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Sample records for imido complexes progress

  1. High-valent imido complexes of manganese and chromium corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicola Y; Eikey, Rebecca A; Loring, Megan I; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2005-05-16

    The oxidation reaction of M(tpfc) [M = Mn or Cr and tpfc = tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole] with aryl azides under photolytic or thermal conditions gives the first examples of mononuclear imido complexes of manganese(V) and chromium(V). These complexes have been characterized by NMR, mass spectrometry, UV-vis, EPR, elemental analysis, and cyclic voltammetry. Two X-ray structures have been obtained for Mn(tpfc)(NMes) and Cr(tpfc)(NMes) [Mes = 2,4,6-(CH(3))(3)C(6)H(2)]. Short metal-imido bonds (1.610 and 1.635 Angstroms) as well as nearly linear M-N-C angles are consistent with triple M triple-bond NR bond formation. The kinetics of nitrene [NR] group transfer from manganese(V) corroles to various organic phosphines have been defined. Reduction of the manganese(V) corrolato complex affords phosphine imine and Mn(III) with reaction rates that are sensitive to steric and electronic elements of the phosphine substrate. An analogous manganese complex with a variant corrole ligand containing bromine atoms in the beta-pyrrole positions, Mn(Br(8)tpfc)(NAr), has been prepared and studied. Its reaction with PEt(3) is 250x faster than that of the parent tpfc complex, and its Mn(V/IV) couple is shifted by 370 mV to a more positive potential. The EPR spectra of chromium(V) imido corroles reveal a rich signal at ambient temperature consistent with Cr(V) triple-bond NR (d(1), S = 1/2) containing a localized spin density in the d(xy) orbital, and an anisotropic signal at liquid nitrogen temperature. Our results demonstrate the synthetic utility of organic aryl azides in the preparation of mononuclear metal imido complexes previously considered elusive, and suggest strong sigma-donation as the underlying factor in stabilizing high-valent metals by corrole ligands.

  2. Thermolysis of Half-Sandwich Vanadium(V) Imido Complexes to Generate Vanadium(III) Imido Species via a Vanadium(IV) Intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batinas, Aurora A.; Dam, Jeroen; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Bouwkamp, Marco W.

    2010-01-01

    Thermolysis of half-sandwich vanadium imido complexes Cp(RN)V(i-Pr(2)N)Me (R = p-Tol, 1a; R = t-Bu, 1b) results in a mixture of products, including vanadium(IV) dimers [CpVMe](2)(mu-RN)(2), i-Pr(2)NH, i-PrNCMe(2), CH(4), and one or more paramagnetic species. In the presence of dmpe (dmpe =

  3. Detection and differentiation of neutral organic compounds by 19F NMR with a tungsten calix[4]arene imido complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanchuan; Swager, Timothy M

    2013-12-18

    Fluorinated tungsten calix[4]arene imido complexes were synthesized and used as receptors to detect and differentiate neutral organic compounds. It was found that the binding of specific neutral organic molecules to the tungsten centers induces an upfield shift of the fluorine atom appended on the arylimido group, the extent of which is highly dependent on electronic and steric properties. We demonstrate that the specific bonding and size-selectivity of calix[4]arene tungsten-imido complex combined with (19)F NMR spectroscopy is a powerful new method for the analysis of complex mixtures.

  4. Well-defined silica-supported zirconium–imido complexes mediated heterogeneous imine metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2016-02-15

    Upon prolonged thermal exposure under vacuum, a well-defined single-site surface species [(≡Si-O-)Zr(NEt2)3] (1) evolves into an ethylimido complex [(≡Si-O-)Zr(=NEt)NEt2] (2). Reactions of 2 with an imine substrate result in imido/imine (=NRi, R: Et, Ph) exchange (metathesis) with the formation of [(≡Si-O-)Zr(=NPh)NEt2] (3). Compounds 2 and 3 effectively catalyze imine/imine cross-metathesis and are thus considered as the first heterogeneous catalysts active for imine metathesis. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  5. Two-Coordinate Co(II) Imido Complexes as Outstanding Single-Molecule Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao-Nan; Du, Jing-Zhen; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Leng, Xue-Bing; Yang, Mu-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Da; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Ouyang, Zhong-Wen; Deng, Liang; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Song

    2017-01-11

    The pursuit of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with better performance urges new molecular design that can endow SMMs larger magnetic anisotropy. Here we report that two-coordinate cobalt imido complexes featuring highly covalent Co═N cores exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization under zero direct-current field with a high effective relaxation barrier up to 413 cm(-1), a new record for transition metal based SMMs. Two theoretical models were carried out to investigate the anisotropy of these complexes: single-ion model and Co-N coupling model. The former indicates that the pseudo linear ligand field helps to preserve the first-order orbital momentum, while the latter suggests that the strong ferromagnetic interaction between Co and N makes the [CoN](+) fragment a pseudo single paramagnetic ion, and that the excellent performance of these cobalt imido SMMs is attributed to the inherent large magnetic anisotropy of the [CoN](+) core with |MJ = ± 7/2⟩ ground Kramers doublet.

  6. Titanium(IV) imido complexes of imine imidazol-2-imine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgir, Sarim; Lavoie, Gino G

    2012-08-28

    Free imine imidazol-2-imine ligands with two different substitution patterns have been isolated for the first time and they were found to exist as an equilibrium mixture of geometric and mesomeric isomers. The relative ratios of these isomers are dependent on both the nature of the substituents and of the solvent. The synthesis of the titanium(IV) alkyl and arylimido complexes of these ligands was unexpectedly found to be very selective and was successfully achieved only with the lesser sterically-demanding 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl derivative IMesN^Imine 2a. The solid-state structure of the alkylimido complex further confirms the zwitterionic character of the ligand. The isolated titanium imido complexes were found to be active catalysts for the polymerisation of ethylene.

  7. Well-defined silica-supported zirconium-imido complexes mediated heterogeneous imine metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Bilel; Pelletier, Jérémie D A; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-28

    Upon prolonged thermal exposure under vacuum, a well-defined single-site surface species [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si-O-)Zr(NEt2)3] () evolves into an ethylimido complex [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si-O-)Zr([double bond, length as m-dash]NEt)NEt2] (). Reactions of with an imine substrate result in imido/imine ([double bond, length as m-dash]NRi, R: Et, Ph) exchange (metathesis) with the formation of [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si-O-)Zr([double bond, length as m-dash]NPh)NEt2] (). Compounds and effectively catalyze imine/imine cross-metathesis and are thus considered as the first heterogeneous catalysts active for imine metathesis.

  8. Uranium (VI)Bis(imido) chalcogenate complexes:synthesis and density functional theory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Bis(imido) uranium(VI) trans- and cis-dichalcogenate complexes with the general formula U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 (EAr = O-2-tBuC6H4, SPh, SePh, TePh) and U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(R2bpy) (EAr = SPh, SePh, TePh) (R2bpy = 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl, R = Me, tBu) have been prepared. This family of complexes includes the first reported monodentate selenolate and tellurolate complexes of uranium(VI). Density functional theory calculations show that covalent interactions in the U-E bond increase in the trans-dichalcogenate series U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 as the size of the chalcogenate donor increases and that both 5f and 6d orbital participation is important in the M-E bonds of U-S, U-Se, and U-Te complexes.

  9. Uranium(VI) bis(imido) chalcogenate complexes: synthesis and density functional theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Liam P; Yang, Ping; Scott, Brian L; Batista, Enrique R; Boncella, James M

    2009-03-16

    Bis(imido) uranium(VI) trans- and cis-dichalcogenate complexes with the general formula U(N(t)Bu)(2)(EAr)(2)(OPPh(3))(2) (EAr = O-2-(t)BuC(6)H(4), SPh, SePh, TePh) and U(N(t)Bu)(2)(EAr)(2)(R(2)bpy) (EAr = SPh, SePh, TePh) (R(2)bpy = 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl, R = Me, (t)Bu) have been prepared. This family of complexes includes the first reported monodentate selenolate and tellurolate complexes of uranium(VI). Density functional theory calculations show that covalent interactions in the U-E bond increase in the trans-dichalcogenate series U(N(t)Bu)(2)(EAr)(2)(OPPh(3))(2) as the size of the chalcogenate donor increases and that both 5f and 6d orbital participation is important in the M-E bonds of U-S, U-Se, and U-Te complexes.

  10. Synthesis and Reduction of Uranium(V) Imido Complexes with Redox-Active Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Kimberly C; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2017-04-27

    Organic azides that contain naphthyl functional groups were used to prepare uranium(V) imido complexes U(V) [=NC(2-naph)Ph2 ][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 (2), U(V) [=NC(2-naph)3 ][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 (3), and U(V) [=N(2-naph)][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 (4), and their properties were compared with U(V) [=NCPh3 ][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 (1). The electronic structures of these compounds were investigated by solution electrochemistry studies, which revealed accessible U(V/VI) , U(IV/V) , and naphthalene(0) /naphthalene(-1) couples. The uranium(V) naphthylimido complexes were reduced by potassium graphite to yield their uranium(IV) congeners K[U(IV) [=NC(2-naph)Ph2 ][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 ] (2-K), K[U(IV) [=NC(2-naph)3 ][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 ] (3-K), and K[U(IV) [=N(2-naph)][N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 ] (4-K). The electronic structure of the dianionic compounds were investigated by DFT calculations, and this revealed that the second reduction was ligand-based, which opens the possibility of accomplishing multi-electron redox chemistry by using a tailored multiply-bonded ligand. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis and reactivity of calix[4]arene-supported group 4 imido complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubberley, Stuart R; Friedrich, Andreas; Willman, David A; Mountford, Philip; Radius, Udo

    2003-08-04

    New mononuclear titanium and zirconium imido complexes [M(NR)(R'(2)calix)] [M=Ti, R'=Me, R=tBu (1), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)Me(2) (2), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (3), R=2,4,6-C(6)H(2)Me(3) (4); M=Ti, R'=Bz, R=tBu (5), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)Me(2) (6), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (7); M=Zr, R'=Me, R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (8)] supported by 1,3-diorganyl ether p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes (R'(2)calix) were prepared in good yield from the readily available complexes [MCl(2)(Me(2)calix)], [Ti(NR)Cl(2)(py)(3)], and [Ti(NR)Cl(2)(NHMe(2))(2)]. The crystallographically characterised complex [Ti(NtBu)(Me(2)calix)] (1) reacts readily with CO(2), CS(2), and p-tolyl-isocyanate to give the isolated complexes [Ti[N(tBu)C(O)O](Me(2)calix)] (10), [[Ti(mu-O)(Me(2)calix)](2)] (11), [[Ti(mu-S)(Me(2)calix)](2)] (12), and [Ti[N(tBu)C(O)N(-4-C(6)H(4)Me)](Me(2)calix)] (13). In the case of CO(2) and CS(2), the addition of the heterocumulene to the Ti-N multiple bond is followed by a cycloreversion reaction to give the dinuclear complexes 11 and 12. The X-ray structure of 13.4(C(7)H(8)) clearly establishes the N,N'-coordination mode of the ureate ligand in this compound. Complex 1 undergoes tert-butyl/arylamine exchange reactions to form 2, 3, [Ti(N-4-C(6)H(4)Me)(Me(2)calix)] (14), [Ti(N-4-C(6)H(4)Fc)(Me(2)calix)] (15) [Fc=Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(eta(5)-C(5)H(4))], and [[Ti(Me(2)calix)](2)[mu-(N-4-C(6)H(4))(2)CH(2)

  12. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of a novel organometallic (µ(3)-oxido)(µ(3)-imido) trinuclear iridium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Malcho, Phillip; Herbst, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Reaction of the organometallic aqua ion [Cp*Ir(H(2)O)(3)](2+) with tert-butyl(trimethylsilyl)amine in acetone yielded a novel trinuclear (µ(3)-oxido)(µ(3)-imido)pentamethylcyclopentadienyliridium(iii) complex, [(Cp*Ir)(3)(O)(N(t)Bu)](2+). Single crystal structure analyses show the complex can...

  13. Further studies of imido alkylidene complexes of tungsten, well-characterized olefin metathesis catalysts with controllable activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.; DePue, R.T.; Feldman, J.; Yap, K.B.; Yang, D.C.; Davis, W.M.; Park, L.; DiMare, M.; Schofield, M.; Anhaus, J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Walborsky, E.; Evitt, E. (Catalytica Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA)); Krueger, C.; Betz, P. (Max-Planck-Institute fuer Kohlenforschung, Ruhr (West Germany))

    1990-08-01

    An alternative synthesis of W(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(dme)Cl{sub 2} (Ar = 2,6-C{sub 6}-H{sub 3}-i-Pr{sub 2}) consists of the five steps WCl{sub 6} {yields} W(O)Cl{sub 4} {yields} W(NAr)Cl{sub 4} {yields} W(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(THF) {yields} W(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}-t-Bu){sub 2} {yields} W(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(dme)Cl{sub 2}, in which tert-butoxide protecting groups are replaced by chlorides in the last step upon addition of PCl{sub 5}. The easiest synthesis to a catalyst precursor consists of the three steps WO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} {yields} W(NAr){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(dme) {yields} W(NAr){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}R){sub 2} {yields} W(CHR)(NAr)(OTf){sub 2}(dme) (R = t-Bu, CMe{sub 2}Ph; OTf = OSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}), in which an imido ligand protecting group is ultimately replaced by two triflate ligands upon addition of triflic acid in the last step. An X-ray study of W(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} shows it to be a pseudotetrahedral complex in which the tert-butyl group points toward the imido ligand.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of an f-block terminal parent imido [U═NH] complex: a masked uranium(IV) nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David M; McMaster, Jonathan; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2014-04-16

    Deprotonation of [U(Tren(TIPS))(NH2)] (1) [Tren(TIPS) = N(CH2CH2NSiPr(i)3)3] with organoalkali metal reagents MR (M = Li, R = Bu(t); M = Na-Cs, R = CH2C6H5) afforded the imido-bridged dimers [{U(Tren(TIPS))(μ-N[H]M)}2] [M = Li-Cs (2a-e)]. Treatment of 2c (M = K) with 2 equiv of 15-crown-5 ether (15C5) afforded the uranium terminal parent imido complex [U(Tren(TIPS))(NH)][K(15C5)2] (3c), which can also be viewed as a masked uranium(IV) nitride. The uranium-imido linkage was found to be essentially linear, and theoretical calculations suggested σ(2)π(4) polarized U-N multiple bonding. Attempts to oxidize 3c to afford the neutral uranium terminal parent imido complex [U(Tren(TIPS))(NH)] (4) resulted in spontaneous disproportionation to give 1 and the uranium-nitride complex [U(Tren(TIPS))(N)] (5); this reaction is a new way to prepare the terminal uranium-nitride linkage and was calculated to be exothermic by -3.25 kcal mol(-1).

  15. From a cycloheptatrienylzirconium allyl complex to a cycloheptatrienylzirconium imidazolin-2-iminato "pogo stick" complex with imido-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2012-04-02

    The reaction of the cycloheptatrienylzirconium half-sandwich complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))ZrCl(tmeda)] (1) (tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) with Li(Im(Dipp)N), generated from bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH) with methyllithium, yields the imidazolin-2-iminato complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)(tmeda)] (2). The corresponding tmeda-free complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)] (5) can be synthesized via the 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)allyl complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr{η(3)-C(3)H(3)(TMS)(2)}(THF)] (3; TMS = SiMe(3)), which undergoes an acid-base reaction with Im(Dipp)NH to form 5 and 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)propene. 5 exhibits an unusual one-legged piano stool ("pogo stick") geometry with a particularly short Zr-N bond of 1.997(2) Å. Addition of 2,6-dimethylphenyl or tert-butyl isocyanide affords the complexes [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Im(Dipp)N)(CNR)] (R = o-Xy, 6; R = t-Bu, 7), while the reaction with 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanate results in a [2 + 2] cycloaddition to form the ureato(1-) complex [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr{Im(Dipp)N(C═O)N-o-Xy}] (8). 5 can also act as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. These reactivity patterns together with density functional theory calculations reveal a marked similarity of the bonding in imidazolin-2-iminato and conventional imido transition-metal complexes.

  16. Molybdenum (VI Imido Complexes Derived from Chelating Phenols: Synthesis, Characterization and ɛ-Caprolactone ROP Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of the bulky bi-phenols 2,2′-RCH[4,6-(t-Bu2C6H2OH]2 (R = Me L1MeH2, Ph L1PhH2 with the bis(imido molybdenum(VI tert-butoxides [Mo(NR1(NR2(Ot-Bu2] (R1 = R2 = 2,6-C6H3-i-Pr2; R1 = t-Bu, R2 = C6F5 afforded, following the successive removal of tert-butanol, the complexes [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62L1Me] (1, [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62L1Ph] (2 and [Mo(Nt-Bu(μ-NC6F5(L1Me]2 (3. Similar use of the tri-phenol 2,6-bis(3,5-di-tert -butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl-4-methylphenol (L2H3 with [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62(Ot-Bu2] afforded the oxo-bridged product [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,6(NCMe(μ-OL2H]2 (4, whilst use of the tetra-phenols α,α,α′,α′-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-p- or -m-xylene L3pH4/L3mH4 led to {[Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62]2(μ-L3p} (5 or {[Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62]2(μ-L3m} (6, respectively. Similar use of [Mo(NC6F52(Ot-Bu2] with L3pH4 afforded, after work-up, the complex {[Mo(NC6F5(Ot-Bu2]2(μ-L3p}·6MeCN (7·6MeCN. Molecular structures of 1, 2·CH2Cl2, 3, 4·6MeCN, 6·2C6H14, and 7·6MeCN are reported and these complexes have been screened for their ability to ring open polymerize (ROP ε-caprolactone; for comparative studies the precursor complex [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62Cl2(DME] (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane has also been screened. Results revealed that good activity is only achievable at temperatures of ≥100 °C over periods of 1 h or more. Polymer polydispersities were narrow, but observed molecular weights (Mn were much lower than calculated values.

  17. A sup 183 W NMR study of mononuclear tungsten(VI) methyl complexes containing terminal oxo, sulfido, and imido ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yinong; Demou, P.; Faller, J.W. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The {sup 183}W chemical shifts of a number of organometallic oxo-, sulfido-, and imido-tungsten(VI) complexes have been measured by indirect detection using {sup 1}H({sup 183}W) double-resonance and {sup 1}H({sup 1}H, {sup 183}W) triple-resonance techniques. The shielding trends within a series of ligands, including O{sup 2{minus}}, S{sup 2{minus}}, PhN{sup 2{minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, {eta}{sup 2}-O{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}, and {eta}{sup 2}-S{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}, are discussed with respect to ligand polarizability and bond multiplicity. The tungsten(VI) nuclei become more deshielded with increasing ligand polarizability and bond multiplicity. The {sup 183}W chemical shifts of Cp*W({double bond}O)X{sub 2}Me complexes show an inverse halogen dependence, as expected from relative polarizability arguments. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Heterolytic cleavage of ammonia N-H bond by bifunctional activation in silica-grafted single site Ta(V) imido amido surface complex. Importance of the outer sphere NH3 assistance

    KAUST Repository

    Gouré, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia N-H bond is cleaved at room temperature by the silica-supported tantalum imido amido complex [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(-NH2)], 2, if excess ammonia is present, but requires 150 °C to achieve the same reaction if only one equivalent NH3 is added to 2. MAS solid-state 15N NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic studies of the reaction of either 15N or 2H labeled ammonia with 2 show that initial coordination of the ammonia is followed by scrambling of either 15N or 2H among ammonia, amido and imido groups. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a cluster model [{(μ-O)[(H3SiO) 2SiO]2}Ta(NH)(-NH2)(NH3)], 2 q·NH3, show that the intramolecular H transfer from Ta-NH2 to TaNH is ruled out, but the H transfers from the coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups have accessible energy barriers. The energy barrier for the ammonia N-H activation by the Ta-amido group is energetically preferred relative to the Ta-imido group. The importance of excess NH3 for getting full isotope scrambling is rationalized by an outer sphere assistance of ammonia acting as proton transfer agent, which equalizes the energy barriers for H transfer from coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups. In contrast, additional coordinated ammonia does not favor significantly the H transfer. These results rationalize the experimental conditions used. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2011.

  19. Combinatorial screening of an in situ generated library of tungsten oxyhalide and imido complexes for olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Duane R; Sussman, Victor J; Burdett, Ken; Chen, Yu; Miller, Kami J

    2014-10-13

    A series of substituted tungsten(VI) halides with general formula WECl4 (E = O or -NR (imido)) were screened via a high throughput study to identify potential new olefin metathesis catalysts. The tungsten species were treated with a series of aluminum alkyl activators and modifier ligands to generate active catalyst species in situ. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene was used as a primary screen to identify potential metathesis catalysts and active catalysts were subjected to a secondary screen to evaluate tolerance toward polar functional groups. Several combinations from the high throughput campaign yielded active metathesis catalysts for the ROMP of cyclooctene. However, none of the catalysts examined in this study exhibited any evidence of significant polar functional group tolerance as determined by the results of the secondary cyclooctene/butyl acetate screen.

  20. Chemistry of high-oxidation-state groups V and VI complexes: Novel silyl and imido complexes and the reactions of silyl and alkyl alkylidyne complexes with oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianniu

    This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of the novel early transition metal (especially group VI metals) complexes free of anionic pi-ligands such as cyclopentadienyl (Cp) and studies of their reactions with oxygen and silanes. Our study of Cp-free tungsten silyl chemistry is reported. A novel d 0 tungsten silyl complex 2 [(ButCH 2)W(=CHBut)2(SiButPh2 ) (2a) ⇌ (ButCH2)2W(≡CBu t)(SiButPh2) (2b)] and an equilibrium between 2a and 2b are described in Chapter 2. The thermodynamics of this equilibrium [DeltaH° = -0.9(0.2) kcal/mol, DeltaS° = -0.6(0.8) eu] was investigated by 1H NMR. The studies of the alpha-hydrogen exchange between 2a and 2b by 2-D EXSY experiments gave kinetic parameters of the exchange: DeltaH≠ = 17.9(1.1) kcal/mol, DeltaS≠ = 1.9(5.7) eu for the forward reaction (2a → 2b) and Delta H≠ = 18.6 (1.1) kcal/mol, DeltaS ≠ = 1.9(5.7) eu for the back reaction (2b → 2a). The reaction of O2 with silyl alkylidyne 2b [(Bu tCH2)W(=CHBut)2(SiBut Ph2) (2a) ⇌ (ButCH2)2W(≡CBu t)(SiButPh2) (2b)] is described in Chapter 3. A silyl migration product (ButCH2) 2W(=O)[=C(But)(SiButPh2)] ( 5) was characterized. A siloxy analog of 2b, (Bu tCH2)2W≡CBut(OSiBu tPh2) (6), was prepared and excluded as a possible intermediate in the formation of 5. Ab initio calculations suggested a pathway involving silyl migration in 2b to give a tungsten (IV) intermediate (ButCH 2)2W=C(But)(SiButPh2) (7) prior to the reaction with O2. A crystal structure of (Me3SiCH2)2W(=O)(=CHSiMe3)(O=PMe 3)•(Me3SiCH2)3W≡CSiMe 3 (12) was obtained from the reaction of alkyl alkylidyne (Me3SiCH2)3W≡CSiMe3 with O2 in the presence of PMe3. In Chapter 4, preparation and characterization of bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimido)molybdenum(VI) amide and silyl complexes (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)2 (14), (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)[Si(SiMe3) 3] (15), (ArN=)2MoCl[N(SiMe3) 2] (16), (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)[N(SiMe 3)2] (17), and (ArN=)2Mo(NHAr) 2 (18) are reported. In addition, new bis(imido

  1. ALKYLATION AND REDUCTIVE DIMERIZATION OF HALF-SANDWICH IMIDO VANADIUM DICHLORIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, J.K.F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H; Kooijman, H.; Spek, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The vanadium imido complex ArNVCl3 (2) (Ar=2,6-C6H3-(Pr-i)(2)) can be converted to the half-sandwich imido vanadium complex CpV(NAr)Cl-2 (3) by reaction with CpSiMe(3). Reaction of 3 and of CpV(N-p-tolyl)Cl-2 (1) with alkylating reagents did not allow the isolation of the pure dialkyl complexes but

  2. Neutral and Cationic Molybdenum Imido Alkylidene N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Reactivity in Selected Olefin Metathesis Reactions and Immobilization on Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suman; Schowner, Roman; Imbrich, Dominik A; Frey, Wolfgang; Hunger, Michael; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-09-21

    The synthesis and single-crystal X-ray structures of the novel molybdenum imido alkylidene N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (3), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (4), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf){OCH(CF3)2}] (5), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(CH3CN)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)](+)BArF(-) (6), [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (7) and [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (8) are reported (IMesH2=1,3-dimesitylimidazolidin-2-ylidene, IMes=1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene, BArF(-)=tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] borate, OTf=CF3SO3(-)). Also, silica-immobilized versions I1 and I2 were prepared. Catalysts 3-8, I1 and I2 were used in homo-, cross-, and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions and in the cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diynes. In the RCM of α,ω-dienes, in the homometathesis of 1-alkenes, and in the ethenolysis of cyclooctene, turnover numbers (TONs) up to 100,000, 210,000 and 30,000, respectively, were achieved. With I1 and I2, virtually Mo-free products were obtained (<3 ppm Mo). With 1,6-hepta- and 1,7-octadiynes, catalysts 3, 4, and 5 allowed for the regioselective cyclopolymerization of 4,4-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis[(3,5-diethoxybenzoyloxy)methyl]-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4,5,5-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,7-octadiyne, and 1,6-heptadiyne-4-carboxylic acid, underlining the high functional-group tolerance of these novel Group 6 metal alkylidenes.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and structural determination of some nickel(II) complexes containing imido Schiff bases and substituted phosphine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianfar, Ali Hossein; Ebrahimi, Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Some new tridentate ONN Schiff base complexes of [NiL(PR3)] (where L=Salicylidene2-amino4-nitrobenzene (L(1)), 5-BrSalicylidene2-amino4-nitrobenzene (L(2)), 5-NO2Salicylidene2-amino4-nitrobenzene (L(3)), 5-MeOSalicylidene2-amino4-nitrobenzene (L(4)) and 3-MeOSalicylidene2-amino4-nitrobenzene (L(5)), R=Bu and Ph (with L(1))) were synthesised and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The geometry of [NiL(1)(PPh3)] was determined by X-ray crystallography. It indicated that the complex had a planar structure and four coordinates in the solid state. The thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermoanalysis (DTA) of the synthesized complexes were carried out in the range of 20-600°C, leading to the decomposition of L(1)-L(3) type in three stages and of L(4)-L(5) and [NiL(1)(PPh3)] type in four stages. Thermal decomposition of the complexes was closely the dependent upon the nature of the Schiff base ligands and proceeded via the first order kinetics.

  4. Well-Defined Silica Grafted Molybdenum Bis(imido) Catalysts for Imine Metathesis Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Barman, Samir

    2017-04-06

    Novel site-isolated tetracoordinated molybdenum complexes possessing bis(imido) ligands, [(≡Si–O)2Mo(═NR)2] (R = t-Bu, 2,6-C6H3-i-Pr2), were immobilized on partially dehydroxylated silica (SiO2-200) by a rigorous surface organometallic chemistry protocol. The newly developed materials adorned with bis(imido) functional units, which were previously exploited mainly as spectator ligands on silica-supported olefin metathesis molybdenum catalysts, are found to be efficient heterogeneous catalytic systems for imine cross metathesis under mild conditions.

  5. Characterization of Iron-Imido Species Relevant for N-Group Transfer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Diana A; Betley, Theodore A

    2016-02-17

    A sterically accessible tert-butyl-substituted dipyrrinato di-iron(II) complex [((tBu)L)FeCl]2 possessing two bridging chloride atoms was synthesized from the previously reported solvento adduct. Upon treatment with aryl azides, the formation of high-spin Fe(III) species was confirmed by (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Crystallographic characterization revealed two possible oxidation products: (1) a terminal iron iminyl from aryl azides bearing ortho isopropyl substituents, ((tBu)L)FeCl((•)NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2); or (2) a bridging di-iron imido arising from reaction with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)aryl azide, [((tBu)L)FeCl]2(μ-NC6H3-3,5-(CF3)2). Similar to the previously reported ((Ar)L)FeCl((•)NC6H4-4-(t)Bu), the monomeric iron imido is best described as a high-spin Fe(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to an iminyl radical, affording an S = 2 spin state as confirmed by SQUID magnetometry. The di-iron imido possesses an S = 0 ground state, arising from two high-spin Fe(III) centers weakly antiferromagnetically coupled through the bridging imido ligand. The terminal iron iminyl complex undergoes facile decomposition via intra- or intermolecular hydrogen-atom abstraction (HAA) from an imido aryl ortho isopropyl group, or from 1,4-cyclohexadiene, respectively. The bridging di-iron imido is a competent N-group transfer reagent to cyclic internal olefins as well as styrene. Although solid-state magnetometry indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two iron centers (J = -108.7 cm(-1)) in [((tBu)L)FeCl]2(μ-NC6H3-3,5-(CF3)2), we demonstrate that in solution the bridging imido can facilitate HAA as well as dissociate into a terminal iminyl species, which then can promote HAA. In situ monitoring reveals the di-iron bridging imido is a catalytically competent intermediate, one of several iron complexes observed in the amination of C-H bond substrates or styrene aziridination.

  6. Structure and reactivity of a pyridine-1-imido-2-thiolato complex of iridium(III), CpIr(1-N-2-Spy), generated by photolysis of the (azido)(pyridine-2-thiolato) complex, CpIr(2-Spy)(N3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekioka, Yusuke; Kaizaki, Sumio; Mayer, James M; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-11-14

    Photolysis of the (azido)(pyridine-2-thiolato)iridium(III) complex CpIr(2-Spy)(N3) (1) gave a pyridine-1-imido-2-thiolato complex, CpIr(1-N-2-Spy) (2), in which one of the nitrogen atoms of the azide ligand has been inserted into the Ir-N(py) bond (Cp = eta5-C5Me5). Complex 2 reacted quantitatively with methyl iodide to give the N-methylated product, [CpIr(1-NMe-2-Spy)]I (3). X-ray crystallography revealed that both 2 and 3 have similar two-legged piano stool structures with planar 1-N-2-Spy2- or 1-NMe-2-Spy- ligands, which form iridacyclopentadienyl-like rings by moderate S(ppi)/N(ppi) to Ir(dpi) pi donation.

