WorldWideScience

Sample records for imf talks break

  1. The SLUGGS survey: breaking degeneracies between dark matter, anisotropy and the IMF using globular cluster subpopulations in the giant elliptical NGC 5846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Nicola R.; Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Foster, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    We study the mass and anisotropy distribution of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846 using stars, as well as the red and blue globular cluster (GC) subpopulations. We break degeneracies in the dynamical models by taking advantage of the different phase space distributions of the two GC subpopulations to unambiguously constrain the mass of the galaxy and the anisotropy of the GC system. Red GCs show the same spatial distribution and behaviour as the starlight, whereas blue GCs have a shallower density profile, a larger velocity dispersion and a lower kurtosis, all of which suggest a different orbital distribution. We use a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis and find that the solutions of separate analyses for the two GC subpopulations overlap in the halo parameter space. The solution converges on a massive dark matter halo, consistent with expectations from Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) cosmology in terms of virial mass (log MDM ˜ 13.3 M⊙) and concentration (cvir ˜ 8). This is the first such analysis that solves the dynamics of the different GC subpopulations in a self-consistent manner. Our method improves the uncertainties on the halo parameter determination by a factor of 2 and opens new avenues for the use of elliptical galaxy dynamics as tests of predictions from cosmological simulations. The implied stellar mass-to-light ratio derived from the dynamical modelling is fully consistent with a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and rules out a bottom light IMF. The different GC subpopulations show markedly distinct orbital distributions at large radii, with red GCs having an anisotropy parameter β˜0.4 outside ˜ 3 Re (Re is the effective radius), and the blue GCs having β˜0.15 at the same radii, while centrally ( ˜ 1 Re) they are both isotropic. We discuss the implications of our findings within the two-phase formation scenario for early-type galaxies.

  2. What is the IMF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    economic growth, and reduce poverty . Topics in this pamphlet inc hide: What does the IMF do? Why was it created?, How does the IMF serve its member...countries?, Mow does the IMF help poor countries?, Who runs the IMF?, and Where does the IMF get its money?

  3. Connection between dynamically derived IMF normalisation and stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    McDermid, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    In this contributed talk I present recent results on the connection between stellar population properties and the normalisation of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) measured using stellar dynamics, based on a large sample of 260 early-type galaxies observed as part of the Atlas3D project. This measure of the IMF normalisation is found to vary non-uniformly with age- and metallicity-sensitive absorption line strengths. Applying single stellar population models, there are weak but measurable trends of the IMF with age and abundance ratio. Accounting for the dependence of stellar population parameters on velocity dispersion effectively removes these trends, but subsequently introduces a trend with metallicity, such that `heavy' IMFs favour lower metallicities. The correlations are weaker than those found from previous studies directly detecting low-mass stars, suggesting some degree of tension between the different approaches of measuring the IMF. Resolving these discrepancies will be the focus of future w...

  4. The SLUGGS Survey: Breaking degeneracies between dark matter, anisotropy and the IMF using globular cluster subpopulations in the giant elliptical NGC 5846

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitano, Nicola R; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A; Brodie, Jean P; Foster, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We study the mass and anisotropy distribution of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846 using stars, as well as the red and blue globular cluster (GC) subpopulations. We break degeneracies in the dynamical models by taking advantage of the different phase space distributions of the two GC subpopulations to unambiguously constrain the mass of the galaxy and the anisotropy of the GC system. Red GCs show the same spatial distribution and behaviour as the starlight, whereas blue GCs have a shallower density profile, a larger velocity dispersion and a lower kurtosis, all of which suggest a different orbital distribution. We use a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis and find that the solutions of separate analyses for the two GC subpopulations overlap in the halo parameter space. The solution converges on a massive dark matter halo, consistent with expectations from $\\Lambda$CDM and WMAP7 cosmology in terms of virial mass ($\\log M_{DM} \\sim13.3 M_{sun}$) and concentration ($c_{vir}\\sim8$). This is the first such analy...

  5. THE MYTH OF THE IMF

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, ...

  6. Restructuring The IMF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Providing a financial lifeline to a string of crisis-hit countries such as Iceland and Ukraine,the International Monetary Fund(IMF) has played a positive role in cushioning the growth-retarding shock emanating from the United States. Moreover,the finance ministers of the G20 countries recently agreed to increase their funding for and push for the restructuring of the organization at their meeting in Horsham in Britain on March 14. YiXianrong,a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,discussed this topic in an article published in the Oriental Morning Post Edited excerpts follow:

  7. The Myth of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, J.

    2009-11-01

    The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!

  8. THE MYTH OF THE IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Melnick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!

  9. Recent advances on IMF research

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Here I discuss recent work on brown dwarfs, massive stars and the IMF in general. The stellar IMF can be well described by an invariant two-part power law in present-day star-formation events within the Local Group of galaxies. It is nearly identical in shape to the pre-stellar core mass function. The majority of brown dwarfs follow a separate IMF. Evidence from globular clusters and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies has emerged that IMFs may have been top heavy depending on the star-formation rate density. The IGIMF then ranges from bottom heavy at low galaxy-wide star formation rates to being top-heavy in galaxy-scale star bursts.

  10. Evidence in Favour of IMF Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhauer, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) determines the relative number of stars born at a given mass. Despite the tremendous effort to establish a universal IMF, the astronomical literature offers a wealth of diverse evidence for IMF variations. This review was prepared for a controversial debate at the conference ``Starbursts -- Near and Far'' at Ringberg Castle, 2000, and gives a one-sided portrayal in favour of IMF variations. I will summarise the empirical evidence that the IMF varies wit...

  11. The IMF of simple and composite populations

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    The combination of a finite time-scale for star formation, rapid early stellar evolution and rapid stellar-dynamical processes imply that the stellar IMF cannot be inferred for any star cluster independently of its age (the Cluster IMF Theorem). The IMF can nevertheless be constrained statistically by evolving many theoretical populations drawn from one parent distribution and testing these against observed populations. It follows that all known well-resolved stellar populations are consistent with having been drawn from the same parent mass distribution. The IMF Universality Hypothesis therefore cannot be discarded despite the existence of the Cluster IMF Theorem. This means that the currently existing star-formation theory fails to describe the stellar outcome, because it predicts a dependency of the IMF on the physical boundary conditions not observed. The IGIMF Theorem, however, predicts a variation of galaxy-wide IMFs in dependence of the galaxy's star-formation rate even if the IMF Universality Hypothes...

  12. IMF Loans to Hungary, 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    György Csáki

    2013-01-01

    Hungary has been an IMF member since May 1982 and has since benefited from the IMF’s lending instruments on 11 occasions. The IMF loans supported economic transformation (in the period between 1988 and 1993), facilitated Hungary in overcoming the transformation recession (in 1996) and helped to tackle economic crisis (in 2008). This paper analyses the two latter IMF loans in order to provide background context to Hungary’s IMF negotiations, ongoing since November 2011.Ever since 1982, Hungary...

