployed and retirees. The inapparent infection rate was 18.00% (135/750). In total, 96 dengue virus 1 (DENV-1) and 11 dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) strains were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DENV-1 strains were divided into genotype I and V, similar to the strains isolated in Guangzhou and Dongguan in 2013. The DENV-2 strains isolated were similar to those imported from Thailand on May 11 in 2014 and that imported from Indonesia in 2012. The 2014 dengue epidemic was confirmed to be the first co-circulation of DENV-1 and DENV-2 in Guangzhou. The DENV-1 strain was endemic, while the DENV-2 strain was imported, being efficiently transmitted by the Aedes albopictus vector species at levels as high as Aedes aegypti.

  5. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  6. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  7. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Haddow, Andrew D.; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G.; Haddow, Alastair D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV

  8. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to thermal stress.

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    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Thamizhmani, Ramanathan

    2017-03-01

    Climatic changes are responsible, to a certain extent for the occurrence and spread of arboviral pathogens world over. Temperature is one of the important abiotic factors influencing the physiological processes of mosquitoes. Several genes of heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to be expressed in mosquitoes, which aid in overcoming stress induced by elevated temperature. In order to understand expression of HSP family genes in the Andaman population of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress under laboratory and in actual field conditions. HSP genes AeaHsp26, AeaHsp83 and AeaHsc70 were examined by comparing relative transcript expression levels at 31°C, 33°C, 34°C, 37°C and 39°C respectively. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In Ae. albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. Data on expression levels revealed that larvae of Ae. aegypti was tolerant to thermal stress, while Ae. albopictus larvae was sensitive to heat shock treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that AeaHsp83 genes were significantly up-regulated in Ae. aegypti larvae after 360min exposure to high temperature (39°C). The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae. albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. These results indicate that AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and

  9. Insecticide susceptibility status and major detoxifying enzymes' activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse), vector of dengue and chikungunya in Northern part of West Bengal, India.

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    Bharati, Minu; Saha, Dhiraj

    2017-06-01

    Mosquitoes belonging to Aedes genus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit many globally important arboviruses including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV). Vector control with the use of insecticide remains the suitable method of choice to stop the transmission of these diseases. However, vector control throughout the world is failing to achieve its target results because of the worldwide development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. To assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus from northern part of West Bengal, the susceptibility of eight different Aedes albopictus populations were tested against a commonly used larvicide (temephos) and some adulticides (malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin) along with the major insecticide detoxifying enzymes' activity in them. Through this study, it was revealed that most of the populations were found susceptible to temephos except Nagrakata (NGK) and Siliguri (SLG), which showed both a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ) and a lower susceptibility, thereby reflecting the development of resistance against temephos in them. However, all tested adulticides caused 100% mortality in all the population implying their potency in control of this mosquito in this region of India. Through the study of carboxylesterase activity, it was revealed that the NGK population showed a 9.6 fold higher level of activity than susceptible population. The same population also showed a lower level of susceptibility and a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ), indicating a clear correlation between susceptibility to temephos and carboxylesterase enzymes' activity in this population. This preliminary data reflects that the NGK population is showing a trend towards resistance development and with time, there is possibility that this resistance phenomenon will spread to other populations. With the recurrence of dengue and chikungunya, this data on insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus could help the

  10. Productive container types for Aedes aegypti immatures in Mérida, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rejón, Julian E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Del Najera-Vazquez, Maria Rosario; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2011-05-01

    During 2007-2010, we examined which container types in Mérida, México, are most productive for Aedes aegypti (L.) immatures. Surveys for mosquito immatures followed routine surveillance methodology and container type classifications used by Servicios de Salud de Yucatán. Our main findings were that (1) small and larger discarded containers that serve no particular purpose and therefore can be removed from the environment contribute strongly to larval and pupal production in Mérida, and (2) the importance of different container types can vary among sets of residential premises as well as between dry and wet periods. These results may help to guide future implementation in Mérida of control efforts that target the most productive container types for Ae. aegypti immatures. Furthermore, if the Patio Limpio cleanup campaign that currently is ongoing in Mérida proves successful in removing discarded containers as important immature development sites, then we should see dramatic changes in the most productive container types in the future as the mosquito is forced to switch to other container types, which perhaps also will be easier to include in highly targeted mosquito control interventions.

  11. Molecular markers for analyses of intraspecific genetic diversity in the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Tait, Gabriella; Scolari, Francesca; Somboon, Pradya; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2015-03-28

    The dramatic worldwide expansion of Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) and its vector competence for numerous arboviruses represent a growing threat to public health security. Molecular markers are crucially needed for tracking the rapid spread of this mosquito and to obtain a deeper knowledge of population structure. This is a fundamental requirement for the development of strict monitoring protocols and for the improvement of sustainable control measures. Wild population samples from putative source areas and from newly colonised regions were analysed for variability at the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Moreover, a new set of 23 microsatellite markers (SSR) was developed. Sixteen of these SSRs were tested in an ancestral (Thailand) and two adventive Italian populations. Seventy-six ITS2 sequences representing 52 unique haplotypes were identified, and AMOVA indicated that most of their variation occurred within individuals (74.36%), while only about 8% was detected among populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance revealed that haplotype genetic similarity was not related to the geographic proximity of populations and the haplotype phylogeny clearly indicated that highly related sequences were distributed across populations from different geographical regions. The SSR markers displayed a high level of polymorphism both in the ancestral and in adventive populations, and F ST estimates suggested the absence of great differentiation. The ancestral nature of the Thai population was corroborated by its higher level of variability. The two types of genetic markers here implemented revealed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations and provide clues on the dispersion dynamics of this species. It appears that the diffusion of this mosquito does not conform to a progressive expansion from the native Asian source area, but to a relatively recent and chaotic propagule distribution mediated by human activities

  12. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the

  13. A de novo transcriptome of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to identify candidate transcripts for diapause preparation

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    Poelchau Monica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many temperate insects survive the harsh conditions of winter by undergoing photoperiodic diapause, a pre-programmed developmental arrest initiated by short day lengths. Despite the well-established ecological significance of photoperiodic diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, represents an outstanding emerging model to investigate the molecular basis of photoperiodic diapause in a well-defined ecological and evolutionary context. Ae. albopictus is a medically significant vector and is currently considered the most invasive mosquito in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to the rapid spread of this mosquito. To generate novel sequence information for this species, as well as to discover transcripts involved in diapause preparation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Ae. albopictus oocytes destined to become diapausing or non-diapausing pharate larvae. Results 454 GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded >1.1 million quality-filtered reads, which we assembled into 69,474 contigs (N50 = 1,009 bp. Our contig filtering approach, where we took advantage of strong sequence similarity to the fully sequenced genome of Aedes aegypti, as well as other reference organisms, resulted in 11,561 high-quality, conservative ESTs. Differential expression estimates based on normalized read counts revealed 57 genes with higher expression, and 257 with lower expression under diapause-inducing conditions. Analysis of expression by qPCR for 47 of these genes indicated a high correlation of expression levels between 454 sequence data and qPCR, but congruence of statistically significant differential expression was low. Seven genes identified as differentially expressed based on qPCR have putative functions that are consistent with the insect diapause syndrome; three genes have unknown function and represent

  14. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti from Brazil and the Swiss-Italian border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias; Crespo, Mônica Maria; de Oliveira, Mariana Francelino; de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; Araújo, Ana Paula; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Müller, Pie; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-09-19

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern. As part of a Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme we set out to assess whether there are any signs of existing or incipient insecticide resistance primarily against the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti), but also against currently applied and potentially alternative insecticides in our areas, Recife (Brazil) and the Swiss-Italian border region. Following World Health Organization guidelines, dose-response curves for a range of insecticides were established for both colonized and field caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicides included Bti, two of its toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Vectomax CG®, a formulated combination of Bti and L. sphaericus, and diflubenzuron. In addition to the larvicides, the Swiss-Italian Ae. albopictus populations were also tested against five adulticides (bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, malathion, permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin). Showing a similar dose-response, all mosquito populations were fully susceptible to the larvicides tested and, in particular, to Bti which is currently used both in Brazil and Switzerland. In addition, there were no signs of incipient resistance against Bti as larvae were equally susceptible to the individual toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba. The field-caught Swiss-Italian populations were susceptible to the adulticides tested but DDT mortality rates showed signs of reduced susceptibility. The insecticides currently used for

  15. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, M. R. Che; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Jaal, Zairi; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity du...

  16. Effects of desiccation stress on adult female longevity in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): results of a systematic review and pooled survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Chris A; Comeau, Genevieve; Monaghan, Andrew J; Williamson, Daniel J; Ernst, Kacey C

    2018-04-25

    Transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya are affected by the longevity of the adult female mosquito. Environmental conditions influence the survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes, the primary vectors of these viruses. While the association of temperature with Aedes mortality has been relatively well-explored, the role of humidity is less established. The current study's goals were to compile knowledge of the influence of humidity on adult survival in the important vector species Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and to quantify this relationship while accounting for the modifying effect of temperature. We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies reporting experimental results informing the relationships among temperature, humidity and adult survival in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Using a novel simulation approach to harmonize disparate survival data, we conducted pooled survival analyses via stratified and mixed effects Cox regression to estimate temperature-dependent associations between humidity and mortality risk for these species across a broad range of temperatures and vapor pressure deficits. After screening 1517 articles, 17 studies (one in semi-field and 16 in laboratory settings) met inclusion criteria and collectively reported results for 192 survival experiments. We review and synthesize relevant findings from these studies. Our stratified model estimated a strong temperature-dependent association of humidity with mortality in both species, though associations were not significant for Ae. albopictus in the mixed effects model. Lowest mortality risks were estimated around 27.5 °C and 21.5 °C for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, and mortality increased non-linearly with decreasing humidity. Aedes aegypti had a survival advantage relative to Ae. albopictus in the stratified model under most conditions, but species differences were not significant in the mixed effects model

  17. Mapping past, present, and future climatic suitability for invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States: a process-based modeling approach using CMIP5 downscaled climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M. A. P.; Marcantonio, M.; Melton, F. S.; Barker, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ongoing spread of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the continental United States leaves new areas at risk for local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. All three viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in the Americas with infected travelers returning regularly to the U.S. The expanding range of these mosquitoes raises questions about whether recent spread has been enabled by climate change or other anthropogenic influences. In this analysis, we used downscaled climate scenarios from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX GDDP) dataset to model Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population growth rates across the United States. We used a stage-structured matrix population model to understand past and present climatic suitability for these vectors, and to project future suitability under CMIP5 climate change scenarios. Our results indicate that much of the southern U.S. is suitable for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus year-round. In addition, a large proportion of the U.S. is seasonally suitable for mosquito population growth, creating the potential for periodic incursions into new areas. Changes in climatic suitability in recent decades for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have occurred already in many regions of the U.S., and model projections of future climate suggest that climate change will continue to reshape the range of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the U.S., and potentially the risk of the viruses they transmit.

  18. Mapping Past, Present, and Future Climatic Suitability for Invasive Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus in the United States: A Process-Based Modeling Approach Using CMIP5 Downscaled Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Marisa Anne Pella; Marcantonio, Matteo; Melton, Forrest S.; Barker, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing spread of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the continental United States leaves new areas at risk for local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. All three viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in the Americas with infected travelers returning regularly to the U.S. The expanding range of these mosquitoes raises questions about whether recent spread has been enabled by climate change or other anthropogenic influences. In this analysis, we used downscaled climate scenarios from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX GDDP) dataset to model Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population growth rates across the United States. We used a stage-structured matrix population model to understand past and present climatic suitability for these vectors, and to project future suitability under CMIP5 climate change scenarios. Our results indicate that much of the southern U.S. is suitable for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus year-round. In addition, a large proportion of the U.S. is seasonally suitable for mosquito population growth, creating the potential for periodic incursions into new areas. Changes in climatic suitability in recent decades for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have occurred already in many regions of the U.S., and model projections of future climate suggest that climate change will continue to reshape the range of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the U.S., and potentially the risk of the viruses they transmit.

  19. Insecticidal activity and expression of cytochrome P450 family 4 genes in Aedes albopictus after exposure to pyrethroid mosquito coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avicor, Silas W; Wajidi, Mustafa F F; El-Garj, Fatma M A; Jaal, Zairi; Yahaya, Zary S

    2014-10-01

    Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % D-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (≥90 %) compared to the 0.2 % D-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % D-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.

  20. Indoor-breeding of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia and its potential epidemiological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamady Dieng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density. These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.

  1. Indoor-breeding of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia and its potential epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G M; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Jaal, Zairi; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2010-07-27

    The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities. In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size. Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density). These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.

  2. Synthesis of some novel phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles and their evaluation for larvicidal potential to Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Sathe, Manisha; Tikar, Sachin N; Yadav, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok; Kaushik, M P

    2014-07-01

    Series of benzimidazole and benzothiazole linked phosphoramidates and phosphoramidothioates (5a-j) and benzimidazole linked phenylphosphoramidates and phenylphosphoramidothioates (10a-e) were synthesized. The title compounds were preliminary screened for mosquito larvicidal properties against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentration from 40 to 5 mg/L. Among the screened compounds three compounds revealed potential larvicidal effects with 100% mortality in the order of 10e>5j>5e. Compound 10e was found to be the most toxic compound to Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 of 10e against Ae. albopictus was found to be 6.42 and 5.25 mg/L at 24 and 48 h, respectively, whereas it was 7.01 and 3.88 mg/L, respectively in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Temephos was used as positive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.

  4. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.

  5. Genome-wide SNPs reveal the drivers of gene flow in an urban population of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas L; Rašić, Gordana; Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-10-01

    Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive disease vector with an expanding worldwide distribution. Genetic assays using low to medium resolution markers have found little evidence of spatial genetic structure even at broad geographic scales, suggesting frequent passive movement along human transportation networks. Here we analysed genetic structure of Aedes albopictus collected from 12 sample sites in Guangzhou, China, using thousands of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found evidence for passive gene flow, with distance from shipping terminals being the strongest predictor of genetic distance among mosquitoes. As further evidence of passive dispersal, we found multiple pairs of full-siblings distributed between two sample sites 3.7 km apart. After accounting for geographical variability, we also found evidence for isolation by distance, previously undetectable in Ae. albopictus. These findings demonstrate how large SNP datasets and spatially-explicit hypothesis testing can be used to decipher processes at finer geographic scales than formerly possible. Our approach can be used to help predict new invasion pathways of Ae. albopictus and to refine strategies for vector control that involve the transformation or suppression of mosquito populations.

  6. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  7. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus. Part 2: gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Kline, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2013-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active season, six ∼1000-parcel sites were studied, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, United States, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area wide. Active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding and public education (source reduction through education) were implemented in one site in each county, an education-only approach was developed in a second site and a third site was used as an untreated experimental control. Populations were surveyed weekly with BG-Sentinel traps and ovitraps. A substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations was achieved in urban sites, but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. There are significant socioeconomic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact upon Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances, but labor-intensive, costly source reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Nighttime adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.

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    Andrew D Haddow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two

  9. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on competition between the mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Ae. triseriatus via changes in litter quality and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Baldwin, A H; Sullivan, J; Leisnham, P T

    2013-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter aquatic communities via changes in allochthonous litter inputs. We tested effects of atmospheric CO2 on the invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and native Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) via changes in competition for microbial food or resource inhibition/toxicity. Quercus alba L. litter was produced under elevated (879 ppm) and ambient (388 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Saplings grown at elevated CO2 produced greater litter biomass, which decayed faster and leached more tannins than saplings at ambient CO2. Competition was tested by raising larvae in different species and density combinations provisioned with elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter. Species-specific performance to water conditions was tested by providing single-species larval cohorts with increasing amounts of elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter, or increasing concentrations of tannic acid. Larval densities affected some fitness parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but elevated-CO2 litter did not modify the effects of competition on population growth rates or any fitness parameters. Population growth rates and survival of each species generally were affected negatively by increasing amounts of both elevated- and ambient-CO2 litter from 0.252 to 2.016 g/liter, and tannic acid concentrations above 100 mg/liter were entirely lethal to both species. Aedes albopictus had consistently higher population growth rates than Ae. triseriatus. These results suggest that changes to litter production and chemistry from elevated CO2 are unlikely to affect the competitive outcome between Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but that moderate increases in litter production increase population growth rates of both species until a threshold is exceeded that results in resource inhibition and toxicity.