  7. Observation of inductive effects that cause a change in the rate-determining step for the conversion of rhenium azides to imido complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travia, Nicholas E; Xu, Zhenggang; Keith, Jason M; Ison, Elon A; Fanwick, Phillip E; Hall, Michael B; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2011-10-17

    The cationic oxorhenium(V) complex [Re(O)(hoz)(2)(CH(3)CN)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] [1; Hhoz = 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline] reacts with aryl azides (N(3)Ar) to give cationic cis-rhenium(VII) oxoimido complexes of the general formula [Re(O)(NAr)(hoz)(2)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] [2a-2f; Ar = 4-methoxyphenyl, 4-methylphenyl, phenyl, 3-methoxyphenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]. The kinetics of formation of 2 in CH(3)CN are first-order in both azide (N(3)Ar) and oxorhenium(V) complex 1, with second-order rate constants ranging from 3.5 × 10(-2) to 1.7 × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). A strong inductive effect is observed for electron-withdrawing substituents, leading to a negative Hammett reaction constant ρ = -1.3. However, electron-donating substituents on phenyl azide deviate significantly from this trend. Enthalpic barriers (ΔH(‡)) determined by the Eyring-Polanyi equation are in the range 14-19 kcal mol(-1) for all aryl azides studied. However, electron-donating 4-methoxyphenyl azide exhibits a large negative entropy of activation, ΔS(‡) = -21 cal mol(-1) K(-1), which is in sharp contrast to the near zero ΔS(‡) observed for phenyl azide and 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl azide. The Hammett linear free-energy relationship and the activation parameters support a change in the mechanism between electron-withdrawing and electron-donating aryl azides. Density functional theory predicts that the aryl azides coordinate via N(α) and extrude N(2) directly. For the electron-withdrawing substituents, N(2) extrusion is rate-determining, while for the electron-donating substituents, the rate-determining step becomes the initial attack of the azide. The barriers for these two steps are inverted in their order with respect to the Hammett σ values; thus, the Hammett plot appears with a break in its slope.

  8. Metathesis of a UV imido complex: a route to a terminal UV sulfide† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full computational and experimental details, NMR spectra, and detailed X-ray crystallographic data in CIF format. CCDC 1535285–1535289. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01111c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rory P.; Falcone, Marta; Lamsfus, Carlos Alvarez; Scopelliti, Rosario; Maron, Laurent; Meyer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterisation of the first terminal uranium(v) sulfide and a related UV trithiocarbonate complex supported by sterically demanding tris(tert-butoxy)siloxide ligands. The reaction of the potassium-bound UV imido complex, [U(NAd){OSi(OtBu)3}4K] (4), with CS2 led to the isolation of perthiodicarbonate [K(18c6)]2[C2S6] (6), with concomitant formation of the UIV complex, [U{OSi(OtBu)3}4], and S 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 CNAd. In contrast, the reaction of the UV imido complex, [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][U(NAd){OSi(OtBu)3}4] (5), with one or two equivalents of CS2 afforded the trithiocarbonate complex, [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][U(CS3){OSi(OtBu)3}4] (7), which was isolated in 57% yield, with concomitant elimination of the admantyl thiocyanate product, SCNAd. Complex 7 is likely formed by fast nucleophilic

  9. Probing the chemistry, electronic structure and redox energetics in pentavalent organometallic actinide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaughn, Anthony E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Complexes of the early actinides (Th-Pu) have gained considerable prominence in organometallic chemistry as they have been shown to undergo chemistries not observed with their transition- or lanthanide metal counterparts. Further, while bonding in f-element complexes has historically been considered to be ionic, the issue of covalence remains a subject of debate in the area of actinide science, and studies aimed at elucidating key bonding interactions with 5f-orbitals continue to garner attention. Towards this end, our interests have focused on the role that metal oxidation state plays in the structure, reactivity and spectral properties of organouranium complexes. We report our progress in the synthesis of substituted U{sup V}-imido complexes using various routes: (1) Direct oxidation of U{sup IV}-imido complexes with copper(I) salts; (2) Salt metathesis with U{sup V}-imido halides; (3) Protonolysis and insertion of an U{sup V}-imido alkyl or aryl complex with H-N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2} or N{triple_bond}C-Ph, respectively, to form a U{sup V}-imido ketimide complex. Further, we report and compare the crystallographic, electrochemical, spectroscopic and magnetic characterization of the pentavalent uranium (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}U({double_bond}N-Ar)(Y) series (Y = OTf, SPh, C{triple_bond}C-Ph, NPh{sub 2}, OPh, N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2}) to further interrogate the molecular, electronic, and magnetic structures of this new class of uranium complexes.

  10. Piano-Stool Lutetium Amido and Imido Compounds Supported by a Constrained Bis(oxazoline)cyclopentadienyl Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampland, Nicole L; Zhu, Jing; Hovey, Megan; Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2015-07-20

    {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu(CH2Ph)2 (1; Bo(M)Cp(tet) = MeC(Ox(Me2))2C5Me4; Ox(Me2) = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline) was prepared in 95% yield from the reaction of Bo(M)Cp(tet)H and Lu(CH2Ph)3THF3. Compound 1 reacts with 1 or 2 equiv of H2NCH2R (R = C6H5, 1-C10H7) to give the corresponding imido complexes [{Bo(M)Cp(tet)}LuNCH2R]2 (R = C6H5 (2a), 1-C10H7 (2b)) or amido complexes {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu(NHCH2R)2 (R = C6H5 (3a), 1-C10H7 (3b)). Once isolated, the imido species are insoluble in nonprotic organic solvents. Crystallographic characterization reveals dimeric [{Bo(M)Cp(tet)}LuNCH2(1-C10H7)]2 in the solid state. The reaction of 1 and NH3B(C6F5)3 affords crystallographically characterized {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu{NHB(C6F5)2}C6F5. This species is proposed to form via a transient lutetium imido, which undergoes C6F5 migration to the lutetium center.

  11. Progress in Computational Complexity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Yi Cai; Hong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    We briefly survey a number of important recent achievements in Theoretical Computer Science (TCS), especially Computational Complexity Theory. We will discuss the PCP Theorem, its implications to inapproximability on combinatorial optimization problems; space bounded computations, especially deterministic logspace algorithm for undirected graph connectivity problem; deterministic polynomial-time primality test; lattice complexity, worst-case to average-case reductions;pseudorandomness and extractor constructions; and Valiant's new theory of holographic algorithms and reductions.

  12. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  13. Replacement of an oxo by an imido group in oxotransferase model compounds: influence on the oxygen atom transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C; Wurm, Dietmar; Volpe, Manuel; Lyashenko, Ganna; Harum, Bastian; Belaj, Ferdinand; Baumgartner, Judith

    2010-10-04

    Treatment of [MoO(N-t-Bu)Cl(2)(dme)] (dme = dimethoxyethane) with 2 equiv of the potassium salts of Schiff base ligands of the type KArNC(CH(3))CHC(CH(3))O afforded oxo imido molybdenum(VI) compounds [MoO(N-t-Bu)L(2)] {1, with Ar = phenyl (L(Ph)), 2 with Ar = 2-tolyl (L(MePh)), 3 with Ar = 2,6-dimethylphenyl (L(Me2Ph)) and 4 with Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl (L(iPr2Ph))}. We have also prepared related bisimido complexes [Mo(N-t-Bu)(2)L(2) (5 with L = L(Ph), 6 with L = L(MePh), and 7 with L = L(Me2Ph)) by treatment of [Mo(N-t-Bu)(2)Cl(2)(dme)] with 2 equiv of the potassium salt of the respective ligand. 1, 3, 5, and 6 were characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction. The oxo imido complexes exhibit oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity toward trimethyl phosphine. Kinetic data were obtained for 1 and 3 by UV/vis spectroscopy revealing decreased OAT reactivity in comparison to related dioxo complexes with the same Schiff base ligands and decreased reactivity of 1 versus 3. Cyclic voltammetry was used to probe the electronic situation at the molybdenum center showing reversible reduction waves for 3 and [MoO(2)(L(Me2Ph))(2)] at comparable potentials while 1 exhibits a significant lower potential. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed a higher electron density on oxygen in the oxo imido complexes.

  14. Metaheuristics progress in complex systems optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Doerner, Karl F; Greistorfer, Peter; Gutjahr, Walter; Hartl, Richard F; Reimann, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The aim of ""Metaheuristics: Progress in Complex Systems Optimization"" is to provide several different kinds of information: a delineation of general metaheuristics methods, a number of state-of-the-art articles from a variety of well-known classical application areas as well as an outlook to modern computational methods in promising new areas. Therefore, this book may equally serve as a textbook in graduate courses for students, as a reference book for people interested in engineering or social sciences, and as a collection of new and promising avenues for researchers working in this field.

  15. COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES KARSTEN STEINHAEUSER, NITESH V. CHAWLA, AND AUROOP R. GANGULY Abstract. Networks have...

  16. Peak Oil and the Everyday Complexity of Human Progress Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Pruit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.

  17. Progress at the La Grande complex phase II in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, J.; Caron, O.; Parent, L. (Societe d' Energie de la Baie James (SEBJ), Montreal (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    Phase II of the La Grande complex in Quebec, Canada, is now under construction (see Water Power and Dam Construction January 1990 and Handbook 1993). This article gives an update on progress at the schemes that comprise the major elements of Phase II. (author)

  18. Recent Progress on the Resilience of Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many complex systems in the real world can be modeled as complex networks, which has captured in recent years enormous attention from researchers of diverse fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering. The extinction of species in ecosystems and the blackouts of power girds in engineering exhibit the vulnerability of complex networks, investigated by empirical data and analyzed by theoretical models. For studying the resilience of complex networks, three main factors should be focused on: the network structure, the network dynamics and the failure mechanism. In this review, we will introduce recent progress on the resilience of complex networks based on these three aspects. For the network structure, increasing evidence shows that biological and ecological networks are coupled with each other and that diverse critical infrastructures interact with each other, triggering a new research hotspot of “networks of networks” (NON, where a network is formed by interdependent or interconnected networks. The resilience of complex networks is deeply influenced by its interdependence with other networks, which can be analyzed and predicted by percolation theory. This review paper shows that the analytic framework for Energies 2015, 8 12188 NON yields novel percolation laws for n interdependent networks and also shows that the percolation theory of a single network studied extensively in physics and mathematics in the last 60 years is a specific limited case of the more general case of n interacting networks. Due to spatial constraints inherent in critical infrastructures, including the power gird, we also review the progress on the study of spatially-embedded interdependent networks, exhibiting extreme vulnerabilities compared to their non-embedded counterparts, especially in the case of localized attack. For the network dynamics, we illustrate the percolation framework and methods using an example of a real transportation system, where the

  19. Nutritional metabolomics: progress in addressing complexity in diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2012-08-21

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small-molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment, and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health, and complex pathobiology serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and nontargeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping, and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome, and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics, and health phenotyping, to support the integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting.

  20. Progress toward the analysis of complex propulsion installation flow phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, P. R. A.; Hopcroft, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    A trend toward replacement of parametric model testing with parametric analysis for the design of aircraft is driven by the rapidly escalating cost of wind tunnel testing, the increasing availability of large fast computers, and powerful numerical flow algorithms. In connection with the complex flow phenomena characteristic of propulsion installations, it is now necessary to employ both parametric analysis and testing for design procedures. Powerful flow analysis techniques are available to predict local flow phenomena. However, the employment of these techniques is very expensive. It is, therefore, necessary to link these analyses with less powerful and less expensive procedures for an accurate analysis of propulsion installation flowfields. However, the interfacing and coupling processes needed are not available. The present investigation is concerned with progress made regarding the development of suitable linking methods. Attention is given to methods of analysis for predicting the flow around a nacelle coupled to a highly swept wing.

  1. The chemistry of half-sandwich vanadium imido-amido complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batinas, Aurora Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Many important industrial processes make use of catalyzed reactions. One of the best known catalytic processes is the production of polyethylene and polypropylene plastics used in everyday life by means of olefin polymerisation (carbon-carbon bond formation). Another catalyzed chemical transformatio

  2. [Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize]. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  3. Recent Progress in Some Active Topics on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Guo, L.; Jiang, J.; Chi, L.; Li, W.; Wang, Q. A.; Cai, X.

    2015-04-01

    Complex networks have been extensively studied across many fields, especially in interdisciplinary areas. It has since long been recognized that topological structures and dynamics are important aspects for capturing the essence of complex networks. The recent years have also witnessed the emergence of several new elements which play important roles in network study. By combining the results of different research orientations in our group, we provide here a review of the recent advances in regards to spectral graph theory, opinion dynamics, interdependent networks, graph energy theory and temporal networks. We hope this will be helpful for the newcomers of those fields to discover new intriguing topics.

  4. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-16

    This manuscript presents an overview on recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surfaces interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multi-modal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, they provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  5. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  6. The complex model of risk and progression of AMD estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Akopyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a method and a statistical model to estimate individual risk of AMD and the risk for progression to advanced AMD using clinical and genetic risk factors.Methods: A statistical risk assessment model was developed using stepwise binary logistic regression analysis. to estimate the population differences in the prevalence of allelic variants of genes and for the development of models adapted to the population of Moscow region genotyping and assessment of the influence of other risk factors was performed in two groups: patients with differ- ent stages of AMD (n = 74, and control group (n = 116. Genetic risk factors included in the study: polymorphisms in the complement system genes (C3 and CFH, genes at 10q26 locus (ARMS2 and HtRA1, polymorphism in the mitochondrial gene Mt-ND2. Clinical risk factors included in the study: age, gender, high body mass index, smoking history.Results: A comprehensive analysis of genetic and clinical risk factors for AMD in the study group was performed. Compiled statis- tical model assessment of individual risk of AMD, the sensitivity of the model — 66.7%, specificity — 78.5%, AUC = 0.76. Risk factors of late AMD, compiled a statistical model describing the probability of late AMD, the sensitivity of the model — 66.7%, specificity — 78.3%, AUC = 0.73. the developed system allows determining the most likely version of the current late AMD: dry or wet.Conclusion: the developed test system and the mathematical algorhythm for determining the risk of AMD, risk of progression to advanced AMD have fair diagnostic informative and promising for use in clinical practice.

  7. The complex model of risk and progression of AMD estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Akopyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a method and a statistical model to estimate individual risk of AMD and the risk for progression to advanced AMD using clinical and genetic risk factors.Methods: A statistical risk assessment model was developed using stepwise binary logistic regression analysis. to estimate the population differences in the prevalence of allelic variants of genes and for the development of models adapted to the population of Moscow region genotyping and assessment of the influence of other risk factors was performed in two groups: patients with differ- ent stages of AMD (n = 74, and control group (n = 116. Genetic risk factors included in the study: polymorphisms in the complement system genes (C3 and CFH, genes at 10q26 locus (ARMS2 and HtRA1, polymorphism in the mitochondrial gene Mt-ND2. Clinical risk factors included in the study: age, gender, high body mass index, smoking history.Results: A comprehensive analysis of genetic and clinical risk factors for AMD in the study group was performed. Compiled statis- tical model assessment of individual risk of AMD, the sensitivity of the model — 66.7%, specificity — 78.5%, AUC = 0.76. Risk factors of late AMD, compiled a statistical model describing the probability of late AMD, the sensitivity of the model — 66.7%, specificity — 78.3%, AUC = 0.73. the developed system allows determining the most likely version of the current late AMD: dry or wet.Conclusion: the developed test system and the mathematical algorhythm for determining the risk of AMD, risk of progression to advanced AMD have fair diagnostic informative and promising for use in clinical practice.

  8. Raven’s Progressive Matrices, manipulations of complexity and measures of accuracy, speed and confidence

    OpenAIRE

    LAZAR STANKOV; KARL SCHWEIZER

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of complexity-enhancing manipulations of two cognitive tasks – Swaps and Triplet Numbers tests (Stankov, 2000) – on their relationship with Raven’s Progressive Matrices test representing aspects of fluid intelligence. The complexity manipulations involved four treatment levels, each requiring an increasing number of components and relationships among these components. The accuracy, speed of processing, and confidence measures were decomposed into experimental a...

  9. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourbanis, Ioanis [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    After a 16 month shutdown to reconfigure the Fermilab Accelerators for high power operations, the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is again providing beams for numerous Physics Experiments. By using the Recycler to slip stack protons while the Main Injector is ramping, the beam power at 120 GeV can reach 700 KW, a factor of 2 increase. The progress towards doubling the Fermilab's Accelerator complex beam power will be presented.

  10. Synthesis and Reactivity of Metal Complexes in Trigonal N,O,O,O-Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Adelhardt, Mario Erwin

    2016-01-01

    High-valent iron complexes, for instance stabilized by multiple bonded oxo, nitrido, or imido ligands, have been identified as reactive intermediates in biological as well as technical systems. Although numerous synthetic model complexes have been synthesized and characterized in the past four decades, they often lack the high reactivity of their parental compounds. One strategy to enhance the reactivity of, for example, Fe(IV) oxo complexes is to enforce a trigonal coordination geometry ar...

  11. Quantum mechanical design of efficient second-order nonlinear optical materials based on heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates: first theoretical framework of POM-based heterocyclic aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf

    2012-11-05

    This work was inspired by a previous report (Janjua et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 3576-3587) in which the nonlinear-optical (NLO) response strikingly improved with an increase in the conjugation path of the ligand and the nature of hexamolybdates (polyoxometalates, POMs) was changed into a donor by altering the direction of charge transfer with a second aromatic ring. Herein, the first theoretical framework of POM-based heteroaromatic rings is found to be another class of excellent NLO materials having double heteroaromatic rings. First hyperpolarizabilities of a large number of push-pull-substituted conjugated systems with heteroaromatic rings have been calculated. The β components were computed at the density functional theory (DFT) level (BP86 geometry optimizations and LB94 time-dependent DFT). The largest β values are obtained with a donor (hexamolybdates) on the benzene ring and an acceptor (-NO(2)) on pyrrole, thiophene, and furan rings. The pyrrole imido-substituted hexamolybdate (system 1c) has a considerably large first hyperpolarizability, 339.00 × 10(-30) esu, and it is larger than that of (arylimido)hexamolybdate, calculated as 0.302 × 10(-30) esu (reference system 1), because of the double aromatic rings in the heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates. The heteroaromatic rings act as a conjugation bridge between the electron acceptor (-NO(2)) and donor (polyanion). The introduction of an electron donor into heteroaromatic rings significantly enhances the first hyperpolarizabilities because the electron-donating ability is substantially enhanced when the electron donor is attached to the heterocyclic aromatic rings. Interposing five-membered auxiliary fragments between strong donor (polyanion) or acceptor (-NO(2)) groups results in a large computed second-order NLO response. The present investigation provides important insight into the NLO properties of (heteroaromatic) imido-substituted hexamolybdate derivatives because these compounds

  12. One-dimensional free-energy profiles of complex systems: progress variables that preserve the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin

    2006-06-29

    We show that the balanced minimum-cut procedure introduced in PNAS 2004, 101, 14766 can be reinterpreted as a method for solving the constrained optimization problem of finding the minimum cut among the cuts with a particular value of an additive function of the nodes on either side of the cut. Such an additive function (e.g., the partition function of the reactant region) can be used as a progress coordinate to determine a one-dimensional profile (FEP) of the free-energy surface of the protein-folding reaction as well as other complex reactions. The algorithm is based on the network (obtained from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation) that represents the calculated reaction behavior. The resulting FEP gives the exact values of the free energy as a function of the progress coordinate; i.e., at each value of the progress coordinate, the profile is obtained from the surface with the minimal partition function among the surfaces that divide the full free-energy surface between two chosen end points. In many cases, the balanced minimum-cut procedure gives results for only a limited set of points. An approximate method based on p(fold) is shown to provide the profile for a more complete set of values of the progress coordinate. Applications of the approach to model problems and to realistic systems (beta-hairpin of protein G, LJ38 cluster) are presented.

  13. Complex of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in Colon Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascio, Sandra, E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Fondazione Ri.Med, via Bandiera, Palermo 90133 (Italy); Finn, Olivera J., E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We previously reported that CIN85, an 85 KDa protein known to be involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis through its interaction with Cbl, associates with MUC1 in tumor cells. MUC1/CIN85 complex also regulates migration and invasion of tumor cells in vitro. Here, we examined specifically human colon carcinoma tissue microarrays (TMA) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MUC1 and CIN85 and their potential role in cancer progression and metastasis. We detected a significant increase in expression of both MUC1 and CIN85 associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. We further investigated if Cbl could also be present in the MUC1/CIN85 complex. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Cbl co-localized both with CIN85 and with MUC1 in a human colon cancer cell line. To begin to investigate the in vivo relevance of MUC1 overexpression and association with CIN85 and Cbl in cancer development and progression, we used human MUC1 transgenic mice that express MUC1 on the colonic epithelial cells, treated with azoxymethane to initiate and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. MUC1.Tg mice showed higher tumor incidence and decreased survival when compared with wild-type mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, the association of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl was detected in colon tissues of AOM/DSS-treated MUC1 transgenic mice. MUC1/CIN85/Cbl complex appears to contribute to promotion and progression of colon cancer and thus increased expression of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in early stage colon cancer might be predictive of poor prognosis.

  14. Olefins transformation catalysis by zirconium and tungsten complexes in organic and non-aqueous ionic media; Catalyse de transformation des olefines par les complexes du zirconium et du tungstene en milieux organique et ionique non aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent-Gerot, P.

    1997-06-30

    Molten salts are suitable solvents for biphasic catalysis: melting butyl-1 methyl-3 imidazolium chloride and aluminium chloride gives a polar and aprotic ionic liquid which is not miscible with hydrocarbons but dissolves organometallic complexes. Two types of complexes have been tested in molten salts with ethyl-aluminium dichloride: zirconium complexes to synthesize light {alpha} olefins from ethene; mono-imido complexes of tungsten VI (Cl{sub 4}W = NAr) to dimerize ethene in but-1 ene and propene in dimethyl-2,3-but-1-ene. For both of these complexes, biphasic catalysis principle is always respected: the active species is present only in the ionic phase and not in the organic phase. The first complexes, biphasic principle is always respected: the active species is present only in the ionic phase and not in the organic phase. The first complexes oligomerize ethene in molten salts with low activity and the {alpha} olefins selectivity is weak. Mono-imido complexes of tungsten VI are proved to be equivalent to the systems composed with WCl{sub 6} and aniline, and they dimerize ethene in but-1 ene and propene in dimethyl-2,3-but-1 ene more efficiently in organic medium than in ionic liquid. The characterization of the active species of the system Cl{sub 4}W=NAr / EtAlCl{sub 2} shows that it is the corresponding mono-imido complex of tungsten 4. (author) 129 refs.

  15. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenova, Olga, E-mail: o.bazhenova@spbu.ru [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chaika, Nina [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Gapon, Svetlana [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thomas, Peter [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); O’Brien, Stephen [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  16. Characterization of Iron-Imido Species Relevant for N-Group Transfer Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Iovan, Diana A.; Betley, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    A sterically accessible tert-butyl-substituted dipyrrinato di-iron(II) complex [(tBuL)FeCl]2 possessing two bridging chloride atoms was synthesized from the previously reported solvento adduct. Upon treatment with aryl azides, the formation of high-spin FeIII species was confirmed by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Crystallographic characterization revealed two possible oxidation products: (1) a terminal iron iminyl from aryl azides bearing ortho isopropyl substituents, (tBuL)FeCl(•NC6H3-2,6-iPr...

  17. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Foltman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named 'ingression progression complexes' (IPCs. In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role.

  18. Differential virulence and disease progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Laura E; Weiner, Danielle M; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B; Flynn, Joanne L; Barry, Clifton E

    2013-08-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades.

  19. Differential Virulence and Disease Progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Laura E.; Weiner, Danielle M.; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L.; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M. Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J.; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades. PMID:23716617

  20. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

  1. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Arcones, Irene; Sacristan, Carlos; Filali-Mouncef, Yasmina; Roncero, Cesar; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named ‘ingression progression complexes’ (IPCs). In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role. PMID:26891268

  2. How and when Does Complex Reasoning Occur? Empirically Driven Development of a Learning Progression Focused on Complex Reasoning about Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Nancy Butler; Kelcey, Ben; Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    2009-01-01

    In order to compete in a global economy, students are going to need resources and curricula focusing on critical thinking and reasoning in science. Despite awareness for the need for complex reasoning, American students perform poorly relative to peers on international standardized tests measuring complex thinking in science. Research focusing on…

  3. How and when Does Complex Reasoning Occur? Empirically Driven Development of a Learning Progression Focused on Complex Reasoning about Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Nancy Butler; Kelcey, Ben; Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    2009-01-01

    In order to compete in a global economy, students are going to need resources and curricula focusing on critical thinking and reasoning in science. Despite awareness for the need for complex reasoning, American students perform poorly relative to peers on international standardized tests measuring complex thinking in science. Research focusing on…

  4. Melanoma susceptibility as a complex trait: genetic variation controls all stages of tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Ram, R; Handoko, H Y; Mukhopadhyay, P; Muller, H K; Soyer, H P; Morahan, G; Walker, G J

    2015-05-28

    Susceptibility to most common cancers is likely to involve interaction between multiple low risk genetic variants. Although there has been great progress in identifying such variants, their effect on phenotype and the mechanisms by which they contribute to disease remain largely unknown. We have developed a mouse melanoma model harboring two mutant oncogenes implicated in human melanoma, CDK4(R24C) and NRAS(Q61K). In these mice, tumors arise from benign precursor lesions that are a recognized strong risk factor for this neoplasm in humans. To define molecular events involved in the pathway to melanoma, we have for the first time applied the Collaborative Cross (CC) to cancer research. The CC is a powerful resource designed to expedite discovery of genes for complex traits. We characterized melanoma genesis in more than 50 CC strains and observed tremendous variation in all traits, including nevus and melanoma age of onset and multiplicity, anatomical site predilection, time for conversion of nevi to melanoma and metastases. Intriguingly, neonatal ultraviolet radiation exposure exacerbated nevus and melanoma formation in most, but not all CC strain backgrounds, suggesting that genetic variation within the CC will help explain individual sensitivity to sun exposure, the major environmental skin carcinogen. As genetic variation brings about dramatic phenotypic diversity in a single mouse model, melanoma-related endophenotype comparisons provide us with information about mechanisms of carcinogenesis, such as whether melanoma incidence is dependent upon the density of pre-existing nevus cells. Mouse models have been used to examine the functional role of gene mutations in tumorigenesis. This work represents their next phase of development to study how biological variation greatly influences lesion onset and aggressiveness even in the setting of known somatic driver mutations.

  5. With Friends Like These: The Complex Role of Neutrophils in the Progression of Severe Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Pechous

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infection in the United States and across the globe. During pulmonary infection, clear resolution of host inflammatory responses occurs in the absence of appreciable lung damage. Neutrophils are the first wave of leukocytes to arrive in the lung upon infection. After activation, neutrophils traffic from the vasculature via transendothelial migration through the lung interstitium and into the alveolar space. Successful pulmonary immunity requires neutrophil-mediated killing of invading pathogens by phagocytosis and release of a myriad of antimicrobial molecules, followed by resolution of inflammation, neutrophil apoptosis, and clearing of dead or dying neutrophils by macrophages. In addition to their antimicrobial role, it is becoming clear that neutrophils are also important modulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, primarily through the release of cytokines and recruitment of additional waves of neutrophils into the airways. Though typically essential to combating severe pneumonia, neutrophil influx into the airways is a double-edged sword: Overzealous neutrophil activation can cause severe tissue damage as a result of the release of toxic agents including proteases, cationic polypeptides, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS aimed at killing invading microbes. In extreme cases, the damage caused by neutrophils and other innate immune mediators become the primary source of morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the complex role of neutrophils during severe pneumonia by highlighting specific molecules and processes that contribute to pulmonary immunity, but can also drive progression of severe disease. Depending on the identity of the infectious agent, enhancing or suppressing neutrophil-mediated responses may be key to effectively treating severe and typically lethal pneumonia.

  6. Cyclometallated and cyclometalsilylated complexes of transition elements as photoredox sensitizers. Progress report for the period December 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Progress on research is reported, divided into the following 2 areas: metal-silicon chelated complexes, and photoproperties of ortho- metalated complexes. Ir, Rh, and Ru chelates with silylquinolines, bpy, and ppy are covered.

  7. Functionalized organoimidorhenium(V) complexes as potential radiopharamaceuticals: Syntheses of glycine derivatives and the structure determination of a rhenium analogue of chlorambucil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arterburn, J.B. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Forgarty, I.M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hall, K.A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (United States). CST Div.; Ott, K.C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (United States). CST Div.; Bryan, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States). CS Group

    1997-01-03

    Two important aspects, the synthesis of imido complexes of radioactive metal isotopes and the diversity that can be incorporated with this ligand, distinguish this communication. The multiply bonded organoimide ligand provides a new and powerful means of conjugating suitable radioisotopes of rhenium to biologically relevant molecules in the design of radiopharmaceuticals. Here stable isotope and {sup 188}Re-labeled analogues (1) of the anticancer drug chlorambucil were synthesized. (orig.)

  8. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourbanis, ioanis

    2014-06-01

    After a 14 month shutdown accelerator modifications and upgrades are in place to allow us doubling of the Main Injector beam power. We will discuss the past MI high power operation and the current progress towards doubling the power.

  9. On the Origin of Complex Adaptive Traits: Progress Since the Darwin Versus Mivart Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao K

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved. However, recent studies have interrogated classic examples of complex traits, such as the asymmetrical eyes of flatfishes and leaf mimicry of butterfly wings, whose origins were debated by Darwin and Mivart. Here, I review recent findings as a starting point to provide a modern picture of the evolution of complex adaptive traits. First, I summarize the empirical evidence that unveils the evolutionary steps toward complex traits. I then argue that the evolution of complex traits could be understood within the concept of "reducible complexity." Through these discussions, I propose a conceptual framework for the formation of complex traits, named as reducible-composable multicomponent systems, that satisfy two major characteristics: reducibility into a sum of subcomponents and composability to construct traits from various additional and combinatorial arrangements of the subcomponents. This conceptual framework provides an analytical foundation for exploring evolutionary pathways to build up complex traits. This review provides certain essential avenues for deciphering the origin of complex adaptive traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-08-19

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students.