  13. The financial benefits of the IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Age F. P. Bakker

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The IMF provides loans to countries in financial distress at a relatively low interest rate. In this article we calculate how much the seven largest debtors to the IMF have saved on interest payments during the Asian crisis and its aftermath. We explain how the IMF can charge these low interest rates and at what cost for creditor countries. The conditionality attached to the use of IMF resources in the form of policy measures reduces moral hazard behaviour; we argue that this is a better instrument than raising interest rates on IMF loans.

  14. Gradient in the IMF slope and Sodium abundance of M87 with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Sarzi, M.; Krajnovic, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present evidence for a radial variation of the stellar initial mass function IMF) in the giant elliptical NGC~4486 based on integral-field MUSE data acquired during the first Science Verification run for this instrument. A steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF towards the centre of this galaxy is necessary to explain the increasing strength of several of the optical IMF sensitive features introduced by Spiniello et al., which we observe in high-quality spectra extracted in annular apertures. The need for a varying slope of the IMF emerges when the strength of these IMF-sensitive features, together with that other classical Lick indices mostly sensitive to stellar metallicity and the bundance of α-elements, are fitted with the state-of-the-art stellar population models from Conroy & van Dokkum and Vazdekis et al., which we modified in order to allow variations in IMF slope, metallicity and α-elements abundance. More specifically, adopting 13-Gyr-old, single-age stellar population models and an unimodal IMF we find that the slope of the latter increases from x=1.8 to x=2.6 in the central 25 arcsec of NGC~4486. Varying IMF accompanied by a metallicity gradient, whereas the abundance of α-element appears constant throughout the MUSE field of view. We found metallicity and α-element abundance gradients perfectly consistent with the literature. A sodium over-abundance is necessary (according to CvD12 models) at all the distances (for all the apertures) and a slight gradient of increasing [Na/Fe] ratio towards the center can be inferred. However, in order to completely break the degeneracies between Na-abundance, total metallicity and IMF variation a more detailed investigation that includes the redder NaI line is required.

  15. The financial benefits of the IMF

    OpenAIRE

    Age F. P. Bakker; Martijn A. Schrijvers

    2000-01-01

    The IMF provides loans to countries in financial distress at a relatively low interest rate. In this article we calculate how much the seven largest debtors to the IMF have saved on interest payments during the Asian crisis and its aftermath. We explain how the IMF can charge these low interest rates and at what cost for creditor countries. The conditionality attached to the use of IMF resources in the form of policy measures reduces moral hazard behaviour; we argue that this is a better inst...

  16. IMF conditionality – a better way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SPRAOS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at IMF conditions for upper credit tranche stand-by arrangements. The IMF must face the criticism that its recent actions have transgressed on private banks' territory because of banks' errors in lending to third world countries - a matter that could have been left to free market forces. Conditions for IMF aid should focus not on policy instruments but on policy targets, such as growth, employment, inflation and, ultimately, restoration of countries' balance of payments positions. Conditions for IMF help should be centred squarely on the balance of payments of aid-seeking countries if a backwards trend is to be avoided.

  17. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population.

  18. The Stellar IMF from turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, P.; Nordlund, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is unavoidable in super-sonically turbulent molecular clouds, and given the success of the present model to predict the observed shape of the Stellar IMF, they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is essential to the origin of the stellar IMF.

  19. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions...

  20. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions......The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model...

  1. President Ilves kohtus IMF-i delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 22. oktoobril 2009 Eestis viibinud IMF-i delegatsiooni juhi Christoph B. Rosenbergiga. Kohtumisel kõneldi Eesti rahanduspoliitika hetkeseisust ja majanduse väljavaadetest

  2. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  3. The IMF of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, G.; Paresce, F.

    1999-12-01

    Accurate luminosity functions (LF) for a dozen globular clusters have now been measured at or just beyond their half-light radius using HST. They span almost the entire cluster main sequence below 0.75 MO. All these clusters exhibit LF that rise continuously from an absolute I magnitude MI 6 to a peak at MI 8.5-9 and then drop with increasing MI. Transformation of the LF into mass functions (MF) by means of the most recent mass luminosity relations that are consistent with all presently available data on the physical properties of low mass, low metallicity stars shows that all the LF observed so far can be obtained from MF having the shape of a log-normal distribution with characteristic mass mc=0.33 +/- 0.03 MO and standard deviation sigma =1.81 +/- 0.19. In particular, the LF of the four clusters in the sample that extend well beyond the peak luminosity down to close to the Hydrogen burning limit (NGC6341, NGC6397, NGC6752, and NGC6809) can only be reproduced by such distributions and not by a single power-law in the 0.1 - 0.6 MO range. After correction for the effects of mass segregation, the variation of the ratio of the number of higher to lower mass stars with cluster mass or any simple orbital parameter or the expected time to disruption recently computed for these clusters shows no statistically significant trend over a range of this last parameter of more than a factor of 100. We conclude that the global MF of these clusters have not been measurably modified by evaporation and tidal interactions with the Galaxy and, thus, should reflect the initial distribution of stellar masses. Since the log-normal function that we find is also very similar to the one obtained independently for much younger clusters and to the form expected theoretically, the implication seems to be unavoidable that it represents the true stellar IMF for this type of stars in this mass range.

  4. The IMF from Low to High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Greggio, Laura

    2012-01-01

    From time to time, and quite more frequently in recent years, claims appear favoring a variable Initial Mass Function (IMF), one way or another, either in time or space. In this chapter we add our two pennies of wisdom, illustrating how the IMF affects various properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We start by showing that even relatively small variations of the IMF slope have large effects on the demography of stellar populations, moving the bulk of the stellar mass from one end to the other of the distribution. We then point out how the slope of the IMF in different mass ranges controls specific major properties of galaxies and clusters. The slope of the IMF below ~1 solar mass controls the M/L ratio of local ellipticals, whereas the slope between ~1 and ~1.4 solar masses controls the evolution with redshift of such ratio, hence of the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies. Similarly, the slope between ~1 and ~40 solar masses drives the ratio of the global metal mass in clusters of galaxies to their...

  5. The IMF supported program in Serbia & Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutinović Dijana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On December 20, 2000 Yugoslavia was readmitted to the IMF, which led to the approval of emergency post conflict assistance. On June 11, 2001, the Executive Board of the IMF approved a Stand-by arrangement. On May 13, 2002 the Executive Board of the IMF approved an Extended Arrangement. In general the IMF supported programs are focused on the following: (I restrained fiscal policy; (II consistent monetary and exchange rate policies; (III wage and price policies; and (IV structural policy. In the period from 2001 to 2003, considerable progress was made in the creation of an appropriate institutional environment for the operation of a market economy. Serbia & Montenegro is growing at rate that are about twice as large as EU growth rate; however, after a two year period of recovery and accelerated reforms 2003 has seen a slowing in the rate of economic growth. Although inflation was relatively low in 2003, large imbalances continued: (I the fiscal deficit amounted to 4.2 percent of GDP on a cash basis; (II. the current account deficit was 12.5 percent of GDP. Having in mind two potential causes of macroeconomic instability, discussions between the IMF and country authorities focused on the need to tighten fiscal policy to reduce the pace of domestic demand and improve the current account deficit in the short run.

  6. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model...... in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions...... countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss...