  10. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-09-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epidemic. While alphavirus replication is well understood in general, the specific function (s) of non-structural protein nsP3 remain elusive. CHIKV nsP3 modulates the mammalian stress response by preventing stress granule formation through sequestration of G3BP. In mosquitoes, nsP3 is a determinant of vector specificity, but its functional interaction with mosquito proteins is unclear. In this research we studied the domains required for localization of CHIKV nsP3 in insect cells and demonstrated its molecular interaction with Rasputin (Rin), the mosquito homologue of G3BP. The biological involvement of Rin in CHIKV infection was investigated in live Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In insect cells, nsP3 localized as cytoplasmic granules, which was dependent on the central domain and the C-terminal variable region but independent of the N-terminal macrodomain. Ae. albopictus Rin displayed a diffuse, cytoplasmic localization, but was effectively sequestered into nsP3-granules upon nsP3 co-expression. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the Rin-nsP3 interaction involved the NTF2-like domain of Rin and two conserved TFGD repeats in the C-terminal variable domain of nsP3. Although in vitro silencing of Rin did not impact nsP3 localization or CHIKV replication in cell culture, Rin depletion in vivo significantly decreased the CHIKV infection rate and transmissibility in Ae.albopictus. We identified the nsP3 hypervariable C-terminal domain as a critical factor for granular localization and sequestration of mosquito Rin. Our study offers novel insight into a conserved virus-mosquito interaction at the molecular level, and reveals a strong proviral role for G3BP homologue Rin in live mosquitoes

  11. Avaliação da influência da temperatura sobre o desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniéla Cristina Calado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da temperatura sobre os estágios de desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus sob condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliado o período de desenvolvimento dos estágios de ovo, larva e pupa em quatro temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC em câmaras climatizadas com umidade relativa do ar oscilando entre 70% e 85% e fotoperíodo de CE 12:12 horas. Pela análise de variância, foram testados os efeitos das quatro temperaturas constantes. RESULTADOS: O período de incubação dos ovos compreendeu 38,38; 19,09; 13,10; e 10,44 dias; o período larval dos indivíduos machos atingiu 30,13; 13,83; 7,36; e 5,57 dias; o período larval para fêmeas apresentou duração de 33,22; 15,00; 8,06; e 6,16 dias; o período pupal em machos compreendeu 8,01; 4,92; 2,40; e 1,76 dias, enquanto nas fêmeas foi de 8,15; 5,11; 2,60; e 1,88 dias sob as temperaturas de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC, respectivamente. Em todos os estágios de desenvolvimento, foram encontradas diferenças significativas, entre as temperaturas avaliadas, em torno de 5% no tempo de desenvolvimento. O período de desenvolvimento foi inversamente relacionado à temperatura, com o período larval mais breve em machos que em fêmeas. Nas temperaturas de 20ºC a 30ºC, o desenvolvimento foi mais breve e com maior viabilidade que a 15ºC. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, a temperatura afetou de forma significativa e inversamente proporcional os estágios imaturos de Aedes albopictus. Esses resultados mostram que os estágios imaturos são mais suscetíveis durante os períodos de baixas temperaturas devido ao maior tempo necessário para completar o desenvolvimento, informação que pode ser utilizada em estratégias de controle.

  12. Plano amostral para cálculo de densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Sampling desing for larval density computation of Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Cecília G.P. Alves

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Controle de Vetores de Febre Amarela e Dengue, desenvolvido pela Superintendência de Controle de Endemias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, prevê a realização de pesquisa para avaliação da densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em edificações de municípios com infestação domiciliar. Descreve-se o plano amostral que vem sendo aplicado, desde outubro de 1987, nos municípios da Região de Presidente Prudente. Para acompanhamento da densidade está sendo utilizado o índice de Breteau. São sorteados, nos municípios infestados, mensalmente e de forma independente, amostras de edificações para a obtenção das estimativas do índice. O plano amostral prevê a seleção de conglomerados em 2 estágios: quadras e edificações. O tamanho da amostra foi definido estimando-se o coeficiente da correlação intraconglomerado e variância relativa por elemento através de pesquisas realizadas anteriormente em municípios do Serviço Regional de São José do Rio Preto. O plano propõe que os valores relativos ao tamanho da amostra sejam atualizados periodicamente em função dos valores obtidos para o estimador do Índice de Breteau e sua variância, em meses anteriores.The Yellow Fever and Dengue Vector Control Program developed by the Superintendency for the Control of Endemic Diseases in the State of S. Paulo recommends Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. The sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the Presidente Prudente region (SP- Brazil since 1987 is described. The infestation is measured by using the Breteau Index. A sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, in the infested cities, in which measurements are to be made. The sample is stratified and the elementary unit selection is made by using two-stage cluster sampling: of blocks and buildings. The sample sizes were defined using the coefficient of variation

  13. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of Zika Virus RNA Fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Field-Collected Eggs From Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil.

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    Smartt, Chelsea T; Stenn, Tanise M S; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P; Souza Dos Santos, Luciano; Queiroz, Gabriel A N; Ribeiro Souza, Kathleen; Kalabric Silva, Luciano; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2017-07-01

    A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  16. Oviposition site selection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): are the effects of predation risk and food level independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; White, L; Bullard, A; King, J; Maxwell, R

    2013-09-01

    For organisms lacking parental care and where larval dispersal is limited, oviposition site selection decisions are critical fitness-enhancing choices. However, studies usually do not consider the interdependence of the two. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food level on the oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the presence or the absence of a nonlethal predator (caged dragonfly nymph). We also attempted to quantify the perceived cost of predation to ovipositioning mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were presented with oviposition cups containing four levels of larval food (fermented leaf infusion) with or without a caged libellulid nymph. By titrating larval food, we estimated the amount of food needed to attract the female mosquito to oviposit in the riskier habitat. As expected, oviposition rate increased with food level and decreased in the presence of a predator. However, the effect of food level did not differ between predator treatments. By calculating the difference in the amount of food for points of equal oviposition rate in the predator-present and predator-absent regression lines, we estimated the cost of predation risk to be 1950 colony-forming-units per milliliter. Our study demonstrated the importance of considering the possible interdependence of predation risk and food abundance for oviposition-site-seeking insects. This study also quantified the perceived cost of predation and found it to be relatively low, a fact with positive implications for biological control.

  17. Seasonal field efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations against container-inhabiting mosquito Aedes albopictus under different habitat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Faraji, Ary; Williams, Gregory M; Williges, Eric; Gaugler, Randy

    2018-04-01

    Control of the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is difficult using conventional methods due to its selection of cryptic peri-domestic habitats. We evaluated whether autodissemination stations can deliver sufficient pyriproxyfen to sentinel containers to produce significant pupal mortality in different habitats such as competing oviposition sites, peri-domestic habitats, junkyards and tire piles. We also tested how far the pesticide could be transferred over a 200-m range. Autodissemination stations performed effectively for 8-12 weeks under field conditions. Pupal mortality was reduced in sentinel cups with high-competing oviposition habitats (5 versus 20) in isolated plots; however, similar results were not seen in residential areas. Increasing the number of stations per plot (from 1 to 4) enhanced the efficacy. Peri-domestic habitat trials showed the highest pupal mortality (50.4%) and site contamination with pyriproxyfen (82.2%) among the trials. Autodissemination stations were able to contaminate habitats in a junkyard (50.0%) and tire piles (40.2%). Pyriproxyfen was detected in sentinel cups up to 200 m from stations. Detection of pyriproxyfen by residue analysis (0.005-0.741 µg L -1 ) in field samples confirmed the transfer of the insect growth regulator. Autodissemination stations have shown promising potential as a novel pest management tool against container mosquitoes in field trials in different habitats confronted by mosquito control personnel. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-04-20

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus.

  19. A cross-sectional survey of Aedes aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural household containers in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Olano, Víctor Alberto; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Matiz, María Inés; Sarmiento, Diana; Stenström, Thor Axel; Alexander, Neal

    2017-07-27

    Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue, breeds in domestic water containers. The development of immature mosquitoes in such containers is influenced by various environmental, ecological and socioeconomic factors. Urban and rural disparities in water storage practices and water source supply may affect mosquito immature abundance and, potentially, dengue risk. We evaluated the effect of water and container characteristics on A. aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural areas. Data were collected in the wet season of 2011 in central Colombia from 36 urban and 35 rural containers, which were either mosquito-positive or negative. Immature mosquitoes were identified to species. Data on water and container characteristics were collected from all containers. A total of 1452 Aedes pupae and larvae were collected of which 81% were A. aegypti and 19% A. fluviatilis. Aedes aegypti immatures were found in both urban and rural sites. However, the mean number of A. aegypti pupae was five times higher in containers in the urban sites compared to those in the rural sites. One of the important factors associated with A. aegypti infestation was frequency of container washing. Monthly-washed or never-washed containers were both about four times more likely to be infested than those washed every week. There were no significant differences between urban and rural sites in frequency of washing containers. Aedes aegypti immature infestation was positively associated with total dissolved solids, but negatively associated with dissolved oxygen. Water temperature, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrate, and organic matter were significantly higher in urban than in rural containers, which might explain urban-rural differences in breeding of A. aegypti. However, many of these factors vary substantially between studies and in their degree of association with vector breeding, therefore they may not be reliable indices for vector control interventions. Although containers in urban areas

  20. Avaliação da produtividade dos criadouros do Aedes aegypti (L. e Aedes albopictus (Skuse através dos dados da vigilância em Parati – RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wermelinger

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. This study evaluated the pupa-productivity of the entomologic surveillance according methodology used by the official Program for Dengue Control in Brazil (PDCB for Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse in Parati, RJ, Brazil. The highest number of A. aegypti pupae were found in drains (31%, bottles and cans (23%; and the highest number of A. albopictus pupae were found in bottles and cans (24%, and plant vases (21%. Of the total pupae identified 84.3% and 79.3% of A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively were collected in small receptacles: bottles, plants vase, tires, bromeliads and tree holes. These productivities are not supported by literature and can be explained by the restrictions of access for the bigger receptacles and lack of training of the agents. The study points out the importance which the small receptacles can have on vector densities in urban environment despite of their productivity and conclude that the entomology surveillance methodology for dengue used in PDCB has no efficacy to identify the bigger and more productive receptacles. This conclusion suggests that this inefficacy can be an important factor for the failures on dengue vector control in Brazil.

  1. Potential for sublethal insecticide exposure to impact vector competence of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae for dengue and Zika viruses

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    Richards SL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie L Richards, Avian V White, Jo Anne G Balanay Department of Health Education and Promotion, College of Health and Human Performance, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA Abstract: Chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses (CHIKV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus; DENV and ZIKV, family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus are arboviruses that cause human epidemics. Due to the lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases, there is a need for mosquito control. In the US and other regions, residual barrier insecticide sprays are applied to foliage where female mosquitoes rest and/or sugar feed between blood meals. Residual sprays are an important control method for anthropogenic day-active sylvan mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus (vector of CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV that are difficult to control using ultralow-volume sprays applied only at dusk or dawn when these mosquitoes are not active. In this exploratory study, we analyzed the extent to which ingestion of a sublethal dose of the active ingredient bifenthrin affected vector competence (i.e., infection, dissemination, and transmission of Ae. albopictus for DENV and ZIKV. Two incubation periods (IPs; 7 and 14 d were tested at 28°C for insecticide-fed and sugar-fed mosquitoes. We show that mosquitoes that were fed bifenthrin (0.128 µg/mL mixed with sucrose solution exhibited significantly lower DENV infection rates and body titers after a 14-d IP. During the 7-d IP, one mosquito (sugar group transmitted ZIKV. During the 14-d IP, 100% of mosquitoes showed body and leg ZIKV infections, and one mosquito (sugar+bifenthrin group transmitted ZIKV. This is a preliminary communication, and more studies will be required to further investigate these findings. We expect the findings of this small-scale study to spur larger-scale investigations of the impacts of insecticides on mechanisms regulating vector competence, and exposure to other active ingredients, and aid in development of new

  2. Surveillance and Control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian Border Region: Differences in Egg Densities between Intervention and Non-intervention Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias T.; Flacio, Eleonora; Feijoó Fariña, Begoña; Engeler, Lukas; Tonolla, Mauro; Regis, Lêda N.; de Melo Santos, Maria A. V.; Müller, Pie

    2016-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus was spotted for the first time in 2003. Since then the local authorities have implemented a control programme based on larval source reduction. Despite these efforts, mosquito densities have increased over the last decade, casting doubts on the effectiveness of such larval control programmes. Methodology/Principal Findings The Italian communities just across the Swiss-Italian border lack a control programme. This motivated us to compare the intervention and the non-intervention areas side by side in an attempt to find evidence for, or against, the effectiveness of larval A. albopictus control. Using ovitraps and a randomised sampling scheme, we examined the seasonal and spatial abundance of A. albopictus in sylvatic and urban environments across the Swiss-Italian border in 2012 and 2013. In the urban environments of the non-intervention area, egg densities were 2.26 times higher as compared to the intervention area. In the sylvatic environments, as compared to the urban environments, egg densities were 36% in the intervention area and 18% in the non-intervention area. Conclusions/Significance Though alternative explanations are also valid, the results support the hypothesis that the Ticino intervention programme does have an impact. At the same time the data also suggest that current larval interventions fall short in gaining full control over the mosquito, calling for the evaluation of additional, or alternative, approaches. Ideally, these should also consider inclusion of the

  3. Host-feeding patterns of native Culex pipiens and invasive Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban zones from Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñnoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel; Montalvo, Tomás; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    The feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the amplification and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. The establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) represents an example of how an invasive species can alter the risk of viral transmission to humans. Blood meal molecular identification from two sympatric mosquito species (the invasive Ae. albopictus and the native Culex pipiens) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Samples were collected in Barcelona metropolitan area, Spain, from June to October 2009 as part of a monitoring-control program. Blood meals were identified to the species level in 30 Ae. albopictus and 43 Cx. pipiens. Ae. albopictus acquired blood exclusively from human hosts (100%), whereas Cx. pipiens fed on a diversity of avian and mammalian hosts, including 35.7% of blood meals from humans. Based on mosquito diet, our results suggest that the Ae. albopictus invasion in Spain might increase the risk of virus transmission to humans and could support local outbreaks of imported tropical viruses such as dengue and chikungunya. However, in the studied area, the presence of this invasive species would have a negligible effect on the transmission of zoonotic agents such as West Nile virus. However, Cx. pipiens could amplify and transmit West Nile virus, but avian contribution to its diet was lower than that reported in North America. Feeding patterns of these mosquito species may help to understand the flavivirus outbreaks recently reported in southwestern Europe.

  4. Surveillance and Control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian Border Region: Differences in Egg Densities between Intervention and Non-intervention Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias T Suter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus was spotted for the first time in 2003. Since then the local authorities have implemented a control programme based on larval source reduction. Despite these efforts, mosquito densities have increased over the last decade, casting doubts on the effectiveness of such larval control programmes.The Italian communities just across the Swiss-Italian border lack a control programme. This motivated us to compare the intervention and the non-intervention areas side by side in an attempt to find evidence for, or against, the effectiveness of larval A. albopictus control. Using ovitraps and a randomised sampling scheme, we examined the seasonal and spatial abundance of A. albopictus in sylvatic and urban environments across the Swiss-Italian border in 2012 and 2013. In the urban environments of the non-intervention area, egg densities were 2.26 times higher as compared to the intervention area. In the sylvatic environments, as compared to the urban environments, egg densities were 36% in the intervention area and 18% in the non-intervention area.Though alternative explanations are also valid, the results support the hypothesis that the Ticino intervention programme does have an impact. At the same time the data also suggest that current larval interventions fall short in gaining full control over the mosquito, calling for the evaluation of additional, or alternative, approaches. Ideally, these should also consider inclusion of the neighbouring Italian communities in the

  5. Detecção de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, na zona urbana do município de Catanduva-SP, após controle de epidemia de dengue

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    Rubens Pinto Cardoso Junior

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Após a realização dos trabalhos de controle visando à interrupção da transmissão do vírus do dengue, iniciou-se um trabalho de monitorização de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus com dois métodos de vigilância entomológica: Índice de Breteau (IB e ovitrampas. Pretendeu-se avaliar o tempo necessário para que as espécies envolvidas fossem novamente detectadas na área urbana do município de Catanduva, SP. As ovitrampas apresentaram positividade para Aedes aegypti dois meses após os trabalhos de controle, enquanto o Índice de Breteau veio a positivar-se somente no quarto mês após o término dos referidos trabalhos.After the realization of control research that had in view the transmition of dengue virus, we started to monitor two kinds of entomological vigilance, Breteau Index and ovitrap. We intended to evaluate the necessary time elapsed before Aedes sp mosquitoes were again detected at the urban area of Catanduva s town (SP. The ovitraps showed positiviness for the Aedes aegypti two months after the control research, while the Breteau Index became positive only at the fourth month after the end of the refered research.

  6. Evaluation of two sweeping methods for estimating the number of immature Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in large containers

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    Margareth Regina Dibo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here, we evaluated sweeping methods used to estimate the number of immature Aedes aegypti in large containers. Methods III/IV instars and pupae at a 9:1 ratio were placed in three types of containers with, each one with three different water levels. Two sweeping methods were tested: water-surface sweeping and five-sweep netting. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Results The five-sweep netting technique was more suitable for drums and water-tanks, while the water-surface sweeping method provided the best results for swimming pools. Conclusions Both sweeping methods are useful tools in epidemiological surveillance programs for the control of Aedes aegypti.

  7. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A; Kaufman, Michael G; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  9. Host species diversity and post-blood feeding carbohydrate availability enhance survival of females and fecundity in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Ali, Arshad; Barnard, Donald R

    2008-06-01

    Aedes albopictus mosquito is an opportunistic blood feeder and has a broad host range. The feeding behavior and habits of this mosquito are liable to increase the transmission potential of arboviruses. The survival and fecundity in A. albopictus fed on different hosts and post-blood meal provision of sugar were investigated in a laboratory-reared colony. Adult survival of caged female A. albopictus that were fed on blood of two different hosts (double meal) was higher than the females fed only on one host (single meal) (mean survival: 70.2+/-9.6 vs. 55.5+/-5.5%, respectively) when held in the laboratory for 72 h after blood feeding. Mean survival of females provided 10% sucrose solution (in water) after a single or double blood meal was higher (90.5+/-6.4% and 89.3+/-6.5%, respectively) than in the respective groups receiving water only following blood feeding (double meal: 49.0+/-9.6%; single meal: 45.3+/-10.9%). Females receiving a double meal were more fecund on average (89.0+/-6.6 eggs) than females provided a single meal (82.3+/-8.2 eggs).