  11. Recent progress of the characterization of oppositely charged polymer/surfactant complex in dilution deposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, M

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of oppositely charged polymer and surfactants changes the solubilized state, having a complex precipitation region at the composition of electric neutralization. This complex behavior has been applied to surface modification in the fields of health care and cosmetic products such as conditioning shampoos, as a dilution-deposition system in which the polymer/surfactant mixture at the higher surfactant concentration precipitates the insoluble complex by dilution. A large number of studies over many years have revealed the basic coacervation behavior and physicochemical properties of complexes. However, the mechanism by which a precipitated complex performs surface modification is not well understood. The precipitation region and the morphology of precipitated complex that are changed by molecular structure and additives affect the performance. Hydrophilic groups such as the EO unit in polymers and surfactants, the mixing of nonionic or amphoteric surfactant and nonionic polymer, and the addition of low polar solvent influence the complex precipitation region. Furthermore, the morphology of precipitated complex is formed by crosslinking and aggregating among polymers in the dilution process, and characterizes the performance of products. The polymer chain density in precipitated complex is determined by the charges of both the polymer and surfactant micelle and the conformation of polymer. As a result, the morphology of precipitated complexes is changed from a closely packed film to looser meshes, and/or to small particles, and it is possible for the morphology to control the rheological properties and the amount of adsorbed silicone. In the future, further investigation of the relationships between the morphology and performance is needed.

  12. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Sixth Progress Report, 1 May 1979-30 April 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1980-01-15

    Objective is to design synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; number of binding sites; character of binding sites; and valences. During this period, hemispherands based on an aryloxy or cyclic urea unit, spherands based on aryloxyl units only, and their complexes with alkali metals and alkaline earths were investigated. An attempt to separate {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li by gel permeation chromatography of lithiospherium chloride failed. (DLC)

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Epileptogenesis and Seizure Progression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Deficient Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which form a regulatory complex responsible for limiting the activity of an important intracellular regulator of cell ...growth and metabolism known as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The pathological hallmark of TSC brains are cortical tubers...characterized by disorganized cortical lamination, aberrant dendritic arbors and axonal projections, astrocyte gliosis and abnormal cell morphology (ie

  14. Recent Research Progress in Fault Analysis of Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we adopt a novel approach to the fault analysis of complex electric power systems. Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. Its safe, steady, economical and reliable operating plays a very important part in guaranteeing socioeconomic development, and even in safeguarding social stability. The complexity of electric power system is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. No matter if, we adopt new analytical methods or technical means, we must have a distinct recognition of electric power system itself and its complexity, and increase analysis continuously, operation and control level. In this paper, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on graph theory and multivariate statistical analysis theory, we are using mainly Breadth-first search, Depth-first search and cluster analysis. Then, we seek for the uniform laws of marked changes of electrical quantities. Then we can carry out fast and exact analysis of fault component. Finally, we can accomplish fault isolation. According to line fault and bus-bar fault (single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault and three-phase fault in complex electric power systems, we have carried out a great deal of simulation experiments and obtained ideal results. These researches have proven that the faults in complex electric power systems can be explored successfully by analysis and calculation based on graph theory and multivariate statistical analysis theory.

  15. 槲皮素金属配合物的研究进展%Research Progress of Quercetin Metal Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 胡晓荣; 郝阳

    2012-01-01

    槲皮素及其衍生物具有广泛的药理活性.槲皮素结构具有完整的大π键共轭体系、强配位氧原子与合适的空间构型,可与金属离子螯合成稳定的环状配合物.综述了槲皮素金属配合物的合成及其在分析检测中的应用研究进展.%Quercetin and its derivatives have a wide range of pharmacological activity. Quercetin has a complete big k bond conjugated system,powerful ligand oxygen and suitable sterical configuration. Quercetin can chelate steady cyclic complex with metal ions. Research progress on synthesis of quercetin metal complexes and their applications in determination and analysis were reviewed in this paper.

  16. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Fourth Progress Report, 1 May 1977 -- 30 April 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1978-01-15

    Results are reported in a program to design, synthesize, and evaluate polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions. Work during the reporting period was devoted to synthesis and study of cyclohexametaphenylenes and cyclic phosphine oxides. (JRD)

  17. Low-complexity JPEG-based progressive video codec for wireless video transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of video codec enhancement for wireless video transmission of high definition video data taking into account constraints on memory and complexity. Starting from parameter adjustment for JPEG2000 compression algorithm used for wireless transmission and achieving.......264/SVC for specific video content....

  18. Progressive design methodology for complex engineering systems based on multiobjective genetic algorithms and linguistic decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Bauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on a design methodology that aids in design and development of complex engineering systems. This design methodology consists of simulation, optimization and decision making. Within this work a framework is presented in which modelling, multi-objective optimization and multi

  19. Progressive design methodology for complex engineering systems based on multiobjective genetic algorithms and linguistic decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Bauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on a design methodology that aids in design and development of complex engineering systems. This design methodology consists of simulation, optimization and decision making. Within this work a framework is presented in which modelling, multi-objective optimization and multi criteri

  20. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Second Progress Report, 1 May 1975 -- 30 April 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1976-01-15

    Objective is to develop cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds to complex and lipophilize metal ions. Macrorings were synthesized: (OCH{sub 2} CH{sub 2} O CH{sub 2}COCH{sub 2} COCH{sub 2}){sub 2} and (OCH{sub 2} CH{sub 2} O CH{sub 2} COCH{sub 2} COCH{sub 2}){sub 3}. The smaller ring complexes divalent metals 10{sup 1+9} times better than the open-chain model CH{sub 3} O CH{sub 2} CO CH{sub 2} COCH{sub 2} O CH{sub 3}, and the order in which metal ions are complexed is Cu{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} greater than Ni{sup 2+} greater than Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} greater than Mn{sup 2+}. The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} complexes were isolated and characterized. The larger ring complexes trivalent metals 10{sup 0.9-1.7} times better than the open- chain model compound, and the order is La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+} greater than Cr{sup 3+}. Five other macrocycles were also synthesized, and their binding constants with Na, K, NH{sub 4}, and Cs picrates were measured. Six compounds containing one macroring and two inward-pointing ArOH or ArOCH{sub 3} groups were also prepared and tested for binding of Li, Na, K, Rb, and NH{sub 4} picrates. Racemic compounds containing two binaphthyls and its sulfur analog were prepared. Cage-shaped multiheteromacrocycles containing ten O ligand sites or four S and six O ligand sites were prepared and the binding capability of the first compound for picrates studied. Two ring systems with phosphonate ester groups were also prepared. (DLC)

  1. Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TP53 mutations are early events in chronic lymphocytic leukemia disease progression and precede evolution to complex karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, Gregory; Tausch, Eugen; Eclache, Virginie; Sebaa, Amel; Bianchi, Vincent; Letestu, Remi; Collon, Jean-Francois; Lefebvre, Valerie; Gardano, Laura; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Soussi, Thierry; Stilgenbauer, Stephen; Cymbalista, Florence; Baran-Marszak, Fanny

    2016-10-15

    TP53 abnormalities lead to resistance to purine analogues and are found in over 40% of patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). At diagnosis, no more than 5% of patients carry the 17p deletion, most cases harbour mutations within the other TP53 allele. The incidence of a TP53 mutation as the only alteration is approximately 5%, but this depends on the sensitivity of the technique. Recently, having a complex karyotype has been considered a strong adverse prognostic factor. However, there are no longitudinal studies simultaneously examining the presence of the 17p deletion, TP53 mutations and karyotype abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 31 relapsed/refractory CLL patients. Two to six blood samples per patient were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 8 years. In this report, we assessed the sequence of events of TP53 clonal evolution and correlated the presence of TP53 abnormalities to genetic instability during progression and treatment. Next-generation sequencing allowed the early detection of TP53 mutated clones and was able to be performed on a routine basis, demonstrating an excellent correlation between the Illumina and Ion Torrent technologies. We concluded that TP53 mutations are early events and precede clonal evolution to complex karyotypes. We strongly recommend the early and iterated detection of TP53 mutations in progressive cases.

  3. Special Issue Introduction- The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Species Complex and Begomoviruses: Research Progress and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-sheng; Linda L Walling; WANG Xiao-wei

    2012-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex and the begomoviruses they transmit are devastating agricultural pests worldwide.With the rapid and further invasions by some members of the whitefly species complex into new regions,their impacts on human society are likely to increase in the years to come.This special issue of the Journal of Integrative Agriculture is devoted to these two groups of interacting organisms.The initial inspiration for this special issue came from the International Symposium on Future Directions in Bemisia Research held in Hangzhou,China,in October 2010.The symposium was organized by the Institute of Insect Sciences and the Institute of Biotechnology of Zhejiang University,China,in an effort to promote information exchange and international collaborative research on a few key aspects of the biology of B.tabaci.

  4. Recent Progress in High Intensity Operation of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, Mary E [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator com-plex. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  5. Current progress in the biology of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex following the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; de Souza Baptista, Andrea R; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2015-09-01

    Sporotrichosis has been attributed for more than a century to one single etiological agent, Sporothrix schencki. Only eight years ago, it was described that, in fact, the disease is caused by several pathogenic cryptic species. The present review will focus on recent advances to understand the biology and virulence of epidemiologically relevant pathogenic species of the S. schenckii complex. The main subjects covered are the new clinical and epidemiological aspects including diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, the development of molecular tools, the genome database and the perspectives for study of virulence of emerging Sporothrix species.

  6. Regulated proteolysis of a transcription factor complex is critical to cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Kasia G; Cantin, Amber; Wohlever, Matthew; Joshi, Kamal K; Perchuk, Barrett S; Chien, Peter; Laub, Michael T

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle transitions are often triggered by the proteolysis of key regulatory proteins. In Caulobacter crescentus, the G1-S transition involves the degradation of an essential DNA-binding response regulator, CtrA, by the ClpXP protease. Here, we show that another critical cell cycle regulator, SciP, is also degraded during the G1-S transition, but by the Lon protease. SciP is a small protein that binds directly to CtrA and prevents it from activating target genes during G1. We demonstrate that SciP must be degraded during the G1-S transition so that cells can properly activate CtrA-dependent genes following DNA replication initiation and the reaccumulation of CtrA. These results indicate that like CtrA, SciP levels are tightly regulated during the Caulobacter cell cycle. In addition, we show that formation of a complex between CtrA and SciP at target promoters protects both proteins from their respective proteases. Degradation of either protein thus helps trigger the destruction of the other, facilitating a cooperative disassembly of the complex. Collectively, our results indicate that ClpXP and Lon each degrade an important cell cycle regulator, helping to trigger the onset of S phase and prepare cells for the subsequent programmes of gene expression critical to polar morphogenesis and cell division.

  7. Optimization of electronic enclosure design for thermal and moisture management using calibrated models of progressive complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and moisture management of electronic enclosures are fields of high interest in recent years. It is now generally accepted that the protection of electronic devices is dependent on avoiding critical levels of relative humidity (typically 60–90%) during operations. Leveraging the devel......The thermal and moisture management of electronic enclosures are fields of high interest in recent years. It is now generally accepted that the protection of electronic devices is dependent on avoiding critical levels of relative humidity (typically 60–90%) during operations. Leveraging...... the development of rigorous calibrated CFD models as well as simple predictive numerical tools, the current paper tackles the optimization of critical features of a typical two-chamber electronic enclosure. The progressive optimization strategy begins the design parameter selection by initially using simpler...... equivalent RC-circuit models for concentration of water vapor and temperature in the electronic enclosure. After reducing the potential parameter-value space for the critical features using the RC-approach, the optimization strategy uses simpler 2D CFD models of temperature and moisture transport to further...

  8. 槲皮素金属配合物的研究进展%Progress of quercetin metal complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟广玉; 渠文涛; 马海英; 王俊巍; 颜子童

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin has a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological effects, a complete large π bond conjugate system, the strong coordination of oxygen atoms as well as the appropriate spatial configuration, which makes it an excellent metal ion ligand that can chelate with a variety of metal ions to form the stable ring complexes.Quercetin metal complexes have a lot of biological activities, for instance, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, scavenging free radicals and hypoglycemic.The bioactivities of quercetin metal complexes are significantly better than that of quercetin.A review is provided of the research progress on quercetin metal complexes, and introduced the complexes formed between quercetin and the metal ion of the main group, the vice-family and the rare earth elements.%槲皮素具有广泛的生物活性和多方面的药理作用,有完整的大π键共轭体系、强配位氧原子及合适的空间构型,可与多种金属离子螯合成稳定的环状配合物.研究表明:槲皮素金属配合物具有抗癌、抗炎、抗氧化、清除自由基和降血糖等作用.槲皮素金属配合物生物活性明显高于槲皮素,药理作用显著.综述了槲皮素金属配合物的研究进展,介绍了槲皮素与主族、副族和稀土金属元素形成配合物的研究现状,为此类化合物的研究提供科学依据.

  9. Latest Progress of Fault Detection and Localization in Complex Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Can; Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the researches of complex electrical engineering, efficient fault detection and localization schemes are essential to quickly detect and locate faults so that appropriate and timely corrective mitigating and maintenance actions can be taken. In this paper, under the current measurement precision of PMU, we will put forward a new type of fault detection and localization technology based on fault factor feature extraction. Lots of simulating experiments indicate that, although there are disturbances of white Gaussian stochastic noise, based on fault factor feature extraction principal, the fault detection and localization results are still accurate and reliable, which also identifies that the fault detection and localization technology has strong anti-interference ability and great redundancy.

  10. Research Progress of UbiquitinL igase Complex KPC%Medical Recapitulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 林新铎; 唐俊明; 杨建业; 张蕾; 姜峰波(综述); 王家宁(审校)

    2016-01-01

    泛素蛋白酶体途径是真核生物体内最重要的蛋白质降解途径之一,其中,目标蛋白的泛素化过程涉及泛素激活酶、泛素结合酶和泛素蛋白连接酶(E 3)。目标蛋白识别中起关键作用的是E 3, Kip1泛素-促进复合体( KPC)是一种E3复合体,由KPC1和 KPC2组成,KPC1在 C端含有一个环指结构域作为催化亚基,是E3不可缺少的组成部分,KPC2含有一个类泛素结构域和两个泛素相关结构域。 KPC广泛存在于真核生物中,在神经系统疾病、血液系统疾病、肿瘤疾病等方面起着重要的调控作用。%Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is one of the most important protein degradation pathways in eukaryotes,among which ubiquitination of target proteins involves in the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and the ubiquitin ligase ( E3 ) .The ubiquitin ligase plays a key role in the identification of target proteins,Kip1 ubiquitination-promoting complex( KPC) being a ubiquitin ligase com-plex that consists of KPC1 and KPC2.KPC1 contains a RING finger domain at the C-terminus as the catalytic subunit that is the integral part of the ubiquitin ligase E3,and KPC2 contains a ubiquitin-like domain and two ubiquitin-associated domains.KPC is widespread in the eukaryotes,playing an important role of regula-tion in nervous system diseases,blood diseases and neoplastic diseases.

  11. The complexities of obesity, diabetes, and the development and progression of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Ali, Shadan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the worst prognosis. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Many risk factors have been associated with PC. Interestingly, large numbers of epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes, are positively associated with increased risk of PC. Similarly, these chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes and cancer) are also a major public health concern. In the U.S. population, 50 percent are overweight, 30 percent are medically obese and 10 percent have diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, obesity and DM have been considered as potential risk factors for cancers; however, the focus of this article is restricted to PC. Although the mechanisms responsible for the development of these chronic diseases leading to the development of PC are not fully understood, the biological importance of the activation of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathways in insulin resistance mechanism and subsequent induction of compensatory hyperinsulinemia has been proposed. Therefore, targeting insulin/IGF-1 signaling with anti-diabetic drugs for lowering blood insulin levels and reversal of insulin-resistance could be useful strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of PC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the administration of anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZD) class of PPAR-γ agonists decreases the risk of cancers, suggesting that these agents might be useful anti-tumor agents for the treatment of PC. In this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of metformin and TZD anti-diabetic drugs as anti-tumor agents in the context of PC, and will further discuss the complexities and the possible roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes and PC. PMID:21129444

  12. The complexities of obesity and diabetes with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Ali, Shadan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2011-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the worst prognosis. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Many risk factors have been associated with PC. Interestingly, large numbers of epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes, are positively associated with increased risk of PC. Similarly, these chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, and cancer) are also a major public health concern. In the U.S. population, 50 percent are overweight, 30 percent are medically obese, and 10 percent have diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, obesity and DM have been considered as potential risk factors for cancers; however, the focus of this article is restricted to PC. Although the mechanisms responsible for the development of these chronic diseases leading to the development of PC are not fully understood, the biological importance of the activation of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathways in insulin resistance mechanism and subsequent induction of compensatory hyperinsulinemia has been proposed. Therefore, targeting insulin/IGF-1 signaling with anti-diabetic drugs for lowering blood insulin levels and reversal of insulin resistance could be useful strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of PC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the administration of anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZD) class of PPAR-γ agonists decreases the risk of cancers, suggesting that these agents might be useful anti-tumor agents for the treatment of PC. In this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of metformin and TZD anti-diabetic drugs as anti-tumor agents in the context of PC and will further discuss the complexities and the possible roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and PC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  14. Integrator complex and its research progress%整合因子复合体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    思兰兰; 张红星; 周钢桥

    2015-01-01

    整合因子复合体( integrator complex )是一个新近发现的多功能蛋白质复合物,由至少12个进化上保守的亚基( integrator complex subunits , INTS1~INTS12)组成。该复合体能与RNA聚合酶Ⅱ( RNAPⅡ)大亚基的具有重复氨基酸序列的C端相互作用,进而介导小核RNA(small nuclear RNA, snRNA)U1/U2的3′端加工。整合因子复合体还能通过与RNAPⅡ、延伸负调控因子NELF和转录延伸因子Spt5发生相互作用,调控NELF介导的RNAPⅡ的暂停-释放,进而调控mRNA的合成。近年来,有研究陆续报道整合因子复合体还在DNA损伤应答、核周动力蛋白的募集、细胞核内卡哈尔体( Cajal body )的完整性、脂肪细胞的分化成熟、造血、初级纤毛的形成、肿瘤的发生发展和病毒微小RNA( microRNA,miRNA)形成等方面发挥重要作用。该文综述了整合因子复合体的研究进展。%The integrator complex is multifunctional and contains at least 12 evolutionarily conserved subunits in hu-mans.It interacts with the C-terminal tail of the largest subunit of RNA-polymeraseⅡ ( RNAPⅡ) to promote 3′-end pro-cessing of small nuclear RNA (snRNA) U1/U2.It also interacts with RNAPⅡ, NELF and Spt5 to regulate NELF-mediated RNAPⅡpause/release and processivity at coding genes .Recently, the integrator complex is also reported to be involved in DNA damage response , dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope , integrity of Cajal bodies , adipose differentiation , hem-atopoiesis , ciliogenesis , tumorigenesis and generation of viral microRNAs .This review discusses related research progress in the integrator complex .

  15. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  16. Recent progress report on DNA B-Z transition modulated by rare earth-amino acid complex and Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth dements have unique physical, magnetic, luminescent and catalytic properties. They have been successfully used as medicine and probes in luminescent resonance energy transfer (LRET) for bioassays, as well as reagents for diagnosis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this progress report, we will focus on recent progress on how rare earth amino complexes bind to DNA and change DNA structure, especially on DNA B-Z transition induced by rare earth amino acid complex and its potential impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  17. 复杂脑网络研究:现状与挑战%Complex Brain Networks:Progresses and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方风; 郑志刚

    2012-01-01

    Progresses in studies of complex networks and its applications in brain network were retrospected, including the research on topology structure features of anatomical and functional brain networks, as well as on the relationship between brain structures and functions. Based on complex networks theory, some important topology features of anatomical and functional brain networks were reported, such as small world,scale free,modular and hub regions; then some new findings were presented about the relationship between cognitive function and neuropsychiatry disorder with abnormalities in functional connectivity and changes in topological structure changes. Several challenges and key issues that should be addressed in the future were further raised.%以大脑网络研究为例,详细介绍了大脑网络的构建、结构网络、功能网络以及结构与功能的联系等方面的研究进展.基于复杂网络理论,对大脑结构网络和功能网络的分析得到很多重要的拓扑性质,如“小世界”、“无标度”、模块化以及核心脑区的分布等;另外发现认知功能、神经精神疾病与大脑结构和功能网络的拓扑结构变化或异常有关;总结了国内外在此领域的研究成果,提出了大脑网络研究工作面临的挑战,并展望了将来发展方向.

  18. Characterization of the effects of Escherichia coli replication terminator protein (Tus) on transcription reveals dynamic nature of the tus block to transcription complex progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, R; Sousa, R

    1999-01-01

    We have characterized the blocks to progression of T7 and T3 RNA polymerase transcription complexes created when a Tus protein is bound to the template. The encounter with Tus impedes the progress of the transcription complexes of either enzyme. The duration of the block depends on which polymerase is used and the orientation of Tus on the DNA. Both genuine termination (dissociation of the transcription complex) and halting followed by continued progression after the block is abrogated are observed. The fraction of complexes that terminates depends on which polymerase is used and on the orientation of the Tus molecule. The efficiency of the block to transcription increases as the Tus concentration is increased, even if the concentration of Tus is already many times in excess of what is required to saturate its binding sites on the template in the absence of transcription. The block to transcription is rapidly abrogated if an excess of a DNA containing a binding site for Tus is added to a transcription reaction in which Tus and template have been preincubated. Finally, we find that transcription will rapidly displace Tus from a template under conditions that generate persistent blocks to transcription. These observations reveal that during the encounter with the transcription complex Tus rapidly dissociates from the template but that at sufficiently high concentrations Tus usually rebinds before the transcription complex can move forward. The advantage of a mechanism which can create a persistent block to transcription or replication complex progression, which can nevertheless be rapidly abrogated in response to down regulation of the blocking protein, is suggested. PMID:10373601

  19. Progress Toward Affordable High Fidelity Combustion Simulations Using Filtered Density Functions for Hypersonic Flows in Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce

  20. Progressive coaxial Variscan deformation in the Centro-Iberian Zone (Portugal): Serra do Moradal-Fajao complex syncline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metodiev, Daniel; Romao, Jose; Dias, Rui; Ribeiro, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Serra do Moradal-Fajão syncline is a major NNW-SSE Variscan structure developed in the SW sector of the Centro-Iberian Zone, one of the main geodynamical structures of the Iberian Variscides. This tight syncline with a 1.5 km wavelength, could be followed for more than 80 km and represents one of the most important regional structures. Its complex structure has been possible to characterize, not only due to excellent outcrop condition (mostly induced by the competent behaviour of the Lower Ordovician Armorican Quartzite Formation), but also to the detailed lithostratigraphic control of the Ordovician-Silurian lithologies. These units are present in a homogeneous regional distribution, unconformably overlain the Cambrian Beiras Group. Concerning the Variscan structures, their geometry and kinematics show that they could be ascribed to progressive deformation induced by the first and main D1 tectonic event. During this event, a complex NNW-SSE aggregation of fold and thrust arrays have been developed. At the macroscale, this pattern is mainly characterized by the Serra de Moradal-Fajão syncline. Both limbs of this major D1 Variscan fold, which present a slightly ENE facing, have been disrupted by convergent thrust systems, leading to the superposition of the Cambrian Beiras metasediments on top of the Ordovician-Silurian succession. Concerning its SW limb, a major single overthrust has been developed, the Vilar Barroco-Fajão one, although in some very localized sectors, some minor thrusts could be emphasized; as they present a ENE facing, they are interpreted as duplex style forethrusts in relation to the main overthrust. Regarding the NE limb, a different behaviour is found. Indeed, in this sector, an imbricated thrust system has been mapped; due to their WSW facing it should be considered as backthrusts. Concerning the temporal relations between the previously described structures, although in some rare cases backthrusts cut forethrusts, the scarcity of

  1. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  2. Profiling of the tetraspanin CD151 web and conspiracy of CD151/integrin β1 complex in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Prasad Devbhandari

    Full Text Available Tetraspanin CD151 has been implicated in metastasis through forming complexes with different molecular partners. In this study, we mapped tetraspanin web proteins centered on CD151, in order to explore the role of CD151 complexes in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate tetraspanin complexes from HCCLM3 cells using a CD151 antibody, and associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The interaction of CD151 and its molecular partners, and their roles in invasiveness and metastasis of HCC cells were assayed through disruption of the CD151 network. Finally, the clinical implication of CD151 complexes in HCC patients was also examined. In this study, we identified 58 proteins, characterized the tetraspanin CD151 web, and chose integrin β1 as a main partner to further investigate. When the CD151/integrin β1 complex in HCC cells was disrupted, migration, invasiveness, secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9, and metastasis were markedly influenced. However, both CD151 and integrin β1 expression were untouched. HCC patients with high expression of CD151/integrin β1 complex had the poorest prognosis of the whole cohort of patients. Together, our data show that CD151 acts as an important player in the progression of HCC in an integrin β1-dependent manner.

  3. Effect of self-assembled peptide–mesenchymal stem cell complex on the progression of osteoarthritis in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JE

    2014-05-01

    metalloproteinases 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were diffusely stained in controls, whereas localized or minimal staining was observed in other groups. Modified Mankin scores were significantly lower in the SAP and SAP-MSC groups than in controls (P=0.001 and 0.013. Although not statistically significant, synovial inflammation scores were lower in the SAP (1.3±0.3 and SAP-MSC (1.3±0.2 groups than in controls (2.6±0.2. However, neither the cytokine level nor the behavioral score was significantly different between groups.Conclusion: Injection of SAP-MSC hydrogels showed evidence of chondroprotection, as measured by the histologic grading and decreased expression of biochemical markers of inflammation and apoptosis. It also lowered subchondral bone mineral density, which can be increased by OA. This suggests that the SAP-MSC complex may have clinical potential to inhibit OA progression.Keywords: self-assembled peptide, mesenchymal stem cell, osteoarthritis, apoptosis, chondrogenesis

  4. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  5. A conserved cyclin-binding domain determines functional interplay between anaphase-promoting complex-Cdh1 and cyclin A-Cdk2 during cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Kramer, E R; Peters, J M;

    2001-01-01

    Periodic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase determines progression through multiple cell cycle transitions by targeting cell cycle regulators for destruction. At the G(1)/S transition, phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of the Cdh1-activating subunit inhibits...... the APC, allowing stabilization of proteins required for subsequent cell cycle progression. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that initiate and maintain Cdh1 phosphorylation have been identified. However, the issue of which cyclin-CDK complexes are involved has been a matter of debate, and the mechanism...... of how cyclin-CDKs interact with APC subunits remains unresolved. Here we substantiate the evidence that mammalian cyclin A-Cdk2 prevents unscheduled APC reactivation during S phase by demonstrating its periodic interaction with Cdh1 at the level of endogenous proteins. Moreover, we identified...

  6. Progressive facial hemiatrophy : a complex disorder not only affecting the face. A report in a monozygotic male twin pair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, C V; de Vries, T W; Armbrust, W; Sauer, P J J; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W S

    2004-01-01

    Progressive facial hemiatrophy (PFH) is a ubiquitous disease, characterized by hyperpigmentation of the skin followed by unilateral craniofacial atrophy of subcutaneous tissues, including fat, muscle and bone. Hereditary factors have been postulated to be involved in the aetiology of PFH. Yet, the o

  7. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) assembles a macromolecular complex regulating growth and survival of prostate cancer cells "in vitro" and correlating with progression "in vivo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, Maria Elisa; Grasso, Silvia; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Munari, Enrico; Moiso, Enrico; Fracasso, Giulio; Cestari, Tiziana; Naim, Hassan Y; Bronte, Vincenzo; Colombatti, Marco; Ramarli, Dunia

    2016-11-08

    The expression of Prostate Specific-Membrane Antigen (PSMA) increases in high-grade prostate carcinoma envisaging a role in growth and progression. We show here that clustering PSMA at LNCaP or PC3-PSMA cell membrane activates AKT and MAPK pathways thus promoting proliferation and survival. PSMA activity was dependent on the assembly of a macromolecular complex including filamin A, beta1 integrin, p130CAS, c-Src and EGFR. Within this complex beta1 integrin became activated thereby inducing a c-Src-dependent EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086 and Y1173 EGF-independent residues. Silencing or blocking experiments with drugs demonstrated that all the complex components were required for full PSMA-dependent promotion of cell growth and/or survival in 3D culture, but that p130CAS and EGFR exerted a major role. All PSMA complex components were found assembled in multiple samples of two high-grade prostate carcinomas and associated with EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086. The expression of p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 was thus analysed by tissue micro array in 16 castration-resistant prostate carcinomas selected from 309 carcinomas and stratified from GS 3+4 to GS 5+5. Patients with Gleason Score ≤5 resulted negative whereas those with GS≥5 expressed p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 in 75% and 60% of the cases, respectively.Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that PSMA recruits a functionally active complex which is present in high-grade patients. In addition, two components of this complex, p130CAS and the novel pEGFRY1086, correlate with progression in castration-resistant patients and could be therefore useful in therapeutic or surveillance strategies of these patients.

  8. 铁络合物催化类Fenton氧化研究进展%Progress in the research on iron complex catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗丽娟; 曹天静; 李大鹏; 杨榕; 徐淑芬; 廖霞; 张瑛洁

    2011-01-01

    The progress in iron complex catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation is reviewed. Compared with iron,the iron complex has a higher catalytic activity to improve the removal rate of organic matter from water. The homogeneous Fenton-like catalyzed by iron complex may bring a problem of removing metallic ions in subsequent process, so the heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyzed by iron complex has a better future. The current research situation of the Fenton-like catalyzed by iron complex loaded on resin is introduced emphatically and the reactive species in the Fenton-like catalyzed by iron complex is discussed.%综述了铁络合物催化类Fenton氧化的研究进展.铁络合物与铁相比具有更高的催化活性,可提高水中有机物的去除效果.均相类Fenton存在后续金属离子的去除问题,因此铁络合物作为催化剂的多相催化类Fenton氧化具有更好的应用前景.重点介绍了高分子负载铁络合物催化类Fenton氧化降解水中有机物的研究现状及铁络合物催化类Fenton氧化的反应活性物种.

  9. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1994-10-04

    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  10. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Ninth Progress Report (includes results of last three years), 1 May 1980 -- 30 April 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1982-09-15

    The overall objective of this research is to design, synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for the abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions, or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; numbers of binding sites; characters of binding sites; and valences. The hope is to synthesize new classes of compounds useful in the separation of metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters.

  11. North Cascades National Park Service Complex Natural Resource Preservation Program Amphibian Inventory Big Beaver Watershed 1996 - Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The 1996 amphibian inventory in North Cascades National Park Service Complex Big Beaver watershed is part of a four year program to inventory amphibians in Pacific...