  7. THE NEW FACE OF THE IMF

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The idea for this report was the seminar for civil society organizations organized by the IMF at the JVI in cooperation with the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe took place in Vienna at October 31 – November 2, 2007. Mr. Mico Apostolov attended the seminar as a CEA member and he has prepared a report upon which this report to USAID was prepared. The seminar was organized on the bases of the constant effort of IMF to introduce as much as possible transparency into its work with the wide...

  8. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  9. IMF says to stay the course

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline Valuutafond ja Euroopa Komisjon toetavad praegust Läti majanduskurssi. IMF-i kirjast, mis käsitleb lati devalveerimise teemat ja mis on väidetavalt võltsing. Läti keskpanga juht Ilmars Rimsevics leiab, et devalvatsioon oleks riigile väga kahjulik

  10. Hoidu IMF-i eest! / Heido Vitsur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vitsur, Heido, 1944-

    2000-01-01

    Maailmapangast oma avameelsete avalduste pärast lahkuma sunnitud endine peaökonomist Joseph Stieglitz hoiatas üleminekumaid, et nad ei jälgiks liiga täpselt IMF-i soovitusi, sest need võivad kahjulikud olla

  11. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  12. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  13. Hoidu IMF-i eest! / Heido Vitsur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vitsur, Heido, 1944-

    2000-01-01

    Maailmapangast oma avameelsete avalduste pärast lahkuma sunnitud endine peaökonomist Joseph Stieglitz hoiatas üleminekumaid, et nad ei jälgiks liiga täpselt IMF-i soovitusi, sest need võivad kahjulikud olla

  14. Need kolm õudset tähte - IMF / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Autor käsitleb lähemalt Rahvusvahelist Valuutafondi (IMF) ja kriitikat fondi tegutsemise kohta. Mitmed IMF-iga kokku puutunud riigid püüavad iga hinna eest võlast vabaneda, samas suunib praegune majanduskriis IMF-i poole pöörduma

  15. Does the IMF Help or Hurt? The Effect of IMF programs on the likelihood and outcome of currency crises

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Walter, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    Using panel data for 68 countries over the period 1975-2002 this paper examines how IMF programs, disbursed loans, and compliance with conditionality affect the risk of currency crises and the outcome of such crises. Specifically, we investigate whether countries with previous IMF intervention are more likely to experience currency crises. In a second step, we analyze the IMF's impact on a country's decision to adjust the exchange rate, once a crisis occurred. We find that IMF involvement red...

  16. The Salpeter Slope of the IMF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2012-01-01

    If we accept a paradigm that star formation is a self-similar, hierarchical process, then the Salpeter slope of the IMF for high-mass stars can be simply and elegantly explained as follows. If the instrinsic IMF at the smallest scales follows a simple -2 power-law slope, then the steepening to the -2.35 Salpeter value results when the most massive stars cannot form in the lowest-mass clumps of a cluster. It is stressed that this steepening MUST occur if clusters form hierarchically from clumps, and the lowest-mass clumps can form stars. This model is consistent with a variety of observations as well as theoretical simulations.

  17. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  18. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more......" should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms....

  19. IMF shape constraints from stellar populations and dynamics from CALIFA

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubenova, M; van de Ven, G; Falcón-Barroso, J; Galbany, L; Gallazzi, A; García-Benito, R; Delgado, R González; Husemann, B; La Barbera, F; Marino, R A; Mast, D; Mendez-Abreu, J; Peletier, R F P; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Sánchez, S F; Trager, S C; Bosch, R C E van den; Vazdekis, A; Walcher, C J; Zhu, L; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we describe how we use stellar dynamics information to constrain the shape of the stellar IMF in a sample of 27 early-type galaxies from the CALIFA survey. We obtain dynamical and stellar mass-to-light ratios, $\\Upsilon_\\mathrm{dyn}$ and $\\Upsilon_{\\ast}$, over a homogenous aperture of 0.5~$R_{e}$. We use the constraint $\\Upsilon_\\mathrm{dyn} \\ge \\Upsilon_{\\ast}$ to test two IMF shapes within the framework of the extended MILES stellar population models. We rule out a single power law IMF shape for 75% of the galaxies in our sample. Conversely, we find that a double power law IMF shape with a varying high-mass end slope is compatible (within 1$\\sigma$) with 95% of the galaxies. We also show that dynamical and stellar IMF mismatch factors give consistent results for the systematic variation of the IMF in these galaxies.

  20. IMF Programs: Who Is Chosen and What Are the Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Jong-Wha Lee

    2003-01-01

    IMF loans react to economic conditions but are also sensitive to political-economy variables. Loans tend to be larger and more frequent when a country has a bigger quota and more professional staff at the IMF and when a country is more connected politically and economically to the United States and other major shareholding countries of the IMF. These results are of considerable interest for their own sake. More importantly for present purposes, the results provide instrumental variables for e...

  1. Thermal photon-IMF anticorrelation: a signal of prompt multifragmentation?

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, R

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for IMF emission in central $^{58}$Ni + $^{197}$Au reactions at 30 and 45 MeV/nucleon is investigated by looking at the thermal bremsstrahlung photon production. An IMF - photon anticorrelation signal is observed, for central collisions, at 45 MeV/nucleon with IMF velocity around the center of mass value. This observation is proposed as an evidence for prompt nuclear fragmentation events.

  2. Enough room for Williams and IMF? / Paul Beckman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beckman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Lõppesid Leedu ja USA energeetikakompanii Williams International läbirääkimised Leedu naftakompleksis osaluse omandamise asjus. IMF uurib Leedu majanduslikku arengut, mida tehing Williamsiga komplitseerib

  3. Enough room for Williams and IMF? / Paul Beckman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beckman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Lõppesid Leedu ja USA energeetikakompanii Williams International läbirääkimised Leedu naftakompleksis osaluse omandamise asjus. IMF uurib Leedu majanduslikku arengut, mida tehing Williamsiga komplitseerib

  4. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Cabezas

    2008-01-01

    The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total ...

  5. Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, H

    2001-01-01

    Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.

  6. Searching for the bottom of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Taran; Luhman, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the substellar initial mass function (IMF) and its minimum mass and their dependence on environment would provide a fundamental test of theories of star formation. To provide better constraints on these properties of the IMF, we have performed a search for the least-massive members of nearby star-forming clusters and associations (150-300 pc, <10 Myr). To identify candidate brown dwarfs in these regions, we have measured proper motions for sources detected in multi-epoch images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. To enable these measurements and more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we measured new distortion corrections for IRAC (0.004" systematic error; Esplin & Luhman 2016) and created a pipeline that extracts astrometric positions with errors of 0.02". The resulting proper motion samples of candidate brown dwarfs were then further refined using their color-magnitude diagrams constructed from deep optical and near-IR images. Through spectroscopic observations, we have confirmed many new members of the regions we studied including the least-massive members in several regions (~5 Jupiter masses).

  7. Troubled Talks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The six-party talks on the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue need clearly defined goals and a strengthened process The six-party talks, a multilateral mechanism intended to peacefully resolve the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula, once bore high expectations and optimism from the six participants and international observers concerned about peace and stability in Northeast Asia. However, after five rounds

  8. Talking Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Talking Mats are visualizations in the handy size of a set of cards used to support interviews with people with mental disabilities.......Talking Mats are visualizations in the handy size of a set of cards used to support interviews with people with mental disabilities....