  10. Larvicidal and Nematicidal Activities of 3-Acylbarbituric Acid Analogues against Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Mi Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents. Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern. Among the 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues, four compounds—10, 14d, 14g and 19b—showed >90% larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus at 10 μg/mL concentration, and one (compound 10 showed the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus, with a LC50 value of 0.22 μg/mL. Only compound 18 showed strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Most active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties; thus, actives typically had ClogP values of around 1.40–1.50 and rel-PSA values of 16–17% and these similar cheminformatic characteristics reflect their similar structure. This study indicates that active 3-acylbarbituric acids analogues have potential as lead compounds for developing novel mosquito control agents.

  11. Evaluation of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Pyriproxyfen Barrier Treatments for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Management in Urbanized Areas of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Isik; Williams, Gregory M; Rochlin, Ilia; Suman, Devi; Wang, Yi; Chandel, Kshitij; Gaugler, Randy

    2018-02-28

    Mosquito control programs in the United States are still searching for best management practices to control the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae). Most intervention methods for this species are either labor intensive (e.g., source reduction) or short-term (e.g., ultra-low-volume adulticiding). We investigated the effectiveness of barrier spray pesticide applications within urban and suburban residential yards in New Jersey as a control strategy using a before-after-control-impact (BACI) approach. Applications of Demand CSR pyrethroid (9.7% AI lambda-cyhalothrin) only or combined Demand CSR and Archer IGR insect growth regulator (1.3% AI pyriproxyfen) applications resulted in significant and similar decreases in adult mosquito abundance post-treatment ranging from 78 to 74% respectively, compared with the untreated control. Both insecticides exceeded the 70% reduction threshold considered as effective for Ae. albopictus control for 2 to 4 wk. However, applications of Archer IGR alone did not reduce adult mosquito abundance. The field study results were supported by laboratory no-choice bioassays using treated leaf foliage. Our study is the first data driven evidence of the residual efficacy of barrier pesticide applications in New Jersey with lambda-cyhalothrin that provided significant reductions in adult Ae. albopictus populations for an extended duration.

  12. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

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    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  13. Genetic, biochemical, and structural characterization of a new densovirus isolated from a chronically infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Senxiong; Cheng Lingpeng; Zhang Qinfen; Lin Wei; Lu Xinying; Brannan, Jennifer; Zhou, Z.H.; Zhang Jingqiang

    2004-01-01

    We report the isolation, sequencing, biochemical, and structural characterization of a previously undescribed virus in a chronically infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line. This virus is identified as a new densovirus under the Densovirinae subfamily of the Parvoviridae based on its biological and morphologic properties as well as sequence homologies, and is tentatively designated A. albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV). Analysis of the 4094 nt of the C6/36 DNV genome revealed that the plus strand had three large open reading frames (ORFs): a left ORF, a right ORF, and a mid-ORF (within the left ORF), whose potential coding capacities are 91.0, 40.8, and 41.2 kDa, respectively. The left ORF likely encodes the nonstructural protein NS-1, which contains NTP-binding and helicase domains. The right ORF likely encodes structural proteins, VP1 and VP2. Our analyses revealed that C6/36 DNV has a similar genomic organization and shares very high homology in nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequences with Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) and A. albopictus densovirus (AalDNV), members of the genus Brevidensovirus of the Densovirinae. Similar to other densoviruses, C6/36 DNV has a different genomic organization and no recognizable sequence homology with viruses in the Parvovirinae. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the C6/36 DNV at 15.6-A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) revealed distinctive outer surface features not previously seen in other parvoviruses, indicating structural divergence of densoviruses, in addition to its genomic differences, while the inner surface of the C6/36 DNV capsid exhibits features that are conserved among parvoviruses

  14. Polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel gene and susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to insecticides in three districts of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moytrey; Ballav, Sudeep; Maji, Ardhendu K; Basu, Nandita; Sarkar, Biplab Chandra; Saha, Pabitra

    2018-01-01

    The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion as per WHO protocols in the northern districts of West Bengal. Polymorphisms in the VGSC gene were studied by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Ae. albopictus larval population showed sensitive [Resistance Ratio (RR99)resistance (510) to temephos at different study sites. Adult bioassay results revealed that Ae. albopictus was highly resistant to DDT [Corrected Mortality (CM) 98%), except in Dhupguri where a low level of resistance to deltamethrin (CM = 96.25%) was recorded. None of the six important kdr mutations (S953P, I975M/V, L978, V980G, F1474C, D1703Y) were found in the VGSC of studied mosquitoes, but we identified 11 synonymous and 1 non-synonymous mutation in the VGSC gene. The higher susceptibility level to deltamethrin and malathion, along with the absence of important kdr mutations indicates that these two insecticides are still effective against Ae. albopictus in the study areas. The susceptibility status of temephos should be monitored closely as low to moderate levels of resistance were observed in few sites. A similar study is recommended for monitoring and early detection of insecticide resistance in other parts of the country.

  15. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Damiens

    Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  16. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew J; Ambrose, Luke; Cooper, Robert D; Chow, Weng K; Davis, Joseph B; Muzari, Mutizwa O; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Burkot, Thomas R; Bangs, Michael J; Reimer, Lisa J; Butafa, Charles; Lobo, Neil F; Syafruddin, Din; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Ahmad, Rohani; Beebe, Nigel W

    2017-04-01

    Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian

  17. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 in the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Maynard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range.We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source.There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the

  18. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  19. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs.

  20. Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Moutailler, Sara; Coudrier, Daniel; Rousseaux, Claudine; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Thiria, Julien; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Despres, Philippe; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2007-11-14

    A Chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations. We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from La Réunion: (i) strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii) strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu)/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i) whole females and (ii) midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21. Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.

  1. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC Gene in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr. Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established.A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested.A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations.Two novel kdr

  2. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) Gene in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiabao; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa; Cai, Songwu; Li, Yiji; Wang, Xiaoming; Lo, Eugenia; Lee, Rebecca; Sheen, Roger; Duan, Jinhua; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr). Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established. A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested. A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T) was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S) was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations. Two novel kdr mutations, I1532T

  3. Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A Chikungunya (CHIK outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations.We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV from La Réunion: (i strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 10(7 plaque forming units (pfu/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i whole females and (ii midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21.Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.

  4. Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) infected with the American-Asian genotype of dengue type 2 virus in Medellín suggests its possible role as vector of dengue fever in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Suaza-Vasco, Juan; Castaño, Sandra; Triana, Omar; Uribe, Sandra

    2017-03-29

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are recognized vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika arboviruses in several countries worldwide. In Colombia, Ae. albopictus geographical distribution has increased to include highly populated cities such as Cali and Medellín. Although this species has been frequently found in urban and semi-urban zones in the country, its role as vector of the dengue fever is poorly known. To identify the presence of Ae. albopictus specimens naturally infected with dengue virus collected in Medellín. Insects were collected in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia campus in Medellín. Individuals were classified as Ae. albopictus and confirmed by DNA barcode region analysis. Mosquitoes were processed for dengue virus identification, and a fragment of the NS3 gen was sequenced and compared with DENV-2 genotypes reported in the literature. Sequence analysis of COI indicated Ae. albopictus individuals were similar to those recently reported in Colombia, and genetically close to those from other regions worldwide. Among the pools tested one was positive for DENV-2, and the NS3 analysis indicated it belonged to the Asian-American clade. We report the presence Ae. albopictus naturally infected with the Asian-American genotype of DENV-2 in Colombia. The presence of Ae. albopictus specimens carrying the most common genotype infecting humans in a highly populated city such as Medellín indicates its potential role as dengue vector in Colombia and highlights the relevance of including it in current vector surveillance strategies.

  5. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  6. De novo assembly and annotation of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) repeatome with dnaPipeTE from raw genomic reads and comparative analysis with the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Clément; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu

    2015-03-11

    Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the "repeatome" during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTE-a new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipeline's ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Aspectos da biologia do Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae, a nível de campo Biology aspects of the Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae, at fields level

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    David Pereira Neves

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Aedees albopictus has been discoved by Neves & Espinola (1987 at Minas Gerais state, we begun studying some biologic aspects, such as breeding places, host preference, times of feeding and the preferred places for blood feeding.

  8. The impact of temperature and Wolbachia infection on vector competence of potential dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the transmission of dengue virus serotype 1 in southern Taiwan.

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    Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Tien-Huang; Lin, Cheo; Shu, Pei-Yun; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2017-11-07

    We evaluated the impact of temperature and Wolbachia infection on vector competence of the local Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations of southern Taiwan in the laboratory. After oral infection with dengue serotype 1 virus (DENV-1), female mosquitoes were incubated at temperatures of 10, 16, 22, 28 and 34 °C. Subsequently, salivary gland, head, and thorax-abdomen samples were analyzed for their virus titer at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-infection (dpi) by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that Ae. aegypti survived significantly longer and that dengue viral genome levels in the thorax-abdomen (10 3.25 ± 0.53 -10 4.09 ± 0.71 PFU equivalents/ml) and salivary gland samples (10 2.67 ± 0.33 -10 3.89 ± 0.58 PFU equivalents/ml) were significantly higher at high temperature (28-34 °C). The survival of Ae. albopictus was significantly better at 16 or 28 °C, but the virus titers from thorax-abdomen (10 0.70 -10 2.39 ± 1.31 PFU equivalents/ml) and salivary gland samples (10 0.12 ± 0.05 -10 1.51 ± 0.31 PFU equivalents/ml) were significantly higher at 22-28 °C. Within viable temperature ranges, the viruses were detectable after 10 dpi in salivary glands and head tissues in Ae. aegypti and after 5-10 dpi in Ae. albopictus. Vector competence was measured in Ae. albopictus with and without Wolbachia at 28 °C. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes survived significantly better and carried lower virus titers than Wolbachia-free mosquitoes. Wolbachia coinfections (92.8-97.2%) with wAlbA and wAlbB strains were commonly found in a wild population of Ae. albopictus. In southern Taiwan, Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue and Ae. albopictus has a non-significant role in the transmission of dengue virus due to the high prevalence of Wolbachia infection in the local mosquito population of southern Taiwan.

  9. [The factors associated with the occurrence of immature forms of Aedes aegypti in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Santos, R

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, a disease that can result in epidemics. Ecological studies are important because different geographical populations of the vector may differ in their bioecological characteristics, which can be helpful in guiding control actions. The objective of this study was to identify and to analyze some factors associated with the occurrence of immature forms of A. aegypti on Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, using data from the National Health Foundation (FNS). The results showed that 58.04% of all the containers examined were supports for plant pots, and plastic or glass cans discarded in the yard. The highest percentages of positive breeding sites were observed in tires (1.41%), wells and cisterns (0.93%), and barrels and large metal cans (0.64%). In the summer, the proportion of positivity was higher for big containers used for water storage and for containers discarded in the yard. In the winter the proportion was higher for small containers used for water storage. The highest rates of positive containers were observed after three months without FNS activities. Our results show the necessity to continue the control, and suggest that less attention was paid to small containers during the winter by FNS. Factorial analysis showed that the determinant factor for the occurrence of immature forms of A. aegypti is represented by environmental factors, while elimination and treatment of breeding sites by FNS play a less important role, a fact possibly causing the maintenance of immature forms of A. aegypti.

  10. Aspectos da biologia do Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae), a nível de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, David Pereira; Silva, Rivany Fernandes da

    1989-01-01

    After the Aedees albopictus has been discoved by Neves & Espinola (1987) at Minas Gerais state, we begun studying some biologic aspects, such as breeding places, host preference, times of feeding and the preferred places for blood feeding.

  11. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

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    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  12. Comportamento antropofílico de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae na região do Vale do Paraíba, Sudeste do Brasil Anthropophilic behaviour of Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae in the Vale do Paraíba region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A avaliação do papel epidemiológico de Aedes albopictus no Estado de São Paulo está sendo investigado com base em suas características biológica e ecológica. Nessa linha objetivou-se determinar a atividade hematófaga dessa espécie, tendo como parâmetros a posição estacionária e em movimento do homem utilizado como isca. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida numa chácara localizada na zona periurbana da cidade de Tremembé, Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Aedes albopictus foi capturado sob duas modalidades técnicas de isca humana: uma correspondeu a período de 24 horas ininterruptas, com os coletores em ponto único, e outra, de duas horas, com os coletores visitando, por 5 min, 48 pontos, distando 10 m entre si, nos períodos da manhã e tarde. Ambas foram executadas mensalmente durante 12 meses (1989/90. RESULTADOS: As 24 capturas realizadas renderam 637 fêmeas de Ae.albopictus, sendo 54 (8,4% e 583 (91,6%, respectivamente, para posição estacionário e móvel, do coletor. Fez-se análise sobre a influência da mobilidade do hospedeiro como estímulo atrativo para esta espécie. A atividade horária detectada foi diurna, com picos às 6:00h, entre 13 e 14h, e o maior das 16 às 17 horas. A abundância de adulto correspondeu às estações verão/outono, mas na modalidade de coleta móvel a presença das fêmeas foi prolongada por todo o ano. A chuva e temperatura foram fatores de análise pelas suas correlações com a abundância e redução dos adultos de Ae.albopictus. CONCLUSÃO: Demonstrou-se ser complexa a influência de fatores endógenos e exógenos na prática da hematofagia de Aedes albopictus. Contudo pareceu claro que o comportamento desta prática, nas modalidades estudadas, demonstrou vôo direcional ao hospedeiro num raio supostamente pequeno, e vôo apetente, menos significativo, demonstrado pela posição estacionária do coletor. Atividade de hematofagia foi

  13. Abundance and prevalence of Aedes aegypti immatures and relationships with household water storage in rural areas in southern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Anh P; Clements, Archie C A; Jeffery, Jason A L; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Nam, Vu Sinh; Vaughan, Gregory; Shinkfield, Ramon; Kutcher, Simon C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Since 2000, the Government of Viet Nam has committed to provide rural communities with increased access to safe water through a variety of household water supply schemes (wells, ferrocement tanks and jars) and piped water schemes. One possible, unintended consequence of these schemes is the concomitant increase in water containers that may serve as habitats for dengue mosquito immatures, principally Aedes aegypti. To assess these possible impacts we undertook detailed household surveys of Ae. aegypti immatures, water storage containers and various socioeconomic factors in three rural communes in southern Viet Nam. Positive relationships between the numbers of household water storage containers and the prevalence and abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures were found. Overall, water storage containers accounted for 92-97% and 93-96% of the standing crops of III/IV instars and pupae, respectively. Interestingly, households with higher socioeconomic levels had significantly higher numbers of water storage containers and therefore greater risk of Ae. aegypti infestation. Even after provision of piped water to houses, householders continued to store water in containers and there was no observed decrease in water storage container abundance in these houses, compared to those that relied entirely on stored water. These findings highlight the householders' concerns about the limited availability of water and their strong behavoural patterns associated with storage of water. We conclude that household water storage container availability is a major risk factor for infestation with Ae. aegypti immatures, and that recent investment in rural water supply infrastructure are unlikely to mitigate this risk, at least in the short term.

  14. Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Hosni, Dawood; Wei, Jiqian; Abbas, Ghulam; Ga'al, Hassan; Jianchu, Mo

    2018-05-01

    Mosquitoes act as key vector for transmission of devastating parasites and pathogens which affect millions of people globally. In this research, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles of Cassia fistula fruit pulp as an innovative and operative tool against vector mosquitoes is presented. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a series of techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Silver nanoparticles were highly effective against the larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Ae. albopictus had LC50 values ranging from 8.3 mg/L (I instar) to 17.3 mg/L (pupae) and LC50 ranging from 1.1 mg/L (I instar) to 19.0 mg/L (pupae) against Cx. pipiens pallens. The systemic effect of AgNPs was further assessed in the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens pallens by measuring the levels of total proteins and activity of two important marker enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase and α- and β-carboxylesterase. Overall, the findings of the study suggest that the use of Cassia fistula-fruit pulp extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles can be used for controlling vector mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of AgNPs synthesized by Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its possible mechanism of action.

  15. Efficacy of Two Common Methods of Application of Residual Insecticide for Controlling the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, in Urban Areas.

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    Lorenzo Marini

    Full Text Available After its first introduction in the 1980's the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, has spread throughout Southern Europe. Ae. albopictus is considered an epidemiologically important vector for the transmission of many viral pathogens such as the yellow fever virus, dengue fever and Chikungunya fever, as well as several filarial nematodes such as Dirofilaria immitis or D. repens. It is therefore crucial to develop measures to reduce the risks of disease transmission by controlling the vector populations. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two application techniques (mist vs. stretcher sprayer and two insecticides (Etox based on the nonester pyrethroid Etofenprox vs. Microsin based on the pyrethroid type II Cypermetrin in controlling adult tiger mosquito populations in highly populated areas. To test the effect of the two treatments pre- and post-treatment human landing rate counts were conducted for two years. After one day from the treatment we observed a 100% population decrease in mosquito abundance with both application methods and both insecticides. However, seven and 14 days after the application the stretcher sprayer showed larger population reductions than the mist sprayer. No effect of insecticide type after one day and 14 days was found, while Etox caused slightly higher population reduction than Microsin after seven days. Emergency measures to locally reduce the vector populations should adopt adulticide treatments using stretcher sprayers. However, more research is still needed to evaluate the potential negative effects of adulticide applications on non-target organisms.