  12. Structural tungsten-imido chemistry: the gas-phase structure of W(NBut)2(NHBut)2 and the solid-state structures of novel heterobimetallic W/N/M (M = Rh, Pd, Zn) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choujaa, Hamid; Cosham, Samuel D; Johnson, Andrew L; Kafka, Graeme R; Mahon, Mary F; Masters, Sarah L; Molloy, Kieran C; Rankin, David W H; Robertson, Heather E; Wann, Derek A

    2009-03-02

    The gas-phase (electron diffraction) and solid-state (X-ray) structures of W(NBut)2(NHBut)2 (1) have been determined. In the gas phase, 1 adopts both C1 and C2 conformations in a 69:31 ratio. The solid-state structure is disordered over two equal sites, both showing approximate C2 conformation as in the gas phase; the imido and amido centers are, however, clearly distinguished. Compound 1 has been used to synthesize novel heterobimetallic derivatives W(NBut)4[Rh(COD)]2 (3) and W(NBut)4[Pd(eta3-C3H5)]2 (4) via the dilithiated intermediate Li2[W(NBut)4] (2). In both cases, the [W(NBut)4] moiety bridges the two organometallic fragments. Reaction of 1 with Me2Zn has produced [Me(tBuN)W(mu-NBut)2ZnMe(NH2But)] (5). The structures of 3, 4, and 5 have been determined. Thermal decomposition of 4 under an autogenerated pressure at 700 degrees C has formed the hitherto uncharacterized bimetallic alloy WPd2.

  13. Alkyne Hydroamination and Trimerization with Titanium Bis(phenolate)pyridine Complexes: Evidence for Low-Valent Titanium Intermediates and Synthesis of an Ethylene Adduct of Titanium(II)

    KAUST Repository

    Tonks, Ian A.

    2013-06-24

    A class of titanium precatalysts of the type (ONO)TiX2 (ONO = pyridine-2,6-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenolate); X = Bn, NMe2) has been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. The (ONO)TiX2 (X = Bn, NMe2, X2 = NPh) complexes are highly active precatalysts for the hydroamination of internal alkynes with primary arylamines and some alkylamines. A class of titanium imido/ligand adducts, (ONO)Ti(L)(NR) (L = HNMe2, py; R = Ph, tBu), have also been synthesized and characterized and provide structural analogues to intermediates on the purported catalytic cycle. Furthermore, these complexes exhibit unusual redox behavior. (ONO)TiBn2 (1) promotes the cyclotrimerization of electron-rich alkynes, likely via a catalytically active TiII species that is generated in situ from 1. Depending on reaction conditions, these TiII species are proposed to be generated through Ti benzylidene or imido intermediates. A formally TiII complex, (ONO)Ti II(η2-C2H4)(HNMe2) (7), has been prepared and structurally characterized. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Mechanistic Insight into the Intramolecular Benzylic C-H Nitrene Insertion Catalyzed by Bimetallic Paddlewheel Complexes: Influence of the Metal Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuepeng; Xu, Huiying; Liu, Xueping; Phillips, David Lee; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2016-05-17

    The intramolecular benzylic C-H amination catalyzed by bimetallic paddlewheel complexes was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The metal-metal bonding characters were investigated and the structures featuring either a small HOMO-LUMO gap or a compact SOMO energy scope were estimated to facilitate an easier one-electron oxidation of the bimetallic center. The hydrogen-abstraction step was found to occur through three manners, that is, hydride transfer, hydrogen migration, and proton transfer. The imido N species are more preferred in the Ru-Ru and Pd-Mn cases whereas coexisting N species, namely, singlet/triplet nitrene and imido, were observed in the Rh-Rh and Pd-Co cases. On the other hand, the triplet nitrene N species were found to be predominant in the Pd-Ni and Pd-Zn systems. A concerted asynchronous mechanism was found to be modestly favorable in the Rh-Rh-catalyzed reactions whereas the Pd-Co-catalyzed reactions demonstrated a slight preference for a stepwise pathway. Favored stepwise pathways were seen in each Ru-Ru- and Pd-Mn-catalyzed reactions and in the triplet nitrene involved Pd-Ni and Pd-Zn reactions. The calculations suggest the feasibility of the Pd-Mn, Pd-Co, and Pd-Ni paddlewheel complexes as being economical alternatives for the expensive dirhodium/diruthenium complexes in C-H amination catalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Center for Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center: Progress Report for the Funding Period November 1, 2002 - October 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2003-10-31

    This progress report describes the research, service, and training activities conducted with the support of the DOE center grant. The research activities are summarized in the form of reprints or abstracts of 46 papers citing support from the DOE center grant that were produced during the reporting period. These papers include those that are published, in press, submitted, or in preparation. The papers include those produced entirely by CCRC personnel and those papers representing research work conducted in collaboration with scientists at other institutions. (See Appendix I.) A major component of this grant is to provide service to researchers at other academic institutions and industries located throughout the US and other parts of the world. A summary of all our service activities during the reporting period is also included with this report, including samples of poly/oligosaccharides and antibodies distributed to scientists (see Appendix II). A description of the three training courses held at the CCRC during 2003 is also provided, together with the names and affiliations of participants who attended the courses (see Appendix III).

  16. Structural studies of complex carbohydrates of plant cell walls. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains the abstracts of fourteen papers published, in press, or in preparation reporting on research activities to investigate the structure, as well as the function of cell walls in plants. This document also contains research on methods to determine the structure of complex carbohydrates of the cell walls.

  17. Complex-wide review of DOE`s management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE`s Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste.

  18. 才女虫属复合体的研究进展%Research progress of Polydora Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶灵通; 唐彬; 姜敬哲; 喻子牛; 王江勇

    2014-01-01

    才女虫属复合体( Polydora Complex)是典型的底质摄食者,多数种类栖居于潮间带、海湾、河口等近岸水域。其中一些种类是贝类上常见的多毛类寄生虫,能够钻入贝类的壳内营寄生生活,阻碍宿主的生长发育,感染严重时会导致贝类的大量死亡,是严重危害贝类养殖业发展的主要寄生虫类之一。文章从才女虫属复合体的形态分类、分子系统发育、栖居习性、生殖方式、幼体发育等5个方面综述才女虫属复合体的研究现状以及未来趋势。%Polydora Complex,typically marine bottom deposit feeders,mostly inhabit in the coastal waters including intertidal zones, bays and estuaries. Some of Polydora Complex are main shellfish parasites which can bore into shells,and retard growth and develop-ment of the hosts. The shellfish heavily affected with Polydora Complex have high mortality. This paper reviews the researches on Polydora Complex from five aspects,including morphological taxonomy,molecular phylogeny,habitat type,reproduction and larval development. Research trends for Polydora Complex are also forecasted.

  19. Research progress on complex antioxidants%复配抗氧化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岭; 陈复生; 薛静玉

    2012-01-01

    目前,食品工业主要使用人工合成的抗氧化剂,但因人工合成抗氧化剂的安全性受到怀疑,所以人们开始寻找安全高效的复配抗氧化剂.本文综述了复配抗氧化剂的基本成分,主要有天然黄酮类、酚类、活性多糖类、维生素类以及皂苷单宁类等.阐述了抗氧化剂之间的协同作用机理,有修复再生、偶联氧化、吸收氧气、改变酶的活性和络合金属离子五大类,同时,列出了几种常见抗氧化剂的协同作用:茶多酚与VC、VE以及类胡萝卜素的氧化协同作用;维生素之间以及维生素同酚类和酸类物质之间的氧化协同作用等.同时对近年来天然复配抗氧化剂的新产品进行了概览,指出了目前在复配抗氧化剂研究中存在的一些问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望,希望可以为复配抗氧化剂的开发和利用提供参考.%At present, synthetic antioxidants were widely used in food industry. However, because the safety of synthetic antioxidants has been suspected, people begin to study the safe and efficient complex antioxidants. The components of complex antioxidants, such as Natural flavonoids, phenols, Active polysaccharides, vitamins, saponins, tannins were reviewed in this paper. The article elaborated the mechanism of the synergistic effect between antioxidants, including repair and, coupled oxidation, absorb oxygen, change the activity of enzyme and complex metal ions. In addition , the synergistic effect between tea polyphenol and VC, VE, carotenoids, vitamin and phenols, organic acid were reviewed. At the 1st, this paper reviewed some new complex antioxidants, and pointed out some problems existing in the research. The prospect of complex natural antioxidants was propsed and hope it will provide the reference for the development and utilization of complex antioxidants.

  20. Recent progress in heteronuclear long-range NMR of complex carbohydrates: 3D H2BC and clean HMBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    2009-01-01

    carbohydrates whose structure has been determined by NMR, not least due to the enhanced resolution offered by the third dimension in 3D H2BC and the improved spectral quality due to artifact suppression in clean HMBC. Hence these new experiments set the scene to take advantage of the sensitivity boost achieved...... by the latest generation of cold probes for NMR structure determination of even larger and more complex carbohydrates in solution.......The new NMR experiments 3D H2BC and clean HMBC are explored for challenging applications to a complex carbohydrate at natural abundance of 13C. The 3D H2BC experiment is crucial for sequential assignment as it yields heteronuclear one- and two-bond together with COSY correlations for the 1H spins...

  1. Recent progress in heteronuclear long-range NMR of complex carbohydrates: 3D H2BC and clean HMBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sebastian; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Sørensen, Ole W

    2009-11-02

    The new NMR experiments 3D H2BC and clean HMBC are explored for challenging applications to a complex carbohydrate at natural abundance of (13)C. The 3D H2BC experiment is crucial for sequential assignment as it yields heteronuclear one- and two-bond together with COSY correlations for the (1)H spins, all in a single spectrum with good resolution and non-informative diagonal-type peaks suppressed. Clean HMBC is a remedy for the ubiquitous problem of strong coupling induced one-bond correlation artifacts in HMBC spectra of carbohydrates. Both experiments work well for one of the largest carbohydrates whose structure has been determined by NMR, not least due to the enhanced resolution offered by the third dimension in 3D H2BC and the improved spectral quality due to artifact suppression in clean HMBC. Hence these new experiments set the scene to take advantage of the sensitivity boost achieved by the latest generation of cold probes for NMR structure determination of even larger and more complex carbohydrates in solution.

  2. Progress in the Studies of Polysaccharide Metal Complex%多糖金属配合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晖; 白海泉; 乌兰格日乐

    2014-01-01

    多糖金属配合物由于其结构和生物活性的特殊性已成为当今天然产物研究领域的热门课题,研究的热点主要集中在植物类多糖铁复合物和壳聚糖与钙、铁、铜、稀土元素离子形成的配合物上。该文对多糖金属复合物的制备工艺、理化性质和药理作用、工业用途等方面进行了综述。%The polysaccharides metal complex because specificity of its structure and biological active has become a hot topic of research in the natural products field today, mainly concentrated in plants polysaccharides-iron and chito-san with iron、copper、rare earth elements formed the complex. This review the progress in the preparation of process, rationalized and their pharmacological effects and industrial uses of polysaccharides metal complex.

  3. A formal high oxidation state inverse-sandwich diuranium complex. A new route to f-block-metal bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dipti; Moro, Fabrizio; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2011-10-24

    Reduction of [U(Ts{sup Xy})(Cl)(thf)] [Ts{sup Xy}=HC(SiMe{sub 2}NAr){sub 3}; Ar=3,5-Me{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}] with KC{sub 8} in toluene afforded the new arene-bridged diuranium complex 2, whereas reduction of 1 in aliphatic hydrocarbons resulted in C-N bond activation and formation of an imido-aryl complex, which exhibits an unusual ferromagnetic interaction between the two uranium centers. The synthetic utility of 2 was demonstrated by the first synthesis of a U-Co complex, [U(Ts{sup Xy})Co(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})].

  4. Nutrient-induced FNIP degradation by SCFβ-TRCP regulates FLCN complex localization and promotes renal cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Katsuyuki; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Kouhei; Yamada, Aya; Hidaka, Masumi; Hasumi, Hisashi; Ikebe, Tetsuro; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Okabe, Koji; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-07

    Folliculin-interacting protein 1 and 2 (FNIP1 and FNIP2) play critical roles in preventing renal malignancy through their association with the tumor suppressor FLCN. Mutations in FLCN are associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, a rare disorder with increased risk of renal cancer. Recent studies indicated that FNIP1/FNIP2 double knockout mice display enlarged polycystic kidneys and renal carcinoma, which phenocopies FLCN knockout mice, suggesting that these two proteins function together to suppress renal cancer. However, the molecular mechanism functionally linking FNIP1/FNIP2 and FLCN remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrated that FNIP2 protein is unstable and subjected to proteasome-dependent degradation via β-TRCP and Casein Kinase 1 (CK1)-directed ubiquitination in a nutrition-dependent manner. Degradation of FNIP2 leads to lysosomal dissociation of FLCN and subsequent lysosomal association of mTOR, which in turn promotes the proliferation of renal cancer cells. These results indicate that SCFβ-TRCP negatively regulates the FLCN complex by promoting FNIP degradation and provide molecular insight into the pathogenesis of BHD-associated renal cancer.

  5. Complex left profunda femoris vein to renal vein bypass for the management of progressive chronic iliofemoral occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Adams, Matthew K; Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Dresser, Kelly L; Ismail, Nyla; Peden, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Chronic occlusions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliofemoral veins are long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that can lead to postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Patients may present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from mild discomfort and swelling to severe venous hypertension and ulcerations. We report a 68-year-old man who had a history of left lower extremity DVT after a laminectomy and who developed PTS with nonhealing ulcers. The patient underwent a cross-pubic femorofemoral venous bypass that failed to improve his clinical status. After unsuccessful endovascular attempts for recanalization of the iliofemoral segment, a profunda femoris to IVC bypass was performed. The symptoms recurred 2 years later. Venography revealed restenosis at the caval anastomosis that did not resolve by endovascular means. A surgical revision was performed, and given the quality of the IVC, a jump bypass was created to the left renal vein. The swelling improved and the ulcers healed completely. Twenty-eight months after the complex reconstructions, he remains ulcer-free with mild edema controlled with stockings. Venous reconstructions remain a viable option for patients with symptomatic and recalcitrant nonmalignant obstruction of the large veins.

  6. Fallen angels or risen apes? A tale of the intricate complexities of imbalanced immune responses in the pathogenesis and progression of immune-mediated and viral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Omusiro Ondondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive immune responses directed against foreign pathogens, self-antigens or commensal microflora can cause cancer establishment and progression if the execution of tight immuno-regulatory mechanisms fails. On the other hand, induction of potent tumour antigen-specific immune responses together with stimulation of the innate immune system is a pre-requisite for effective antitumour immunity, and if suppressed by the strong immuno-regulatory mechanisms can lead to cancer progression. Therefore, it is crucial that the inevitable co-existence of these fundamental, yet conflicting roles of immune-regulatory cells is carefully streamlined as imbalances can be detrimental to the host. Infection with chronic persistent viruses is characterised by severe immune dysfunction resulting in T cell exhaustion and sometimes deletion of antigen-specific T cells. More often this is due to increased immuno-regulatory processes which are triggered to down-regulate immune responses and limit immunopathology. However, such heightened levels of immune disruption cause a concomitant loss of tumour immune-surveillance and create a permissive microenvironment for cancer establishment and progression, as demonstrated by increased incidences of cancer in immunosuppressed hosts. Paradoxically, while some cancers arise as a consequence of increased immuno-regulatory mechanisms that inhibit protective immune responses and impinge on tumour surveillance, other cancers arise due to impaired immuno-regulatory mechanisms and failure to limit pathogenic inflammatory responses. This intricate complexity, where immuno-regulatory cells can be beneficial in certain immune settings but detrimental in other settings underscores the need for carefully formulated interventions to equilibrate the balance between immuno-stimulatory and immuno-regulatory processes.

  7. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. Progress report, January 1, 1990--August 5, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-09-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  8. Recent Progress of Nickel Complexes for Ethylene Polymerization%用于乙烯聚合的镍配合物催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 马立莉; 李翠勤; 施伟光; 霍宏亮

    2015-01-01

    T he polymerization of ethylene can be catalyzed by the Ni complexes in w hich the Ni atom of weak electroplicity is coordinated by the O ,N ,P‐containing compounds with lone pair of electrons .Recently ,the Ni complexes have become one of the hot topics in the transition metal researching field for ethylene polymerization ,due to their good stability and the tolerance to the polar functional groups . The research of Ni complexes for ethylene polymerization not only is beneficial to the model exploration for ethylene polymerization mechanism , but also has a constructive sense on designing Ni catalysts of high selectivity for ethylene polymerization .The research progress of Ni complexes based on the ethylene polymerization in recent five years was reviewed about the steric and electronic effects of ligands on the activity and characteristics of polymerization products .The rules of the steric and electronic effects of the substituent groups on the Ni complexes were discussed in detail ,as well as the prospect of Ni complexes .%具有弱亲电性的Ni原子与含孤对电子(如O、N、P等)的化合物配位所得的Ni配合物可以用于催化乙烯聚合,因其良好的稳定性和极性功能基团容忍性的优点,成为乙烯聚合用后过渡金属催化剂研究的热点之一。Ni配合物催化乙烯聚合的研究不仅有利于探索乙烯聚合机理模型,而且对设计具有高选择性乙烯聚合Ni催化剂具有建设性意义。笔者从Ni配合物配体的位阻效应和电子效应对其催化乙烯聚合活性和聚合产物特性影响方面,综述了近5年Ni配合物在乙烯聚合方面的研究进展,详细阐述了Ni配合物中取代基的位阻效应和电子效应的影响规律,并展望了Ni配合物在乙烯聚合领域的发展前景。

  9. The Exon Junction Complex Controls the Efficient and Faithful Splicing of a Subset of Transcripts Involved in Mitotic Cell-Cycle Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Fukumura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The exon junction complex (EJC that is deposited onto spliced mRNAs upstream of exon–exon junctions plays important roles in multiple post-splicing gene expression events, such as mRNA export, surveillance, localization, and translation. However, a direct role for the human EJC in pre-mRNA splicing has not been fully understood. Using HeLa cells, we depleted one of the EJC core components, Y14, and the resulting transcriptome was analyzed by deep sequencing (RNA-Seq and confirmed by RT–PCR. We found that Y14 is required for efficient and faithful splicing of a group of transcripts that is enriched in short intron-containing genes involved in mitotic cell-cycle progression. Tethering of EJC core components (Y14, eIF4AIII or MAGOH to a model reporter pre-mRNA harboring a short intron showed that these core components are prerequisites for the splicing activation. Taken together, we conclude that the EJC core assembled on pre-mRNA is critical for efficient and faithful splicing of a specific subset of short introns in mitotic cell cycle-related genes.

  10. Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrazek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisinski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett's scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome.

  11. Progress in Synthesis of Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Complexes%不饱和羧酸金属配合物的合成及性质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑焱

    2015-01-01

    在大量文献调研的基础上,总结了结构多样的不饱和羧酸金属配合物的合成与性质,并对顺丁烯二酸的桥联一元过渡金属配合物、顺丁烯二酸的单杂芳环配体三元配合物、反丁烯二酸的桥联一元过渡金属配合物和反丁烯二酸的单杂芳环配体三元配合物的合成方法与配合物的晶体结构研究进展进行了较为详细的综述。%On the basis of literature investigation, the coordinated mode of unsaturated carboxylate group, structure, synthesis and property of carboxylic complex were reviewed. Reviewing of unsaturated carboxylic acids along the research progress of maleic acid, fumaric acid metal complex in detail. Synthesis and crystal structure of maleic acid bridged transition metallic complexes and ternary complex of maleic acid Single heterocyclic aromatic ring ligands of research progress were discussed in detail. Synthesis and crystal structure of fumaric acid bridged transition metallic complexes and ternary complex of fumaric acid Single heterocyclic aromatic ring ligands of research progress were discussed in detail.

  12. CRM1 and chromosomal passenger complex component survivin are essential to normal mitosis progress and to preserve keratinocytes from mitotic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarrade, F; Botto, J-M; Domloge, N

    2016-10-01

    Human epidermis provides the body a barrier against environmental assaults. To assume this function, the epidermis needs the renewal of keratinocytes allowed by constant mitosis, which replace the exfoliating corneocytes. Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) located in the basal epidermis are mitotically active, self-renewing and govern the epithelial stratification by producing renewed source of keratinocytes. Protein complex such as the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) allows the correct development of this process. The CPC is composed of four members: INCENP, survivin, borealin and aurora kinase B, and the disruption of the CPC during cell division induces mitotic spindle defects and improper repartition of chromosomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the implication of CRM1 and survivin in the progress of mitosis in skin keratinocytes. Cultured human keratinocytes and skin biopsies were used in this study. KSCs-enriched population of keratinocytes was isolated from total keratinocytes by differential attachment to a type IV collagen matrix. Survivin and CRM1 expression levels were assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Specific siRNAs for each CPC member and for CRM1 were used to determine the relationship between these proteins. Survivin-specific siRNA was used to induce the apparition of mitotic abnormalities in cultured keratinocytes. We demonstrated the ability of our compound 'IV08.009' to modulate the expression level of survivin and CRM1 in keratinocytes and in skin biopsies. We observed that members of the CPC are interdependent: siRNA-induced inhibition of one component caused a decrease in the expression of all other CPC members. Downregulation of survivin or CRM1 induced mitotic abnormalities in keratinocytes. However, decreased number of mitotic abnormalities was observed in keratinocytes after 'IV08.009' application. Basal keratinocytes may divide frequently during skin lifespan, and signs of deterioration could appear such as loss

  13. 含铋复合氧化物可见光催化材料研究进展%Recent Progress on the Bismuth Containing Complex Oxide Photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文中; 尚萌; 尹文宗; 任佳; 周林

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalysts could utilize solar energy to remedy environmental pollutions thus attract world wide attention. Some bismuth-containing complex oxides could be activated by visible light and mineralize organic pollutants. In this paper we reviewed recent progresses on the development of Bi2WO6, BiVO4 and Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts. By controlling the particle size, morphology, crystaUinity and other microstructures via different methods, the photocata-lytic activities in the degradation of organic dyes, colorless model pollutants such as phenol and acetaldehyde, and disinfection of these visible light induced photocatalysts were greatly enhanced. Through further development, bismuth-containing complex oxides are hopeful to be applied in the field of environmental remediation.%光催化材料因可以利用太阳能净化环境,受到广泛关注.一些含铋复合氧化物半导体可直接被可见光激发,更有效地利用太阳能,实现有机污染物的矿化,成为近期光催化材料研究领域的热点之一.本文概述了Bi2WO6、BiVO4和Bi2MoO6三种常见的含铋复合氧化物可见光催化材料体系的近期研究进展.通过合成方法的优选、晶粒成核和生长的调节,实现晶粒尺寸、形貌、结晶度等微结构的控制,从而获得小尺寸、高表面积的光催化材料,无论是在有机染料、苯酚和乙醛等多种模拟污染物的矿化,还是抗菌等方面,它们皆呈现出优秀的可见光催化性能.通过进一步发展,含铋复合氧化物有望实现在环境净化领域的应用.

  14. Protons and Mg2+ cations as probes in investigating the role of GTP in initiation complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, P; Begard, E; Douzou, P; Grunberg-Manago, M

    1978-12-01

    fMet-tRNAfMet binding to both 30-S subunits and to 70-S particles is dependent on both pH AND Mg2+ concentration: for fMet-tRNAfMet binding to 70-S particles, variations of pH and Mg2+ concentration are tightly interdependent. This behavior can be interpreted by the polyelectrolyte theory as a direct consequence of the fact that the binding occurs in a polyanionic micro-environment. The pH-dependent binding to 70-S particles clearly shows the involvement of two prototropic groups which appear to be those carrying out GTP hydrolysis, therefore directly linked to initiation complex formation; in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable analogue to GTP, guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate, the binding of fMet-tRNAfMet shows much less interdependence between variation of pH and Mg2+ concentration.

  15. Influence of the Scientific and Technical Progress upon the Fuel and Energy Complex of Ukraine until 2050: Methodology of Assessment of Long-term Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko Leonid A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an attempt, using new methodological initial grounds by the works of leading foreign authors, to present an aggregate of qualitatively different conditions of development of the fuel and energy complex of Ukraine until 2050 in the context of forecasts of development of USA until 2100. The authors justify factors that significantly differentiate trajectories of future development of the Ukrainian energy sector and USA energy sector, which envisages development of own methodology and realisation of forecasts officially already developed by Ukrainian scientists. On the basis of this the article presents the authors’ comparative analysis of fuel and energy complexes of Ukraine and China.

  16. Insulin/receptor binding: the last piece of the puzzle? What recent progress on the structure of the insulin/receptor complex tells us (or not) about negative cooperativity and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyts, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Progress in solving the structure of insulin bound to its receptor has been slow and stepwise, but a milestone has now been reached with a refined structure of a complex of insulin with a "microreceptor" that contains the primary binding site. The insulin receptor is a dimeric allosteric enzyme that belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The insulin binding process is complex and exhibits negative cooperativity. Biochemical evidence suggested that insulin, through two distinct binding sites, crosslinks two receptor sites located on each α subunit. The structure of the unliganded receptor ectodomain showed a symmetrical folded-over conformation with an antiparallel disposition. Further work resolved the detailed structure of receptor site 1, both without and with insulin. Recently, a missing piece in the puzzle was added: the C-terminal portion of insulin's B-chain known to be critical for binding and negative cooperativity. Here I discuss these findings and their implications.

  17. A protein complex of SCRIB, NOS1AP and VANGL1 regulates cell polarity and migration, and is associated with breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, J N; Biechele, T L; Robitaille, M; Muster, J; Allison, K H; Angers, S; Moon, R T

    2012-08-09

    By analyzing public data sets of gene expression in human breast cancers we observed that increased levels of transcripts encoding the planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins SCRIB and VANGL1 correlate with increased risk of patient relapse. Experimentally, we found that reducing expression of SCRIB by short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduces the growth of human breast cancer cells in xenograft assays. To investigate SCRIB-associated proteins that might participate in the responses of breast cancer cells to altered levels of SCRIB, we used mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy. These studies reveal that SCRIB is present in at least two unique protein complexes: (1) a complex of SCRIB, ARHGEF, GIT and PAK (p21-activated kinase), and (2) a complex of SCRIB, NOS1AP and VANGL. Focusing on NOS1AP, we observed that NOS1AP colocalizes with both SCRIB and VANGL1 along cellular protrusions in metastatic breast cancer cells, but does not colocalize with either SCRIB or VANGL1 at cell junctions in normal breast cells. We investigated the effects of shRNA-mediated knockdown of NOS1AP and SCRIB in vitro, and found that reducing NOS1AP and SCRIB slows breast cancer cell migration and prevents the establishment of leading-trailing polarity. We also find that reduction of NOS1AP enhances anchorage-independent growth. Collectively these data point to the relevance of NOS1AP and SCRIB protein complexes in breast cancer.

  18. Investigation of Zr(IV) and 89Zr(IV) complexation with hydroxamates: Progress towards designing a better chelator than desferrioxamine B for immuno-PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, François; Lee, Yong-Sok; Tripier, Raphaël; Szajek, Lawrence P.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction show that Zr(IV) forms an octa-coordinated complex with 4 bidentate hydroxamates whose solution structures were investigated utilizing density functional theory at the level of B3LYP/DGDZVP. Stability constants obtained by potentiometry were in accordance with the tendency observed when radiolabeling with 89Zr. PMID:23250287

  19. Isomerization of Internal Alkynes to Iridium(III Allene Complexes via C–H Bond Activation: Expanded Substrate Scope, and Progress towards a Catalytic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Phadke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a series of allene complexes (POCOPIr(η2-RC=.=CR’ 1b–4b (POCOP = 2,6-bis(di-tert-butylphosphonitobenzene via isomerization of internal alkynes is reported. We have demonstrated that the application of this methodology is viable for the isomerization of a wide variety of alkyne substrates. Deuterium labeling experiments support our proposed mechanism. The structures of the allene complexes 1b–4b were determined using spectroscopic data analysis. Additionally, the solid-state molecular structure of complex 2b was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and it confirmed the assignment of an iridium-bound allene isomerization product. The rates of isomerization were measured using NMR techniques over a range of temperatures to allow determination of thermodynamic parameters. Finally, we report a preliminary step towards developing a catalytic methodology; the allene may be liberated from the metal center by exposure of the complex to an atmosphere of carbon monoxide.

  20. 含铋复合氧化物催化剂的研究进展%Research progress in bismuth-containing complex oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 陈晓晖; 魏可镁

    2011-01-01

    Bismuth-containing complex oxides is an research hotspot of selective oxidation and photocatalysis at present. Bismuth oxide can combine with titanium oxide, vanadium oxide, iron oxide, copper oxide,molybdenum oxide ,silicon oxide and tungsten oxide to form bismuth-containing complex oxide catalysts.The research advance on bismuth-containing complex oxide catalysts was reviewed. The research aspects of bismuth-containing complex oxide catalysts in the future were outlined.%含铋复合金属氧化物是当前选择性氧化和光催化方面的研究热点.主要介绍了近年来氧化铋与氧化钛、氧化钒、氧化铁、氧化铜、氧化钼、氧化硅和氧化钨等的复合氧化物催化剂的研究进展,并指出了含铋复合氧化物今后的研究方向.

  1. Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of the Sacroiliac Joint Complex Injury%骶髂关节复合体损伤的诊疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲乐; 王海涛; 朴太奎; 邵林

    2013-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint complex is a major component of the posterior pelvic ring, including the two ilia, sacrum, sacroiliac joint and the ligaments. Sacroiliac joint complex plays an important role in the conduction of the human physical force which was conducted from the trunk to limbs. It plays an important role in the stability of the posterior pelvic ring. With the development of technology, more and more high-energy injury of violence occurs. As the more and more high-energy violence are happened, the incidence of multiple trauma is more than before. Also the incidence of pelvic fractures is more than before. Unstable pelvic fracture is due to the damage caused by the joint complex. Thus, in the treatment of unstable pelvic fractures, if there is the sacroiliac joint complex injury, it must be emphasized that the importance of the treatment of sacroiliac joint complex injury.The diagnosis and treatment of the sacroiliac joint complex injury are reviewed in this paper.%骶髂关节复合体是骨盆后环的主要组成部分,包括双侧髂骨,骶骨,骶髂关节及髂前后韧带等组织,将躯干的力传向下肢.在骨盆后环的稳定上有着重要的作用.随着现代科技的发展,高能量暴力的损伤越来越多,其带来多发伤中骨盆骨折的发生率很高,而不稳定的骨盆骨折多由于骨盆后环骶髂关节复合体的损伤引起.因此,在治疗不稳定骨盆骨折时,必须强调治疗骶髂关节复合体损伤的重要性.本文就骶髂关节复合体的诊疗进展进行综述.