  9. Connection between dynamically derived IMF normalisation and stellar population parameters

    CERN Document Server

    McDermid, Richard M; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the Atlas3D project. We study trends between our dynamically-derived IMF normalisation and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population- (SSP-) equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [alpha/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalisation of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of normalisation at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak IMF-[alpha/Fe] and IMF-age correlations, and no significant IMF-[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalisation via low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectra...

  10. Do loans harm? The Effect of IMF Programs on Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, N.; Unger, B.

    2009-01-01

    IMF programs consist of granting loans, and of conditionality that countries have to follow in order to qualify for them. The paper uses a pooled time-series cross section analysis, covering 98 countries over the period 1970-2000 in order to find out which effect IMF programs have on the personal an

  11. Response of reverse convection to fast IMF transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taguchi, S.; Tawara, A.; Hairston, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the transition that high-latitude reverse convection makes in response to fast interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) changes is investigated using observations from multiple spacecraft and a ground magnetometer array. We focused on two fast IMF-transition events on 22 April 2006...

  12. IMF gives an 'A' for effort / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    23.-29. märtsini külastas Eestit Rahvusvahelise Valuutafondi (IMF) delegatsioon. Delegatsiooni juhi Christoph Rosenbergi sõnul on IMF igati rahul Eesti eelarvepoliitikaga. Christoph Rosenbergi soovitused. Delegatsioon kohtus ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja peaminister Andrus Ansipiga

  13. Field-aligned currents during northward IMF: Morphology and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastätter, L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a global MHD simulation of solar wind magnetosphere interaction during northward IMF. In particular, we emphasize the effect of the IMF B y component on the reconnection geometry and the mapping along field lines to the polar ionosphere, through field-aligned currents. We...... find that the existence and geometry of the polar cap is closely connected to the IMF B y component. During strictly northward IMF the simulated magnetosphere can remain essentially closed because the solar wind field lines reconnect in both hemispheres, thereby creating newly reconnected closed...... dayside field lines. The existence of a small nonzero IMF B y component, however, effectively acts to open up the magnetosphere. When ∣B y ∣

  14. Evidence of a cross-talk regulation of a GA 20-oxidase (FsGA20ox1) by gibberellins and ethylene during the breaking of dormancy in Fagus sylvatica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Angel Pablo; Nicolás, Carlos; Nicolás, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Dolores

    2004-04-01

    Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase) is an enzyme that catalyses the last three steps in the synthesis of active GAs and is a potential control point in the regulation of GA biosynthesis. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerated oligonucleotides conserved among GA 20-oxidases was used to isolate a cDNA clone for this enzyme in Fagus sylvatica L. seeds. This clone contains all the features and exhibits homology to GA 20 oxidases from several plant species. Expression of this clone, named FsGA20ox1, as a fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed that it was able to metabolize [(14)C]GA(12) to [(14)C]GA(9) and [(14)C]GA(53) to [(14)C]GA(20). Analysis of FsGA20ox1 transcript levels showed similar low expression during stratification at 4 degrees C and in the presence of gibberellic acid or ethephon (compound that releases ethylene in solution), treatments proved to be efficient in breaking the dormancy of beech seeds. However, there was a drastic increase of FsGA20ox1 transcript levels in the presence of paclobutrazol (PCB), a well-known GAs biosynthesis inhibitor, or of 2-aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, the effect of AOA was reversed by the addition of GA(3) and that of PCB by ethephon. This indicates that the gene product is subjected to down-regulation by GA and ethylene, and further suggests a cross-talk gene regulation by these two hormones during the transition from seed dormancy to germination.

  15. Talks on nuclear plant break down

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kasvavad probleemid Leedu tuumaelektrijaama projektiga. Läbirääkimistest Leedu valitsuse ja NDX Energija vahel. DnB Nord Bankas nimetas projekti liiga riskantseks ja kulukaks. Lisa: Eesti Energia board member suggests plant for Estonia

  16. Talks on nuclear plant break down

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kasvavad probleemid Leedu tuumaelektrijaama projektiga. Läbirääkimistest Leedu valitsuse ja NDX Energija vahel. DnB Nord Bankas nimetas projekti liiga riskantseks ja kulukaks. Lisa: Eesti Energia board member suggests plant for Estonia

  17. Do loans harm? The Effect of IMF Programs on Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, N.; Unger, B

    2009-01-01

    IMF programs consist of granting loans, and of conditionality that countries have to follow in order to qualify for them. The paper uses a pooled time-series cross section analysis, covering 98 countries over the period 1970-2000 in order to find out which effect IMF programs have on the personal and wage income distribution of the grant receiving country. Similar to findings on growth (Dreher 2006), IMF programs have also a negative impact on income. This is due mainly to conditionality, whe...

  18. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present...... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...... interfaces. The focus of the chapter is on the design of power talk solutions for DC microgrids with droop control. Specifically, the chapter presents the power talk implementation through modification of the droop parameters of the primary control loop, and investigates the design of modulation schemes...

  19. Miks IMF ei kiirusta riike rahanduskriisist päästma? / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Mitu riiki taotleb IMF-ilt kriisiabi, IMF esitab neile abi andmiseks rangeid nõudeid. Varasemates kriisides on IMF-i rahast piisanud, kuid suuremaid tööstusriike ta välja aidata ei suudaks, selle juhi Dominique Strauss-Kahni prognoosi kohaselt peab IMF seekord välja andma sadu miljardeid dollareid. Lisa: Pangajuhti tabas seksiskandaal

  20. Lithuania manages to steer clear of IMF loans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Leedu peaministri Andrius Kubiliuse sõnul saab Leedu finantssüsteem rahvusvahelistel finantsturgudel kindlust juurde, mis tähendab, et riik võib hakkama saada ilma IMF-i abita. Peaminister eelarvepoliitikast

  1. Unusual magnetopause crossings during long-lasting radial IMF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorov, Kostiantyn; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Prech, Lubomir; Pi, Gilbert; Shue, Jih-Hong

    2016-04-01

    One of the factors which affect the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The very rarely observed radial IMF results in magnetopause locations up to several radii farther away from the Earth than predicted and causes a specific magnetopause shape. We present a case study of magnetopause crossings which were observed by the THEMIS spacecraft and analyze the difference between observed magnetopause positions and those which are predicted by an empirical magnetopause model. We use both the data (if available) from the L1 point and from near-Earth solar wind monitors as a model input. We discuss a role of the long-lasting radial IMF orientation on the magnetopause position and the influences of other parameters such as the dynamic pressure and IMF BZ component at different local times.

  2. Lithuania manages to steer clear of IMF loans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Leedu peaministri Andrius Kubiliuse sõnul saab Leedu finantssüsteem rahvusvahelistel finantsturgudel kindlust juurde, mis tähendab, et riik võib hakkama saada ilma IMF-i abita. Peaminister eelarvepoliitikast

  3. Girl Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    but also exhausting. In this paper I will try to understand the girls talk not as opposed to or different from the daily suffering, but as an intrinsic part of the suffering in which a lot of effort is put into trying to ignore the partly shared knowledge of eachother lives. While the willed ignorance (cf...