  16. How do Nutritional Stress and La Crosse Virus Infection Interact? Tests for Effects on Willingness to Blood Feed and Fecundity in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Juliano, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that vector-borne pathogens should have low virulence for their vector because of selection against pathogens that harm the vector sufficiently to reduce transmission. Environmental factors such as nutritional stress can alter vector-pathogen associations by making the vectors more susceptible to pathogens (condition-dependent competence) and vulnerable to the harm caused by pathogen replication (condition-dependent virulence). We tested the hypotheses of condition-dependent competence and condition-dependent virulence by examining the interactive effects of short-term sugar deprivation and exposure to La Crosse virus (LACV) in female Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We predicted that infection status interacts with sugar deprivation to alter willingness to blood feed and fecundity in the second gonotrophic cycle (condition-dependent virulence). Sugar deprivation had no effect on body infection or disseminated infection rates. Infection status, sugar treatment, and their interaction had no effect on fecundity. Mosquitoes that had intermittent access to sugar were significantly more willing to take a second bloodmeal compared with those that had continuous access to sugar. Infection status and the interaction with sugar treatment had no effect on blood-feeding behavior. Thus, we found no evidence of short-term sugar deprivation leading to condition-dependent competence for, or condition-dependent virulence of, LACV in Ae. albopictus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ecología de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en América y transmisión de enfermedades

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    Jorge R. Rey

    2015-06-01

    Otra posible causa de la rápida desaparición de Ae. aegypti es la interferencia reproductiva entre las dos especies. De acuerdo con esta hipótesis, los efectos asimétricos de los apareamientos entre especies favorecen a Ae. albopictus. Este tipo de interferencia reproductiva podría ser la causante de la eliminación de poblaciones simpátricas de las especies involucradas y de la rapidez con que Ae. aegypti ha desaparecido de muchos lugares en América luego de la invasión de Ae. albopictus.

  18. Duplex Real-Time PCR Assay Distinguishes Aedes aegypti From Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Using DNA From Sonicated First-Instar Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothera, Linda; Byrd, Brian; Savage, Harry M

    2017-11-07

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) are important arbovirus vectors in the United States, and the recent emergence of Zika virus disease as a public health concern in the Americas has reinforced a need for tools to rapidly distinguish between these species in collections made by vector control agencies. We developed a duplex real-time PCR assay that detects both species and does not cross-amplify in any of the other seven Aedes species tested. The lower limit of detection for our assay is equivalent to ∼0.03 of a first-instar larva in a 60-µl sample (0.016 ng of DNA per real-time PCR reaction). The assay was sensitive and specific in mixtures of both species that reflected up to a 2,000-fold difference in DNA concentration. In addition, we developed a simple protocol to extract DNA from sonicated first-instar larvae, and used that DNA to test the assay. Because it uses real-time PCR, the assay saves time by not requiring a separate visualization step. This assay can reduce the time needed for vector control agencies to make species identifications, and thus inform decisions about surveillance and control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Microhabitats de Aedes albopictus (Skuse na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Skuse in the Paraíba Valley region of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o nível de disseminação de Ae. albopictus na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas de larvas e pupas em seis locais distintos, segundo transecto com 10 km de extensão. O alvo principal foi oco de árvores, tendo sido também incluídos artefatos antrópicos. As espécies Ae. terrens e Ae. albopictus foram as únicas do gênero Aedes presentes e, algumas vezes, coexistiram no mesmo microhabitat natural. A segregação de sete espécies da comunidade de oco variou de acordo com os macro e microhabitats examinados. Assim, a distribuição de Ae. albopictus envolveu as zonas rural, rural-urbana e urbana, porém a segunda área foi a mais preferida. Como fator favorável à infestação de Ae. albopictus na região, destacou-se a vacância de nichos ecológicos naturais resultante da influência antrópica. As chuvas foram relevantes no "input" de larvas e pupas e os ocos, com volumes superiores a 600 ml, foram os mais produtivos. A abundância desses dois estádios ocorreu nas estações verão-outono, sendo o pico máximo alcançado nos meses de março-abril. Essa sazonalidade foi comum em bambu experimental e recipientes artificiais. Os dados de temperatura média sugeriram a faixa de 23 a 17°C como o período mais favorável ao desenvolvimento larvário. Face a isso, a cepa de Ae. albopictus estudada parece ser oriunda da Ásia tropical e, portanto, se reveste de elevada importância epidemiológica pela possibilidade dessa espécie vir a exercer, além do dengue, papel vetorial para a febre amarela no Brasil.The objective of this study was the determination of extent of the spacial distribution of Aedes albopictus in the Paraíba River Valley, State S. Paulo, Brazil. Thus, collections of larvae and pupae mosquitoes were carried out at six sites distributed along a transection with a 10-km extension. The target was the treeholes but artificial containers were also used in

  20. Epistatic roles of E2 glycoprotein mutations in adaption of chikungunya virus to Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

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    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 Chikungunya virus (CHIKV caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. An unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of Ae. albopictus as a principal vector. Previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation E1-A226V significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized CHIKV strains LR2006 OPY1 and 37997. However, in the current study we demonstrate that introduction of the E1-A226V mutation into the background of an infectious clone derived from the Ag41855 strain (isolated in Uganda in 1982 does not significantly increase infectivity for Ae. albopictus. In order to elucidate the genetic determinants that affect CHIKV sensitivity to the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus, the genomes of the LR2006 OPY1 and Ag41855 strains were used for construction of chimeric viruses and viruses with a specific combination of point mutations at selected positions. Based upon the midgut infection rates of the derived viruses in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, a critical role of the mutations at positions E2-60 and E2-211 on vector infection was revealed. The E2-G60D mutation was an important determinant of CHIKV infectivity for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, but only moderately modulated the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. However, the effect of the E2-I211T mutation with respect to mosquito infections was much more specific, strongly modifying the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. In contrast, CHIKV infectivity for Ae. aegypti was not influenced by the E2-1211T mutation. The occurrence of the E2-60G and E2-211I residues among CHIKV isolates was analyzed, revealing a high prevalence of E2-211I among strains belonging to the Eastern/Central/South African (ECSA clade. This suggests that the E2-211I might be important for adaptation of CHIKV to some particular conditions

  1. Detección de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae en la ciudad de Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    María Elena Cuéllar-Jiménez

    2007-06-01

    Conclusión. Es importante integrar el control de A. aegypti y A. albopictus en un solo programa. Se recomienda intensificar la vigilancia en los municipios y departamentos vecinos con el fin de limitar a tiempo el avance de la especie.

  2. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C; Evans, Michelle V; McClanahan, Taylor D; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Tesla, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC). We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  3. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

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    Courtney C Murdock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC. We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  4. Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Wei, Jianrong; Dai, Jianqing; Du, Jiawei

    2008-05-01

    The changes of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) surviving in a space containing vapors of the spatial repellents geraniol, eugenol, citral, anisaldehyde, or citronellal were evaluated using an arm-in-cage test and a bioassay of bloodmeals on a shaved mouse. The mosquitoes surviving concentrations of geraniol, citral, eugenol, or anisaldehyde at 0.013, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.250 microg/cm3 for 24 and 48 h all showed different degrees of reduction in host-seeking ability. After 48 h of exposure to 0.250 microg/cm3 geraniol, almost 100% of the mosquitoes lost their host-seeking ability. The next most potent spatial repellent, anisaldehyde, stopped host seeking by > 85.5%. Citronellal did not result in a significant reduction in the host-seeking ability at any concentration level after either 24 or 48 h of treatment. We also found that reduction of host-seeking ability recovered after various times. The longest recovery time (144 h) was observed for geraniol after 24 h at 0.250 microg/cm3. In the study, geraniol, eugenol, and citral all significantly affected the activation and orientation stages of the blood-feeding behavior. However, only anisaldehyde significantly interrupted the normal blood-feeding of mosquitoes in all stages of behavior. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisaldehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus that they could play a major role in new repellent technology.

  5. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Spondweni Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    301 policy or position of the U.S. Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, 302 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the Kingdom...Aedes albopicutus (Thailand) 12 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Aedes albopicutus ( Venezuela ) 3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Culex quinquefaciatus (Galveston, USA) 24 0 (0.0...albopicutus ( Venezuela ) 24 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Culex quinquefaciatus (Galveston, USA) 24 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557

  6. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene as effective larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus: toxicity on non-target aquatic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    A wide number of studies dealing with mosquito control focus on toxicity screenings of whole plant essential oils, while limited efforts shed light on main molecules responsible of toxicity, as well as their mechanisms of action on non-target organisms. In this study, GC-MS shed light on main essential oil components extracted from leaves of the Suriname cherry Eugenia uniflora, i.e., curzerene (35.7%), trans-β-elemenone (11.5%), and γ-elemene (13.6%), testing them on Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. Non-target toxicity experiments were carried out on four species of aquatic larvivorous organisms, including fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs. The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves tested on An. subpictus, Ae. Albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus showed LC 50 of 31.08, 33.50, and 36.35 μg/ml, respectively. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene were extremely toxic to An. subpictus (LC 50  = 4.14, 6.13, and 10.53 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC 50  = 4.57, 6.74, and 11.29 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC 50  = 5.01, 7.32, and 12.18 μg/ml). The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves, curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene showed low toxicity to larvivorous fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs, with LC 50 ranging from 303.77 to 6765.56 μg/ml. Predator safety factor (PSF) ranged from 55.72 to 273.45. Overall, we believe that curzerene isolated from the essential oil from E. uniflora leaves can represent an ideal molecule to formulate novel mosquito larvicides, due to its extremely low LC 50 on all tested mosquito vectors (4.14-5.01 μg/ml), which far encompasses most of the botanical pesticides tested till now. Notably, the above-mentioned LC 50 did not damage the four aquatic predators tested in this study.

  7. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  8. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  9. Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) populations as vectors for lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, M; Talavera, S; Santamaría, C; Rivas, R; Pujol, N; Aranda, C; Marquès, E; Valle, M; Verdún, M; Pagès, N; Busquets, N

    2016-06-01

    The emerging disease West Nile fever is caused by West Nile virus (WNV), one of the most widespread arboviruses. This study represents the first test of the vectorial competence of European Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (both: Diptera: Culicidae) populations for lineage 1 and 2 WNV isolated in Europe. Culex pipiens and S. albopicta populations were susceptible to WNV infection, had disseminated infection, and were capable of transmitting both WNV lineages. This is the first WNV competence assay to maintain mosquito specimens under environmental conditions mimicking the field (day/night) conditions associated with the period of maximum expected WNV activity. The importance of environmental conditions is discussed and the issue of how previous experiments conducted in fixed high temperatures may have overestimated WNV vector competence results with respect to natural environmental conditions is analysed. The information presented should be useful to policymakers and public health authorities for establishing effective WNV surveillance and vector control programmes. This would improve preparedness to prevent future outbreaks. © 2016 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  10. The four serotypes of dengue recognize the same putative receptors in Aedes aegypti midgut and Ae. albopictus cells

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    Camacho-Nuez Minerva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV attach to the host cell surface and subsequently enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several primary and low affinity co-receptors for this flavivirus have been identified. However, the presence of these binding molecules on the cell surface does not necessarily render the cell susceptible to infection. Determination of which of them serve as bona fide receptors for this virus in the vector may be relevant to treating DENV infection and in designing control strategies. Results (1 Overlay protein binding assay showed two proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 67 kDa (R80 and R67. (2 Specific antibodies against these two proteins inhibited cell binding and infection. (3 Both proteins were bound by all four serotypes of dengue virus. (4 R80 and R67 were purified by affinity chromatography from Ae. aegypti mosquito midguts and from Ae albopictus C6/36 cells. (5 In addition, a protein with molecular mass of 57 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography from the midgut extracts. (6 R80 and R67 from radiolabeled surface membrane proteins of C6/36 cells were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against Ae. aegypti midgut. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that R67 and R80 are receptors for the four serotypes of dengue virus in the midgut cells of Ae. aegypti and in C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells.

  11. An integrated approach for the assessment of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus global spatial distribution, and determination of the zones susceptible to the development of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José; Meneses, Bruno M

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus, one of the new epidemic diseases, is reported to have affected millions of people in the past year. The suitable climate conditions of the areas where Zika virus has been reported, especially in areas with a high population density, are the main cause of the current outbreak and spread of the disease. Indeed, the suitable climatic conditions of certain territories constitute perfect breading nest for the propagation and outbreak of worldwide diseases. The main objective of this research is to analyze the global distribution and predicted areas of both mosquitoes Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus which are the main vectors of Zika virus. Physical (SRTM) and climatic variables (WorldClim) were used to obtain the susceptibility maps based on the optimum conditions for the development of these mosquitoes. The susceptibility model was developed using a Species Distribution Model - correlative model, namely the Maximum Entropy, that used as input the spatial references of both vectors (Dryad Digital Repository). The results show the most important classes of each independent variable used in assessing the presence of each species of mosquitoes and the areas susceptible to the presence of these vector species. It turns out that Ae. aegypti has greater global dispersion than the Ae. albopictus specie, although two common regions stand out as the most prone to the presence of both mosquito species (tropical and subtropical zones). The crossing of these areas of greater susceptibility with areas of greater population density (e.g. India, China, Se of USA and Brazil) shows some agreement, and these areas stand out due to the presence of several records of Zika virus (HealthMap Project). In this sense, through the intersection of susceptibility and human exposure the areas with increased risk of development and spread of Zika virus are pinpointed, suggesting that there may be a new outbreak of this virus in these places, if preventive measures are not adopted

  12. Aedes albopictus (S na região de São José do Rio Preto, SP: estudo da sua infestação em área já ocupada pelo Aedes aegypti e discussão de seu papel como possível vetor de dengue e febre amarela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaravalloti Neto Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a evolução da infestação pelo Aedes albopictus na região de São José do Rio Preto, área já ocupada pelo Aedes aegypti e discutir seu papel na transmissão de doenças. Com informações obtidas em medidas de densidade larvária realizadas em áreas urbanas dos municípios, analisaram-se: ano e local de ocorrência, composição e localização das amostras larvárias; recipientes e Índices de Breteau. Até maio de 2001, o vetor já se encontrava em 96 dos 100 municípios da região. O Aedes albopictus, comparativamente ao Aedes aegypti, ocupou em maior proporção o peridomicílio e apresentou maior grau de associação com recipientes naturais e descartáveis. O comportamento endêmico do dengue, a ocorrência de casos autóctones de febre amarela silvestre na região e a reconhecida competência do vetor para estas doenças implicam em considerar a possibilidade de sua participação na transmissão do dengue e na reurbanização da febre amarela.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nitrile functionalized silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: DNA binding, cleavage studies, antibacterial properties and mosquitocidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekunowo, Patrick O; Haque, Rosenani A; Razali, Mohd R; Avicor, Silas W; Wajidi, Mustafa F F

    2018-04-25

    A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag 2 O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (K b  = 3.627 × 10 6 ) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 10 6 , 8.672 × 10 5 and 6.665 × 10 5 , respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  14. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

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    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC, double-infected (GUA and uninfected (GT female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression.

  15. Reduced performance of a PVC-coated Biogents Sentinel prototype in comparison to the original Biogents Sentinel for monitoring the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in temperate North America.

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    Isik Unlu

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a major nuisance pest and also a public health concern because of the role it plays in the transmission of arboviruses. There is a continuing demand for effective surveillance tools for this species. The first generation of Biogents Sentinel (BGS1 traps have proven to be an effective tool for surveillance of Ae. albopictus throughout its range, however, some defects in construction led to the eventual development of the next generation. We compared the performance of the new generation prototype trap (BGS2P to the original. Studies were conducted in suburban and urban areas in Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, and Virginia, USA in the summer of 2014 (July-October. BGS1 traps collected significantly more Ae. albopictus when compared to the BGS2P with or without CO2 in all locations (P<0.05. When a white cloth was wrapped around the BGS2P traps, efficiency did not change in Louisiana, New Jersey, and Virginia; however, numbers of adult Ae. albopictus collected from the BGS2P and the BGS1 were significantly different based on lure type (P< 0.0001. Results from Florida showed that BGS1with the BG lure and CO2 collected significantly higher adult numbers compared to BGS2P with a three component cartridge lure and CO2 (P< 0.0001. Overall, our results indicate that despite improvements in construction and durability of the BGS2P, this newer trap type did not increase the capture rates of Ae. albopictus in North America. Biogents modified BGS2P based on the data collected from the current study and updated as Biogents Sentinel 2 is now commercially available and its efficacy in comparison to the original will require further study.

  16. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, A; Aidil Azahary, A R; Malinda, M; Zurainee, M N; Rozilawati, H; Wan Najdah, W M A; Lee, H L

    2014-12-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVESI: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type), canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%). Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3%) pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors.