  2. Schiff碱及其金属配合物的抑菌活性%The New Progress in the Studies on Antibacterial Properties of Schiff Bases and its Metal Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 雷文; 王远亮

    2002-01-01

      Schiff bases and its transition metal complexes have significant antiviral and antibacterial activities. In order to screen the high-activity antibiotic drugs with low toxicity, a large number of Schiff bases and its metal complexes have been synthesized, and the bioactivity screening of these ligands and complexes were done against different bacterial species. The research progress of antimicrobial activities of some kinds of Schiff base and its metal complexes are presented. The problems in the study on Schiff bases' antibacterial activities and the way of solutions are summarized and the prospects of the research methods are described.%  Schiff碱及其过渡金属配合物具有独特的抗病毒、抑制细菌生长等生物活性。为筛选高效低毒的抗菌剂,人们合成了大量不同类型的Schiff碱及其金属配合物,并对不同菌株的抑制作用进行了研究;本文介绍了近年来国内外Schiff碱及其金属配合物的抑菌活性研究,总结了Schiff碱抑菌活性研究中所存在的问题及解决的方法,并就其研究方法进行了展望。

  3. 1,10-菲咯啉及其衍生物铜配合物的抗癌活性研究进展%Progress of Anticancer Activities of Copper Complexes with1,10-Phenanthroline and its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏寺丰; 鲁晓明

    2011-01-01

    As bio-essential trace element,copper plays an important role in biological processes,and many copper complexes have the activity of anti-proliferation of cancer cells.The progress in anti-cancer activity of copper complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline and its derivatives was reviewed,and the proposal mechanism of oxidative cleavage of DNA by different sorts of copper complexes was discussed.In addition,the prospects of copper complexes as anti-cancer drugs were presented by comparison with cisplatin anti-cancer drugs.%作为一种微量生命元素,铜在生物进程中扮演着重要角色,很多铜配合物呈现抑制癌细胞增殖的活性。本文论述了以1,10-菲咯啉及其衍生物为配体的铜配合物的抗癌活性研究进展,分析了其对DNA裂解的可能机理。对比顺铂类抗癌药物,展望了铜配合物作为抗癌药物的应用前景。

  4. Clinical characteristics and diagnosis progress in tuberous sclerosis complex%结节性硬化症的临床特点与诊断进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智胜

    2015-01-01

    结节性硬化症(tuberous sclerosis complex,TSC)是一种累及多个脏器及组织的少见常染色体显性遗传病,临床表现复杂多样,依据临床特点进行诊断.TSC诊断标准包括临床诊断标准和基因诊断标准.%Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an involving multiple organs and tissues of the rare autosomal dominant genetic disease.There are various clinical manifestations in patients with TSC and its diagnosis based on clinical characteristics.Diagnostic criteria of TSC include clinical diagnosis and gene diagnosis standard.

  5. Research progress on the metal complexes of quinolone drug ligands%喹诺酮类药物金属配合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康新平; 安哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective The article reviewed the development of the quinolone drug and the structure and potential activity of the quinolone drug metal complexes, in order to provide a foundation for further research. Methods The ralated literatures were summarized. Results The development of the research of the quinolone drug metal complexes is fast,but exists many questions. Conclusion Some suggestions of the in-depth research of the quinolone drug metal complexes are presented.%目的 对喹诺酮类药物的发展过程及其金属配合物的配位结构和活性等方面进行综述,为进一步研究喹诺酮类药物金属配合物提供科学依据.方法 对相关文献进行归纳、总结和综述.结果 喹诺酮类药物金属配合物的研究取得较快发展,但还存在着许多有待解决的问题.结论 展望了喹诺酮类药物金属配合物研究的发展趋势.

  6. 络合重金属废水处理的研究进展%Research progress in the treatment of complex heavy metal wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽萍; 付丰连; 汤兵

    2012-01-01

    络合重金属废水中含有的污染物不可生物降解,具有很强的毒性,可通过食物链在生物体内的累积而致癌.与游离态的重金属离子相比,络合态的重金属离子的去除难度更大,普通的加碱中和沉淀法难以获得满意的处理效果.综述了近年来处理络合重金属废水的主要方法,包括硫化物沉淀法、螯合沉淀法、Fenton氧化法、光催化氧化法、铁屑还原法、吸附法、离子交换法等,并且评价了它们的优势和局限性.%The pollutants contained in complex heavy metal wastewater are non-biodegradable,having very strong toxicity. They may cause cancer through the accumulation of food chains in organisms. Compared to free heavy metal ions, complex heavy metal ions are more difficult to be removed. Satisfactory treatment effect cannot be obtained by ordinary neutralization via adding alkali and precipitation methods. The main treatment methods for treating complex heavy metal wastewater in recent years,including sulfide precipitation,chelating precipitation,Fenton oxidation, photocatalysis oxidation,scrap iron reduction,adsorption,ion exchange,etc.,are summarized,and their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated,as well.

  7. The budding yeast Cdc48(Shp1 complex promotes cell cycle progression by positive regulation of protein phosphatase 1 (Glc7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Böhm

    Full Text Available The conserved, ubiquitin-selective AAA ATPase Cdc48 regulates numerous cellular processes including protein quality control, DNA repair and the cell cycle. Cdc48 function is tightly controlled by a multitude of cofactors mediating substrate specificity and processing. The UBX domain protein Shp1 is a bona fide substrate-recruiting cofactor of Cdc48 in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Even though Shp1 has been proposed to be a positive regulator of Glc7, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in S. cerevisiae, its cellular functions in complex with Cdc48 remain largely unknown. Here we show that deletion of the SHP1 gene results in severe growth defects and a cell cycle delay at the metaphase to anaphase transition caused by reduced Glc7 activity. Using an engineered Cdc48 binding-deficient variant of Shp1, we establish the Cdc48(Shp1 complex as a critical regulator of mitotic Glc7 activity. We demonstrate that shp1 mutants possess a perturbed balance of Glc7 phosphatase and Ipl1 (Aurora B kinase activities and show that hyper-phosphorylation of the kinetochore protein Dam1, a key mitotic substrate of Glc7 and Ipl1, is a critical defect in shp1. We also show for the first time a physical interaction between Glc7 and Shp1 in vivo. Whereas loss of Shp1 does not significantly affect Glc7 protein levels or localization, it causes reduced binding of the activator protein Glc8 to Glc7. Our data suggest that the Cdc48(Shp1 complex controls Glc7 activity by regulating its interaction with Glc8 and possibly further regulatory subunits.

  8. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  9. 几种蓝藻光合NAD(P)H脱氢酶复合体研究的新进展%New progress in the study of several cyanobacterial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕中贤; 马为民

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) is an important photosynthetic membrane protein complex, and is essential to CO2 uptake, cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and cellular respiration. This mini-review mainly describes and analyzes the new progress in the study of several cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes, including their identification, structure, and physiological function. This will further help in looking ahead for the future research direction of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes.%蓝藻NAD(P)H脱氢酶(NDH-1)是一种重要的光合膜蛋白复合体,参与CO2吸收、围绕光系统Ⅰ的循环电子传递和细胞呼吸.就几种蓝藻NDH-1复合体的鉴定、结构、生理功能等研究的新进展进行了综述与分析,并对今后NDH-1复合体的研究作了展望.

  10. Research progress on the single-molecule magnets of Lanthanide complexes%稀土配合物单分子磁体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董飘平; 梁福永; 邹征刚; 温和瑞

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets(SMMs) have potential application in the areas of ultrahigh-density memory components,spintronic devices and quantum computers. Rare earth ions are widely used for preparation of magnetic materials due to their high spin ground state as well as strong spin orbit coupling and magnetic anisotropy. In recent years,the rare earth ions have been used to improve SMMs spin flip energy barrier and a lot of rare earth complexes have been also synthesized. In this paper,the synthesis and structures of Lanthanide-based SMMs are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on magnetism properties of the mono-,di-,tri-,tetra-,penpa- and hexa-nuclear Lanthanide SMMs. Studies have showed that the SMMs made from Dysprosium-based complexes are the best and of the more the complex nuclear,the stronger the characteristics of SMMs. The future research of Lanthanide-based SMMs should focus on the synthesis of high nuclear complexes and the advancement of magnetic anisotropy energy barrier.%单分子磁体在超高密度存储、自旋电子器件、量子计算机等领域具有潜在的应用。稀土离子因其存在高电子自旋基态以及很强的自旋轨道耦合和磁各向异性,被广泛应用于磁性材料的制备。近年来,稀土离子用来提高单分子磁体的自旋翻转能垒的研究备受关注,大量具有单分子磁体性能的稀土配合物被合成。本文综述了稀土配合物单分子磁体的合成、结构与磁性研究进展,着重介绍了单核、双核、三核、四核、五核及六核稀土配合物单分子磁体的结构与磁学性质。研究表明,应用元素镝构筑的稀土配合物单分子磁体性能最好,且随着配合物核数的增加,单分子磁体的特性更加明显。展望稀土配合物单分子磁体的研究,今后的研究重点是合成高核稀土配合物和提高磁各向异性能垒。

  11. The progress on preparation of human prothrombin complex concentrates%人凝血酶原复合物制备工艺研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包正琦(综述); 何彦林(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Prothrombin complex concentrates are haemostatic blood products containing four vitamin K -dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX and X).It is produced by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 resin from large pool plasma.Preparation technology,the choose of materials,quality control and optimization of critical parameters play a critical role in quality control of PCC .This paper mainly summarizes the preparation of PCC technology conditions , materi-als, critical parameters and the control strategy of coagulation factor activation .%人凝血酶原复合物( Prothrombin complex concentrates ,PCC)是一种含有凝血因子II、VII、IX、X四种维生素K依赖性凝血因子,能够促进血液凝固的血浆蛋白制剂。目前,多数生产厂家采用DEAE Sephadex A-50凝胶从混合血浆中制备PCC。 PCC制备工艺的选择、制备原料的挑选及质量控制、关键工艺参数的优化及控制等方面对PCC制品的质量至关重要。因此,主要对PCC的制备工艺、制备原料、关键工艺参数的优化及生产过程中凝血因子活化的控制策略进行了综述。

  12. A study of resonance progressions in the F + HCl → Cl + HF reaction: a lifetime matrix analysis of pre-reactive and post-reactive collision complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaito; Hayes, Michael Y; Skodje, Rex T

    2013-01-14

    Quantum scattering calculations were performed for the F + HCl → Cl + HF reaction for total angular momentum J = 0-6 using an ab initio potential energy surface. Employing a time-independent algorithm on a very fine energy grid allowed the resolution of hundreds of narrow resonances with lifetimes in the picosecond range. The resonances were assigned to rotationally excited van der Waals complexes lying in the entrance and exit channels. Resonance peaks observed in the J = 0 calculation broke into multiplets for J > 0 corresponding to the range of allowed helicity states. The Smith lifetime matrix, Q(E), was used to efficiently extract the resonance properties. The largest eigenvalue of Q(E) was used for the position and total width, while the corresponding eigenvector was used to obtain the partial widths. A simple model based on the conventional treatment of rotationally excited van der Waals triatomics was used to predict the resonance spectrum to an accuracy of ~0.02 kcal∕mol. The model predicts the density of resonance states in good agreement with the exact scattering results.

  13. 骶髂关节复合体损伤治疗方式的进展%Sacroiliac joint complex injury in the progress of treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守刚; 汪玉良; 马方全

    2009-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint complex is the hub transmission load of trunk and lower limb,unstable pelvic fracture always involves the sacroiliac joint injury. Hie efficacy of the treatment for sacroiliac joint injury is significant for the recover of pelvic function. There is a lot of methods of treatment for sacroiliac joint injury which can be found in clinical reports, and the efficacy of each treatmeant is not the same. In this paper,a large number of related literature on the sacroiliac joint injury involving treatment has been reviewed,which could benifit some of the clinical treatment.%骶髂关节复合体是躯干与下肢负荷传递的枢纽,不稳定型骨盆骨折常涉及骶髂关节损伤.骶髂关节损伤的治疗效果对骨盆功能的恢复有决定意义.对于骶髂关节损伤的治疗临床报道方法较多,各家报道疗效不同.本文复习了大量的相关文献后对涉及骶髂关节损伤的治疗进行综述,以期待对临床治疗有所借鉴.

  14. Dinitrogen functionalization with bis(cyclopentadienyl) complexes of zirconium and hafnium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirik, Paul J

    2007-01-07

    The rich chemistry of substituted bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium and hafnium complexes bearing side-on coordinated dinitrogen ligands is highlighted in this Perspective. Our studies in this area were initially motivated by the desire to understand side-on vs. end-on dinitrogen coordination in bimetallic zirconocene and hafnocene N2 compounds. In the cases where eta2,eta2-dinitrogen compounds were isolated, both structural and computational data have established significant imido character in the metal-nitrogen bonds. This additional bonding interaction, which is diminished in end-on complexes bearing both terminal and bridging N2 ligands, facilitates dinitrogen functionalization by non-polar reagents including dihydrogen, carbon-hydrogen bonds and weak Brønsted acids such as water and ethanol. In hafnocene chemistry, where unwanted side-on, end-on isomerization is suppressed, cycloaddition of phenylisocyanate to coordinated N2 has also been accomplished. For N-H bond forming reactions involving H2, kinetic measurements, in addition to isotopic labelling and computational studies, are consistent with dinitrogen functionalization by 1,2-addition involving a highly ordered, four-centred transition structure.

  15. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  16. 细胞-支架复合物构建组织工程肌腱研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS OF CELL-SCAFFOLD COMPLEX IN TENDON TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 李敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the research progress of cell-scaffold complex in the tendon tissue engineering. Methods Recent literature concerning cell-scaffold complex in the tendon tissue engineering was reviewed, the research situation of the cell-scaffold complex was elaborated in the aspects of seed cells, scaffolds, cell culture, and application. Results In tendon tissue engineering, a cell-scaffold complex is built by appropriate seed cells and engineered scaffolds. Experiments showed that modified seed cells had better therapeutic effects. Further, scaffold functionality could be improved through surface modification, growth factor cure, mechanical stimulation, and contact guidance. Among these methods, mechanical stimulation revealed the most significant results in promoting cell proliferation and function. Through a variety of defect models, it is demonstrated that the use of cell-scaffold complex could achieve satisfactory results for tendon regeneration. Conclusion The cell-scaffold complex for tendon tissue engineering is a popular research topic. Although it has not yet met the requirement of clinical use, it has broad application prospects.%目的 对细胞-支架复合物构建组织工程肌腱的研究进展进行综述. 方法 查阅近年来肌腱组织工程中细胞-支架复合物的相关文献,并进行综述,从支架材料、种子细胞、培养方法和应用方面阐述细胞-支架复合物的研究概况. 结果 肌腱组织工程主要通过对支架材料进行修饰,并复合合适的种子细胞构建细胞-支架复合物.对于复合材料中细胞的培养有多种方法,尤其是力学刺激的应用,能有效促进细胞功能发挥.多种肌腱缺损动物模型研究表明,采用细胞-支架复合物有良好的修复效果. 结论 细胞-支架复合物构建组织工程肌腱是目前的研究热点,虽还未达到临床使用要求,但已显示了广阔的应用前景.

  17. Research progress on catalytic oxidation by Schiff base complexes supported on mesoporous molecular sieve%介孔分子筛固载希夫碱金属配合物催化氧化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董阳阳; 白金泉; 王乔乔

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes immobilized on mesoporous molecular sieve with high activity can be easily prepared and repeatedly used. It is considered to be a heterogeneous catalyst with great application potential. This article reviews the recent progress in oxidation catalyzed by Schiff base complexes supported on mesoporous molecular sieve, including catalytic oxidation of olefin, alkane, alcohol, sulfur ether.%介孔分子筛固载希夫碱金属配合物具有易于制备,反应活性高,可重复使用等优点,被认为是一种极具应用潜力的多相催化剂.近年来介孔分子筛固载希夫碱金属配合物在催化氧化方面研究较多.综述了近几年介孔分子筛固载希夫碱金属配合物在催化氧化方面的研究进展,主要包括催化氧化烯烃、烷烃、醇以及硫醚.

  18. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guodong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl2 (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph)2C(Ph)2O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and α-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and α-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono

  19. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guodong Du

    2004-12-19

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of

  20. Progress in the application of water soluble polymer complexing ultrafiltration to the treatment of heavy metal wastewater%水溶性聚合物络合超滤技术处理重金属废水进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪成运; 包立超

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of wa ter soluble polymer complexing ultrafiltration for removing heavy metals is analyzed, and the influencing factors in the separation process, such as pH, concentration ratio of metal ions and polymer, and added salt are summarized. In addition, the research progress in the technology of selective separation and that of polymer regeneration by acidification and electrolysis are reviewed. At the end, the membrane fouling problem, which is the restrictive factor hindering the industrialization of this technology, is emphatically overviewed, and the developing foreground is predicted.%分析了水溶性聚合物络合超滤技术去除重金属的机理,总结了分离重金属离子过程的影响因素,如pH、金属离子与聚合物浓度比和外加盐.综述了该技术在金属离子选择性分离中的研究进展以及聚合物再生时使用的酸化法和电解法的研究进展.最后,着重对限制该技术工业化的膜污染问题进行了综述,并展望了该技术的发展前景.

  1. 国内外城乡空间复杂性研究进展及其启示%Research Progress of Domestic and Overseas Urban-rural Spatial Complexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德忠; 刘承良

    2014-01-01

    我国新时期城乡统筹发展及城乡空间一体化规划仍然面临着城乡关系的恶化和城乡空间分离的挑战。从本质上看,新时期城乡空间统筹规划应是以优化“城乡关系”为重点的城乡空间融合规划,其基础工作则是认识城乡空间的复杂性。当前,在国内掀起新一轮城乡统筹规划热潮的背景下,回顾、梳理国内外城乡空间复杂性研究进展,对指导国内城乡空间统筹规划具有重大意义。文章认为,目前城乡空间复杂性研究仍然以城市单系统为中心,乡村空间“被边缘”;研究方法上应加强方法的集成综合,同时强调质性研究和定量分析的结合;在研究内容上应深化城乡关系空间复杂性、城乡关联空间复杂性、城乡空间自组织演化机制与模拟、城乡社会网络空间复杂性等方面的研究。%Balancing urban and rural Development of the new era and spatial planning of urban-rural integration still faced with the deterioration of re-lations and the separated challenge between Cities and Villages.The history of Urban and rural determines the indivisibility of urban-rural relations, indus-trialization and social development makes the two increasingly isolated in space, but also internally generated a series of questions. The only way to solve their development problems may eventually need to return to the unity of the both, new type of urbanization and spatial planning of urban-rural inte-gration are just a response to this appeal. In essence, urban-rural spatial overall planning should be based on relationship optimization between urban and rural area, the basic work is the recognition of the complexity of urban and rural space.At present, the country sets off a new round upsurge of ur-ban-rural planning, reviewing and combing urban-rural spatial complexity of domestic and foreign research progress can guide the overall planning work in the very large degree. By combing

  2. Progress of nickel complex catalysts towards ethylene oligomerization forα-olefin%乙烯齐聚合成α-烯烃镍配合物催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 梁红姣; 李翠勤; 施伟光

    2016-01-01

    Nickel complexes are important ethylene oligomerization catalysts and have shown good application prospect in the synthesis ofα-olefin due to their high activity,mild reaction conditions and high selectivity. The latest research progress of nickel complex catalysts towards ethylene oligomerization forα-olefin has been reviewed herein. In terms of molecular structure of the ligand,the discussions focus on the research status of imino pyridyl ligand nickel complex catalysts and pyrazole ligand nickel complex catalysts,including the influence of the ligand structure,substitution group effect and process conditions on the catalytic activity and product distribution. At the same time,the development of other types of ligands,including formazan,phosphine oxazoline,thiophene,dinuclear structure and dendritic ligands is also briefly introduced. The study of the effect of the fine structure of the nickel complexes on the catalytic activity and the selectivity ofα-olefin has important significance for the design of high carbonα-olefin catalyst with the prospect of industrial application.%镍配合物是一类重要的乙烯齐聚催化剂,由于具有活性高、反应条件温和及选择性高等优点,在α-烯烃的合成方面已显示出良好的应用前景。本文综述了近年来国内外乙烯齐聚合成α-烯烃用镍配合物催化剂最新研究进展,从配体的分子结构进行分类,重点阐述了亚胺吡啶配体镍配合物催化剂和吡唑配体镍配合物催化剂的研究现状,包括配体的结构、取代基效应及工艺条件等对催化活性和产物分布的影响,同时对其他类型的配体包括甲臜、膦-唑啉、噻吩及双核结构、树枝状结构催化剂的开发现状也进行了简要的介绍。研究镍配合物的精细结构对催化剂活性和α-烯烃选择性的影响,对设计具有工业化应用前景的高碳α-烯烃催化剂具有重要意义。

  3. 农杆菌T-复合物的形成与转运研究进展%Progress in The Formation and Transfer of Agrobacterium T-complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏亮; 高佃坤; 金英善

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can transfer a DNA fragment (T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host plant and integrate the T-DNA fragment into host cell nuclear genome. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer is the most widely used genetic transformation method for plant. The T-DNA is delivered in the form of single-stranded T-DNA-protein complex (T-complex) by the polar-located Agrobacterium type Ⅳ secretion system (T4SS) to the host cell. T4SS is ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation machines and still used by many plasmids as conjugation channel. Moreover, T4SS is also the secretion channel that used by many human bacterial pathogens to inject the effector proteins to host cells, thus contributing directly to the bacterial pathogenicity. Therefore, in addition to the technical application as a gene vector to create transgenic plants, Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer also provides a fascinating model system to study the intercellular transfer of macromolecules. The study on the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer arouses extensive interest and progresses rapidly in recent years. Here the recent advances in research on T-complex formation and T-complex transfer in Agrobacterium cell are reviewed.%在简要介绍农杆菌T-DNA转运全过程的基础上,结合作者近年的工作,重点对T-复合物的形成和T-复合物在农杆菌细胞内的转运机理的最新进展进行归纳和评述.农杆菌能够将其Ti质粒上的一段DNA以单链DNA-蛋白质复合物(简称T-复合物)的形式,通过其细胞两端的四型分泌系统(typeⅣ secretion system,T4SS)转运到宿主植物中,并使宿主发生遗传转化,因而农杆菌介导的T-DNA转运技术已成为应用最广泛的植物转基因技术,同时,由于转运T-复合物的T4SS也是某些质粒接合转移和许多病源微乍物分泌致病效应蛋白的通道,因此,农杆菌T-DNA转运机理的研究受到了广泛的重视和关注,使得这方面的研究进展非常迅速.

  4. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  5. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation...... of continuity and discontinuity of progressive pedagogy. The Danish context is identified as being part of an international and scientific enlightenment movement circulating in, e.g., the New Education Fellowship (NEF). The cultural constructs embedded in progressivism are clarified in the article...

  6. Transition metal complexes with thiosemicarbazide-based ligands. Part 51. Square-planar nickel(II complex with acetylacetone bis(S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazone (L. Crystal and molecular structure of [Ni(L-H]NCS and two isomorphic complexes [Ni(L-H]I·EtOH and [Ni(L-H]I·iPrOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VUKADIN M. LEOVAC

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The template reaction of a warm methanolic solution of Ni(OAc2·4H2O, S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazide hydroiodide and acetylacetone yielded the needle- like, brown, diamagnetic complex [Ni(L–H]I·MeOH, and in the presence of an excess of NH 4NCS, brown, prismatic crystals of the complex [Ni(L–H]NCS (1, both compounds involving the monoanionic form of the ligand, acetylacetone bis(S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazone, L. Slow recrystallization fromMeOH, EtOH, iPrOH and Me2CO gave the corresponding monosolvent complexes [Ni(L–H]I·solvent, of which only those involving EtOH and iPrOH were suitable for structural analysis. The crystallographic parameters of [Ni(L–H]I·EtOH (2 and [Ni(L–H]I·iPrOH (3 are very similar to each other, showing their structures are isomorphic. The crystal structures of the title compounds consist of the independent ions: NCS-, or I-, and the chemically identical cation [Ni(L–H]+, where L–H is the monoanion resulting from deprotonation of the acetylacetone moiety, a tetradentate N4 ligand forming a square-planar coordination around a Ni(II ion. It was found that the isothiosemicarbazide fragment of the ligand has an imido form. The complex cations of the compounds [Ni(L–H]NCS and [Ni(L–H]I·EtOH exhibit significant difference only in the conformation of their propyl groups.

  7. Progress in prokaryotic transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2011-10-01

    Genome-wide expression studies transformed the field of transcriptomics and made it feasible to study global gene expression in extraordinary detail. These new methods have revealed an enhanced view of the transcriptional landscape and have yielded many biological insights. It is increasingly clear that the prokaryotic transcriptome is much more complex than once thought. Recent advances in microbial transcriptome analyses are highlighted in this review. Areas of progress include the development of optimized techniques that minimize the abundance of ribosomal RNAs in RNA samples as well as the development of novel methods to create transcriptome libraries. Advances such as these have led to a new emphasis in areas such as metatranscriptomics and single cell gene expression studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Learning numerical progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  9. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  10. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  11. Personalized Progress Charts: An Effective Motivation for Reluctant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    Progress charts are an effective means of dramatizing student effort and improvement in reading and are especially important for remedial reading students, who need concrete evidence of progress. Remedial reading students often need extrinsic reward, and since reading is a complex act, progress charts lend themselves to the element of reward and…

  12. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  13. A progress report on progress files

    OpenAIRE

    East, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to facilitate personal development planning (PDP), the UK higher education sector is committed to introducing progress files. This article explores the experience of one institution in seeking to establish a system of progress files. It identifies the main practical problems in doing this, highlighting the lack of agreement on the skills that higher education students are expected to acqui...

  14. Research progress on the metal complexes of quinolone drug ligands%金属与喹诺酮类药物构筑的配合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康新平; 安哲

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the development of the quinolone drug and the structure and potential activity of the quinolone drug metal complexes. Some suggestions of the quinolone drug metal complexes in-depth in the future were presented.%本文综述了喹诺酮类药物的发展过程,以及各种金属离子与该类药物构筑形成配合物晶体结构方面的研究进展,展望了此类研究的发展趋势.

  15. On Phenomenology of Complex Scientific Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Performance evolution of a number of complex scientific and technical systems demonstrate exponential progress with time exp(+t/C) . The speed of progress C - a measure of difficulty and complexity - is analyzed for high energy elementary particle colliders, astrophysical searches for galaxies and exoplanets, protein structure determination and compared with computers and thermonuclear fusion reactors. An explanation of the characteristic exponential progress is offered.

  16. 希夫碱类金属配合物催化剂催化氧化烯烃研究进展%Progress in research of Schiff base metal complexes catalytic using for olefins catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉霞; 李汉峰; 王利杰

    2011-01-01

    The structure of metal complexes characteristic of Schiff base was analyzed and catalytic oxidation olefins was studied on current situation systematically.And it expressed the classification application of Schiff base which used in type of homogeneous catalysis oxidization and metal complexes of solid catalyst.By analyzing the defects of small molecules metal complexes catalysis-oxidization olefins,the conclusion indicated that the heterogeneous load type of metal complexes of Schiff base in category catalyst is the main development direction in present.%分析了希夫碱金属配合物的结构特点及其催化氧化烯烃的研究现状,阐述了用于均相催化氧化的希夫碱、固载型希夫碱金属配合物催化剂的分类及其在氧化烯烃领域的应用研究.通过分析希夫碱类小分子金属配合物催化氧化烯烃的缺陷,得出非均相的负载型希夫碱类金属配合物催化剂是目前主要发展方向的结论.

  17. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  18. Photoinitiated Electron Collection in Mixed-Metal Supramolecular Complexes: Development of Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production DE-FG02-05ER15751 Final Report of Progress August 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanko, James M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-10-06

    Mixed-metal supramolecular complexes containing one or two RuII light absorbing subunits coupled through polyazine bridging ligands to a RhIII reactive metal center were prepared for use as photocatalysts for the production of solar H2 fuel from H2O. The electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties upon variation of the monodentate, labile ligands coordinated to the Rh reactive metal center were investigated.

  19. Synthesis, chemistry and catalytic activity of complexes of lanthanide and actinide metals in unusual oxidation states and coordination environments. Progress report for period February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981. [none

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    Investigations are being conducted on two classes of lanthanide compounds: metal vapor co-condensation reactions with unsaturated hydrocarbons and homoleptic and heteroleptic alkyl lanthanide complexes. Three models have been considered for the interaction of erbium atoms with 3-hexyne. The structure of the heteroleptic alkynide ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/ErC triple bond CCMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ was studied. Some new organolanthanides have been prepared. (DLC)

  20. Complex Multi-Block Analysis identifies new immunologic and genetic disease progression patterns associated with the Residual β-Cell function 1 year after diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Pörksen, Sven;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Danish children 12 months after diagnosis using Latent Factor Modelling. We include three data blocks of dynamic paraclinical biomarkers, baseline clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of diabetes...... related SNPs in the analyses. This method identified a model explaining 21.6% of the total variation in the data set. The model consists of two components: (1) A pattern of declining residual β-cell function positively associated with young age, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and long duration.......0005). These results demonstrate that Latent Factor Modelling can identify associating patterns in clinical prospective data--future functional studies will be needed to clarify the relevance of these patterns....

  1. Research progress in the technologies for the treatment of wastewater containing complexed heavy metal%络合态重金属废水处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海峰

    2015-01-01

    随着工业化的推进,重金属污染问题日益严重,重金属离子易与有机络合剂形成重金属络合物,常规的水处理方法难以对其进行有效去除.讨论了络合态重金属的主要处理技术,包括化学沉淀法、氧化还原法、光催化氧化方法、光电催化氧化方法以及吸附法等,分析了各种方法的优缺点,并展望了今后技术发展的方向.%With the propulsion of industrialization,heavy metal pollution problems are getting more and more serious.Heavy metal ions are easy to combine with organic complex,forming heavy metal complex,which is difficult to be removed by conventional water treatment methods.The main treatment technologies for treating complexed heavy metal,including chemical precipitation,oxidation and reduction,photocatalytic oxidation,photoelectric catalytic oxidation,adsorption,etc.,are discussed.Their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed,and the future technical development direction is predicted.