  4. Street Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Ronell

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the fragile intersection where rumor and a more "authentic" modality of language can be shown to cross over into one another. Treating the relationship of Benjamin, Heidegger and Rousseau to rumoro-logical paranoia, "Street-Talk" interprets the epistemological teetering between the knowing and not-knowing around which Fama articulates her power. All three of these thinkers are shown to be exemplarily afflicted by rumorous utterances and share a drive to create, in their works, a rumor control center. Often these controls take over the features which they attempt to disown; thus the greatest moment of truth-telling appropriates the form of inferential small-talk. The essay analyzes a temporality of writing disclosed by Rousseau's Promenades in terms of an après-ma-mort structure. Finally, guided by Blanchot's insights and Huet's notion of monsterized publicity, the essay addresses the rapport of rumor to oeuvre: Ecce Fama .

  5. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio Zwirner

    2004-02-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.

  6. Fifty Years of IMF Variation: The Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J

    2004-01-01

    I track the history of star count estimates of the Milky Way field star and open cluster IMFs, concentrating on the neglected mass range from 1 to 15 M${_\\odot}$. The prevalent belief in a universal IMF appears to be without basis for this mass range. Two recent estimates of the field star IMF using different methods and samples give values of the average logarithmic slope $\\Gamma$ between -1.7 and -2.1 in the mass range 1.1 to 4 M${_\\odot}$. Two older estimates between 2 and 15 M${_\\odot}$ disagree severely; the field IMF in this range is essentially unknown from star counts. Variations in $\\Gamma$ among open cluster IMFs in this mass range have not decreased despite numerous detailed studies, even for studies using homogeneous data and reduction procedures and including only clusters with a significant mass range. These cluster variations \\textit{might} be due to the combined effects of sampling, systematic errors, stellar evolution uncertainties, dynamical evolution, and unresolved binaries. If so, then th...

  7. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  8. Field-aligned currents during northward IMF: Morphology and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastätter, L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a global MHD simulation of solar wind magnetosphere interaction during northward IMF. In particular, we emphasize the effect of the IMF B y component on the reconnection geometry and the mapping along field lines to the polar ionosphere, through field-aligned currents. We...... dayside field lines. The existence of a small nonzero IMF B y component, however, effectively acts to open up the magnetosphere. When ∣B y ∣ position of the polar cap is strongly asymmetric with respect to the noon-midnight meridian, depending on the sign of B y . In the northern hemisphere for B...... y positive(negative) the polar cap is then located mainly in the dawnside (duskside), in close accordance with what have been observed using particle precipitation data or auroral observations. The simulated NBZ currents map to major portions of the magnetopause: the flanks and the mantle. They can...

  9. Talking Doha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Washington seeks Beijing's support to jump-start difficult trade negotiations "The Doha Round is...an important reason why I am in China today," said Susan C. Schwab on her first trip to Beijing as the U.S. Trade Representative. During her trip to China on August 27-29, the top U.S. trade envoy urged China on different occasions to play a bigger role in promoting the resumption of the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks. Stressing that China is an important member of the

  10. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel communication strategy called Power Talk is introduced to realize the power line communication among the Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of DC MicroGrids (MGs). Each VSC transmits information by changing the control parameters, and receives information by observing the local...... output power. By using common coding schemes, which transform the DC MGs in some familiar communication channels, some important communication challenges can be addressed, such as random load variations and VSCs switching, as it do not need a separate communication channel. For this purpose, two multiple...

  11. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  12. The IMF as a function of supersonic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli Motta, C.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Pasquali, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies seem to suggest that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies might be different from a classical Kroupa or Chabrier IMF, i.e. contain a larger fraction of the total mass in low-mass stars. From a theoretical point of view, supersonic turbulence has been the subject of interest in many analytical theories proposing a strong correlation with the characteristic mass of the core mass function (CMF) in star-forming regions, and as a consequence with the stellar IMF. Performing two suites of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with different mass resolutions, we aim at testing the effects of variations in the turbulent properties of a dense, star-forming molecular cloud on the shape of the system mass function in different density regimes. While analytical theories predict a shift of the peak of the CMF towards lower masses with increasing velocity dispersion of the cloud, we observe in the low-density regime the opposite trend, with high Mach numbers giving rise to a top-heavy mass distribution. For the high-density regime we do not find any trend correlating the Mach number with the characteristic mass of the resulting IMF, implying that the dynamics of protostellar accretion discs and fragmentation on small scales is not strongly affected by turbulence driven at the scale of the cloud. Furthermore, we suggest that a significant fraction of dense cores are disrupted by turbulence before stars can be formed in their interior through gravitational collapse. Although this particular study has limitations in its numerical resolution, we suggest that our results, along with those from other studies, cast doubt on the turbulent fragmentation models on the IMF that simply map the CMF to the IMF.

  13. Talking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Communication is made possible for disabled individuals by means of an electronic system, developed at Stanford University's School of Medicine, which produces highly intelligible synthesized speech. Familiarly known as the "talking wheelchair" and formally as the Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP). Wheelchair mounted system consists of a word processor, a video screen, a voice synthesizer and a computer program which instructs the synthesizer how to produce intelligible sounds in response to user commands. Computer's memory contains 925 words plus a number of common phrases and questions. Memory can also store several thousand other words of the user's choice. Message units are selected by operating a simple switch, joystick or keyboard. Completed message appears on the video screen, then user activates speech synthesizer, which generates a voice with a somewhat mechanical tone. With the keyboard, an experienced user can construct messages as rapidly as 30 words per minute.

  14. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  15. The CMF as provenance of the stellar IMF ?

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we examined the hypothesis that, a core mass function (CMF), such as the one deduced for cores in the Orion molecular cloud (OMC), could possibly be the primogenitor of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Using the rate of accretion of a protostar from its natal core as a free parameter, we demonstrate its quintessential role in determining the shape of the IMF. By varying the rate of accretion, we show that a stellar mass distribution similar to the universal IMF could possibly be generated starting from either a typical CMF such as the one for the OMC, or a uniform distribution of prestellar core masses which leads us to suggest, the apparent similarity in shapes of the CMF and the IMF is perhaps, only incidental. The apodosis of the argument being, complex physical processes leading to stellar birth are crucial in determining the final stellar masses, and consequently, the shape of stellar mass distribution. This work entails partial Monte-Carlo treatment of the problem, and starti...

  16. IMF on jäänud usalduskriisi / Harold James

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    James, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline Valuutafond (IMF) peab enda ees seisvate uute ülesannete täitmiseks taastama oma liikmete usalduse. Ta võiks olla võimas finantsalane stabiliseerija, kui saaks hakkama uute ülejäägiga riikide reservvaraga. Äripäevas art. lüh.