  17. From ground pools to treeholes: convergent evolution of habitat and phenotype in Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghigian, John; Andreadis, Theodore G; Livdahl, Todd P

    2017-12-19

    Invasive mosquito species are responsible for millions of vector-borne disease cases annually. The global invasive success of Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus has relied on the human transport of immature stages in container habitats. However, despite the importance of these mosquitoes and this ecological specialization to their widespread dispersal, evolution of habitat specialization in this group has remained largely unstudied. We use comparative methods to evaluate the evolution of habitat specialization and its potential influence on larval morphology, and evaluate whether container dwelling and invasiveness are monophyletic in Aedes. We show that habitat specialization has evolved repeatedly from ancestral ground pool usage to specialization in container habitats. Furthermore, we find that larval morphological scores are significantly associated with larval habitat when accounting for evolutionary relationships. We find that Ornstein-Uhleinbeck models with unique optima for each larval habitat type are preferred over several other models based predominantly on neutral processes, and that OU models can reliably simulate real morphological data. Our results demonstrate that multiple lineages of Aedes have convergently evolved a key trait associated with invasive success: the use of container habitats for immature stages. Moreover, our results demonstrate convergence in morphological characteristics as well, and suggest a role of adaptation to habitat specialization in driving phenotypic diversity in this mosquito lineage. Finally, our results highlight that the genus Aedes is not monophyletic.

  18. Comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo Behavior of immatures Aedes aegypti in the coast State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em região de alta incidência de dengue, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, selecionaram-se 9 áreas, com objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: As 9 áreas foram agrupadas em 4 estratos, diferenciados pelo uso e ocupação do solo. Foram coletadas larvas e pupas numa amostra de cerca de 500 imóveis em cada área. RESULTADOS: Apesar do pneu e lona apresentarem as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti, o ralo, juntamente com outros recipientes fixos nas edificações foram altamente predominantes entre os recipientes positivos (32 a 76% dos recipientes positivos. As áreas coletivas de prédios e os imóveis não residenciais de grande porte apresentaram as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti enquanto os apartamentos, as menores. Os níveis de infestação foram maiores na área residencial com predominância de prédios de apartamentos, onde 76% dos criadouros detectados foram recipientes fixos nas edificações. CONCLUSÕES: Esses conhecimentos são importantes subsídios para a estratégia de controle, pois reforçam a necessidade de atenção especial para determinados tipos de imóveis, bem como da adequação da norma técnica de ralo de água pluvial e da melhoria de manutenção das edificações. Além disso, são necessárias observações sistemáticas que permitam acompanhar a dinâmica de ocupação de diferentes imóveis e recipientes por Aedes aegypti e a incorporação desses conhecimentos nas ações de controle do vetor na região.INTRODUCTION: In a region of high dengue incidence, on the coast of the State of São Paulo, 9 areas were selected to evaluate the behavior of immature Aedes aegypti. METHODS: The 9 areas were grouped into 4 strata according to soil use and occupation. Larvae and pupas were collected in a sample of approximately 500 buildings in each area. RESULTS: Although tires and canvas presented the highest positive rates for

  19. Uso de células de Aedes albopictus C6/36 na propagação e classificação de arbovírus das famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Colônias de células de mosquito Aedes albopictus C6/36 foram infectadas com 23 arbovirus, sendo 19 destes existentes no Brasil, pertencentes às famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae. A Replicação virai foi detectada por imunofluorescência indireta com todos os vírus estudados enquanto que o efeito citopático foi observado durante a infecção por alguns destes. No teste de imunofluorescência indireta utilizou-se fluidos ascíticos imunes de camundongos, específicos para os vírus estudados. A replicação virai caracterizada por grande produção de antígeno recomenda a utilização de células C6/36 na propagação e em tentativas de isolamento desses arbovirus. A técnica de imunofluorescência ofereceu importantes subsídios na classificação e identificação de vírus que replicam nestas células.C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells were infected w ith Brazilian arbovirus from the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae. Replication was obtained with all the studied viruses and cytopathic effect was observed with some. Viral antigen was assayed in C6/36 cell cultures for antigen was assayed in C6/36 cells by an indirect immunofluorescence test using specific mouse immune ascitic fluid. Antigen production was detected in C6/36 cells infected with all the studied viruses. The author recommends the inoculation of C6/36 cell cultures for isolation of virus from the four studied families. The immunofluorescence technique is an important tool for classification and identification of virus growing in C6/36 cells.

  20. Better to Be in Bad Company than to Be Alone? Aedes Vectors Respond Differently to Breeding Site Quality in the Presence of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato N.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on two competing species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), both invasive mosquitoes of the New World. Context-specific competition between immature forms inside containers seems to be an important determinant of the coexistence or displacement of each species in different regions of the world. Here, competition experiments developed at low density (one, two or three larvae) and receiving four different resource food concentration, were designed to test whether Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respond differently to competition, and whether competition can be attributed to a simple division of resources. Three phenotypic traits - larval development, adult survival under starvation and wing length - were used as indicators of performance. Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors. The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length. The response to resource limitation was different when developing with heterospecifics: Ae. aegypti developing with one heterospecific showed faster development, producing smaller adults with shorter lives, while in the presence of two competitors, development increased and adults lived longer. Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival. Overall, our results suggest that response to competition can not simply be attributed to the division of resources, and that larvae of both species presented large phenotypic plasticity in their response to the presence or absence of heterospecifics and conspecifics. PMID:26244511

  1. Better to Be in Bad Company than to Be Alone? Aedes Vectors Respond Differently to Breeding Site Quality in the Presence of Others.

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    Thais I S Riback

    Full Text Available This study focuses on two competing species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, both invasive mosquitoes of the New World. Context-specific competition between immature forms inside containers seems to be an important determinant of the coexistence or displacement of each species in different regions of the world. Here, competition experiments developed at low density (one, two or three larvae and receiving four different resource food concentration, were designed to test whether Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respond differently to competition, and whether competition can be attributed to a simple division of resources. Three phenotypic traits - larval development, adult survival under starvation and wing length - were used as indicators of performance. Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors. The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length. The response to resource limitation was different when developing with heterospecifics: Ae. aegypti developing with one heterospecific showed faster development, producing smaller adults with shorter lives, while in the presence of two competitors, development increased and adults lived longer. Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival. Overall, our results suggest that response to competition can not simply be attributed to the division of resources, and that larvae of both species presented large phenotypic plasticity in their response to the presence or absence of heterospecifics and conspecifics.

  2. Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Marta G; Sartor, Paolo D; Almirón, Walter R; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Córdoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2±1.7°C, 17.9±1.6°C, 21.6±0.7°C and 25.3±0.4°C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6±1.7°C, 18.7±1.7°C and 25.2±0.3°C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva+pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3°C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2°C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2°C to 92% at 21.6°C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2°C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11°C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96°C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of

  3. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

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    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  4. Fatores associados à ocorrência de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti na Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Factors associated to the ocurrence of immature forms of Aedes aegypti in the Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Souza-Santos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti é o vetor urbano da dengue, doença que pode resultar em epidemias. Estudos ecológicos tornam-se importantes uma vez que populações do vetor de diferentes áreas podem diferir quanto a características bio-ecológicas, relevantes para orientar ações de controle. Este trabalho objetiva identificar e analisar fatores associados à ocorrência de formas imaturas de A. aegypti na Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos dados da Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS. Os resultados mostram que 58,04% do total de criadouros inspecionados foram constituídos por suportes para vasos com plantas, vasilhames de plástico ou vidro abandonados no peridomicílio. Maiores percentuais de criadouros positivos foram observados para pneus (1,41%, tanques, poços e cisternas (0,93%, e barris, tonéis e tinas (0,64%. Maiores proporções de criadouros positivos durante o verão foram as dos grandes reservatórios de água e a dos criadouros provenientes do lixo doméstico. No inverno, verificamos maior valor para os pequenos reservatórios de água para uso doméstico. As maiores proporções de criadouros positivos foram observadas após três meses sem atividades da FNS. A análise fatorial mostrou que o principal fator determinante da ocorrência de fases imaturas de A. aegypti é aquele que leva em consideração os fatores meteorológicos. A eliminação e tratamento de criadouros pelos agentes da FNS apresentaram-se como menos importantes. Tais fatos apontam a necessidade de controle contínuo, indicando menor atenção da FNS, durante o inverno, em relação aos pequenos reservatórios, que podem manter formas imaturas de A. aegypti.Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, a disease that can result in epidemics. Ecological studies are important because different geographical populations of the vector may differ in their bio-ecological characteristics, which can be helpful in guiding control actions. The objective of this study was to

  5. Entomological surveillance, spatial distribution, and diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) immatures in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Rafael; Rosa, Stéfany Larissa; Rocha, Matheus Luca; de Azevedo, Thiago Salomão; Von Zuben, Cláudio José

    2013-12-01

    Because of the high adaptive capacity of mosquitoes, studies that focus on transitional environments become very important, such as those in rural areas, which are considered as bridges between wild diseases and human populations of urban areas. In this study, a survey of the existing species of mosquitoes was performed in an Atlantic Forest area of the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo state, Brazil, using traps for immatures and analyzing the frequency and distribution of these insects over the sampling months. Five mosquito species were found: Aedes albopictus (the most frequent species), Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Toxorhynchites theobaldi. The 4,524 eggs collected in ovitraps showed the presence of the tribe Aedini. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified after larval hatching in the laboratory, with different spatial distributions: the first of which coincides with the area of greatest diversity calculated using the Simpson index, while the second does not. The association of ecological analysis of spatial diversity with simple methods of data collection enables the identification of possible epidemiological risk situations and is a strategy that may be implemented to monitor ecological processes resulting from the interaction among different species of mosquitoes. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Uso de células de Aedes albopictus C6/36 na propagação e classificação de arbovírus das famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Colônias de células de mosquito Aedes albopictus C6/36 foram infectadas com 23 arbovirus, sendo 19 destes existentes no Brasil, pertencentes às famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae. A Replicação virai foi detectada por imunofluorescência indireta com todos os vírus estudados enquanto que o efeito citopático foi observado durante a infecção por alguns destes. No teste de imunofluorescência indireta utilizou-se fluidos ascíticos imunes de camundongos, específicos para os vírus estudados. A replicação virai caracterizada por grande produção de antígeno recomenda a utilização de células C6/36 na propagação e em tentativas de isolamento desses arbovirus. A técnica de imunofluorescência ofereceu importantes subsídios na classificação e identificação de vírus que replicam nestas células.

  7. Wolbachia Sebagai Alternatif Pengendalian Vektor Nyamuk Aedes SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusiyana, Novyan

    2014-01-01

    Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue. Virus dengue ditransmisikan kepada manusia melalui perantara vektor yaitu nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus (Aedes sp.). Penyakit ini dapat terjadi sepanjang tahun dan meningkat seiring dengan datangnya musim penghujan. Penyakit DBD memiliki mortalitas yang cukup tinggi terutama di negara-negara beriklim tropis dimana banyak faktor yang mendukung perkembangbiakan nyamuk vektor tersebut.

  8. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C. Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the “most productive” for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes. PMID:27022149

  9. No molecular or serological evidence of Zikavirus infection among healthy blood donors living in or travelling to regions where Aedes albopictus circulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegene Borena

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV in western Austria (Tyrol especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions.The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol. Rest blood (plasma samples were tested for the presence of ZIKV nucleic acid and antibodies against the virus.Mean age of the study participants was 44.6 (SD = 12.9 and 58.8% were men. Eighty percent reported to have received vaccine against TBEV, whereas only 4.9 and 0.9% had received YFV and JEV vaccines. Three out of 1001 (0.03% participants tested positive solely for ZIKV IgM antibody but not for other flaviviruses. Only one individual had ZIKV IgG antibody. All four donors were negative in the neutralization (confirmation assay. No viral RNA was detected in any of the samples.The null finding of our study refutes WHO's initial fear of global expansion of ZIKV infection including its occurrence in Europe. There appears to be no urgent need to introduce universal screening of donated blood for ZIKV in central Europe at least until the next warm season. Further, Euroimmun anti-Zika ELISA proved to be a highly suitable and reliable test system in populations with high prevalence of TBEV infection and/or immunization.

  10. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  11. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector.

  12. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing

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    Carlos J. Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3–24 h after blood ingestion. Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF and blood-fed (BF mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H+-ATPase subunits, xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase. We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules’ molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated

  13. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Koudou, Benjamin G; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-07-01

    Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures. Immature mosquitoes were reared in the laboratory and adult specimens identified at species level. We collected 6,159, 14,347, and 22,974 Aedes mosquitoes belonging to 17, 8, and 3 different species in rural, suburban, and urban environments, respectively. Ae. aegypti was the predominant species throughout, with a particularly high abundance in urban areas (99.374%). Eleven Aedes larval species not previously sampled in similar settings of Côte d'Ivoire were identified: Ae. albopictus, Ae. angustus, Ae. apicoargenteus, Ae. argenteopunctatus, Ae. haworthi, Ae. lilii, Ae. longipalpis, Ae. opok, Ae. palpalis, Ae. stokesi, and Ae. unilineatus. Aedes breeding site positivity was associated with study area, container type, shade, detritus, water turbidity, geographic location, season, and the presence of predators. We found proportionally more positive breeding sites in urban (2,136/3,374, 63.3%), compared to suburban (1,428/3,069, 46.5%) and rural areas (738/2,423, 30.5%). In the urban setting, the predominant breeding sites were industrial containers (e.g., tires and discarded containers). In suburban areas, containers made of traditional materials (e.g., clay pots) were most frequently encountered. In rural areas, natural containers (e.g., tree holes and bamboos) were common and represented 22.1% (163/738) of all Aedes-positive containers, hosting 18.7% of the Aedes fauna. The predatory mosquito species

  14. Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 infected with the American-Asian genotype of dengue type 2 virus in Medellín suggests its possible role as vector of dengue fever in Colombia

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    Andrés Gómez-Palacio

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: We report the presence Ae. albopictus naturally infected with the Asian-American genotype of DENV-2 in Colombia. The presence of Ae. albopictus specimens carrying the most common genotype infecting humans in a highly populated city such as Medellín indicates its potential role as dengue vector in Colombia and highlights the relevance of including it in current vector surveillance strategies.

  15. Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, V K; Gupta, N C; Pandey, A C; Sharma, V P

    1996-09-01

    The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.

  16. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  17. Potential breeding sites for Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment towards potential breeding sites for Aedesmosquitoeson different types of container was conducted in the UniversitiTeknologi MARA, Tapah Campus and other three peripheral areas.Sample was collected by dipping using pipette. A total of 34 containers were identified as positive out of total 147 containers ...

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of a Novel Lethal Ovitrap for Control of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are known to flourish in a variety of natural and residential habitats and are competent vectors of at least 22 different arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and zika. Their global distribution, anthropophilic nature, and vector competency make them species ...

  19. Systematic Review: Land Cover, Meteorological, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Aedes Mosquito Habitat for Risk Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DV), and Zika (ZIKV). This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosqu...

  20. Potential for Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus j. japonicus to Change the Field Ecology of Arboviruses of Human Health Importance in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-16

    141,2001 Copyright © 2001 by the American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. SCIENTIFIC NOTE OCHLEROTATUS J. JAPON /CUS IN FREDERICK COUNTY, MARYLAND... japon - I The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Defense or the Department of the Army. In conducting...Campbell SR, Candeletti TM, Romanowski M, Crans WJ. 1999. Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japon - icus (Theobald), a new introduction into the United States

  1. Chikungunya virus and Aedes mosquitoes: saliva is infectious as soon as two days after oral infection.

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    Mathieu Dubrulle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus. As Ae. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as efficient as Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV? METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We infected orally both species with the variant E1-226V and estimated the infection, the viral dissemination, and the transmission rate by real time RT-PCR. Additionally, we used an in vitro assay to determine the amount of virus delivered by mosquitoes in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which underwent an efficient dissemination as detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 post-infection (pi. Infectious CHIKV particles were delivered by salivary glands from day 2 with a maximum at day 6 pi for Ae. albopictus (10(3.3 PFU and day 7 pi for Ae. aegypti (10(2.5 PFU. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. albopictus is slightly more efficient than Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV. These results will help to design an efficient vector control to limit transmission as soon as the first human cases are diagnosed.

  2. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes,Carlos Brisola; Ximenes,Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are ...

  3. Daya Repelan dan Uji Iritasi Formula Lotion Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn) dengan Variasi Basis Lanolin terhadap Nyamuk Aedes Aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriana, Apri Yudis; Wahyuningrum, Retno; Sudarso, Sudarso

    2012-01-01

    Demam berdarah dengue (DBD) yang ditularkan melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus betina masih menjadi masalah kesehatan khususnya di Indonesia. Sediaan repelan biasa digunakan untuk menghindari gangguan atau gigitan nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Namun sediaan repelan mengandung Diethyl toluamide (DEET) yang dalam penggunaannya dapat menyebabkan eritema (kemerahan pada kulit) dan iritasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan aktivitas daya repelan lotion ekstrak daun sirih de...