  2. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Cheon, Bobby K; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.

  3. [Growth and nonlinearity]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savit, R.

    1993-12-31

    The research centered on the physics of growth. One particular focus was the spiral patterns seen in excitable media, such as the chemical reaction of Belousov and Zhabatinskii, and the aggregation of the slime mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum. Another area of interest is the statistical roughness of the growth front itself. For example, when growing thin films, the roughness of the surface is very important for the ultimate quality of the film. Besides its direct technological relevance, this problem is intimately connected to many fundamental problems in statistical physics. In addition work was done in the related area of statistical properties of flux-flow motion in superconductors. Substantial progress was also made on techniques and applications of the analysis of complex systems. Methods of time series analysis were generalized to the analysis of complex spatio-temporal patterns. In the examples studied most, turbulence and electroencephalograms, the spatio-temporal patterns are very complex and fleeting, and can easily be misken for random noise. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made in developing and applying methods to these systems that indicate the presence of nonrandom time-varying spatial patterns.

  4. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  5. Imidazolin-2-iminato complexes of rare earth metals with very short metal-nitrogen bonds: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Tarun K; Trambitas, Alexandra G; Bannenberg, Thomas; Hrib, Cristian G; Randoll, Sören; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2009-06-15

    The reactions of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH, 1-H) with trimethylsilylmethyl lithium (LiCH(2)SiMe(3)) and anhydrous rare earth metal trichlorides MCl(3) afforded the imidazolin-2-iminato complexes [(1)MCl(2)(THF)(3)] (2a, M = Sc; 2b, M = Y; 2c, M = Lu) and [(1)GdCl(2)(THF)(2)] x [LiCl(THF)(2)] (2d). Treatment of complexes 2 with dipotassium cyclooctatetradienide, K(2)(C(8)H(8)) resulted in the formation of two- or three-legged piano-stool complexes of the type [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))M(1)(THF)(n)] (3a, M = Sc, n = 1; 3b, M = Y, n = 2; 3c, M = Lu, n = 2; 3d, M = Gd, n = 2). X-ray diffraction analyses of all eight complexes 2 and 3 revealed the presence of very short metal-nitrogen bonds, which are among the shortest ever observed for these elements. [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Sc(1)(THF)] (3a) reacted with 2,6-dimethylphenyl isothiocyanate (Xy-NCS) to form the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition product 4, which contains a thioureato-N,N' moiety. The related COT-titanium complex [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))TiCl(1)] (6) could be obtained from [(1)TiCl(3)] (5) by reaction with K(2)(C(8)H(8)) and was structurally characterized. As a theoretical analysis of the nature of the metal-nitrogen bond, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for complexes 3a and 6 and also for the model complexes [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Sc(NIm(Me))] (7), [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Ti(NIm(Me))](+) (8), and [(eta(8)-C(8)H(8))Ti(NXy)] (9), revealing a marked similarity of the bonding in imidazolin-2-iminato and conventional imido metal complexes.

  6. Complex Biological Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: I. The essential roles of modifications in the c-Myc, TP53/p53, p27 and hTERT modules in Cancer Initiation and Progression

    CERN Document Server

    Prisecaru, V I

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the integration of results from a modular, complex biological systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics in cell cycling network transformations that are leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments that form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as networks. One such network module contains the cell cyclins whose functions are essential to cell cycling and division. Cyclins are proteins that also link to several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, such as: c-Myc, p27, the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product-- the p53 protein with key roles in controlling DNA repair, inducing apoptosis and activating p21 (which can depress cell cyclins if activated), mdm2(with its biosynthesis activated by p53 and also, in its turn, inhibiting p53), p21, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen(T- antigen),Rb,Bax, Ba...

  7. Complex Multi-Block Analysis identifies new immunologic and genetic disease progression patterns associated with the Residual β-Cell function 1 year after diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Pörksen, Sven;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Danish children 12 months after diagnosis using Latent Factor Modelling. We include three data blocks of dynamic paraclinical biomarkers, baseline clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of diabetes...... related SNPs in the analyses. This method identified a model explaining 21.6% of the total variation in the data set. The model consists of two components: (1) A pattern of declining residual β-cell function positively associated with young age, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and long duration...... of disease symptoms (P = 0.0004), and with risk alleles of WFS1, CDKN2A/2B and RNLS (P = 0.006). (2) A second pattern of high ZnT8 autoantibody levels and low postprandial glucagon levels associated with risk alleles of IFIH1, TCF2, TAF5L, IL2RA and PTPN2 and protective alleles of ERBB3 gene (P = 0...

  8. Complex multi-block analysis identifies new immunologic and genetic disease progression patterns associated with the residual β-cell function 1 year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Louise Max Andersen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to explore the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D in Danish children 12 months after diagnosis using Latent Factor Modelling. We include three data blocks of dynamic paraclinical biomarkers, baseline clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of diabetes related SNPs in the analyses. This method identified a model explaining 21.6% of the total variation in the data set. The model consists of two components: (1 A pattern of declining residual β-cell function positively associated with young age, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and long duration of disease symptoms (P = 0.0004, and with risk alleles of WFS1, CDKN2A/2B and RNLS (P = 0.006. (2 A second pattern of high ZnT8 autoantibody levels and low postprandial glucagon levels associated with risk alleles of IFIH1, TCF2, TAF5L, IL2RA and PTPN2 and protective alleles of ERBB3 gene (P = 0.0005. These results demonstrate that Latent Factor Modelling can identify associating patterns in clinical prospective data--future functional studies will be needed to clarify the relevance of these patterns.

  9. Impact of energy-related pollutants on chromosome structure. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980. IQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; COMPUTER CODES; DICHROISM; EQUIPMENT INTERFACES; MICROPROCESSORS; SPECTROPHOTOMETERS; ; CARBON 13; COMPLEXES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Methods for rapidly analyzing methylated and ethylated nucleosides and bases by high pressure liquid chromatography were investigated. Deoxyribonucleotides were alkylated with alkyl iodides and dialkyl sulfates. Several unreported products of the reactions of methyl and ethyl iodide in dimethylsulfoxide were found and are being characterized. The Cary 219 UV-Vis spectrophotometer was interfaced to a microcomputer and several utility programs were written. Preliminary absorption and circular dichroism studies of the binding of ethidium to DNA and nucleosome cores showed binding to cores to be quite different from binding to DNA. Free radical and additional reactions of bisulfite with DNA in chromatin were examined. Free radical attack was minimal. Some conversion of cytosine to uracil was noted, but protein crosslinking to DNA was not detected. The first valid natural abundance /sup 13/C nmr spectra of double-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA complexed with ethidium were obtained. These spectra suggested that DNA undergoes considerable internal motion. The data show that 13-C nmr studies of the conformational and motional properties of native DNA and of complexes of native DNA with small molecules are practical and promising. Studies of subnucleosomes derived from nucleosomes were completed. Based on these studies, a model of the linear arrangement of histone C-terminal and N-terminal chain regions along nucleosome DNA was proposed. The use of staphylococcal protease to probe histone conformations in nucleosomes was explored. Preliminary data indicate that H3 is much more susceptible to protease than other core histones, and is cleaved in its hydrophobic domain. A procedure for fractionating chromatin was alos developed. (ERB)

  10. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  11. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre......OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients...

  12. Research Progress of Precision Casting of Large Complex Thin-walled Titanium Alloy%大型复杂钛合金薄壁件精铸成形技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞斌

    2015-01-01

    Large complex thin-walled titanium alloy precision casting is the most advanced technologies in the world of military and civil aviation field.This paper introduces its process flow, technical features and the domestic and international research frontier achievements. Combined with the most popular international computer numerical simulation and 3D print and other new technology, summarizes the research trend and development direction of this technology in China: theory research strengthen of the investment casting process, research of titanium alloy design and exploration of large thin wall complex higher performance of casting titanium alloy, construction of model library, development of automatic coating machine slurry and sanding process, better quality management and control of the whole process, more emphasis on application of 3D printing technology in the fields of the manufacture and investment casting process of titanium alloy.%大型复杂薄壁钛合金精密铸造技术是当今世界军用与民用航空领域的尖端技术。介绍了熔模精密铸造技术的工艺流程、技术特点以及国内外研究现状。结合国际最流行的计算机数值模拟以及3D打印等新型技术,指出我国该项技术的研究趋势与发展方向是:①加强熔模铸造工艺的理论研究;②深化钛合金设计研究,探索性能更高的适合于大型复杂薄壁件铸造成形的钛合金;③深入研究纯净化技术,以及夹杂和铸造缺陷与性能之间的定量关系;④建立型壳模型库;⑤研发机器自动涂浸浆料与撒砂工艺;⑥加强全过程的质量管理与控制;⑦高度关注3D打印技术在钛合金制造领域的发展及其在钛合金熔模铸造领域的应用。

  13. Application Progress of MSC-stents Complex in Bone Repair%间充质干细胞-支架复合体运用于骨修复的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘印

    2013-01-01

    Bone defect is a common complication after fracture, and how to effectively repair it is the hot topic in the current medical study. The clinical application of bone tissue engineering technology is gradually rising,and MSC-stents complex can effectively combine their advantages,which is beneficial to the treatment of bone defect. Here is to summarize the MSC-stents requirements, such as cell number, microenvironment simulation and related growth factor function etc. ,to provide a reference basis for further studies.%骨缺损是骨折后的常见并发症,如何有效地进行骨修复是当前医学研究的热点.骨组织工程技术在临床上应用逐渐兴起,间充质干细胞(MSC)-支架复合体可有效结合干细胞与支架的骨修复优势,利于骨缺损的治疗.该文总结分析有关MSC-支架复合体条件需求,如细胞数量,微环境模拟,相关生长因子作用等,为今后的深入研究提供参考.

  14. Progress of PAMAM and Its Complexes as Drug/Gene Carrier%树枝状大分子PAMAM及其复合物在药物/基因载体方面的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶垚平; 朱宏

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了PAMAM的两种主要载药机制(物理包埋作用、静电和共价作用)和PAMAM及其复合物对难溶性药物的增溶和缓控释等方面的研究进展,简要介绍了其在基因载体方面的研究进展,最后结合自身的研究情况展望了其未来的发展趋势.%Two main drug-loading mechanism of PAMAM, including physical embedding interaction, electrostatic interaction and covalent interaction, are introduced. And the application of development in the solubility and sustained/controlled release about PAMAM and its complexes to poorly soluble drug are also mainly described. And then its application of development in gene carrier are also briefly introduced. At last, according to ourselves reseach, its development tendency is prospected.

  15. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  16. Progression i musikundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Annelise

    Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning......Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning...

  17. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  18. Mitochondrial network complexity and pathological decrease in complex I activity are tightly correlated in isolated human complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.H.; Visch, H.J.; Verkaart, S.A.J.; Heuvel, L.W. van den; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest multisubunit assembly of the oxidative phosphorylation system, and its malfunction is associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes ranging from highly progressive, often early lethal, encephalopathies to neurodegenerative disorders in

  19. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  1. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  2. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  3. Progress in Seawater Desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists from the CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry have made significant progress in developing advanced expertise of seawater desalination. Their work was recently appraised and confirmed by a panel of experts in northeast China's Jilin Province.

  4. Progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Sande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg Syndrome, is an uncommon degenerative and poorly understood condition. It is characterized by a slow and progressive but self-limited atrophy affecting one side of the face. The incidence and the cause of this alteration are unknown. A cerebral disturbance of fat metabolism has been proposed as a primary cause. Possible factors that are involved in the pathogenesis include trauma, viral infections, heredity, endocrine disturbances and auto-immunity. The most common complications that appear in association to this disorder are: trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresthesia, severe headache and epilepsy. Characteristically, the atrophy progresses slowly for several years and, it becomes stable. The objective of this work is, through the presentation of a clinical case, to accomplish a literature review concerning general characteristics, etiology, physiopathology and treatment of progressive hemifacial atrophy.

  5. Reporting Continuous Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Richard M.; Fistler, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Described is the approach to evaluating student progress in the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School which is based upon observable behaviors in all subject areas from kindergarten through grade 12. (MC)

  6. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physicians’ progress notes, an artifact that, in spite of its obvious importance in the coordination of cooperative work in clinical settings, has not been subjected to systematic study under CSCW auspices. While several studies have addressed the role of the medical record...... in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  7. Supramolecular chemistry of pyrazolyl complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the progress in the supramolecular chemistry of the pyrazolyl-based metal complexes. The text is written under the structural point of view, emphasizing the role of the covalent and non-covalent interactions in the rational construction of super and supramolecules.

  8. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  9. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz

  10. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  11. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  12. Progressive geometric algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander P.A. Alewijnse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms for two geometric problems: computing the convex hull of a planar point set, and finding popular places in a set of trajectories.

  13. Cyclometallated and cyclometalsilylated complexes of transition elements as photoredox sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on research is reported, divided into the following 2 areas: metal-silicon chelated complexes, and photoproperties of ortho- metalated complexes. Ir, Rh, and Ru chelates with silylquinolines, bpy, and ppy are covered.

  14. IDEOLOGY AND PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Constantin Mihăilescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The progress theme is very important for the ideologies of the Enlightenment political modernity. Moreover, it had received, with the help of the Enlightenment historicism and rationalism, a mythological dimension. Having in view the historical experience that we have today, it is necessary to give up on progress in thismillenarist meaning. But we are observing – as it also results from the political programs presented in the article – that some of the parties affiliated to the forementioned ideologies are approaching in an inconsistent manner the entire theme of the progress. The recession of this theme is part of a larger cultural context, specific for late modernity, when the ideologies seem to be exhausted. But ideologies survive and this fact certifies their power. They continue to impose different reference criteria on politics, and one of the most significant must remainthe progress. But there is also a more modest way to understand progress. Exactly this kind of approach is presented in this article, an approach which is best understood and commented by the help of Richard Rorty's works. Without having the progress as a desideratum, the negative use of power becomes easier. At the same time, the comparative evaluation of the economic, social or political initiatives,and also the social imperatives as solidarity, social cohesion, or the diminishing of the sufferings become more difficult to realize and pursue.

  15. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  17. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  18. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  19. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yellow power was collected as polydatin-lecithin complex. ... performed on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system. The injection volume .... rabbits. Biomed. Pharmacother 2009; 63: 457-462. 4. Liu B, Du J, Zeng J, Chen C, Niu S. Characterization and.

  20. Progressive Dyslexia: Evidence from Hungarian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Aydelott, Jennifer; Genethliou, Marios; Jacobs, Helen; Weekes, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia who was premorbidly literate in two alphabetic scripts, Hungarian (L1) and English (L2). Testing was performed over a two-year period to assess the impact of progressive illness on oral reading and repetition of single words. Results showed significant decline in oral reading in both languages, and an effect of language status in favour of oral reading in L1. Phonological complexity was a significant predictor of oral reading decline in both languages. Of interest, we observed an effect of language status on task performance whereby repetition was better in L2 than L1 but oral reading was better in L1 than L2. We conclude that language status has an effect on repetition and oral reading abilities for bilingual speakers with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia. PMID:22713383

  1. Three Dimensional Grid Generation for Complex Configurations - Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    component. For example, a locally embedded C grid around a w.,, - rntinued outboard of the tip where it is constructed around an imaginary extension of...structure in the field topology and the inserts show the locally embedded C grids around the wing and canard. Figure 9 illustrates the effect of grid point...nature of the grid is evident with locally embedded C grids around the wing and canard and a polar grid around the body. The grid point distribution in

  2. Recent progress in designing moving meshes for complex turbulent flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liersch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This is concerned with an automated adaptive mesh design approach for Large Eddy Simulation (LES of turbulent flows. Based on a dynamic moving mesh partial differential equation (MMPDE, a fixed number of grid points is redistributed according to statistical quantities of interest (QoI selected to capture certain mean flow properties. Physically motivated LES-specific QoI, as the time-averaged gradient of streamwise velocity and the production rate, as well as more general QoI derived from the dual weighted residual method (DWRM for time-averaged statistics are investigated for a flow over periodic hills with Re=10595$Re=10\\,595$. Special emphasis is put on optimizing the grid adjustment phase. It is mainly determined by defining the length of the time interval for computing new time-averaged QoI, the number of time steps to solve the MMPDE, and the overall number of grid adjustment steps. The modifications proposed are nearly auto-adaptive with respect to the chosen QoI and lead to a reduction of the CPU time by more than one order of magnitude compared to the standard approach used so far. On the other hand, the DWRM not only provides suitable QoI to steer the grid movement, but also can be understood as a rigorous error analysis to assess the quality of numerical and subgrid modelling contributions of an LES. The numerical results compared to a highly resolved LES reference solution show the high potential of moving mesh methods to efficiently improve the resolution of turbulent flow features.

  3. Human Navigational Performance in a Complex Network with Progressive Disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, Amitash; Iyengar, Sudarshan; Sekhar, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    The current paper is an investigation towards understanding the navigational performance of humans on a network when the "landmark" nodes are blocked. We observe that humans learn to cope up, despite the continued introduction of blockages in the network. The experiment proposed involves the task of navigating on a word network based on a puzzle called the wordmorph. We introduce blockages in the network and report an incremental improvement in performance with respect to time. We explain this phenomenon by analyzing the evolution of the knowledge in the human participants of the underlying network as more and more landmarks are removed. We hypothesize that humans learn the bare essentials to navigate unless we introduce blockages in the network which would whence enforce upon them the need to explore newer ways of navigating. We draw a parallel to human problem solving and postulate that obstacles are catalysts for humans to innovate techniques to solve a restricted variant of a familiar problem.

  4. Progression of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure. The decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is highly variable, ranging from 2 to 20, with a median of 12 mL/min/year. The risk factors of losing filtration power (progression promoters) have not been clearly identified...... mm Hg and 9.2%, respectively) revealed a rate of decline in GFR of only 1.5 mL/min/year in the lowest stratum compared with 6.1 mL/min/year in the highest stratum (P past decades, predominantly because of effective...... antihypertensive treatment. Genuine normotensive patients have a slow progression of nephropathy. Several modifiable variables have been identified as progression promoters....

  5. Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients had symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities; The lesions in all of them had appeared during infancy, and after a brief period of progression, had remained static, All of them had no family history of similar skin lesions. They responded well to topical applications of 6% salicylic acid in 50% propylene glycol. Unusual features in these cases of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma were the sparing of palms and soles, involvement of the trunk and absence of erythema.

  6. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  7. Complex plant traits : time for polygenic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, mapping of genes for complex traits is an area of active theoretical research at the interface of genetics and statistics. Much progress has been made over the past few years in handling statistically complex but realistic multilocus models. Here, I describe the state of the art and discu

  8. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  9. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  10. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  11. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  12. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  13. Pure progressive aphemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, L; Benoit, N.; Van Eeckhout, P; Ducarne, B; Brunet, P.

    1993-01-01

    Aphemia, also called anarthria or severe apraxia of speech, is a rare disorder of speech production usually resulting from vascular lesions affecting the inferior premotor cortex of the left hemisphere. A patient presenting with aphemia as the sole manifestation of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is reported.

  14. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  15. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  16. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  17. Research progress of RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    the double stranded RNA into cell could cause homologous gene silencing, a phenomenon called RNA interference (RNA interference, RNAi). Research progress of RNA interference characteristics, in this paper, the mechanism of RNA interference technology, RNA interference and existing problems are summarized.

  18. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  19. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  20. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  1. Modeling cancer progression via pathway dependencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J Edelman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous disease often requiring a complexity of alterations to drive a normal cell to a malignancy and ultimately to a metastatic state. Certain genetic perturbations have been implicated for initiation and progression. However, to a great extent, underlying mechanisms often remain elusive. These genetic perturbations are most likely reflected by the altered expression of sets of genes or pathways, rather than individual genes, thus creating a need for models of deregulation of pathways to help provide an understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We introduce an integrative hierarchical analysis of tumor progression that discovers which a priori defined pathways are relevant either throughout or in particular steps of progression. Pathway interaction networks are inferred for these relevant pathways over the steps in progression. This is followed by the refinement of the relevant pathways to those genes most differentially expressed in particular disease stages. The final analysis infers a gene interaction network for these refined pathways. We apply this approach to model progression in prostate cancer and melanoma, resulting in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Our analysis supports previous findings for the deregulation of several pathways involved in cell cycle control and proliferation in both cancer types. A novel finding of our analysis is a connection between ErbB4 and primary prostate cancer.

  2. The Progress in Improving the Solar Cell Performance of Anti-reflection Film Doped with Rare-earth Eu Complexes%稀土铕配合物减反射层对提高太阳能电池效率的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 梁妍; 赵旭

    2015-01-01

    The main limited factors of solar photoelectric conversion efficiency is its spectral sensitive area is narrow, most of the sunlight irradiation on the battery has failed to effectively converted into electricity. Rare-earth complexes doped into the anti-reflection film of solar cells,in order to improve the efficiency,is a research hotspot in the field of solar energy in recent years.Rare earth Eu3+ complexes not only make part of the ultraviolet and visible light to convert to a wavelength which is more suitable for solar cell absorption and utilization of 612 nm red band, also can effectively shield against ultraviolet light on solar cell.This paper mainly introduces the turn light mechanism of rare earth Eu3+and its complexes, and its research progress in solar cells decreased reflector.%限制太阳能电池光电转换效率的主要因素是其光谱敏感区域比较狭窄,照射在电池上的大部分太阳光没能有效地转换成电能.将稀土铕配合物掺杂入太阳能电池减反射层中以此来提高太阳能电池效率是近年来太阳能领域的研究热点.稀土铕配合物不仅使部分紫外及可见光转换为波长更适合太阳能电池吸收利用的612nm红光波段,还能有效屏蔽对太阳能电池不利的紫外光,如能将其合理有效地在太阳能电池中加以利用,势必会对太阳能电池的光电转换效率产生重要影响.本文主要介绍稀土铕元素及其配合物的转光机理和其在太阳能电池减反射层中的研究进展.

  3. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.     Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  4. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.  Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  5. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  6. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  7. Internationalisering og progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I Danmark har vi traditionelt tænkt universiteternes femårige kandidatuddannelser som sammenhængende forløb, hvor den studerende gradvist opbygger en stadig mere specialiseret viden inden for et givet fagområde. Denne idé om progression er i de senere år blevet udfordret fra flere sider. Især er progressionsidéen blevet diskuteret i forhold til tværfaglige uddannelsesforløb, men også de mange internationale uddannelser, der etableres, udfordrer den måde, hvorpå vi traditionelt har forstået progression i det danske uddannelsessystem. På internationale kandidatuddannelser finder vi nemlig typisk både studerende, for hvem kandidatuddannelsen er en forlængelse af en grunduddannelse, og studerende, der har taget deres grunduddannelse et andet sted og muligvis endda i et andet fag. I denne artikel undersøger vi, hvordan undervisere på kandidatuddannelser som både er tværfaglige og internationale forholder sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet.University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The

  8. Catalytic mechanism of α-phosphate attack in dUTPase is revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots of distinct intermediates, 31P-NMR spectroscopy and reaction path modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, Orsolya; Németh, Veronika; Bodor, Andrea; Perczel, András; Rosta, Edina; Kele, Zoltán; Zagyva, Imre; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince I; Wilmanns, Matthias; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2013-12-01

    Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of nucleoside phosphate compounds play a key role in various biological pathways, like signal transduction, DNA synthesis and metabolism. Although these processes have been studied extensively, numerous key issues regarding the chemical pathway and atomic movements remain open for many enzymatic reactions. Here, using the Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus dUTPase, we study the dUTPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of dUTP, an incorrect DNA building block, to elaborate the mechanistic details at high resolution. Combining mass spectrometry analysis of the dUTPase-catalyzed reaction carried out in and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation, we show that the nucleophilic attack occurs at the α-phosphate site. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy ((31)P-NMR) analysis confirms the site of attack and shows the capability of dUTPase to cleave the dUTP analogue α,β-imido-dUTP, containing the imido linkage usually regarded to be non-hydrolyzable. We present numerous X-ray crystal structures of distinct dUTPase and nucleoside phosphate complexes, which report on the progress of the chemical reaction along the reaction coordinate. The presently used combination of diverse structural methods reveals details of the nucleophilic attack and identifies a novel enzyme-product complex structure.

  9. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  10. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  11. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  12. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  13. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi......-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The article summarizes their opinions and distinguishes In this article we explore how Danish university professors teaching at interdisciplinary international master programs at Danish...

  14. Recent Progress in PYTHIA

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    PYTHIA is a general-purpose event generator for multiparticle production in high-energy physics. After a general introduction and program news survey, some areas of recent physics progress are considered: the matching to matrix elements, especially for W/Z production; charm and bottom hadronization; multiple interactions; and interconnection effects. The report concludes with some words on the future, specifically the ongoing transition to C++.

  15. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with

  16. CNGS Progress Report 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Elsener, K; Gaillard, H; López-Hernandez, L A; Meddahi, M; Rangod, Stephane; Roesler, S; Spinks, Alan; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The CNGS project is progressing according to schedule, with the aim to be ready for beam in spring 2006. In this paper, the project status and recent changes to the design of systems and components are summarized. The actions taken in response to the recommendations of the 2003 CNGS Review are described. This report has been drafted in view of the third CNGS Review, held in June 2004.

  17. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  18. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  19. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  20. Efficient and Selective Formation of Macrocyclic Disubstituted Z Alkenes by Ring-Closing Metathesis (RCM) Reactions Catalyzed by Mo- or W-Based Monoaryloxide Pyrrolide (MAP) Complexes. Applications to Total Syntheses of Epilachnene, Yuzu Lactone, Ambrettolide, Epothilone C and Nakadomarin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Yu, Miao; Kyle, Andrew F.; Jakubec, Jakubec; Dixon, Darren J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    The first broadly applicable set of protocols for efficient and highly Z-selective formation of macrocyclic disubstituted alkenes through catalytic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) is described. Cyclizations are performed in the presence of 1.2–7.5 mol % of a Mo- or W-based mono-aryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complex at 22 °C and typically proceed to complete conversion within two hours. The utility of the catalytic strategy is demonstrated by stereoselective synthesis of representative macrocyclic alkenes, including natural products yuzu lactone (13-membered ring: 73% Z) epilachnene (15-membered ring: 91% Z), ambrettolide (17-membered ring: 91% Z), an advanced precursor to epothilones C and A (16-membered ring: up to 97% Z) and nakadomarin A (polycyclic 15-membered ring: up to 97% Z). We demonstrate the complementary nature of the Mo-based catalysts, which deliver high activity but can be more prone to causing post-RCM stereoisomerization, versus W-based variants, which furnish lower activity but are less inclined towards causing loss of kinetic Z selectivity; a number of catalytic Z-selective cases are provided to elucidate which catalyst class is best suited for which substrate and particular type of alkene RCM process. Mechanistic models that rationalize the origin and the trends in Z selectivity as a function of alterations in the catalyst structure (i.e., Mo vs W and different imido and aryloxide or alkoxide ligands) are provided; we show that reaction time can be critical in retaining the Z selectivity attained not only with MAP complexes but with the original Mo-based bis-alkoxides as well. The W-based catalysts are sufficiently stable to be manipulated in air even with humidity levels of up to 80%; the catalytic Z-selective cyclizations can be performed on gram scale with complex molecule starting materials. PMID:23345004

  1. Genetic analysis of frontotemporal dementia and progressive supra nuclear palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, R.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is an effective method for mapping genetic variants underlying common and complex diseases. This thesis describes the investigation of the disorders, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). FTD affects the frontal/temporal lobes and presents behavioural changes (bvFTD), cognitive decline or language dysfunction (primary progressive aphasia [PPA]), whilst PSP affects predominantly the brain stem resulting in loss of balance, ...

  2. Metabolomic Biomarkers in the Progression to Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is the snapshot of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological materials and has potential in reflecting genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The progression to seroconversion to development of type 1...... at seroconversion, and triglycerides are increased at seroconversion and associated to microbiome diversity, indicating an association between the metabolome and microbiome in type 1 diabetes progression....

  3. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  4. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  5. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...... are degraded via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway where an elaborate enzyme system recognises the protein substrates and marks them for destruction by attachment of a chain of ubiquitin. The substrates are then bound to 26S proteasomes, unfolded, and threaded into the cylindrical central part of the 26S...... the substrates or release ubiquitin and glycans from them during degradation, stabilise proteasomes, regulate their cellular localisation, and modify their activity. It therefore appears that proteasomes are centres in macromolecular clusters, which degrade cell proteins in a tightly regulated manner....

  6. Primary progressive aphasia: clinicopathological correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a disorder of declining language that is a frequent presentation of neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Three variants of PPA are recognized: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic progressive aphasia. In an era of etiology-specific treatments for neurodegenerative conditions, determining the histopathological basis of PPA is crucial. Clinicopathological correlations in PPA emphasize the contributo...

  7. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei B. Utkin

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal eurvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  8. MEIC Design Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  9. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  10. PROGRESS IN HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This is an overview of progresses in heliospheric physics made in China in the period of June, 2000 to May, 2002. The report is focused on theoretical studies,modelling and observational analysis of interplanetary physical phenomena, and consists of five sections: the acceleration and heating of the solar wind, corona structures, coronal mass ejections, magnetic reconnection phenomena, and in terplanetary transient phenomena. The main achievements made recently by Chinese scientists in related areas are simply listed in corresponding sections without any priority, only certain editorial consideration.

  11. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  12. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  13. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  14. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  15. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. Justifying departures from progressivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Steensig, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    -going activity. Some of the actions that altså prefaces can also be prefaced by phrases like ‘you know’ or ‘I mean’, which seem to do at least some of the work that altså does, but altså is used more frequently and across a wider range of actions. In our discussion, we raise the possibility that the usefulness......This chapter investigates the use of the Danish particle altså in turn-initial position. Turn-initial altså can be employed for prefacing a wide range of actions, including self- and other-initiated repair, questions, second stories and answers to both yes/no and wh-questions. We show that across...... these actions, participants in interaction produce altså to indicate (1) that the action they will produce departs from progressivity, (2) that it will expand on something prior, (3) that the departure is, therefore, justified, and (4) that it will contribute to reinstalling the progression of the larger on...

  18. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  19. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.

  20. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.  ……

  1. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  2. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Downey, Laura E.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Tyndall, Marina H.; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the

  3. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hailstone, Julia C; Tyndall, Marina H; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-26

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure.