  17. IMF: Eesti vajab eelarve tasakaalu nimel lisapingutust / Hannes Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    IMF-i Eesti-missiooni juhi Christoph Rosenbergi sõnul on tarvis püüelda tasakaalus riigieelarve poole ja selle nimel täiendavalt pingutada. Tagada tuleb eelarvepoliitika jätkusuutlikkus ka olukorras, kus maksubaas kuivab kokku, kuid kulutused suurenevad. Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi, Eesti Panga presidendi Andres Lipstoki seisukoht

  18. IMF soovitab Eestil vajadusel tõsta makse / Birjo Must

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Must, Birjo

    2010-01-01

    IMF soovitab Eestil jätkata ranget eelarvepoliitikat, tasakaalustatud eelarve saavutamisel peaks Eesti kaaluma käibemaksu, keskkonnamaksu ja varamaksude tõstmist. Eesti peaks 2013. aastaks saavutama ülejäägiga eelarve, kuid vältima positiivset lisaeelarvet

  19. President ja IMF nõuavad valitsuselt otsuseid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese sõnul kaotab Eesti valitsusliidus puhkenud tüli tõttu aega ja usaldusväärsust. Eestis viibinud IMF-i delegatsiooni juht Cristoph Rosenberg viitas, et üksnes kulude kärpimine ei pruugi anda parimat tulemust. Diagramm

  20. IMF on jäänud usalduskriisi / Harold James

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    James, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline Valuutafond (IMF) peab enda ees seisvate uute ülesannete täitmiseks taastama oma liikmete usalduse. Ta võiks olla võimas finantsalane stabiliseerija, kui saaks hakkama uute ülejäägiga riikide reservvaraga. Äripäevas art. lüh.

  1. Pulsed flows observed during an interval of prolonged northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Provan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On the 22 December 2002 the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was directed northwards for more than 12h. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars were used to study global high-latitude convection during this interval, complemented by data from the ACE and DMSP F13 spacecraft. The relative magnitudes of the IMF By and Bz components varied during this period. When the magnitude of the By component was comparable with or dominated the Bz component, signatures of simultaneous low-latitude and lobe reconnection were observed. Specifically two "standard" merging cells were observed in both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere a high-latitude lobe cell was observed within the dusk merging cell, and there was also evidence of a narrow viscous cell located equatorward of this lobe cell. We observed the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, occurring with a periodicity of ~15min. In the Northern Hemisphere the FTEs were associated with a stepwise equatorward progression of the equatorward boundary of radar backscatter on the dayside. When the IMF Bz component was predominantly greater than the IMF By component, we observed a four-cell convection pattern in the Northern Hemisphere, with pulses of reverse reconnection and an associated stepwise poleward retraction of the equatorward boundary of radar backscatter occurring every ~25min. These observations are consistent with pulsed lobe reconnection occurring in both hemispheres, closing open flux and adding closed flux to the dayside magnetopause. So, during this northward IMF interval the location of the sites of reconnection between the IMF and the Earth's magnetosphere, and thus the form of reconnection process, varied with changing IMF conditions. However, the reconnection remained pulsed, with lobe-only reconnection having a significantly longer

  2. Talking to Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctor Research Underway Plain Language Talking to Your Doctor Preparing for Your Medical Appointment (4:37) Understanding ... sources of information. How to Talk to your Doctor Talking With Your Doctor , NIH News in Health ...

  3. IMF-Supported Programmes: Stimulating Capital to Non-defaulting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, K.J.M. van der; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    International Monetary Fund (IMF)-supported programmes catalyse private capital to non-defaulting countries. We find the IMF to be effective in stimulating private capital flows to middle-income countries that participate in a Fund programme, but do not restructure their debt. IMF-supported programm

  4. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  5. IMF-Supported Programmes: Stimulating Capital to Non-defaulting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, K.J.M. van der; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    International Monetary Fund (IMF)-supported programmes catalyse private capital to non-defaulting countries. We find the IMF to be effective in stimulating private capital flows to middle-income countries that participate in a Fund programme, but do not restructure their debt. IMF-supported

  6. Investigation of the IMF By influence on magnetotail By outside the neutral sheet using Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Timo; Hedman, Robert; Norqvist, Patrik; Hamrin, Maria; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Vaverka, Jakub; Lindkvist, Jesper; Yao, Shutao; Rong, Zhaojin; Browett, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We investigate Cluster magnetotail measurements and OMNI interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data from 2001-2009 to study IMF By influence on the Earth's magnetotail. A few previous studies have focused on what is the tail By component induced by IMF By at the neutral sheet. This statistical investigation pursue how induced tail By is distributed and depends on the IMF outside the neutral sheet. The investigation will provide information how efficiently the additional tail By component is induced at different tail regions during various IMF conditions.

  7. Break It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; GWYNN GUILFORD

    2008-01-01

    @@ Resolutions are not natural - otherwise you wouldn't have to "resolve" to execute them. This year, instead of planning how to commit to a slew of unattainable goals, why not prepare for breaking your resolutions the right way?

  8. A Sea of Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John, Ed.

    Arguing that talk has an important place in the English language arts curriculum and across the whole curriculum, this book presents examples of children and teachers talking together, talking about what they are doing "here and now," and talking about what they know and feel about events shaping the world beyond the classroom. Chapter…

  9. Implications of Galaxy Buildup for Putative IMF Variations in Massive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancato, Kirsten; Genel, Shy; Bryan, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Recent observational evidence for initial mass function (IMF) variations in massive quiescent galaxies at z = 0 challenges the long-established paradigm of a universal IMF. While a few theoretical models relate the IMF to birth cloud conditions, the physical driver underlying these putative IMF variations is still largely unclear. Here we use post-processing analysis of the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate possible physical origins of IMF variability with galactic properties. We do so by tagging stellar particles in the simulation (each representing a stellar population of ≈ {10}6 {M}⊙ ) with individual IMFs that depend on various physical conditions, such as velocity dispersion, metallicity, or star formation rate, at the time and place in which the stars are formed. We then follow the assembly of these populations throughout cosmic time and reconstruct the overall IMF of each z = 0 galaxy from the many distinct IMFs it is composed of. Our main result is that applying the observed relations between IMF and galactic properties to the conditions at the star formation sites does not result in strong enough IMF variations between z = 0 galaxies. Steeper physical IMF relations are required for reproducing the observed IMF trends, and some stellar populations must form with more extreme IMFs than those observed. The origin of this result is the hierarchical nature of massive galaxy assembly, and it has implications for the reliability of the strong observed trends, for the ability of cosmological simulations to capture certain physical conditions in galaxies, and for theories of star formation aiming to explain the physical origin of a variable IMF.

  10. Auroral Substorm Time Scales: Seasonal and IMF Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The time scales and phases of auroral substorm, activity are quantied in this study using the hemispheric power computed from Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) images. We have applied this technique to several hundred substorm events and we are able to quantify how the characterist act, of substorms vary with season and IMF Bz orientation. We show that substorm time scales vary more strongly with season than with IMF Bz orientation. The recovery time for substorm. activity is well ordered by whether or not the nightside oral zone is sunlit. The recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the winter and equinox periods are similar and are both roughly a factor of two longer than in summer when the auroral oval is sunlit. Our results support the hypothesis that the ionosphere plays an active role in governing the dynamics of the aurora.