  4. Survei Larva Nyamuk Aedes Vektor Demam Berdarah Dengue di Kelurahan Kuranji Kecamatan Kuranji Kotamadya Padang Provinsi Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arifudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDemam berdarah dengue merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang masih ditemukan di Indonesia. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh virus Dengue yang ditularkan melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes. Kelurahan Kuranji merupakan kelurahan dengan kasus demam berdarah dengue terbanyak di Kota Padang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan density figure (kepadatan larva nyamuk Aedes di Kelurahan Kuranji Padang. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Kuranji pada bulan April 2014. Desain penelitian adalah survei deskriptif dengan jumlah sampel 50 buah rumah yang diambil dengan cara multistage sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aedes aegypti ditemukan lebih banyak dibandingkan aedes albopictus, yaitu  97,74%. house index yaitu 52,50%, container index yaitu 34,72%,  breteau index yaitu 66,50% dan density figure yaitu 7.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa aedes aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan di dalam rumah dan aedes albopictus hanya ditemukan di luar rumah. Bak mandi dari semen merupakan kontainer yang paling banyak ditemukan larva Aedes dibandingkan jenis kontainer lain.Kata kunci: dengue, aedes, density figure AbstractDengue haemorraghic fever is one of  important public health problem in Indonesia. This disease is caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted by  Aedes bytes. Kuranji is the most prevalent dengue haemorraghic fever in Padang.The objective of this study was to determine density figure in Kuranji district. This research had been held in Kuranji district in April 2014. The design was descriptive survey research method. The number of sampel was 50 that was taken by multi stage sampling method. The result showed that aedes aegypti found more than aedes albopictus, about 97.74%. house index 52.50%, container index 34.72%,  breteau index 66.50% and density figure 7. The research showed that Aedes aegypti is mostly found at house and aedes albopictus only found outdoor. The bath tank which are made from cement is the

  5. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rejón, Julián E.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M.; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black IV, William C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010–2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were c...

  6. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. An updated checklist of species of Aedes and Verrallina of northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Khan, A M; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, J

    2010-06-01

    A mosquito faunistic survey conducted during 1999-2005 in 7 different states of the northeastern (NE) region of India revealed that the region is very rich in mosquito fauna, particularly of the genus Aedes. From the present survey and earlier published reports, a total of 48 species of Aedes and a related genus Verrallina were recorded. The state of Assam contributed the highest number of species compared to the other 6 states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. Larvae of 46 species were collected from 16 different habitats and for some species the habitats were species specific. The known dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, were recorded from all 7 states, although Ae. aegypti was not known earlier from Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura states. Aedes albotaeniatus was a new addition to the Aedes fauna of the region.

  8. Репеллентная и инсектицидная эффективность новой комбинации фипронила и перметрина против трех видов комаров Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti и Culex pipiens у собак

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Краткий обзор опубликованной статьи. Справочные данные. Три лабораторных исследования проводились с целью оценки репеллентной и инсектицидной эффективности комбинации фипронила и перметрина (Фронтлайн Триа-Акт) против трех видов комаров (Aedes albopictus, Aedes Aegypti и Culex pipiens) у собак....

  9. Dengue virus type 3 isolation from Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro

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    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective field study conducted from July 2000 to June 2001, adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were caught from the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Virus isolation in Ae. albopictus clone C6/36 cell line and a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected only dengue virus type 3 in three pools of Ae. aegypti, despite the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 serotypes in that area. No viruses were detected in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. This virological surveillance consists in a sentinel system alerting for dengue outbreaks.

  10. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes

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    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  11. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  12. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.

  13. Efficiency of two larval diets for mass-rearing of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J G Bond

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT. Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (LRD, under a 14:10 h (light:dark photoperiod ("light" treatment or continuous darkness during larval rearing. Larval development was generally fastest in the IAEA diet, likely reflecting the high protein and lipid content of this diet. The proportion of larvae that survived to pupation or to adult emergence did not differ significantly between diets or light treatments. Insects from the LRD-dark treatment produced the highest proportion of male pupae (93% at 24 h after the beginning of pupation whereas adult sex ratio from the IAEA diet tended to be more male-biased than that of the LRD diet. Adult longevity did not differ significantly with larval diet or light conditions, irrespective of sex. In other aspects the LRD diet generally performed best. Adult males from the LRD diet were significantly larger than those from the IAEA diet, irrespective of light treatment. Females from the LRD diet had ~25% higher fecundity and ~8% higher egg fertility compared to those from the IAEA diet. Adult flight ability did not differ between larval diets, and males had a similar number of copulations with wild females, irrespective of larval diet. The LRD diet had lower protein and fat content but a higher carbohydrate and energetic content than the IAEA diet. We conclude that the LRD diet is a low-cost standardized diet that is likely to be suitable for mass-rearing of Ae. aegypti for area-wide SIT-based vector control.

  14. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

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    Samson Leta

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of reports that include multiple arboviral diseases highlights the expanding range of their common transmission vectors. The shared features of these arboviral diseases should motivate efforts to combine interventions against these diseases.

  16. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted.

  17. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosuknia, Sean M.; Zink, Steven D.; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Morrissette, Madeline N.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1–7.5 log10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas. PMID:28430564

  18. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Bialosuknia, Sean M; Zink, Steven D; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Morrissette, Madeline N; Kramer, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1-7.5 log 10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log 10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas.

  19. Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Wesson, Dawn M; Arellano, Consuelo; Apperson, Charles S

    2015-09-23

    The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are vectors of pathogenic viruses that cause major human illnesses including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Both mosquito species are expanding their geographic distributions and now occur worldwide in temperate and tropical climates. Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. Addition of an organic infusion in these traps increases the number of eggs deposited. Gravid females are guided to ovitraps by volatile chemicals produced from the breakdown of organic matter by microbes. We previously isolated and cultured 14 species of bacteria from attractive experimental infusions, made from the senescent leaves of canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea). Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28 °C with constant shaking (120 rpm) and cell densities were determined with a hemocytometer. Behavioral responses to single bacterial isolates and to a mix of isolates at different cell densities were evaluated using two-choice sticky-screen bioassay methods with gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In behavioral assays of a mix of 14 bacterial isolates, significantly greater attraction responses were exhibited by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to bacterial densities of 10(7) and 10(8) cells/mL than to the control medium. When we tested single bacterial isolates, seven isolates (B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, B13 and B14) were significantly attractive to Ae. aegypti, and six isolates (B1, B5, B7, B10, B13 and B14) significantly attracted Ae. albopictus. Among all the isolates tested at three different cell densities, bacterial isolates B1, B5, B13 and B14 were highly attractive to both Aedes species. Our results show that at specific cell densities, some bacteria significantly influence the attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females to

  20. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  1. New insights into HCV replication in original cells from Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallecker, Catherine; Caporossi, Alban; Rechoum, Yassine; Garzoni, Frederic; Larrat, Sylvie; François, Olivier; Fender, Pascal; Morand, Patrice; Berger, Imre; Petit, Marie-Anne; Drouet, Emmanuel

    2017-08-22

    The existing literature about HCV association with, and replication in mosquitoes is extremely poor. To fill this gap, we performed cellular investigations aimed at exploring (i) the capacity of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins to bind on Aedes mosquito cells and (ii) the ability of HCV serum particles (HCVsp) to replicate in these cell lines. First, we used purified E1E2 expressing baculovirus-derived HCV pseudo particles (bacHCVpp) so we could investigate their association with mosquito cell lines from Aedes aegypti (Aag-2) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36). We initiated a series of infections of both mosquito cells (Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus) with the HCVsp (Lat strain - genotype 3) and we observed the evolution dynamics of viral populations within cells over the course of infection via next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments. Our binding assays revealed bacHCVpp an association with the mosquito cells, at comparable levels obtained with human hepatocytes (HepaRG cells) used as a control. In our infection experiments, the HCV RNA (+) were detectable by RT-PCR in the cells between 21 and 28 days post-infection (p.i.). In human hepatocytes HepaRG and Ae aegypti insect cells, NGS experiments revealed an increase of global viral diversity with a selection for a quasi-species, suggesting a structuration of the population with elimination of deleterious mutations. The evolutionary pattern in Ae albopictus insect cells is different (stability of viral diversity and polymorphism). These results demonstrate for the first time that natural HCV could really replicate within Aedes mosquitoes, a discovery which may have major consequences for public health as well as in vaccine development.

  2. Systematic Review: Land Cover, Meteorological, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Aedes Mosquito Habitat for Risk Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue (DV, and Zika (ZIKV. This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosquitoes and their influential factors. A combination of five sets of 3–5 keywords were used to retrieve all relevant published models. Five electronic search databases were used: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 17 May 2017. We generated a hierarchical decision tree for article selection. We identified 21 relevant published studies that highlight different combinations of methodologies, models and influential factors. Only a few studies adopted a comprehensive approach highlighting the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, meteorological and topographic systems. The selected articles showed inconsistent findings in terms of number and type of influential factors affecting the distribution of Aedes vectors, which is most likely attributed to: (i limited availability of high-resolution data for physical variables, (ii variation in sampling methods; Aedes feeding and oviposition behavior; (iii data collinearity and statistical distribution of observed data. This review highlights the need and sets the stage for a rigorous multi-system modeling approach to improve our knowledge about Aedes presence/abundance within their flight range in response to the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, and meteorological systems.

  3. Uncovering the Repertoire of Endogenous Flaviviral Elements in Aedes Mosquito Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Frangeul, Lionel; Dickson, Laura B; Blanc, Hervé; Verdier, Yann; Vinh, Joelle; Lambrechts, Louis; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2017-08-01

    Endogenous viral elements derived from nonretroviral RNA viruses have been described in various animal genomes. Whether they have a biological function, such as host immune protection against related viruses, is a field of intense study. Here, we investigated the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements (EFVEs) in Aedes mosquitoes, the vectors of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. Previous studies identified three EFVEs from Aedes albopictus cell lines and one from Aedes aegypti cell lines. However, an in-depth characterization of EFVEs in wild-type mosquito populations and individual mosquitoes in vivo has not been performed. We detected the full-length DNA sequence of the previously described EFVEs and their respective transcripts in several A. albopictus and A. aegypti populations from geographically distinct areas. However, EFVE-derived proteins were not detected by mass spectrometry. Using deep sequencing, we detected the production of PIWI-interacting RNA-like small RNAs, in an antisense orientation, targeting the EFVEs and their flanking regions in vivo The EFVEs were integrated in repetitive regions of the mosquito genomes, and their flanking sequences varied among mosquito populations. We bioinformatically predicted several new EFVEs from a Vietnamese A. albopictus population and observed variation in the occurrence of those elements among mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of an A. aegypti EFVE suggested that it integrated prior to the global expansion of the species and subsequently diverged among and within populations. The findings of this study together reveal the substantial structural and nucleotide diversity of flaviviral integrations in Aedes genomes. Unraveling this diversity will help to elucidate the potential biological function of these EFVEs. IMPORTANCE Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are whole or partial viral sequences integrated in host genomes. Interestingly, some EVEs have important functions for host fitness and

  4. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Distribution and larval breeding habitats of Aedes mosquito species in residential areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Kassa, Wondmeneh Jemberie; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Tessema, Belay

    2018-01-01

    The Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of the breeding habitat of this vector is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification. In the larval survey, the house index, container index, and Breteau index were computed as risk indices. Of the 384 houses surveyed for the presence of Aedes mosquito larval breeding, 98 were found to be positive for larvae. During the survey, a total of 566 containers were inspected, of which 186 were found to be infested with Aedes mosquito larvae, with a container index of 32.9, a house index of 25.5, and a Breteau index of 48.4. The most common Aedes mosquito breeding habitats were discarded tires (57.5%), followed by mud pots (30.0%). Of the 1,077 larvae and pupae collected and reared, Aedes aegypti (49.3%), Ae. vittatus (6.5%), and Culex species (44.2%) were identified. Discarded tires were the most preferred breeding habitats for Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Ae. aegypti , the main vector of dengue and other arboviruses, was identified for the first time in this region, suggesting a high potential for arbovirus transmission in the study areas.

  7. Replication confers β cell immaturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Roy, Nilotpal; Russ, Holger A; Leonhardt, Laura; French, Esra K; Roy, Ritu; Bengtsson, Henrik; Scott, Donald K; Stewart, Andrew F; Hebrok, Matthias

    2018-02-02

    Pancreatic β cells are highly specialized to regulate systemic glucose levels by secreting insulin. In adults, increase in β-cell mass is limited due to brakes on cell replication. In contrast, proliferation is robust in neonatal β cells that are functionally immature as defined by a lower set point for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here we show that β-cell proliferation and immaturity are linked by tuning expression of physiologically relevant, non-oncogenic levels of c-Myc. Adult β cells induced to replicate adopt gene expression and metabolic profiles resembling those of immature neonatal β that proliferate readily. We directly demonstrate that priming insulin-producing cells to enter the cell cycle promotes a functionally immature phenotype. We suggest that there exists a balance between mature functionality and the ability to expand, as the phenotypic state of the β cell reverts to a less functional one in response to proliferative cues.

  8. Technologies to Combat Aedes Mosquitoes: A Model Based on Smart City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Geovanna Cristine; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Yoshikazu Shishido, Henrique; Jacklin Eler, Gabrielle

    2018-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya fever, zika virus fever, some of which can cause irreversible central nervous system problems and death. This study investigates what technologies are being used for combatting and monitoring the Aedes mosquitoes and to propose joining these technologies into a single and complete solution using the Smart Cities concept. A search for newscasts on Google and mobile apps in app stores were performed to identify technological solutions for combat to Aedes mosquitoes. Also, a model for joint technology was proposed. Results identified the following technologies: 170 software, two sensors, two drones, one electronic device, ten mosquito traps/lures, seven biological tools, six biotechnologies, and eight chemical formulations. Technological resources and adoption of preventive measures by the population could be a useful method for the mosquito control. Examples include a georeferenced model for identification and examination of larvae, application of chemical/biological products, real-time mapping, sending of educational materials via email or social media for the population, and alerts to health professionals in the zones of combat/risk. In combination, these technologies may indicate a better solution to the current problem.

  9. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  10. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape among certain species of Aedes mosquitoes in District Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ritwik; Devi, N Pemola; Jauhari, R K

    2015-06-01

    Insect wing morphology has been used in many studies to describe variations among species and populations using traditional morphometrics, and more recently geometric morphometrics. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of the wings of three species of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae), viz. Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. pseudotaeniatus, at District Dehradun was conducted belling on the fact that it can provide insight into the population structure, ecology and taxonomic identification. Adult Aedes mosquito specimens were randomly collected using aerial nets and morphologically examined and identified. The landmarks were identified on the basis of landmark based geometric morphometric analysis thin-plate spline (mainly the software tps-Util 1.28; tps-Dig 1.40; tps-Relw 1.53; and tps-Spline 1.20) and integrated morphometrics programme (mainly twogroup win8 and PCA win8) were utilized. In relative warp (RW) analysis, the first two RW of Ae. aegypti accounted for the highest value (95.82%), followed by Ae. pseudotaeniatus (90.89%), while the lowest (90.12%) being recorded for Ae. albopictus. The bending energies of Ae. aegypti and Ae. pseudotaeniatus were quite identical being 0.1882 and 0.1858 respectively, while Ae. albopictus recorded the highest value of 0.9774. The mean difference values of the distances among Aedes species performing Hotelling's T 2 test were significantly high, predicting major differences among the taxa. In PCA analysis, the horizontal and vertical axis summarized 52.41 and 23.30% of variances respectively. The centroid size exhibited significant differences among populations (non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, H = 10.56, p < 0.01). It has been marked out that the geometric morphometrics utilizes powerful and comprehensive statistical procedures to analyze the shape differences of a morphological feature, assuming that the studied mosquitoes may represent different genotypes and probably come from one diverse gene pool.

  11. Hubungan keberadaan larva nyamuk Aedes Spp dengan kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue di Kota Bandung

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    Lukman Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bandung is the region with most cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF in West Java with 24,491 cases in the period 2009-2013. Dengue virus transmission occurs from DHF patients through the bite of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus as the primary vector, while Ae. polynesiensis, Ae. scutellaris and Ae. (Finlayaniveus as secondary vectors. To determine the relationship of the presence of larvae of Aedes spp with DHF, has conducted research with larval survey and analysis of dengue cases in the city of Bandung. Research was carried out by recording DHF patients in the period 2011-2013, then visit to interview and survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in water containers inside and outside the home. Samples were successfully visited are 402 houses consist of 201 houses with DHF cases and 201 without DHF cases. The results showed that of 402 samples were obtained 75 positive of larvae of Aedes spp (house index/HI 18.7% consisted of 36 without DHF patient and 39 with DHF patient. Among the 8 villages research sites, highest HI is Cijaura village is 21.9%, and the lowest is village Manjahlega (11.1% (9 houses, while in the Cidurian village was  not found Aedes mosquitoes larvae. The most number of houses which positive of larvae of Aedes spp water containers are Sekejati village (37 houses, whereas the least was the Manjahlega village (2 houses. The results of chi square analysis and correlation, showed that there was no significant association between the presence of larvae of Aedes spp with DHF cases. Concluded, the presence of larvae of Aedes spp not significant associated with DHF cases in Bandung City, West Java. For the occurrence of dengue cases, beside the presence of Aedes spp, is also influenced by other factors such as the vector capacity, dengue virus virulence and host immune status. We recommended, to DHF control, beside conducting the control of dengue vector, is also needs to be carried out the other activities related to the

  12. Reactive oxygen species production and Brugia pahangi survivorship in Aedes polynesiensis with artificial Wolbachia infection types.

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    Elizabeth S Andrews

    Full Text Available Heterologous transinfection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been shown previously to induce pathogen interference phenotypes in mosquito hosts. Here we examine an artificially infected strain of Aedes polynesiensis, the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, which is the causative agent of Lymphatic filariasis (LF throughout much of the South Pacific. Embryonic microinjection was used to transfer the wAlbB infection from Aedes albopictus into an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. polynesiensis. The resulting strain (designated "MTB" experiences a stable artificial infection with high maternal inheritance. Reciprocal crosses of MTB with naturally infected wild-type Ae. polynesiensis demonstrate strong bidirectional incompatibility. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the MTB strain differ significantly relative to that of the wild-type, indicating an impaired ability to regulate oxidative stress. Following a challenge with Brugia pahangi, the number of filarial worms achieving the infective stage is significantly reduced in MTB as compared to the naturally infected and aposymbiotic strains. Survivorship of MTB differed significantly from that of the wild-type, with an interactive effect between survivorship and blood feeding. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between decreased ROS levels and decreased survival of adult female Aedes polynesiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of Wolbachia with ROS production and antioxidant expression, iron homeostasis and the insect immune system. We discuss the potential applied use of the MTB strain for impacting Ae. polynesiensis populations and strategies for reducing LF incidence in the South Pacific.