  5. Progress in Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  6. Progress in nanophotonics 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the recent progress in the field of nanophotonics. It contains review-like chapters focusing on various but mutually related topics in nanophotonics written by the world’s leading scientists. Following the elaboration of the idea of nanophotonics, much theoretical and experimental work has been carried out, and several novel photonic devices, high-resolution fabrication, highly efficient energy conversion, and novel information processing have been developed in these years. Novel theoretical models describing the nanometric light-matter interaction, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for photon breeding processes and near-field‐assisted chemical reactions as well as light‐matter interaction are also explained in this book. It describes dressed photon technology and its applications, including implementation of nanophotonic devices and systems, fabrication methods and performance characteristics of ultrathin, ultraflexible organic light‐emitting diodes, organic solar cells ...

  7. BRIF and CARIF progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is currently constructing Beijing rare ion beam facility (BRIF) and is proposing China advanced rare ion beam facility (CARIF). This paper is aiming at introducing the progress of BRIF project and the con ceptual design CARIF. The ISOL type facility BRIF under construction is composed of a 100 MeV 300 ?A proton cyclotron, an ISOL with mass resolution of 20000, and a super-conducting LINAC of 2 MeV/q, and will be commissioned in 2013. CARIF facility proposed is planned to use both ISOL and PF techniques. It is based on a China advanced research reactor CARR that was critical, with ISOL separation of fission fragment, post acceleration to 150 MeV/u, and fragmentation of neu tron-rich fission fragment beam like 132Sn. Such unique combination will allow CARIF to deliver beam intensity better than the best world facilities by more than one order of magnitude.

  8. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  9. Progressive Band Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  10. Progress in nanophotonics 2

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and advanced systems. It begins with a review of near-field excitation dynamics in molecules. Further topics include: wavelength up-converting a phonon-assisted excitation process with degenerate beams and non-degenerate beams in dye grains, a fabrication method of semiconductor quantum dots including self-assembly of InAs quantum dots based on the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy for studying novel excitonic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The striking features of ecxitons in the carbon nanotube, multiple-exciton states, and microfluidic and extended-nano fluidic techniques. These topics are reviewed by nine leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  11. Recent progress in surface science v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Riddiford, A C

    1964-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 2 is a 10-chapter text that covers the significant advances in some aspects of surface science, including in catalysis, genetic control of cell surface, and cell membrane. The opening chapter deals with the major factors affecting adsorption at the gas-solid interface. The subsequent chapters explore the advances in understanding of heterogeneous catalysis in terms of fundamental surface processes, as well as the concept of dynamic contact angles. These topics are followed by discussions on emulsions, flotation, and the extraordinary complexity of cel

  12. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...... score. We applied the proposed algorithm on 27 patients with severe emphysema with CT scans acquired five time points, at baseline, after 3, after 12, after 21 and after 24 or 30 months. The results showed consistent emphysema progression with time and the overall progression score correlates...

  13. [Idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittel, C

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is causing a narrowing of the central airway at the laryngotracheal junction. Etiology is remaining unclear at large. There is a marked preponderance for women in the fertile age, an association to estrogene or progesterone metabolism remains doubtful. Suggested treatment varies from repeated endoscopic interventions to primary open resection. Therapy selection in this heterogeneous condition should be based on the individual patient situation as well as surgeon's expertise. This complex entity is prone to complications and should preferably be managed in a referral center.

  14. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baussan Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP. Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3, impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation

  15. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  16. Using Learning Progressions to Monitor Progress across Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karin K.

    2010-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs)--descriptive continuums of how students develop and demonstrate more sophisticated understanding over time--have become an increasingly important tool in today's science classrooms. Here the author discusses some of the research behind learning progressions and presents The Science Inquiry Profile for PreK-4. This is a…

  17. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  18. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellyn, W. [ed.] [Nesbit (William) and Associates, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Jennings, C. [ed.] [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  19. Quarterly Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  20. 1993 PVUSA progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in module technology. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, review the status and performance of all PV installations during 1993, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year. The PVUSA project has five objectives designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV, and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side-by-side at a single location; to assess PV system operation and maintenance (O and M) in a utility setting; to compare PV technologies in diverse geographic areas; to provide US utilities with hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and to document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  1. IPY Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2008-12-01

    We can summarize the IPY goals as: (a) make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding; (b) leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure; (c) excite a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, and (d) elicit exceptional interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide. This talk reports on the progress and prospects in each of those areas from an overall international view; separate talks will describe details of future researcher and the IPY outreach efforts. To achieve major advances in knowledge, IPY has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of scientists, many more than expected, often from 'non- polar' nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding remains a substantial challenge. Many national and international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationally- coordinated IPY events. A new Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future of polar research. These activities and networks may, with time and with continued international coordination, achieve an exceptional level of interest and participation. In all areas, much work remains.

  2. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  3. Nuclear waste management quarterly progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    Progress is reported in sections on decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring methods for effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste fixation studies, krypton solidification, /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation, waste management system studies, waste isolation assessment, stored waste migration monitoring, properties of fission product organic complexes, and decontamination of metals. (JRD)

  4. Research progress in synthesis and catalysis of polyoxometalates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun; HU Changwen; LIANG Hong

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthetic chemistry and catalysis of polyoxometalates (POMs) is reviewed. The novel POMs and their derivatives emerging in nearly three years (2002-2004) are introduced, including POMs with novel structure, POMs-organic hybrid compounds and host-guest complexes. Our review is focused on the elaboration of POMs' supramolecular chemistry.

  5. [Progress in research on the biological reason of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Feng, Tie-jian

    2012-04-01

    Male homosexuality is a complex phenomenon which is universal and with unknown causes. Researchers believe that both biological and environmental factors have played a role in its pathogenesis. Researches focusing on genetics, neurobiology, development and endocrinology have made certain progress. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field.

  6. Thematic Progression and Textual Coherence in Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云鹤

    2014-01-01

    Thematic progression can affect the flow of information and directly affect the discourse coherence. This paper analyzes thematic progression patterns of a speech about“people and nature” in the “CCTV Cup”English Speaking Contest and finds that there are three progression patterns in this text, which are parallel progression, continuous progression, and crossing progression.

  7. Waste management fiscal year 1998 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project`s production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks.

  8. Summary of Recent Progress in Understanding HVCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wakker, B P; Gibson, B K; Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Gibson, Brad K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of high-velocity clouds has progressed much since the appearance of the review article by Wakker & van Woerden (1997), less than two years ago. Much of this progress is described in these workshop proceedings. Here we update the review article, summarizing the topics discussed at the workshop as well as covering the recent literature. We follow the outline of the review, describing HI properties in Sect. 2 and 3, interactions between HVCs and other gas in Sect. 4, observations at wavelengths other than 21-cm in Sects. 5 and 6, absorption-line studies of metallicities and distances in Sects. 7 and 8, extra-galactic HVCs in Sect. 9, the Magellanic Stream in Sect. 10, and a discussion of HVC origins in Sect. 11. Key contributions of the past two years include (a) the first determination of a distance bracket for an HVC: d=4-10 kpc for Complex A (van Woerden et al. 1999); (b) the first determinations of a true metallicity: 1/4 solar for HVC 287+22+240 (Lu et al. 1998), and 1/10 solar Complex~C (Wakk...

  9. Status of neutron complex of INR RAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, M.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Kravchuk, L.V.; Matveev, V.A.; Perekrestenko, A.D.; Sidorkin, S.F. [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stavissky, Y.Y.

    2001-03-01

    The neutron complex of INR RAS consists of two sources of neutrons, beam stop, lead slowing down spectrometer and solid state spectrometers. The description of objects and their condition, the program of planned researches, co-operation with other institutes of the Moscow Region, progress reached for last two years are introduced in the article. (author)

  10. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess variables

  11. 1997 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L.; Ghezzi, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Nuclear fusion division

    1997-12-31

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  12. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hoffman, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United S

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  13. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.E.; Bai, R.Y.; Chen, X.M.; Liu, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meier, W.R. [Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center_dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  14. 2004 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  15. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  16. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  17. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa...

  18. Construction Progress of CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in 2011 with respect to CYCIAE-100, a key task for the BRIF project. All the work has been fully accomplished in line with the schedule and goals set for the year. 1 General progress for CYCIAE-100

  19. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart.

  20. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.

  1. Complex Phenomena in Nanoscale Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale physics has become one of the rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics because of its direct relevance to newly emerging area, nanotechnologies. Nanoscale devices and quantum functional materials are usually constructed based on the results of fundamental studies on nanoscale physics. Therefore studying physical phenomena in nanosized systems is of importance for progressive development of nanotechnologies. In this context study of complex phenomena in such systems and using them for controlling purposes is of great practical importance. Namely, such studies are brought together in this book, which contains 27 papers on various aspects of nanoscale physics and nonlinear dynamics.

  2. Complex DNA structures and structures of DNA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazin, W.J.; Carlstroem, G.; Shiow-Meei Chen; Miick, S.; Gomez-Paloma, L.; Smith, J.; Rydzewski, J. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Complex DNA structures (for example, triplexes, quadruplexes, junctions) and DNA-ligand complexes are more difficult to study by NMR than standard DNA duplexes are because they have high molecular weights, show nonstandard or distorted local conformations, and exhibit large resonance linewidths and severe {sup 1}H spectral overlap. These systems also tend to have limited solubility and may require specialized solution conditions to maintain favorable spectral characteristics, which adds to the spectroscopic difficulties. Furthermore, with more atoms in the system, both assignment and structure calculation become more challenging. In this article, we focus on demonstrating the current status of NMR studies of such systems and the limitations to further progress; we also indicate in what ways isotopic enrichment can be useful.

  3. Invariant distances and metrics in complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jarnicki, Marek

    2013-01-01

    As in the field of ""Invariant Distances and Metrics in Complex Analysis"" there was and is a continuous progress this is the second extended edition of the corresponding monograph. This comprehensive book is about the study of invariant pseudodistances (non-negative functions on pairs of points) and pseudometrics (non-negative functions on the tangent bundle) in several complex variables. It is an overview over a highly active research area at the borderline between complex analysis, functional analysis and differential geometry. New chapters are covering the Wu, Bergman and several other met

  4. LHC progress report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last weekend saw a record physics fill with a tenfold increase in instantaneous luminosity (event rate from collisions), marking an important milestone for the LHC. This physics fill did not only establish luminosities above 1.1 x 1028 cm-2 s-1 in all four experiments but was also kept in "stable beam" mode for a new record length of 30 hours. The particle physics experiments were able to more than double the total number of events so far recorded at 3.5 TeV.   The LHC screen indicating that squeezed stable beams have been achieved for the first time. The very successful weekend had been preceded by hard work on the accelerator side. A factor 5 improvement in luminosity was achieved by "squeezing" (reducing) the beam sizes at all four interaction points. This process, one of the most complex stages in the operation of the accelerator, was finalised the week before. Once the machine is "squeezed", the experimental insertions become aperture bot...

  5. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 \\times 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. Secondly, the beam is initially produce...

  6. [In progress citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Euzet, L

    2005-03-01

    During a study of the gill parasites (Monogenea) of two species of Diplodus Rafinesque (Sparidae), D. sargus (Linnaeus) and D. vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) from off the Algerian coast, several species of the family Diplectanidae Bychowsky, 1957 and genus Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 were collected. We present a redescription of L. ergensi Euzet & Oliver, 1966 and describe two new species, L. kechemirae n. sp. and L. tomentosus n. sp. These new species are close to L. ergensi but differ in the morphology and size of both the haptoral sclerites and the male genital system. On the basis of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor, we suggest the recognition within the group 'ignoratus' of Oliver (1987) of two subgroups, 'ignoratus' (sensu stricto), with simple dorsal bars, and 'ergensi', with complex bars which are more or less divided in two parts. We also present a redescription of L. baeri Oliver, 1974, collected from the sparid Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) (the type-host) and allocate it to the 'ergensi' subgroup. All of these species of Lamellodiscus are reported from sparids off the Algerian coasts for the first time.

  7. Validating and optimizing the effects of model progression in simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Y.G.; Lazonder, A.W.; Jong, de T.; Anjewierden, A.A.; Bollen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Model progression denotes the organization of the inquiry learning process in successive phases of increasing complexity. This study investigated the effectiveness of model progression in general, and explored the added value of either broadening or narrowing students’ possibilities to change model

  8. Psychological functioning in primary progressive versus secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F

    1998-01-01

    (SD 11.1). Patients completed questionnaires measuring among others the following aspects of psychological functioning: depression (BDI, SCL-90), anxiety (STAI, SCL-90), agoraphobia (SCL-90), somatic complaints (SCL-90), hostility (SCL-90) and attitude towards handicap (GHAS). Patients with a PP......Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary...... progressive patients might have different psychological functioning. Seventy patients treated in an MS centre were examined cross-sectionally. Forty had an SP course of MS and 30 a PP course. The 33 male and 37 female patients had a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 11.2) and mean age of onset of MS of 30.7 years...

  9. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats.

  10. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  11. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  12. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  13. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  14. CBM progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, N.; Rami, F.; Roehrich, D.; Stroth, J.; Wessels, J.; Zaitsev, Yu

    2008-02-15

    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to D{sub s}{sup +} and {lambda}{sub c}, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA

  15. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterberg, Katrin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well established and accepted feedback instrument and the results of the last years confirmed that knowledge increase of different semesters and different curricula can be shown through a progress test. Since 2000 the workgroup “Progress Test Medizin” cooperates with the university in Witten /Herdecke, and since 2003 the progress test is also performed at four additional medical faculties. This minimizes the effort per participant and therefore allows further development and research. [german] Seit 1999 wird an der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin ein fächerübergreifender, formativer Progress Test für Medizinstudierende durchgeführt. Er beinhaltet 200 MC-Fragen auf Absolventenniveau und wird zu Anfang jedes Semesters durchgeführt. Die erhobenen Daten werden detailliert in bezug auf die Vergleichsgruppe ausgewertet und als Rückmeldung an die Teilnehmer ausgegeben. Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten vor allem bei der Gewinnung neuer Fragenautoren und der effizienten Verwaltung der Testfragen ist der Progress Test Medizin an der Charité mittlerweile ein etabliertes und anerkanntes Feedbackinstrument. Die Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit dem Progress Test der Wissenszuwachs über mehrere Semester und verschiedene Curricula dargestellt werden kann. Seit 2000 kooperiert die Arbeitsgruppe Progress Test Medizin mit der Universität Witten/Herdecke und seit Herbst 2003 wird der Progress Test an vier weiteren deutschen Fakult

  16. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... relapsing MS (PRMS) Types of MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Primary progressive MS ( ...

  17. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  20. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  2. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  3. Dietary boron: progress in establishing essential roles in human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Curtiss D

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal biological functions. These include roles in calcium metabolism, bone growth and maintenance, insulin metabolism, and completion of the life cycle. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood but the nature of boron biochemistry suggests further characterization of the cell signaling molecules capable of complexing with boron. Such characterization may provide insights into the biochemical function(s) of boron in humans.

  4. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Janine T. Erler

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic casc...

  5. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  6. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  7. Recent Progress in Regge Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    While there has been some advance in the use of Regge calculus as a tool in numerical relativity, the main progress in Regge calculus recently has been in quantum gravity. After a brief discussion of this progress, attention is focussed on two particular, related aspects. Firstly, the possible definitions of diffeomorphisms or gauge transformations in Regge calculus are examined and examples are given. Secondly, an investigation of the signature of the simplicial supermetric is described. Thi...

  8. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  9. Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David K; Wu, Cai; Tilley, Barbara C; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine; Payami, Haydeh; Wills, Anne-Marie; Aminoff, Michael J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Dewey, Richard; Hauser, Robert A; Schaake, Susen; Schneider, Jay S; Sharma, Saloni; Singer, Carlos; Tanner, Caroline M; Truong, Daniel; Wei, Peng; Wong, Pei Shieen; Yang, Tianzhong

    2017-04-15

    Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD. The GRIN2A genotype was not associated with the rate of clinical progression of PD in the placebo group. However, there was a 4-way interaction between GRIN2A genotype, caffeine, creatine and the time since baseline. Among subjects in the creatine group with high levels of caffeine intake, but not among those with low caffeine intake, the GRIN2A T allele was associated with more rapid progression (p=0.03). These data indicate that the deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to rate of progression of PD is influenced by GRIN2A genotype. This example of a genetic factor interacting with environmental factors illustrates the complexity of gene-environment interactions in the progression of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Hydraulic Jump: Finding Complexity in Turbulent Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Students who do not progress to more advanced science disciplines in college generally do not realize that seemingly simple physical systems are--when studied in detail--more complex than one might imagine. This article presents one such phenomenon--the hydraulic jump--as a way to help students see the complexity behind the seemingly simple, and…

  11. Universal properties of dynamically complex systems - The organization of chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccia, Itamar

    1988-06-01

    The complex dynamic behavior of natural systems far from equilibrium is discussed. Progress that has been made in understanding universal aspects of the paths to such behavior, of the trajectories at the borderline of chaos, and of the nature of the complexity in the chaotic regime, is reviewed. The emerging grammar of chaos is examined.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  13. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  14. Recent Progresses in Characterising Information Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a revision on some of the recent progresses made in characterising and understanding information inequalities, which are the fundamental physical laws in communications and compression. We will begin with the introduction of a geometric framework for information inequalities, followed by the first non-Shannon inequality proved by Zhang et al. in 1998 [1]. The discovery of this non-Shannon inequality is a breakthrough in the area and has led to the subsequent discovery of many more non-Shannon inequalities. We will also review the close relations between information inequalities and other research areas such as Kolmogorov complexity, determinantal inequalities, and group-theoretic inequalities. These relations have led to non-traditional techniques in proving information inequalities and at the same time made impacts back onthose related areas by the introduction of information-theoretic tools.

  15. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  16. Studies in developmental immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1976-05-26

    Progress is reported on studies of genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms, and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. Results are reported from studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms; cellular aspects of the immune system; the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems, primarily from an immunogenetic viewpoint and with particular reference to leukemias in the mouse; and the disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development.

  17. Metabolic imbalance and prostate cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Anya J; Tilling, Kate M; Holly, Jeff M; Hamdy, Freddie C; Rowlands, Mari-Anne E; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence implicating environmental factors in the progression of prostate cancer. The metabolic consequences of a western lifestyle, such as obesity, insulin resistance and abnormal hormone production have been linked to prostate carcinogenesis through multiple overlapping pathways. Insulin resistance results in raised levels of the mitogens insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1, both of which may affect prostate cancer directly, or through their effect on other metabolic regulators. Obesity is associated with abnormal levels of adipocyte-derived peptides (adipokines), sex hormones and inflammatory cytokines. Adipokines have been shown to influence prostate cancer in both cell culture studies and observational, population level studies. Testosterone appears to have a complex relationship with prostate carcinogenesis, and it has been suggested that the lower levels associated with obesity may select for more aggressive androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Prostatic inflammation, caused by infection, urinary reflux or dietary toxins, frequently occurs prior to cancer development and may influence progression to advanced disease. High levels of ω-6 fatty acids in the diet may lead to the production of further inflammatory molecules that may influence prostate cancer. Increased fatty acid metabolism occurs within tumour cells, providing a potential target for prostate cancer therapies. Aberrations in amino acid metabolism have also been identified in prostate cancer tissue, particularly in metastatic cancer. This evidence indicates lifestyle interventions may be effective in reducing the incidence of clinical disease. However, much more research is needed before recommendations are made. PMID:21532839

  18. Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented durable redundant joint. Both designs involve honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined using adhesively bonded doublers.Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage within a structure. For structures that include multiple material systems, such as the joint designs under consideration, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be accounted for drastically increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, intraply matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The bonded joints were modeled using highly parametric, explicitly solved finite element models, with damage modeling implemented via custom user-written subroutines. Each ply was discretely meshed using three-dimensional solid elements. Layers of cohesive elements were included between each ply to account for the possibility of delaminations and were used to model the adhesive layers forming the joint. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and the predicted failure mechanism(s).

  19. Host genetic factors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2010-04-01

    HIV-1 infection has rapidly spread worldwide and has become the leading cause of mortality in infectious diseases. The duration for development of AIDS (AIDS progression) is highly variable among HIV–1 infected individuals, ranging from 2–3 years to no signs of AIDS development in the entire lifetime. Several factors regulate the rate at which HIV-1 infection progresses to AIDS. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases as AIDS and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  20. Disease-modifying treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Giancarlo

    2013-10-01

    The last 20 years have seen major progress in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) using a variety of drugs targeting immune dysfunction. In contrast, all clinical trials of such agents in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) have failed and there is limited evidence of their efficacy in secondary progressive disease. Evolving concepts of the complex interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes across the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) may explain this discrepancy. This paper will provide an up-to-date overview of the rationale and results of the published clinical trials that have sought to alter the trajectory of both primary and secondary MS, considering studies involving drugs with a primary immune target and also those aiming for neuroprotection. Future areas of study will be discussed, building on these results combined with the experience of treating RRMS and new concepts emerging from laboratory science and animal models.

  1. Global progress against cancer-challenges and oppor tunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric Biemar; Margaret Foti

    2013-01-01

    The last ten years have seen remarkable progress in cancer research. However, despite significant breakthroughs in the understanding, prevention, and treatment of cancer, the disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Cancer’s complexity compounded with ifnancial, policy and regulatory roadblocks has slowed the rate of progress being made against cancer. In this paper, we review a few of the most recent breakthroughs that are fueling medical advances and bringing new hope for patients affected by this devastating disease. We also address the challenges facing us and the opportunities to accelerate future progress against cancer. The efforts of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) to address the cancer burden already extend beyond the borders of the United States of America. hTe AACR is committed to increasing its efforts to stem the tide of cancer worldwide by promoting innovative programs, strategies, and initiatives for cancer researchers and all those engaged in cancer-related biomedical sciences around the world.

  2. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  3. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    , the RBV represents an "unfinished revolution" as there is still considerable potential to dig deeper in the deep structure of competitive advantage. Keywords: Resource-based view, mechanisms, reductionism, competitive advantage, transaction costs, property rights. JEL Code: L2, M1...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...

  4. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  5. Recent progress on intrinsic charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Over the past ˜10 years, the topic of the nucleon's nonperturbative or intrinsic charm (IC) content has enjoyed something of a renaissance, largely motivated by theoretical developments involving quark modelers and PDF-fitters. In this talk I will briefly describe the importance of intrinsic charm to various issues in high-energy phenomenology, and survey recent progress in constraining its overall normalization and contribution to the momentum sum rule of the nucleon. I end with the conclusion that progress on the side of calculation has now placed the onus on experiment to unambiguously resolve the proton's intrinsic charm component.

  6. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  7. Early Detection of Emphysema Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Jacobs, S.S.A.M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  8. Infrastructures of progress and dispossession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Th is article examines what economic growth and state versions of progress have done to small and medium-scale farmers in an urban setting, in Arequipa in southern Peru. Th e general reorganization of production, resources, and labor in the Peruvian economy has generated a discursive move...... to reposition small and medium-scale farmers as backward. Th is article analyzes how farmers struggle to fi nd their place within a neoliberal urban ecology where diff erent conceptions of what constitutes progress in contemporary Peru infl uence the landscape. Using an analytical lens that takes material...... state and nonstate actors invest aff ects, interests, and desires differently within a given landscape....

  9. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: recent progress on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Denes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2014-01-01

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  10. Nuclear Waste Management quarterly progress report, October--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M. (comp.)

    1977-04-01

    Research topics on which progress is reported include decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring of effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste fixation, krypton solidification, /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation, waste management system studies, organic complexes of fission products, characterization of 300 Area burial grounds, electropolishing as a decontamination technique, and decommissioning of Hanford facilities. 11 tables, 18 figures. (DLC)

  11. On Parameters Estimation of Lomax Distribution under General Progressive Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the estimation problem of the probability S=P(Yprogressive censored data. The maximum likelihood estimator and Bayes estimators are obtained using the symmetric and asymmetric balanced loss functions. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods are used to accomplish some complex calculations. Comparisons are made between Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimators via Monte Carlo simulation study.

  12. Mechanism of genetic regulation. Comprehensive progress report, 1965-1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, R H

    1968-04-22

    Research progress is reported for the period 1965 through 1967. In order to obtain a biological system for the study of gene regulation, a study of the phage-bacterium complex and the uninfected host was begun. Accomplishments include the isolation and characterization of phages for B. subtilis for studies on transcriptional and translational controls, the identification of factors which control the functional capacity of transfer RNA, and the analysis of the initiation of protein synthesis in B. subtilis. (ACR)

  13. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  14. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: Recent progress on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Attanasio, Felipe [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília - DF 70040-020 (Brazil); Seiler, Erhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), 80805 München (Germany); Sexty, Dénes [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  15. Cell Polarity Proteins in Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejon, Carlis; Al-Masri, Maia; McCaffrey, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity will contribute to our knowledge of the early stages leading to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss recent findings that support the idea that loss of apical-basal cell polarity is a crucial step in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. Oncogene induced loss of tissue organization shares a conserved cellular mechanism with developmental process, we will further describe the role of the individual polarity complexes, the Par, Crumbs, and Scribble, to couple cell division orientation and cell growth. We will examine symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cell and their contribution to the development of breast cancer subtypes and cancer stem cells. Finally, we will highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which changes in epithelial polarity programs promote invasion and metastasis through single cell and collective cell modes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2215-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Structural Dissection for Controlling Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Chen; Liu, Yang-Yu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networked systems has been a central goal in different fields and understanding controllability of complex networks has been at the forefront of contemporary science. Despite the recent progress in the development of controllability theories for complex networks, we continue to lack efficient tools to fully understand the effect of network topology and interaction strengths among nodes on controllability. Here we establish a framework to discern the significance of links and nodes for controlling general complex networks in a simple way based on local information. A dissection process is offered by the framework to probe and classify nodes and links completely, giving rise to a criterion for strong structural controllability. Analytical results indicate phase transitions associated with link and node categories, and strong structural controllability. Applying the tools to real networks demonstrate that real technological networks are strong structurally controllable, whereas most of real s...

  17. The Electronic Structure of Heavy Element Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursten, Bruce E.

    2000-07-25

    The area of study is the bonding in heavy element complexes, and the application of more sophisticated electronic structure theories. Progress is recounted in several areas: (a) technological advances and current methodologies - Relativistic effects are extremely important in gaining an understanding of the electronic structure of compounds of the actinides, transactinides, and other heavy elements. Therefore, a major part of the continual benchmarking was the proper inclusion of the appropriate relativistic effects for the properties under study. (b) specific applications - These include organoactinide sandwich complexes, CO activation by actinide atoms, and theoretical studies of molecules of the transactinide elements. Finally, specific directions in proposed research are described.

  18. Hyper Space Complex Number

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shanguang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  19. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  20. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  1. Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…

  2. Joint energy program makes progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Clean Energies Facing the Future," a cooperative research program jointly organized by CAS and the BP Group, has made encouraging progress, say experts at an annual sum-up workshop held on 31 July and I August at Tsinghua University in Beijing. The CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics(DICP) has been entrusted as coordinator of the cooperative program between the two sides.

  3. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  4. New progress in Organic FET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Co-funded by NSFC,MOST and CAS,researchers from the Key laboratory of Organic Solids,Institute of Chemistry,CAS,made new progress in organic field-effect transistors (FET).The results of the study were published recently in the journal of Advanced Materials (2008,20,1286-1290).

  5. Research Progress of Isotope Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Department; of; Isotope

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive isotope is one of the origins of nonnuclear power technology.In the 12th Five Year Plan period,CIAE made breakthrough progresses on several important fields such as research and development of preparation of radioactive nuclides,preparation of radioactive source and study of radiopharmaceuticals relied on different financial support,successfully

  6. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  7. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  8. Research progress in advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Shen, Jiayu

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor with high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. How melanoma develops and how to treat it will continue to be a hot topic. This review briefly summarizes the mechanism of melanoma development and the latest progress in its treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  10. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  11. Skills Underlying Coloured Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and a battery of ability tests were administered to a sample of 104 male fourth graders for purposes of investigating the relationships between 2 previously identified subscales of the Raven and the ability tests. Results indicated use of a spatial strategy and to a lesser extent, use of reasoning, indicating…

  12. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  13. Symmetrical progressive erythro-keratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gupta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male child had gradually progressive, bilaterall, symmetrical, erythematous hyperkeratotic plaques over knees, elbows, natal cleft, dorsa of hands and feet with palmoplantar keratoderma. High arched palate, fissured tongue and sternal depression (pectus-excavatum were unusual associations.

  14. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  15. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...

  16. Technical progress and its factors in Russia’s economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper long-term growth in Russia’s economy is viewed in the context of technical progress, based on both neoclassical and endogenous theories. The dynamics of economic growth with some aspects of catch-up development are examined, as well as capital deepening. TFP is quantified in terms of both output and productivity increases to reveal the leading role of embodied technical progress in productivity growth. An endogenous growth model helped to discern three complex factors of technical progress in the Russian economy, to which at the macro level a factor related to natural wealth (oil and gas resources was added. This enabled the author to conclude that the most important macroeconomic factor of Russia’s technical progress in the half century from the early 1960s to the late 2000s was its immobile component. At the manufacturing level the situation was more complicated, as the initial leadership of creative technical progress was superseded by the dominance of the mobile factor. The collapse of the Soviet Union made the Russian economy more service-oriented and radically changed the conditions of economic modernization, in which technology transfer ensured by FDI began to play a more prominent part, particularly after the default of 1998.

  17. How Can We Plan for Progression in Primary School History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Cooper

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues concerning planning for and assessing progression in children’s thinking in primary school history. It argues that it is necessary to assess progression within the framework of constructivist learning theories, applied to the processes of historical enquiry. First, it discusses early research into children’s ability to understand concepts of time, historical sources and interpretations. Next, it describes the structure of the English National Curriculum, introduced in 1989, in which pupils are required to apply the processes of historical enquiry to content, in increasingly complex ways. The problem of what is meant by progression in history led to a large-scale research project attempting to identify patterns of development. It is argued that this proved problematic, and the level descriptors for the English History Curriculum have subsequently been removed. The article concludes that, at the moment, progression can be best planned for based on small-scale case studies, which apply constructivist theories to historical enquiries. Finally, suggestions are given for how teachers can plan and evaluate both their own practice and their pupils’ progress.

  18. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  19. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadanoff, L.P.; Constantin, P.; Dupont, T.F.; Nagel, S.

    1993-02-01

    Objective is to bring together researchers from several disciplines (mathematics, numerical computation, theoretical and experimental physics) who share an interest in the development of complexity in fluid systems. Work is in progress on development of singular interfluid interfaces on several fronts. Striking variations in droplet formation can be observed in physical experiments and simulations based on simple models. High-speed photographs are being taken of small liquid drop breaking into droplets. Experimental studies of granular materials are being continued.