  11. Cusp observations during a sequence of fast IMF BZ reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large number of papers have reported the response of the cusp to solar wind variations under conditions of northward or southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF Z-component (BZ. These studies have shown the importance of both temporal and spatial factors in determining the extent and morphology of the cusp and the changes in its location, connected to variations in the reconnection geometry. Here we present a comparative study of the cusp, focusing on an interval characterised by a series of rapid reversals in the BZ-dominated IMF, based on observations from space-borne and ground-based instrumentation. During this interval, from 08:00 to 12:00 UT on 12 February 2003, the IMF BZ component underwent four reversals, remaining for around 30 min in each orientation. The Cluster spacecraft were, at the time, on an outbound trajectory through the Northern Hemisphere magnetosphere, whilst the mainland VHF and Svalbard (ESR radars of the EISCAT facility were operating in support of the Cluster mission. Both Cluster and the EISCAT were, on occasion during the interval, observing the cusp region. The series of IMF reversals resulted in a sequence of poleward and equatorward motions of the cusp; consequently Cluster crossed the high-altitude cusp twice before finally exiting the dayside magnetopause, both times under conditions of northward IMF BZ. The first magnetospheric cusp encounter, by all four Cluster spacecraft, showed reverse ion dispersion typical of lobe reconnection; subsequently, Cluster spacecraft 1 and 3 (only crossed the cusp for a second time. We suggest that, during this second cusp crossing, these two spacecraft were likely to have been on newly closed field lines, which were first reconnected (opened at low latitudes and later reconnected again (re-closed poleward of the northern cusp. At ionospheric altitudes, the latitudinal excursions of the cusp/cleft region in response to the series of the IMF polarity

  12. Rahahädas riigid teevad IMF-i kukru kiirelt tühjaks / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Finantskrahhi tõttu raskustesse sattunud riigid taotlevad IMF-ilt laenu, esimesed kuus riiki taotlevad kokku summat, mis küünib veerandini IMF-i reservidest. Briti peaministri Gordon Browni teatel ei piisa IMF-i kriisivarudest globaalsete tagasilöökide ärahoidmiseks. Lisa: IMF peab raha juurde küsima

  13. Rahahädas riigid teevad IMF-i kukru kiirelt tühjaks / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Finantskrahhi tõttu raskustesse sattunud riigid taotlevad IMF-ilt laenu, esimesed kuus riiki taotlevad kokku summat, mis küünib veerandini IMF-i reservidest. Briti peaministri Gordon Browni teatel ei piisa IMF-i kriisivarudest globaalsete tagasilöökide ärahoidmiseks. Lisa: IMF peab raha juurde küsima

  14. Observations of the cusp region under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of the cusp region using the EISCAT Svalbard Radars (ESR and the Cluster spacecraft. We focus in this paper on 2 February 2001, over the time period from 07:30 UT to 12:00 UT when the oblique ESR antenna pointing northward at a low elevation recorded latitudinal motions of the cusp region in response to the IMF. Meanwhile, the Cluster satellites were flying over the EISCAT Svalbard Radar field-of-view around local magnetic noon. The spacecraft first flew near ESR, northeast of Svalbard and then passed over the field-of-view of the antenna at about 11:30 UT. From 08:00 UT to 09:00 UT, the IMF remains primarily southward yet several variations in the Z-component are seen to move the cusp. Around 09:00 UT, an abrupt northward turning of the IMF moves the cusp region to higher latitudes. As a result, the Cluster satellites ended up in the northernmost boundary of the high-altitude cusp region where the CIS instrument recorded highly structured plasma due to ion injections in the lobe of the magnetosphere. After 09:00 UT, the IMF remains northward for more than two hours. Over this period, the ESR records sunward plasma flow in the cusp region due to lobe reconnection, while Cluster spacecraft remain in the high-altitude cusp.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection Ionosphere (polar ionosphere

  15. Magnetotail Structure and its Internal Particle Dynamics During Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Raeder, J.; El-Alaoui, M.; Peroomian, V.

    1998-01-01

    This study uses Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations driven by solar wind data along with Geotail observations of the magnetotail to investigate the magnetotail's response to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); observed events used in the study occurred on March 29, 1993 and February 9, 1995. For events from February 9, 1995, we also use the time-dependent MHD magnetic and electric fields and the large-scale kinetic (LSK) technique to examine changes in the Geotail ion velocity distributions. Our MHD simulation shows that on March 29, 1993, during a long period of steady northward IMF, the tail was strongly squeezed and twisted around the Sun-Earth axis in response to variations in the IMF B(sub y) component. The mixed (magnetotail and magnetosheath) plasma observed by Geotail results from the spacecraft's close proximity to the magnetopause and its frequent crossings of this boundary. In our second example (February 9, 1995) the IMF was also steady and northward, and in addition had a significant B(sub y) component. Again the magnetotail was twisted, but not as strongly as on March 29, 1993. The Geotail spacecraft, located approximately 30 R(sub E) downtail, observed highly structured ion distribution functions. Using the time-dependent LSK technique, we investigate the ion sources and acceleration mechanisms affecting the Geotail distribution functions during this interval. At 1325 UT most ions are found to enter the magnetosphere on the dusk side earthward of Geotail with a secondary source on the dawn side in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL). A small percentage come from the ionosphere. By 1347 UT the majority of the ions come from the dawn side LLBL. The distribution functions measured during the later time interval are much warmer, mainly because particles reaching the spacecraft from the dawn side are affected by nonadiabatic scattering and acceleration in the neutral sheet.

  16. Polar ionospheric responses to solar wind IMF changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    Full Text Available Auroral and airglow emissions over Eureka (89° CGM during the 1997-98 winter show striking variations in relation to solar wind IMF changes. The period January 19 to 22, 1998, was chosen for detailed study, as the IMF was particularly strong and variable. During most of the period, Bz was northward and polar arcs were observed. Several overpasses by DMSP satellites during the four day period provided a clear picture of the particle precipitation producing the polar arcs. The spectral character of these events indicated excitation by electrons of average energy 300 to 500 eV. Only occasionally were electrons of average energy up to ~1 keV observed and these appeared transitory from the ground optical data. It is noted that polar arcs appear after sudden changes in IMF By, suggesting IMF control over arc initiation. When By is positive there is arc motion from dawn to dusk, while By is negative the motion is consistently dusk to dawn. F-region (anti-sunward convections were monitored through the period from 630.0 nm emissions. The convection speed was low (100-150 m/s when Bz was northward but increased to 500 m/s after Bz turned southward on January 20.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora - Ionosphere (particle precipitation - Magnetospheric Physics (polar cap phenomena

  17. On the origins and timescales of geoeffective IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew J.; Barnard, Luke A.; Bentley, Sarah; Scott, Chris J.; Watt, Clare E.

    2016-06-01

    Southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM) reference frame is the key element that controls the level of space weather disturbance in Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. We discuss the relation of this geoeffective IMF component to the IMF in the geocentric solar ecliptic (GSE) frame, and using the almost continuous interplanetary data for 1996-2015 (inclusive), we show that large geomagnetic storms are always associated with strong southward, out-of-ecliptic field in the GSE frame: Dipole tilt effects, which cause the difference between the southward field in the GSM and GSE frames, generally make only a minor contribution to these strongest storms. The time-of-day/time-of-year response patterns of geomagnetic indices and the optimum solar wind coupling function are both influenced by the timescale of the index response. We also study the occurrence spectrum of large out-of-ecliptic field and show that for 1 h averages it is, surprisingly, almost identical in ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections), around CIRs/SIRs (corotating and stream interaction regions) and in the "quiet" solar wind (which is shown to be consistent with the effect of weak SIRs). However, differences emerge when the timescale over which the field remains southward is considered: for longer averaging timescales the spectrum is broader inside ICMEs, showing that these events generate longer intervals of strongly southward average IMF and consequently stronger geomagnetic storms. The behavior of out-of-ecliptic field with timescale is shown to be very similar to that of deviations from the predicted Parker spiral orientation, suggesting the two share common origins.