  13. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  14. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  15. Altitudinal distribution of Aedes indices during dry season in the dengue endemic area of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayono, Sayono; Nurullita, Ulfa; Sumanto, Didik; Handoyo, Wahyu

    Aedes mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are the primary and secondary vectors of dengue viruses in Indonesia, with transmission occurring by sucking blood. The density of the vectors is influenced by season and rainfall, but limited by altitude. The aim of the study is to describe the density and distribution of dengue vectors during the dry season based on the altitudes of recent dengue cases in five regencies of Central Java Province, Indonesia. Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from the indoor and outdoor water containers from 253 houses within 50 m of houses occupied by a dengue patient. A considerable dengue vector population was found in all localities and altitudes based on the Aedes indices: an HI of 41.7% (15.0–70.6), CI of 33.6% (8.1–69.6) and BI of 57.1 (15.0–94.1). The highest indices were found in the highest altitude settlement; as the most common larval habitat in this village was a large-sized cement tank, larvivorous fish can act as effective predators in this case. This finding indicates an expansion of the dengue problem from low to high altitudes, causing a high potential for dengue transmission in all of the localities.

  16. AEGY-28 Cell Line of Aedes aegypti (Diptera Culicidae is Infection Refractory to Dengue 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

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    Nadia Y. Castañeda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito cell derived cultures are useful tools for arbovirus isolation, identification or characterization. For studying dengue (DENV and yellow fever viruses (YFV Aedes albopictus C6/36 or Aedes pseudoscutellaris AP-61 cell lines, are normally used. The Aedes aegypti AEGY-28 cell line was obtained from embryonic tissues and characterized previously by one of us. In order to evaluate its susceptibility to two Flavivirus, AEGY- 28 cells were inoculated with different multiplicity of infection (MOI with type 2 DENV (COL-789, MOI: 1 and 5 and YFV clinical isolates (V-341, MOI 0,02 then processed at different times post infection (p.i.. Immunostai ning and fluorometric cell-ELISA were carried out to identify and quantify viral antigens. C6/36 and Vero cells were used as positive controls. Unexpectedly, immunoreactivity was not found in inoculated AEGY-28 cells, even in higher MOI or late times p.i., therefore antigen quantification using fluorometric cell-ELISA were not  plausible. Reverse transcriptase PCR with specific primers did not detect viral RNA in AEGY-28 inoculated cells. We can conclude that Aedes aegypti AEGY-28 cell line is not susceptible to dengue and yellow fever Flavivirus, a finding possibly related with the lacking of specific molecules at the plasma membrane or absence of cell machinery necessary for viral replication.

  17. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L. Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

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    Osama M E Seidahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67. We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54 were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43 of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  18. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Osama M E; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2016-07-01

    In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67). We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54) were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE) between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43) of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW) between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  19. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  20. Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Fever and Zika viruses . During a recent field trip to Cameroon and Kenya in the early part of 1983 numerous specimens were collected, mostly as reared...1942) isolated Yellow Fever virus is Aedes (Stejomyia) broeliae (Theobald) and is the common man-biting member of -th-e complex in East Africa. The...PERIOD COVERED Five Month Report Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project August 1 - December 31, 1983 p - 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S

  1. How does competition among wild type mosquitoes influence the performance of Aedes aegypti and dissemination of Wolbachia pipientis?

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    Suellen de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia has been deployed in several countries to reduce transmission of dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. During releases, Wolbachia-infected females are likely to lay their eggs in local available breeding sites, which might already be colonized by local Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to estimate the deleterious effects of intra and interspecific larval competition on mosquito life history traits, especially on the duration of larval development time, larval mortality and adult size.Three different mosquito populations were used: Ae. aegypti infected with Wolbachia (wMelBr strain, wild Ae. aegypti and wild Ae. albopictus. A total of 21 treatments explored intra and interspecific larval competition with varying larval densities, species proportions and food levels. Each treatment had eight replicates with two distinct food levels: 0.25 or 0.50 g of Chitosan and fallen avocado leaves. Overall, overcrowding reduced fitness correlates of the three populations. Ae. albopictus larvae presented lower larval mortality, shorter development time to adult and smaller wing sizes than Ae. aegypti. The presence of Wolbachia had a slight positive effect on larval biology, since infected individuals had higher survivorship than uninfected Ae. aegypti larvae.In all treatments, Ae. albopictus outperformed both wild Ae. aegypti and the Wolbachia-infected group in larval competition, irrespective of larval density and the amount of food resources. The major force that can slow down Wolbachia invasion is the population density of wild mosquitoes. Given that Ae. aegypti currently dominates in Rio, in comparison with Ae. albopictus frequency, additional attention must be given to the population density of Ae. aegypti during releases to increase the likelihood of Wolbachia invasion.

  2. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Catherine L; Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-07-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  3. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J.; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-01-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance. PMID:28727779

  4. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Moyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  5. A SURVEY OF THE SPECIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF AEDES AT SEAPORTS AND AIRPORTS OF IRIAN JAYA

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    Sumengen Sumengen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Walaupun penyakit demam berdarah terdapat dimana-mana didaerah Asia Tenggara termasuk Indonesia, namun demikian belum pernah dilaporkan adanya di propinsi Irian Jaya. Vector utama penyakit tersebut adalah A. (Stegomya aegypti meskipun A. (S albopictus juga dapat menjadi vectornya. Penyakit lain yang terpenting dapat ditularkan oleh A. aegypti ialah yellow fever, dimana virusnya hanya terdapat di Afrika dan Amerika. Mengingat letak geografis yang sangat dekat dan kommunikasi yang regular baik melalui laut dan udara dengan negara-negara seperti Philipana, Thailand, Singapura, Vietnam, India, Ceylon dan Indonesia, maka setiap saat kedua penyakit tersebut kemungkinan dapat menginfeksi penduduk Irian Jaya. Untuk membantu mempelajari apakah infeksi dapat terjadi maka dari bulan September sampai dengan Desember 1968 telah dilakukan survey pendahuluan untuk mengetahui species Aedes yang ada dan distribusinya di pelabuhan-pelabuhan laut maupun udara terpenting di Irian Jaya. Survey ini dilakukan dengan cara mengadakan penangkapan serta pemeriksaan nyamuk dan larva yang terdapat pada setiap bangunan didaerah pelabuhan laut maupun udara. Berdasarkan hasil survey yang dilakukan ternyata ditemukan adanya 7 species Aedes yaitu, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, A. (S scutellaris, A. (Finlaya koehi, A. (Ochlerotatus vigilax, A. (S alboleneatus, dan A. (F novalbitarsis. Walaupun Van Den Assem & Bonne Wepster (1964 menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar di wilayah Irian Jaya masih belum ditemukan adanya A. aegypti tetapi pada penelitian ini ternyata dari 11 pelabuhan laut dan udara, 9 diantaranya ditemukan A. aegypti. Timbulnya A. aegypti pada beberapa kota diwilayah Irian Jaya pada tahun 1968 mungkin disebabkan karena pemindahan vector tersebut dari daerah-daerah lain melalui kapal laut maupun udara yang merupakan alat pengangkut dari satu daerah kedaerah lain.

  6. Rhamnolipids: solution against Aedes aegypti?

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    Vinicius Luiz Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary transmitters of dengue fever, urban yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This mosquito has developed resistance to the insecticides currently used to control their populations. These chemical insecticides are harmful to the environment and can have negative effects on human health. Rhamnolipids are environmentally compatible biological surfactants, but their insecticidal activity has not been extensively studied. The present study evaluated the potential larvicidal, insecticidal and repellent activities of rhamnolipids against Aedes aegypti. At concentrations of 800, 900 and 1000 mg/L, rhamnolipids eliminated all mosquito larvae in 18 hours and killed 100% of adults at 1000 mg/L. According to the results it may be conclude that rhamnolipids should be applied to control larvae and mosquitos besides present the repellency activity against Aedes aegypti.

  7. Multi-modal Aedes aegypti mosquito reduction interventions and dengue fever prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger-Browning, Kara K; Elder, John P

    2009-12-01

    To systematically review the effectiveness of biological, chemical and educational dengue fever prevention programs on the reduction of entomologic indicators. Searches of PubMed, GoogleScholar, CabDirect databases and reference lists yielded over 1000 articles containing mosquito abatement interventions. Inclusion criteria were: Vector control programs targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes; Studies providing pre- and post-test data. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using Mulla's formula to determine percent reductions for all studies with control groups. Twenty-one studies were reviewed. Twelve dependent variables were presented, however, the Breteau, House and Container indices were the primary measurement tools for monitoring larval populations. Behavioural methods consisting of educational campaigns and maintaining water containers to reduce the mosquito population were applied in eight studies. Eight studies involved the use of biological methods such as predatory organisms or bacteria. Finally, eight studies used chemical control techniques including insecticide sprays, larvicides, insecticide-treated materials, and cleaning water of containers with household chemicals with three studies using a combination of intervention techniques. Post-intervention reduction in entomologic indices ranged from 100% to an increase of 13.9% from baseline. Little evidence exists to support the efficacy of mosquito abatement programs owing to poor study designs and lack of congruent entomologic indices. Creation of a standard entomological index, use of clustered and randomized-controlled trials, and testing the generalizability of proven methods are recommended for future research.

  8. Assessing the efficiency of Wolbachia driven Aedes mosquito suppression by delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mugen; Luo, Jiaowan; Hu, Linchao; Zheng, Bo; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-12-14

    To suppress wild population of Aedes mosquitoes, the primary transmission vector of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika, an innovative strategy is to release male mosquitoes carrying the bacterium Wolbachia into natural areas to drive female sterility by cytoplasmic incompatibility. We develop a model of delay differential equations, incorporating the strong density restriction in the larval stage, to assess the delicate impact of life table parameters on suppression efficiency. Through mathematical analysis, we find the sufficient and necessary condition for global stability of the complete suppression state. This condition, combined with the experimental data for Aedes albopictus population in Guangzhou, helps us predict a large range of releasing intensities for suppression success. In particular, we find that if the number of released infected males is no less than four times the number of mosquitoes in wild areas, then the mosquito density in the peak season can be reduced by 95%. We introduce an index to quantify the dependence of suppression efficiency on parameters. The invariance of some quantitative properties of the index values under various perturbations of the same parameter justifies the applicability of this index, and the robustness of our modeling approach. The index yields a ranking of the sensitivity of all parameters, among which the adult mortality has the highest sensitivity and is considerably more sensitive than the natural larvae mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vector status of Aedes species determines geographical risk of autochthonous Zika virus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic originating in Latin America led to predictions of a catastrophic global spread of the disease. Since the current outbreak began in Brazil in May 2015 local transmission of Zika has been reported in over 60 countries and territories, with over 750 thousand confirmed and suspected cases. As a result of its range expansion attention has focused on possible modes of transmission, of which the arthropod vector-based disease spread cycle involving Aedes species is believed to be the most important. Additional causes of concern are the emerging new links between Zika disease and Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS, and a once rare congenital disease, microcephaly.Like dengue and chikungunya, the geographic establishment of Zika is thought to be limited by the occurrence of its principal vector mosquito species, Ae. aegypti and, possibly, Ae. albopictus. While Ae. albopictus populations are more widely established than those of Ae. aegypti, the relative competence of these species as a Zika vector is unknown. The analysis reported here presents a global risk model that considers the role of each vector species independently, and quantifies the potential spreading risk of Zika into new regions. Six scenarios are evaluated which vary in the weight assigned to Ae. albopictus as a possible spreading vector. The scenarios are bounded by the extreme assumptions that spread is driven by air travel and Ae. aegypti presence alone and spread driven equally by both species. For each scenario destination cities at highest risk of Zika outbreaks are prioritized, as are source cities in affected regions. Finally, intercontinental air travel routes that pose the highest risk for Zika spread are also ranked. The results are compared between scenarios.Results from the analysis reveal that if Ae. aegypti is the only competent Zika vector, then risk is geographically limited; in North America mainly to Florida and Texas. However, if Ae

  10. Immature dengue virus: a veiled pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela A Rodenhuis-Zybert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells infected with dengue virus release a high proportion of immature prM-containing virions. In accordance, substantial levels of prM antibodies are found in sera of infected humans. Furthermore, it has been recently described that the rates of prM antibody responses are significantly higher in patients with secondary infection compared to those with primary infection. This suggests that immature dengue virus may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, however, numerous functional studies have revealed that immature particles lack the ability to infect cells. In this report, we show that fully immature dengue particles become highly infectious upon interaction with prM antibodies. We demonstrate that prM antibodies facilitate efficient binding and cell entry of immature particles into Fc-receptor-expressing cells. In addition, enzymatic activity of furin is critical to render the internalized immature virus infectious. Together, these data suggest that during a secondary infection or primary infection of infants born to dengue-immune mothers, immature particles have the potential to be highly infectious and hence may contribute to the development of severe disease.

  11. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  12. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rejón, Julián E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2012-12-01

    We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010-2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small rural communities (holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires, and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México's Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Potential of a Northern Population of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kyle L; Bixby, Mckenzie A; Morin, Kelsey J; Bradley, David S; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of humans in the western hemisphere. With its potential spread into new geographical areas, it is important to define the vector competence of native mosquito species. We tested the vector competency of Aedes vexans (Meigen) from the Lake Agassiz Plain of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. Aedes aegypti (L.) was used as a positive control for comparison. Mosquitoes were fed blood containing Zika virus and 2 wk later were tested for viral infection and dissemination. Aedes vexans (n = 60) were susceptible to midgut infection (28% infection rate) but displayed a fairly restrictive midgut escape barrier (3% dissemination rate). Cofed Ae. aegypti (n = 22) displayed significantly higher rates of midgut infection (61%) and dissemination (22%). To test virus transmission, mosquitoes were inoculated with virus and 16-17 d later, tested for their ability to transmit virus into fluid-filled capillary tubes. Unexpectedly, the transmission rate was significantly higher for Ae. vexans (34%, n = 47) than for Ae. aegypti (5%, n = 22). The overall transmission potential for Ae. vexans to transmit Zika virus was 1%. Because of its wide geographic distribution, often extreme abundance, and aggressive human biting activity, Ae. vexans could serve as a potential vector for Zika virus in northern latitudes where the conventional vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus Skuse, cannot survive. However, Zika virus is a primate virus and humans are the only amplifying host species in northern latitudes. To serve as a vector of Zika virus, Ae. vexans must feed repeatedly on humans. Defining the propensity of Ae. vexans to feed repeatedly on humans will be key to understanding its role as a potential vector of Zika virus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current distribution of this mosquito in north-eastern Italy. Morphological details useful to discriminate this species from other invasive Aedes mosquitoes are also given (see Additional files). Methods All possible breeding sites for larval development were monitored. In addition, ovitraps and traps for adults were used to collect eggs and adults. The mosquitoes (larvae and adults) were identified morphologically and molecularly. Environmental data and climatic variables during the period of mosquito activity (from April to October) were considered. Results Aedes koreicus was found in 37 municipalities (39.4%) and was detected in 40.2% of places and in 37.3% of larval habitats monitored, in a range of altitude from 173 to 1250 m.a.s.l.. Garden centres were the most common locations (66.7%), followed by streets/squares (57.1%), private gardens (46.4%) and cemeteries (21.1%) (p Aedes albopictus [Stegomyia albopicta], ovitraps were attractive for adult females resulting in the higher rate of positivity (15/21; 71.4%) among breeding sites. The period of Ae. koreicus activity ranged from March 29 to October 29. Conclusion The species is clearly established in the area and is now overlapping with other vectors such as Ae. albopictus and colonizing areas over 800 m.a.s.l, not yet or sporadically reached by the tiger mosquito. The data collected are essential to assess the risk of colonization of other parts of Italy and Europe, as well as the risk of spreading of pathogens

  15. Eficácia de Ovitrampas com Diferentes Atrativos na Vigilância e Controle de Aedes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Depoli

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus is the vector of dengue viruses, urban yellow fever and Zika virus in the Americas. Aedes albopictus (Skuse has higher incidence in native and secondary forest next the populations. These mosquitoes also convey the chikungunya virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and oviposition preference in ovitraps traps installed in sheltered places with different attractive mixtures, under different lighting conditions and flow of people to be used in monitoring and control of Aedes spp. Were installed 75 traps on campus of the State University of Londrina-Paraná, distributed in three study centers: Centre for Biological Sciences (CCB, Central Library (CL and Applied Social Studies Center (ASSC, which each received 25 ovitraps in the period from March to June 2012. The traps received five different attractive mixtures: infusion of water made into hay (Iaf, distilled water (Iaf + Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner (Iaf + organophosphate temephos, (Iaf + growth regulator Diflubenzuron. The experiment was carried out in 5 replicates. Collected: 4,774 eggs. On (CCB were 436 eggs (9.23% with Positivity Index of Ovitraps (PIO = 43.08%, and Eggs Density Index (EDI = 15.75. On (ASSC 638 eggs (13.35%, PIO = 58.46% and EDI = 16.79. On (CL 3,700 eggs (77.42%, PIO = 83.08% and EDI = 68.51. There were no significant differences by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.92 for the different attractive on ovitraps. Attractive and selective products for Aedes spp. control in egg trap do not show damage to oviposition.