  20. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  1. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  2. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  3. Steatosis and Steatohepatitis: Complex Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Bettermann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which includes steatosis and steatohepatitis, in particular non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, is a rising health problem world-wide and should be separated from alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH. NAFLD is regarded as hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetSy, being tightly linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Development of steatosis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis often progresses towards hepatocellular carcinogenesis and frequently results in the indication for liver transplantation, underlining the clinical significance of this disease complex. Work on different murine models and several human patients studies led to the identification of different molecular key players as well as epigenetic factors like miRNAs and SNPs, which have a promoting or protecting function in AFLD/ASH or NAFLD/NASH. To which extent they might be translated into human biology and pathogenesis is still questionable and needs further investigation regarding diagnostic parameters, drug development and a better understanding of the genetic impact. In this review we give an overview about the currently available knowledge and recent findings regarding the development and progression of this disease.

  4. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  5. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive...... multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination...... compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments...

  6. The role of geoscientists in human progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucchesi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like any science, geology has a key role in the development and progress of human culture and society. In this context, scientists, professionals and practitioners of Earth sciences must inevitably confront themselves with the purposes, methods and results of their studies, concerning relationships between man and his environment, which thus deals with ethical questions. An essential base for any geo-environmental action should be respect for the natural ecosystem. This can be achieved by encouraging an ‘affectionate attitude’ towards Nature or ecology. Some ancient cultures had a great awareness of the close relationships between humankind and the Earth. The recent web-based ‘Museo Torino’ (Turin Museum multimedia product shows the ‘history of a city’ (Turin, Italy in a dimension of unity and as a continuum of space–time–life between the history of the Earth and of humans. Geoscientists are not limited to merely having a pragmatic vision of the Earth, but should pursue harmonious collaboration between man and Nature. Within complex Earth systems, scientists and professionals rediscover their geoethical roles by responsibly evaluating and managing georesources, for progress aimed at improving conditions of life and human dignity. Geoscientists can also promote respect for ‘human rights’ through appropriate educational and training actions, for the balanced exploitation of our georesources. An example from Mendoza (Argentina is presented here, to encourage opportunities for meetings on environmental issues among people of different backgrounds and cultures. Last, but not least, there is the ethical role of geoscientists in ‘the service of the truth’. A misleading view of Earth systems by geoscientists can lead to fatalism or myths that often affect people from the psychological and sociological points of view.

  7. Biomimetic photo-actuation: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Michael P. M.; Weaver, Paul M.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Bond, Ian P.; Faul, Charl F. J.

    2016-04-01

    Photo-actuation, such as that observed in the reversible sun-tracking movements of heliotropic plants, is produced by a complex, yet elegant series of processes. In the heliotropic leaf movements of the Cornish Mallow, photo-actuation involves the generation, transport and manipulation of chemical signals from a distributed network of sensors in the leaf veins to a specialized osmosis driven actuation region in the leaf stem. It is theorized that such an arrangement is both efficient in terms of materials use and operational energy conversion, as well as being highly robust. We concern ourselves with understanding and mimicking these light driven, chemically controlled actuating systems with the aim of generating intelligent structures which share the properties of efficiency and robustness that are so important to survival in Nature. In this work we present recent progress in mimicking these photo-actuating systems through remote light exposure of a metastable state photoacid and the resulting signal and energy transfer through solution to a pH-responsive hydrogel actuator. Reversible actuation strains of 20% were achieved from this arrangement, with modelling then employed to reveal the critical influence hydrogel pKa has on this result. Although the strong actuation achieved highlights the progress that has been made in replicating the principles of biomimetic photo-actuation, challenges such as photoacid degradation were also revealed. It is anticipated that current work can directly lead to the development of high-performance and low-cost solartrackers for increased photovoltaic energy capture and to the creation of new types of intelligent structures employing chemical control systems.

  8. Progress in front propagation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  9. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  10. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  11. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  12. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  13. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  14. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  15. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  16. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...

  17. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  18. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  1. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  3. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  4. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  5. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  6. (Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  7. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Travis C. Collier

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  8. Progress on high-performance rapid prototype aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Myrick, Bruce H.

    2017-05-01

    Near net shape parts can be produced using some very old processes (investment casting) and the relatively new direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. These processes have significant advantages for complex blank lightweighting and costs but are not inherently suited for producing high performance mirrors. The DMLS process can provide extremely complex lightweight structures but the high residual stresses left in the material results in unstable mirror figure retention. Although not to the extreme intricacy of DMLS, investment casting can also provide complex lightweight structures at considerably lower costs than DMLS and even conventional wrought mirror blanks but the less than 100% density for casting (and also DMLS) limits finishing quality. This paper will cover the progress that has been made to make both the DMLS and investment casting processes into viable near net shape blank options for high performance aluminum mirrors. Finish and figure results will be presented to show performance commensurate with existing conventional processes.

  9. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    complex ( Hidden issues; dumbs down operator) 11 Complexity, Systems, and Software Sarah Sheard August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie...August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Addressing Complexity in SoSs Source: SEBOK Wiki System Con truer Strateglc Context

  10. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  11. Quaternionic versus complex maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Solombrino, L [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the relation between completely positive quaternionic maps and the corresponding complex maps obtained via projection operation. In order to illustrate this formalism, we reobtain the (complex) qubit subdynamics of maximally entangled Bell states, as complex projection of unitary dynamics between quaternionic pure states.

  12. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  13. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  14. Concept of Biological Progress and Information as Indication and Measure of Ontic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonci Kokic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the idea of biological progress shows that it is not a selfexplanatory category, so a clear definition is required. Biological progress exists if: (1 “more progressive” is defined as “more complex” – in that case evolution is synonymous with progress, i.e. development from simple to complex, from homogeneous to heterogeneous; (2 we perceive the expression “more progressive” as more successful in relation to the environment, in these terms some groups in the history of life were more progressive because/so that they survived, while others were retrogressive or less progressive because/so that they died out; on the other hand, within their ecological niches, certain forms of life (species are perfectly adapted to their environment as long as it is stable (along these lines, mammals are no more progressive than bacteria; (3 we take the span or reach of a potential adaptation of populations as a measure (in which case differences exist. However, there is no active, innovative problem solving in relation to the environment either with plants or animals – only the variability mechanism / selection is in place, automatism, instinct. In the light of the above-mentioned biological criteria, man is the most complex living creature by his constitution (central nervous system, he is the least dependent on the environment and can be innovative in relation to the environment. Man is the only living creature capable of establishing an active relationship with the environment through his special tool – culture. Considering the level of organization and quantity of information, the mammal genome is more progressive than the bacterium genome, while the human genome comprises most information which makes man the most progressive living thing. We can talk about biological progress if we define progressiveness as advancement toward complexity of organisation, but sometimes the simplification of structure enables survival. It seems

  15. Seeking for Simplicity in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L F

    2007-01-01

    Complex networks can be understood as graphs whose connectivity deviates from those of regular or near-regular graphs (which can be understood as `simple'). While a great deal of the attention so far foressen for complex networks has been duly driven by the above principle, in this work we take the dual approach and address the identification of simplicity, in the sense of regularity, in complex networks. The basic idea is to seek for subgraphs exhibiting small dispersion (e.g. standard deviation or entropy) of local measurements such as the node degree and clustering coefficient. Here we consider two types of subgraphs: (a) those defined by the progressive neighborhoods around each node and (b) subgraphs obtained from sets of nodes presenting similar local measurements. The former approach allows the assignment of a hierarchical regularity index to all network nodes, the latter paves the way for the identification of subgraphs (patches) in the original network, with nearly uniform connectivity. We illustrate...

  16. [General practice--linear thinking and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, H

    2006-09-27

    As physicians, we apply and teach linear thinking. This approach permits to dissect the patient's problem to the molecular level and has contributed enormously to the knowledge and progress of medicine. The linear approach is particularly useful in medical education, in quantitative research and helps to resolve simple problems. However, it risks to be rigid. Living beings (such as patients and physicians!) have to be considered as complex systems. A complex system cannot be dissected into its parts without losing its identity. It is dependent on its past and interactions with the outside are often followed by unpredictable reactions. The patient-centred approach in medicine permits the physician, a complex system himself, to integrate the patient's system and to adapt to his reality. It is particularly useful in general medicine.

  17. International conference on Algebraic and Complex Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kloosterman, Remke; Schütt, Matthias; Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics : Volume 71

    2014-01-01

    Several important aspects of moduli spaces and irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds were highlighted at the conference “Algebraic and Complex Geometry” held September 2012 in Hannover, Germany. These two subjects of recent ongoing progress belong to the most spectacular developments in Algebraic and Complex Geometry. Irreducible symplectic manifolds are of interest to algebraic and differential geometers alike, behaving similar to K3 surfaces and abelian varieties in certain ways, but being by far less well-understood. Moduli spaces, on the other hand, have been a rich source of open questions and discoveries for decades and still continue to be a hot topic in itself as well as with its interplay with neighbouring fields such as arithmetic geometry and string theory. Beyond the above focal topics this volume reflects the broad diversity of lectures at the conference and comprises 11 papers on current research from different areas of algebraic and complex geometry sorted in alphabetic order by the ...

  18. Complexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bastardas-Boada, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The “language-communication-society” triangle defies traditional scientific approaches. Rather, it is a phenomenon that calls for an integration of complex, transdisciplinary perspectives, if we are to make any progress in understanding how it works. The highly diverse agents in play are not merely cognitive and/or cultural, but also emotional and behavioural in their specificity. Indeed, the effort may require building a theoretical and methodological body of knowledge that can effectively convey the characteristic properties of phenomena in human terms. New complexity approaches allow us to rethink our limited and mechanistic images of human societies and create more appropriate emo-cognitive dynamic and holistic models. We have to enter into dialogue with the complexity views coming out of other more ‘material’ sciences, but we also need to take steps in the linguistic and psycho-sociological fields towards creating perspectives and concepts better fitted to human characteristics. Our understanding...

  19. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  20. Massachussetts Institute of Technology progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-02-28

    This is the thirty-sixth progress report of the Laboratory for Nuclear Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Progress during the period of November 30, 1954 through February 28, 1955 is reported.

  1. Mechanistic insights into aging, cell cycle progression, and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Anthony Alan Harkness

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of an organism depends on the health of its cells. Throughout life cells are exposed to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, such as free radicals, generated through mitochondrial electron transport, and ultraviolet irradiation. The cell has evolved numerous mechanisms to scavenge free radicals and repair damage induced by these insults. One mechanism employed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to combat stress utilizes the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC, an essential multi-subunit ubiquitin-protein ligase structurally and functionally conserved from yeast to humans that controls progression through mitosis and G1. We have observed that yeast cells expressing compromised APC subunits are sensitive to multiple stresses and have shorter replicative and chronological lifespans. In a pathway that runs parallel to that regulated by the APC, members of the Forkhead box (Fox transcription factor family also regulate stress responses. The yeast Fox orthologues Fkh1 and Fkh2 appear to drive the transcription of stress response factors and slow early G1 progression, while the APC seems to regulate chromatin structure, chromosome segregation, and resetting of the transcriptome in early G1. In contrast, under non-stress conditions, the Fkhs play a complex role in cell cycle progression, partially through activation of the APC. Direct and indirect interactions between the APC and the yeast Fkhs appear to be pivotal for lifespan determination. Here we explore the potential for these interactions to be evolutionarily conserved as a mechanism to balance cell cycle regulation with stress responses.

  2. Complexity Through Nonextensivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali

    2001-01-01

    The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...

  3. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  4. STAR FORMATION ACROSS THE W3 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana–Ensenada, Ensenada 22860 (Mexico); Megías, Guillermo D. [Facultad de Física. Universidad de Sevilla. Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla, E-41080 (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, FL 32611 (United States); Alves, Joáo F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  5. Progression of HIV in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, M V

    1998-07-01

    The recent elucidation of the life cycle and dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and technological advances in development of the HIV RNA PCR assay for sensitive detection of viral load have revolutionized the diagnosis, management, and treatment of HIV infection. Beginning with initial infection, there is unremitting, high-level viral replication that persists throughout the course of HIV infection. The measure of the amount of virus present in plasma, HIV viral load, is the single most important predictor of HIV progression, the best indicator of immune system decline, and the best guide for initiating and monitoring antiviral treatment. Further, HIV viral load has become the new yardstick against which other markers, including CD4 number, age, chemokine receptor mutations, cytotoxic T-cell responses, and neutralizing antibody titers are assessed. For individuals with haemophilia, additional 'markers' may have significant impact on the outcome of HIV disease. Chronic factor concentrate treatment has led to transfusion-associated hepatitis, co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV), and chronic liver disease. The latter may become accelerated with HIV progression and may lead to hepatotoxicity with antiviral drug therapy. Chronic factor concentrate treatment has also been associated with immunosuppression, including both B- and T-cell immune defects. In HIV(+) haemophilic men, this immune deficit has led to lower CD4 counts with HIV progression and poorer CD4 response to antiviral drugs than in gay men. The underlying haemophilic bleeding tendency may result in significant haemorrhage with HIV-associated immune thrombocytopenia and with protease inhibitor antiretroviral therapy. Although AIDS is the leading cause of death in this group, the reduction in the size of the haemophilia population over the next two centuries is estimated to be small, and survival should improve as better antiviral therapeutics are identified.

  6. Gleason Grade Progression Is Uncommon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R.; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well-differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer 1982–2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982–1/1993), 19.9% stage ≥T3, to the latest (5/2000–12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ≥8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (p=0.04) suggests the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

  7. Synchronization in complex clustered networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; LAI Ying-Cheng; Kwangho PARK; WANG Xingang; LAI Choy Heng; Robert A. GATENBY

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks has been an active area of research in recent years. While much effort has been devoted to networks with the small-world and scale-free topology, structurally they are often assumed to have a single, densely connected component. Recently it has also become apparent that many networks in social, biological, and tech-nological systems are clustered, as characterized by a number (or a hierarchy) of sparsely linked clusters, each with dense and complex internal connections. Synchronization is funda-mental to the dynamics and functions of complex clustered networks, but this problem has just begun to be addressed. This paper reviews some progress in this direction by focus-ing on the interplay between the clustered topology and net-work synchronizability. In particular, there are two parame-ters characterizing a clustered network: the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster link density. Our goal is to clarify the roles of these parameters in shaping network synchronizability. By using theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulations of oscillator networks, it is demonstrated that clustered net-works with random inter-cluster links are more synchroniz-able, and synchronization can be optimized when inter-cluster and intra-cluster links match. The latter result has one coun-terintuitive implication: more links, if placed improperly, can actually lead to destruction of synchronization, even though such links tend to decrease the average network distance. It is hoped that this review will help attract attention to the fun-damental problem of clustered structures/synchronization in network science.

  8. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  9. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  10. Nested arithmetic progressions of oscillatory phases in Olsen's enzyme reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Marcia R; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-06-01

    We report some regular organizations of stability phases discovered among self-sustained oscillations of a biochemical oscillator. The signature of such organizations is a nested arithmetic progression in the number of spikes of consecutive windows of periodic oscillations. In one of them, there is a main progression of windows whose consecutive number of spikes differs by one unit. Such windows are separated by a secondary progression of smaller windows whose number of spikes differs by two units. Another more complex progression involves a fan-like nested alternation of stability phases whose number of spikes seems to grow indefinitely and to accumulate methodically in cycles. Arithmetic progressions exist abundantly in several control parameter planes and can be observed by tuning just one among several possible rate constants governing the enzyme reaction.

  11. Heart Failure in Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Questions Concerning Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Louridas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, important advances have been made in explaining some pathophysiological aspects of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF with repercussions for the successful clinical management of the syndrome. Despite these gains, our knowledge for the natural history of clinical progression from the pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD until the final clinical stages is significantly limited. The subclinical progression of PDD to the clinical phenotype of HFpEF and the further clinical progression to some more complex clinical models with multi-organ involvement, similar to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, continue to be poorly understood. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the natural history of clinical progression in patients with HFpEF and to identify the exact left ventricular remodeling mechanism that underlies this progression.

  12. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  13. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  14. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  15. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  16. Progress in polymer solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiGui; LU GuangHao; YANG XiaoNiu; ZHOU EnLe

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines current progresses in polymer solar cell. Compared to traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, the completely different principle of optoelectric response in the polymer cell results in a novel configuration of the device and more complicated photovoltaic generation process. The conception of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) is introduced and its advantage in terms of morphology is addressed. The main aspects including the morphology of photoactive layer, which limit the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cell, are discussed in detail. The solutions to boosting up both the efficiency and stability (lifetime) of the polymer solar cell are highlighted at the end of this review.

  17. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  18. Bilateral Progressive Obliterative Retinal Vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, 10 cases of a special type of retinal vasculitis are reported, which was characterized by progressive obliteration of vessels in both eyes, developed from the periphery to the posterior ploe, and was complicated by vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes) and neovascular glaucoma (5 eyes) in later stage. The visual acuity was 0. 05 in 10 eyes (50%). Argon laser pho-tocoagulation seemed to be able to retard the natural course of the disease. Fundus changes, differential diagnosis and treatment etc are...

  19. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  20. PROGRESS ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber is one kind of important adsorption materials. These novel fibrousadsorbents have high specific surface areas or abundant functional groups, which make them havegreater adsorption/desorption rates and larger adsorption capacities than other adsorbents. They canbe prepared as bundle, paper, cloth and felt to meet various technical requirement. They also showreduction property. In this paper the latest progress on the studies of the preparation and adsorptionproperties of activated carbon fibers is reviewed. The application of these materials in drinking waterpurification, environmental control, resource recovery, chemical industry, and in medicine and healthcare is also presented.

  1. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  2. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  4. The European Arctic policy in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Pérez, Elena; Yaneva, Zhaklin Valerieva

    2016-09-01

    The geostrategic, political, economic, and scientific relevance of the Arctic is constantly growing due to the complex process of climate change. Accordingly, the European Union-as a global political actor-, is already taking steps to ensure and strengthen its influence in the region while demonstrating readiness to face the many opportunities and challenges ahead in cooperation with the traditional stakeholders. Therefore, in order to reflect the renewed importance of the Arctic transformation, the Union has been designing its Arctic Policy focusing on climate change mitigation and multilateral cooperation as its main strengths. Unfortunately, despite the diligence and impetus that has been invested, this process has been delayed in several occasions as the Union had to deal with internal and external destabilizing factors, such as the later immigration crisis or the lack of uniformity among its member states' foreign policy interests. These factors will be analyzed along with the process of creation and development of the EU's Arctic policy. Despite some delays, on 27 April 2016, the long-awaited third communication was issued and progress has been made: even if, in general terms, the new document remains a political statement, there is also a clear commitment to action.

  5. Status of the HIRFL–CSR complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang, J.C., E-mail: yangjch@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xia, J.W.; Yuan, P.; Qiao, W.M.; Gao, D.Q.; Xiao, G.Q.; Zhao, H.W.; Xu, H.S.; Song, M.T.; Yang, X.D.; Cai, X.H.; Ma, L.Z.; Yang, X.T.; Man, K.T.; He, Y.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.H.; Xu, Z.; Liu, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • HIRFL is in a very positive state and can provide all ion species with maximum energy to 1 GeV/u (A/q = 2). • Present status of HIRFL complex is given as well as the new progress on operation and improvement. • With emphasize on HIRFL–CSR project, main features realized during the commissioning and operation are described in detail. • The progress on physics experiments and hadron cancer therapy are also presented. -- Abstract: The HIRFL–CSR, as an upgrade of the HIRFL, has been put into operation since 2008. Together with a series of improvements of injector cyclotrons, the HIRFL is in a very good state and can provide all ion species from proton to uranium with energy variable from ion source energy to 1 GeV/u (A/q = 2). Present status of the HIRFL–CSR complex is given. Main features realized during the commissioning and operation are described in detail. The progress on physics experiments and cancer therapy are also presented.

  6. [Gastrointestinal myoelectric complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, P

    1977-03-01

    Complexes of high amplitude action potentials have been shownn to occur in the stomach and duodenum of fasting dogs. These complexes recur at regular intervals as long as the animal is fasting, and they are propagated aborally over the whole lenght of the small bowel. The cyclical pattern is replaced by the digestive of "fed" pattern of activity upon feeding. Therefore the pattern has been known as the interdigestive myoelectrical complex. Studies in herbivorous species however, in which the flow of digesta is more or less continous have show that cyclically recurring migrating complexes can be demonstrated in these species as well. Thus, the term "migratory myoelectrical complex" may be more appropriate. Propagation of the complex is not dependent upon continuity of the bowel wall nor movement of luminal contents. Replacement of the complex by the digestive pattern of activity upon feeding and the restitution of the interdigestive pattern at the end of the digestive phase seem to be under nervous as well as hormonal control. The interdigestive complex in the dog has been looked upon as a "housekeeper" which sweeps the bowel clear of contents at the end of the digestive phase. Aspects of possible physiological significance of the complex are: periodic elimination of refluxed duodenal contents from the stomach and prevention of bacterial colonization of the small bowel by the colonic flora. The existence of propagated complexes has not been demonstrated in man, but there is increasing evidence for cyclical activity which fits the pattern.

  7. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  8. Progress in BazookaSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Barber, H Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R; Moore, Stephen K; Barrett, Harrison H

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress on a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray imager called BazookaSPECT is presented. BazookaSPECT is an example of a new class of scintillation detectors based on integrating detectors such as CCD(charge-coupled device) or CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors. BazookaSPECT is unique in that it makes use of a scintillator in close proximity to a microchannel plate-based image intensifier for up-front optical amplification of scintillation light. We discuss progress made in bringing about compact BazookaSPECT modules and in real-time processing of event data using graphics processing units (GPUs). These advances are being implemented in the design of a high-resolution rodent brain imager called FastSPECT III. A key benefit of up-front optical gain is that any CCD/CMOS sensor can now be utilized for photon counting. We discuss the benefits and feasibility of using CMOS sensors as photon-counting detectors for digital radiography, with application in mammography and computed tomography (CT). We present as an appendix a formal method for comparing various photon-counting integrating detectors using objective statistical criteria.

  9. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  10. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  11. Genomic-Glycosylation Aberrations in Tumor Initiation, Progression and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman K.M. Ip

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-translation modifications of proteins alter their functional activity and thus are key contributors of tumor initiation and progression. Glycosylation, one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins, has been associated with tumorigenesis for decades. However, due to complexity in analysis of the functional effects of glycosylation, definitive information on the role of altered glycosylation in cancer is lacking. Importantly, imputing changes in glycosylation in proteins from analysis of DNA mutations has not been attempted globally. It is thus critical to elucidate the role of glycosylation in tumor pathophysiology as well as potential roles of altered glycosylation as cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the evidence that glycosylation regulates functions of a set of frequently mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Moreover, we explore the potential that protein sequence changes engendered by genomic mutations broadly alter glycosylation and thus promote tumor initiation and progression.

  12. SMC complexes in bacterial chromosome condensation and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunnikov, Alexander V

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial chromosomes segregate via a partition apparatus that employs a score of specialized proteins. The SMC complexes play a crucial role in the chromosome partitioning process by organizing bacterial chromosomes through their ATP-dependent chromatin-compacting activity. Recent progress in the composition of these complexes and elucidation of their structural and enzymatic properties has advanced our comprehension of chromosome condensation and segregation mechanics in bacteria.

  13. SMC complexes in bacterial chromosome condensation and segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Strunnikov, Alexander V.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes segregate via a partition apparatus that employs a score of specialized proteins. The SMC complexes play a crucial role in the chromosome partitioning process by organizing bacterial chromosomes through their ATP-dependent chromatin-compacting activity. Recent progress in the composition of these complexes and elucidation of their structural and enzymatic properties has advanced our comprehension of chromosome condensation and segregation mechanics in bacteria.

  14. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  15. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  16. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  17. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  18. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  19. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  20. Recognizing dualizing complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a noetherian local commutative ring and let M be a suitable complex of A-modules. This paper proves that M is a dualizing complex for A if and only if the trivial extension A \\ltimes M is a Gorenstein Differential Graded Algebra. As a corollary follows that A has a dualizing complex if and only if it is a quotient of a Gorenstein local Differential Graded Algebra.

  1. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  2. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  3. Higher Koszul complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶郁; 张璞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.

  4. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are co...

  5. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility

    CERN Document Server

    Renger, Jan; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The key challenge in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry, with dielectric structures superposed on a mirror. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this to control plasmonic coupling and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at the wavelength 800 nm.

  6. Environmental tester development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tressler, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective is to further develop the environmental tensometer toward commercialization by making key technical refinements, improving the controlling and data-logging software, and testing the system in a potential customer`s laboratory. Progress has been made in Tasks 1 (completed), Task 2 (one half completed), Task 4 (one half completed) of the original work plan. In this report a detailed description of the work completed on the second prototype is explained in detail. A second prototype of the Environmental Tester, a device capable of tensile tests of fibers in controlled environments and at high temperatures, has been designed and is currently being fabricated. The first prototype includes six integrated systems; the testing system, the furnace system, the vacuum system, the mass flow control system, and the computer data acquisition and control (CDAC) system.

  7. Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, . In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.

  8. A progress report on reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    1998-05-01

    In the 1990s, power generation in India has been increasingly opened up to private participation but the road has not been trouble-free. The IPPs experienced problems with the Indian state electricity boards (SEBs) whose financial position was being slowly eroded. In an effort to improve things, steps were taken to improve the operational and financial condition of the SEBs but progress has been slow. There are many political strands affecting energy policy in India and these are discussed. The position is discussed under the headings (i) state reports, (ii) international influence and (iii) the centre (refers to central government). Unless the Indian government takes hold of the situation, then the IPPs will 'set the pace'. (UK)

  9. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  10. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  11. European Archaeomagnetism: Progress and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Hoye, G.

    2009-05-01

    Much progress has been made since the seminal work of Giuseppe Folgheraiter (1856-1913) in the late 19th century. So much so that recent advances now make it possible to draw up complete isogonic and isoclinic maps for Europe and adjacent areas spanning the last three millennia (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2009). Results based on multiple independent studies, with high precision and good age control are crucial and should be recognized as "anchor points" (e.g. Pompeii). On the other hand, the nagging problem of outliers persists. Among the possible causes are magnetic refraction, physical distortion, and inadequate chronological control. Some examples, drawn from our own investigations over the last 30 years, will be discussed in detail. These include previously unpublished data from a detailed study (more than 100 samples) of a kiln in southern Italy, and an apparently good (but aberrant) archaeodirection from a kiln in southern Spain.

  12. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Progress on HELIAS systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix; Beidler, Craig D.; Dinklage, Andreas; Feng, Yuehe; Geiger, Joachim; Schauer, Felix; Turkin, Yuriy; Wolf, Robert; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kemp, Richard; Knight, Peter; Ward, David [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    In order to study and design next-step fusion devices such as DEMO, comprehensive systems codes are commonly employed. For the HELIAS-line, stellarator-specific models have been developed, implemented, and verified within the systems code PROCESS. This systems code ansatz is complemented by self-consistent modeling of plasma scenarios employing a predictive 1-D neoclassical transport code which has been augmented with a model for the edge anomalous transport based on 3-D ITG turbulence simulations. This approach is investigated to ultimately allow one to conduct stellarator system studies, develop design points of HELIAS burning plasma devices, and to facilitate a direct comparison between tokamak and stellarator DEMO and power plant designs. The work reports on the progress towards these goals.

  14. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  15. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  16. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by reactivation of JC virus (JCV in a setting of cellular immunosuppression. Originally, PML was observed in patients with advanced HIV infection, lymphoproliferative disorders and transplant recipients. However, the widespread use of HIV antiretroviral drugs and the new selective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive medications, such as Rituximab and Natalizumab, has recently modified the epidemiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of PML. Herein, we discuss the new concepts on PML, emphasizing the recent modification in the epidemiology; the impact of new immunomodulatory treatments in the disease, PML-IRIS (Immune reconstitution inflammatory síndrome, new treatment strategies and other JCV related CNS diseases.

  17. Adaptive Leadership: Fighting Complexity with Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    complex tasks.30 An astonishing level of sophistication arises out of the intricate combination of these simple insect minds. 23 Snowden and Boone, “A...system: individuals, with little or no central oversight, perform simple tasks: posting Web pages and linking to other Web pages…and the co- evolutionary ...existence today. 31 Bert Hölldobler and Edward Osborne Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York, NY

  18. [Progressive supranuclear palsy: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by an impairment of voluntary control of gaze (supranuclear palsy), postural and gait instability, and behavioral and cognitive deficits including a frontal syndrome and psychic retardation. However, in the recent years, at least four other clinical forms of PSP have been recognized: PSP-Parkinsonism, "pure akinesia with gait freezing", PSP with cortico-basal syndrome, and PSP with speech apraxia. PSP-Parkinsonism mimics the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, including a significant reactivity to levodopa. "Pure akinesia with gait freezing" is characterized by a difficulty of self-initiation of motor programs, usually walking program. PSP with cortico-basal syndrome mimics cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) in that unilateral or asymmetric limb dystonia and apraxia are prominent signs. PSP with speech apraxia is an isolated syndrome of progressive anarthria. All these clinical syndromes are due to brain accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. The differences in clinical expression within the framework of PSP can be explained by the differences in the topographical distribution of the lesions. PSP is considered as a primary tau disease ("tauopathy") such as CBD and some forms of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. At the level of neuropathology, the pattern of tau abnormal inclusions differentiates PSP from other tau diseases, but some overlaps are reported. Moreover, several of the clinical forms of PSP partially or fully overlap with the other tauopathies. As a whole, the emergence of new clinical forms of PSP challenges the nosology of tauopathies and our understanding of these diseases.

  19. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Im

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies.

  20. Progress in the synthesis and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guomei; XIA Haiping; JIA Guocheng

    2004-01-01

    Metallabenzenes are metallacyclohexatriene complexes that are derived by replacement of one of the CH groups in benzene with a transition-metal fragment. Their synthesis and aromatic properties have recently attracted considerable attention. This paper summarizes the progress in the synthesis, aromatic property, and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes. We will describe the synthesis and reactivity of typical metallabenzenes with various metals (e.g. osmium, iridium, and ruthenium, etc.), the synthesis and structure of a recent reported example of metallanaphthalene and several rare examples of novel and stable metallabenzynes. Finally, the possible future developments in this field have also been suggested.