  16. First detection of natural infection of Aedes aegypti with Zika virus in Brazil and throughout South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti in nature. None of the examined Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was positive. This is the first report of natural infection by ZIKV in mosquitoes in Brazil and other South American countries. So far, Ae. aegypti is the only confirmed vector of ZIKV during the ongoing Pan-American epidemics.

  17. Principales criaderos para Aedes aegypti y culícidos asociados, Argentina Main breeding-containers for Aedes aegypti and associated culicids, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stein

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron criaderos de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti en dos ciudades de la provincia del Chaco (Noreste de Argentina: Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña y Machagai. Los recipientes encontrados en los patios de las viviendas capaces de colectar agua se clasificaron según tipo y tamaño, se contaron y examinaron. Aedes aegypti y Culex quinquefasciatus fueron las especies mas abundantes, encontrándose además Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Ochlerotatus scapularis. Los neumáticos y cajas de baterías para autos fueron los recipientes que más aportaron a la producción de formas inmaduras de los culícidos colectados. Las lluvias fueron un factor importante para la proliferacion de Ae. aegypti, así como también el habito comun en la población de guardar recipientes en sus casas que permitan el desarrollo de estos culícidos.Breeding containers for Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti were identified in two cities of Chaco Province (northeast Argentina: Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña and Machagai. All water-retaining recipients found in house backyards capable to retain water were classified according to their type and size, counted and checked. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were the most frequently collected species, being also found Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis and Ochlerotatus scapularis. Tires and car batteries represented the most important type of container where immature forms of culicids could be found. Rain was an important factor for Ae. aegypti proliferation, as well as the widespread habit of the population of keeping useless containers at home, which allows the development of culicids.

  18. First report in italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Veneto region (north-eastern Italy an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus in 1991. During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna. Findings At the end of May 2011, twelve larvae and pupae were collected in a small village in Belluno province (Veneto region from a single manhole. Ten adults reared in the laboratory were morphologically and genetically identified as Aedes (Finlaya koreicus (Edwards, 1917, a species native to Southeast Asia. The subsequent investigations carried out in the following months in the same village provided evidence that this species had become established locally. Entomological and epidemiological investigations are currently ongoing in the surrounding area, to verify the eventual extension of the species outside the village and to trace back the route of entry into Italy. Conclusions This is the first report in Italy of the introduction of the exotic mosquito Ae. koreicus. This species has been shown experimentally to be competent in the transmission of the Japanese encephalitis virus and of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and is considered a potential vector of other arboviruses. Thus, the establishment of this species may increase the current risk or pose new potential threats, for human and animal health. This finding considerably complicates the entomological monitoring of the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus in Italy and stresses the importance of implementing the entomological surveillance for the early detection of and the rapid response against invasive mosquito species.

  19. Partial synchronization of spermatogenesis in the immature Djungarian hamster, but not in the immature Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; de rooij, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The frequencies of the cellular associations of the seminiferous epithelium were determined at various ages after birth in immature Djungarian hamsters and Wistar rats. The frequencies of the cellular associations present in immature animals were then compared with the frequencies of the

  20. Biochemical and technological properties of immature grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodskii, A G; Polozhishnik, A F

    1958-01-01

    Corn and rye seed, of different maturities were investigated. The immature seeds were found to contain more sugars and amino acids. The yield of EtOH per 100 g of starch increased on ripening. Low yield in the mashes of unripe seeds was ascribed to the intensive amino acid-sugar reaction (Maillard reaction).

  1. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...

  2. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  3. Control of aedes vectors of dengue in three provinces of Vietnam by use of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) and community-based methods validated by entomologic, clinical, and serological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Brian H; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tien, Tran Van; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Phong, Tran Vu; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Ninh, Truong Uyen; Bektas, Ahmet; Aaskov, John G

    2002-01-01

    We describe remarkable success in controlling dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in 6 communes with 11,675 households and 49,647 people in the northern provinces of Haiphong, Hung Yen, and Nam Dinh in Vietnam. The communes were selected for high-frequency use of large outdoor concrete tanks and wells. These were found to be the source of 49.6-98.4% of Ae. aegypti larvae, which were amenable to treatment with local Mesocyclops, mainly M. woutersi Van der Velde, M. aspericornis (Daday) and M. thermocyclopoides Harada. Knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys were performed to determine whether the communities viewed dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever as a serious health threat; to determine their knowledge of the etiology, attitudes, and practices regarding control methods including Mesocyclops; and to determine their receptivity to various information methods. On the basis of the knowledge, attitude, and practice data, the community-based dengue control program comprised a system of local leaders, health volunteer teachers, and schoolchildren, supported by health professionals. Recycling of discards for economic gain was enhanced, where appropriate, and this, plus 37 clean-up campaigns, removed small containers unsuitable for Mesocyclops treatment. A previously successful eradication at Phan Boi village (Hung Yen province) was extended to 7 other villages forming Di Su commune (1,750 households) in the current study. Complete control was also achieved in Nghia Hiep (Hung Yen province) and in Xuan Phong (Nam Dinh province); control efficacy was > or = 99.7% in the other 3 communes (Lac Vien in Haiphong, Nghia Dong, and Xuan Kien in Nam Dinh). Although tanks and wells were the key container types of Ae. aegypti productivity, discarded materials were the source of 51% of the standing crop of Ae. albopictus. Aedes albopictus larvae were eliminated from the 3 Nam Dinh communes, and 86-98% control was achieved in the other 3 communes

  4. A Rare Case of Immature Ovarian Teratoma with Gliomatosis Peritonei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Glial tissue, gliomatosis peritonei, immature teratoma, India, ovary. Case Report .... astrocytes in the fetal nerve tissue. GFAP immunostain confirms ... Immature teratoma of the ovary: A clinicopathology study of 28 cases. Indian.

  5. Comparative genomics shows that viral integrations are abundant and express piRNAs in the arboviral vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palatini, U.; Miesen, P.; Carballar-Lejarazu, R.; Ometto, L.; Rizzo, E.; Tu, Z.; Rij, R.P. van; Bonizzoni, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) transmitted by mosquito vectors cause many important emerging or resurging infectious diseases in humans including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Understanding the co-evolutionary processes among viruses and vectors is essential for the development of

  6. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R A; Presley, S M; Cox, S B; Hayhoe, K; Allen, L J S; Long, K R

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems. (letter)

  7. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

  8. Characterization of Bacterial Communities and Asaia Infection with Field-Collected and Laboratory-Reared Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    Ethics Statement 71 This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for 72 Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of...Harris RF. 2000. The ecology and biogeography of microorganisms of 532 plant surfaces. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38:145-180. 533 49. Alvarez-Perez S

  9. Different toxicity of the novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strain LLP29 against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Tang, B.; Huang, E.; Huang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Huang, T.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 1098-1102 ISSN 0022-0493 Grant - others:National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31201574; Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010; Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(CN) 2011AA10A203; Universities of Fujian Province(CN) JA12092; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University(CN) xjq201203; Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * receptor binding * ELISA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/EC12308

  10. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  11. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience.

  12. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskill, Peter; Carvalho, Danilo O; Capurro, Margareth L; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A; McKemey, Andrew R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m) and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m). Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  13. Neurosteroids exhibit anticonvulsant action in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S8 (2005), s. 115-116 ISSN 0013-9580. [Joint Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. 02.12.2005-06.12.2005, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5011007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurosteroids * anticonvulsants * immature rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Mininder S; Tepolt, Frances A; Vavken, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Meniscal pathology in skeletally immature patients includes meniscal tears and discoid lateral meniscus. Total or subtotal meniscectomy may occur in patients with discoid lateral meniscus or severe meniscal tears. Meniscal transplantation may be an option in skeletally immature patients status after total or subtotal meniscectomy with knee symptoms or dysfunction. This study focuses on the surgical technique and short-term outcomes of meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients. We reviewed our clinical database for skeletally immature patients who had undergone meniscus transplantation with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Patients were contacted, invited for a physical exam, and asked to complete a Pedi-IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner outcomes questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by the responsible institutional review board. Three patients (two females/one male) were eligible for the study, each of whom responded to our invitation indicating availability for physical exam and questionnaire. Two patients had undergone subtotal discoid meniscus resection, leading to early lateral compartment degeneration. One patient developed advanced degeneration after a delay in treatment for a medial bucket-handle tear associated with anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 12.6±2.3 years. At a mean follow-up of 31±20 months, the mean Pedi-IKDC score was 68.3±4, the mean Lysholm was 55.7±22.3, and the median Tegner was 7 points. There were no indications of growth deformity during the regular postoperative radiological assessments. One patient required subsequent lysis of adhesions along the lateral mini arthrotomy and mobilization under anesthesia. The other two patients were able to return to sports at the same level as before meniscus transplantation and were able to do so within 9 months postoperatively. Over-resection of discoid menisci as well as untreated meniscus injury, the latter typically in

  15. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibilitystatus of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Osei, Joseph H; Sasaki, Akihiro; Adimazoya, Michelle; Appawu, Maxwell; Boakye, Daniel; Ohta, Nobuo; Dadzie, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana. Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique. WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes. Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus , 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were calculated as 8.2%, 11.2% and 10.3% respectively with man-vector contact rate of 0.67 bites/man-hour estimated for the area. The mortalities recorded for Ae. aegypti from WHO tube assays was 88%, 94%, 80% and 99% for DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) respectively. The survey results indicated that the density of Aedes mosquitoes was considered to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fevers on Legon Campus. Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin. This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-Grid).

  16. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  17. Fibroadenoma with "immature-like" type of usual ductal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Joško; Karaman, Ivana; Kunac, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of the breast fibroadenoma with foci of so-called immature variant of the conventional ductal hyperplasia. This type of usual ductal hyperplasia is histologically characterised by encircling intraductal proliferation of large cells with pale to amphophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei which vary in shape and in staining quality of the chromatin. We showed here, using the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, that the proliferating cells were not of immature but rather mature immunohistochemical phenotype. Because of the presented discordance between immature histology and mature immunohistological profile we suggest that this rare type of usual ductal hyperplasia should be called "immature-like".

  18. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  19. Co-Infection of Mosquitoes with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses Reveals Modulation of the Replication of Both Viruses in Midguts and Salivary Glands of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coupanec, Alain; Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stéphane; Roux, Pascal; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Morales-Vargas, Ronald; Enguehard, Margot; Lavillette, Dimitri; Missé, Dorothée; Choumet, Valérie

    2017-08-04

    Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases in humans and animals. Chikungunya-affected areas often overlap with dengue-endemic areas. Concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been detected in travelers returning from regions of endemicity. CHIKV and DENV co-infected Aedes albopictus have also been collected in the vicinity of co-infected human cases, emphasizing the need to study co-infections in mosquitoes. We thus aimed to study the pathogen-pathogen interaction involved in these co-infections in DENV/CHIKV co-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In mono-infections, we detected CHIKV antigens as early as 4 days post-virus exposure in both the midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG), whereas we detected DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) antigens from day 5 post-virus exposure in MG and day 10 post-virus exposure in SG. Identical infection rates were observed for singly and co-infected mosquitoes, and facilitation of the replication of both viruses at various times post-viral exposure. We observed a higher replication for DENV-2 in SG of co-infected mosquitoes. We showed that mixed CHIKV and DENV infection facilitated viral replication in Ae. aegypti . The outcome of these mixed infections must be further studied to increase our understanding of pathogen-pathogen interactions in host cells.

  20. Evaluation of sticky traps for adult Aedes mosquitoes in Malaysia: a potential monitoring and surveillance tool for the efficacy of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ngui, Romano; Vythilingam, Indra; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2017-12-01

    The present study compared the performance of sticky traps in order to identify the most effective and practical trap for capturing Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Three phases were conducted in the study, with Phase 1 evaluating the five prototypes (Models A, B, C, D, and E) of sticky trap release-and-recapture using two groups of mosquito release numbers (five and 50) that were released in each replicate. Similarly, Phase 2 compared the performance between Model E and the classical ovitrap that had been modified (sticky ovitrap), using five and 50 mosquito release numbers. Further assessment of both traps was carried out in Phase 3, in which both traps were installed in nine sampling grids. Results from Phase 1 showed that Model E was the trap that recaptured higher numbers of mosquitoes when compared to Models A, B, C, and D. Further assessment between Model E and the modified sticky ovitrap (known as Model F) found that Model F outperformed Model E in both Phases 2 and 3. Thus, Model F was selected as the most effective and practical sticky trap, which could serve as an alternative tool for monitoring and controlling dengue vectors in Malaysia. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Electrical injury involving the immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Southwick, W. O.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with significant problems of skeletal development and function consequent to electrical impulse propagation through the immature skeleton. Amputation stump revision in the first case allowed an opportunity to assess specific histological and morphologic changes. Electrical damage completeley destroyed portions of trabecular bone in the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. There were morphologic irregularities in the physis of the distal femur, while in the proximal tibia complete cessation of growth occurred through presumed electrical ablation of the physis. There was virtually no endosteal or periosteal callus, no intertrabecular inflammatory response, and no new bone formation well over a year following the original injury. The knee joint exhibited severe fibrous ankylosis. In the second case localized arrest of the posterolateral portion of the proximal tibial physis caused a valgus/recurvatum deformation, and probably slowed down distal growth sufficiently in the stump end to prevent irregular terminal overgrowth of the tibia, although it did occur in the fibula. (orig.)

  2. Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin isolated from peels of immature Shiranuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of the immature fruit of a citrus, Shiranuhi, and to identify the active ingredient. Methods: The immature Shiranuhi peel was extracted with 80 % ethanol, and the extract was fractionated with solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to afford ...

  3. In vitro bulblet regeneration from immature embryos of Muscari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency bulblet regeneration was achieved for endemic and endangered ornamental plant Muscari azureum using immature embryos. Immature embryos of M. azureum were cultured on callus induction medium consisting of N6 mineral salts and vitamins, 400 mg/L casein + 40 g/L sucrose + 2 g/l L-proline, 2 mg/L ...

  4. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  5. Participation of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins in the phagocytosis, component of cellular immune response, in Aedes mosquito cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Del Angel, Rosa María; Medina-Ramírez, Fernando; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system. Here, we investigated the role of 14-3-3 proteins (ε and ζ isoform) in phagocytosis, the main cellular immune responses executed by the insects, using Aedes spp. cell lines. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ in C6/36 HT and Aag-2 cells, and demonstrated that both proteins were localised in the cytoplasm. Further, in C6/36 HT cells treated with a 14-3-3 specific inhibitor we observed a notable modification of cell morphology with filopodia-like structure caused through cytoskeleton reorganisation (co-localization of 14-3-3 proteins with F-actin), more importantly the decrease in Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli phagocytosis and reduction in phagolysosome formation. Additionally, silencing of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ expression by mean of specific DsiRNA confirmed the decreased phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation of pHrodo labelled E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by Aag-2 cells. The 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins modulate cytoskeletal remodelling, and are essential for phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in Aedes spp. cell lines.

  6. Water Level Flux in Household Containers in Vietnam - A Key Determinant of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5–43.9%, 48.8–75.6% and 17.1–53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9–12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500L) increasing or decreasing by ≥20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683

  7. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that

  8. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ► Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ► Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ► Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population

  9. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  10. The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Eleonora; Hatz, Christoph; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Travellers are confronted with a variety of vector-borne threats. Is one type of repellent effective against all biting vectors? The aim of this review is to examine the literature, up to December 31st, 2012, regarding repellent efficacy. We searched PubMed for relevant papers. Repellents of interest were DEET, Icaridin as well as other piperidine-derived products (SS220), Insect Repellent (IR) 3535 (ethyl-butylacetyl-amino-propionat, EBAAP) and plant-derived products, including Citriodora (para-menthane-3,8-diol). As vectors, we considered the mosquito species Anopheles, Aedes and Culex as well as the tick species Ixodes. We selected only studies evaluating the protective efficacy of repellents on human skin. We reviewed a total of 102 publications. Repellents were evaluated regarding complete protection time or as percentage efficacy [%] in a time interval. We found no standardized study for tick bite prevention. Regarding Aedes, DEET at concentration of 20% or more, showed the best efficacy providing up to 10 h protection. Citriodora repellency against this mosquito genus was lower compared to the other products. Also between subspecies a difference could be observed: Ae. aegypti proved more difficult to repel than Ae. Albopictus. Fewer studies have been conducted on mosquito species Anopheles and Culex. The repellency profile against Anopheles species was similar for the four principal repellents of interest, providing on average 4-10 h of protection. Culex mosquitoes are easier to repel and all four repellents provided good protection. Few studies have been conducted on the tick species Ixodes. According to our results, the longest protection against Ixodes scapularis was provided by repellents containing IR3535, while DEET and commercial products containing Icaridin or PMD showed a better response than IR3535 against Ixodes ricinus. Many plant-based repellents provide only short duration protection. Adding vanillin 5% to plant-based repellents and to DEET

  11. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Ae. albopictus (Skuse. Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides i.e with burned breadnut flowers and mosquito coils containing transflutrin and d-aletrin. Mosquito samples were taken from field eggs which