  18. The IMF as a function of supersonic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Clio Bertelli; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S; Pasquali, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies seem to suggest that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies might be different from a classical Kroupa or Chabrier IMF, i.e. contain a larger fraction of the total mass in low-mass stars. From a theoretical point of view, supersonic turbulence has been the subject of interest in many analytical theories proposing a strong correlation with the characteristic mass of the core mass function (CMF) in star forming regions, and as a consequence with the stellar IMF. Performing two suites of smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with different mass resolutions, we aim at testing the effects of variations in the turbulent properties of a dense, star forming molecular cloud on the shape of the system mass function in different density regimes. While analytical theories predict a shift of the peak of the CMF towards lower masses with increasing velocity dispersion of the cloud, we observe in the low-density regime the opposite trend, with high Mach numbers giving rise...

  19. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  20. The observed North-South Asymmetry of IMF spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Xue, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    We appraise the finding, reported in the literature, that a small but finite north-south asymmetry (NSA) exists in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) spiral at Earth's orbit. We have analyzed the data available on the Omnitape for the 1963 to 1993 period. The coverage is very uneven, ranging from less than 40% to greater than 80%. The magnitude of NSA fluctuates considerably during the period of our analysis. This is true even if one considers the period 1967 to 1982 when the coverage is greater than 50%. The values of NSA derived from 27-day averages of the hourly data points range from greater than +50 deg to less than -40 deg. If one arranges the data according to the magnetic polarity epochs of the solar polar field, the epoch averages gives the magnitude of NSA less than approximately 2 deg. This is also true, if one considers the average magnitude of NSA for the 1965 to 1993 period, when the coverage is greater than 25%. A genuine, persistent, NSA of IMF spiral is likely to affect the cosmic ray modulation, on either side of the current sheet, by introducing a corresponding change in the radial diffusion coefficient of energetic particle transport in the heliosphere. The annual mean values of the observed NSA of IMF spiral are compared with the observed off-ecliptic contributions to cosmic ray modulation.

  1. Modern yields per stellar generation: the effect of the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous and stellar metallicities in galaxies are nowadays routinely used to constrain the evolutionary processes in galaxies. This requires the knowledge of the average yield per stellar generation, $y_{\\text{Z}}$, i.e. the quantity of metals that a stellar population releases into the interstellar medium (ISM), which is generally assumed to be a fixed fiducial value. Deviations of the observed metallicity from the expected value of $y_{\\text{Z}}$ are used to quantify the effect of outflows or inflows of gas, or even as evidence for biased metallicity calibrations or inaccurate metallicity diagnostics. Here we show that $\\rm y_{\\text{Z}}$ depends significantly on the Initial Mass Function (IMF), varying by up to a factor larger than three, for the range of IMFs typically adopted in various studies. This, along with the variation of the gas mass fraction restored into the ISM by supernovae ($R$, which also depends on the IMF), may yield to deceiving results, if not properly taken into account. In particular, ...

  2. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arun; Ajay Dhar; K Emperumal; B M Pathan

    2005-04-01

    In this paper the duskward extension of the westward auroral electrojet is investigated for substorm intervals on the basis of magnetograms recorded at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri. The database comprises three years from 1998-2000. Based on an initial study of the magnetograms, an arbitrary local time of 2030 MLT is fixed to define the early manifestation of the substorm westward electrojet. Using this criterion 12 substorms are identified and the possible causes examined. Many of these events are observed to be associated with a moderate to intense ring current.The hourly average of the GSM BY-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) for the hour preceding the substorm onset at Maitri is negative for most of the events. It is suggested that the azimuthal shift of the auroral electrojets in the southern hemisphere resulting from a negative BY-component of the IMF influences the extent of the substorm westward electrojet. This finding implies that the IMF may have a role in controlling the longitudinal extent of substorm occurrence.

  3. The IMF of stellar clusters: effects of accretion and feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Dib, Sami; Padoan, Paolo; G., Maheswar; Ojha, D K; Khajenabi, Fazeleh

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) We develop a model which describes the coevolution of the mass function of dense cores and of the IMF in a protocluster clump. In the model, cores injected in the clump evolve under the effect of gas accretion. Accretion onto the cores follows a time-dependent accretion rate that describes accretion in a turbulent medium. Once the accretion timescales of cores exceed their contraction timescales, they are turned into stars. We include the effect of feedback by the newly formed massive stars through their stellar winds. A fraction of the wind's energy is assumed to counter gravity and disperse the gas from the protocluster and as a consequence, quench further star formation. The latter effect sets the final IMF of the cluster. We apply our model to a clump that is expected to resemble the progenitor clump of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our model is able to reproduce both the shape and normalization of the ONC's IMF and the mass function of dense cores in Orion. The complex features of the ONC's ...

  4. On the IMF in a Triggered Star Formation Context

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tingtao; Lin, D N C; Gritschneder, Matthias; Lau, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a fundamental issue in the theory of star formation. It is generally fit with a composite power law. Some clues on the progenitors can be found in dense starless cores that have a core mass function (CMF) with a similar shape. In the low-mass end, these mass functions increase with mass, albeit the sample may be somewhat incomplete; in the high-mass end, the mass functions decrease with mass. There is an offset in the turn-over mass between the two mass distributions. The stellar mass for the IMF peak is lower than the corresponding core mass for the CMF peak in the Pipe Nebula by about a factor of three. Smaller offsets are found between the IMF and the CMFs in other nebulae. We suggest that the offset is likely induced during a starburst episode of global star formation which is triggered by the formation of a few O/B stars in the multi-phase media, which naturally emerged through the onset of thermal instability in the cloud-core formation process. W...

  5. Strong IMF By-Related Plasma Convection in the Ionosphere and Cusp Field-Aligned Currents Under Northward IMF Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Lu, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper an investigation of IMF-By related plasma convection and cusp field-aligned currents using FAST data and AMIE model during a prolonged interval with large positive IMF By and northward Bz conditions (By/Bz much greater than 1). Using the FAST single trajectory observations to validate the global convection patterns at key times and key locations, we have demonstrated that the AMIE procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during this interval. Our results show that the plasma convection in the ionosphere is consistent with the anti-parallel merging model. When the IMF has a strongly positive By component under northward conditions, we find that the global plasma convection forms two cells oriented nearly along the Sun-earth line in the ionosphere. In the northern hemisphere, the dayside cell has clockwise convection mainly circulating within the polar cap on open field lines. A second cell with counterclockwise convection is located in the nightside circulating across the polar cap boundary, The observed two-cell convection pattern appears to be driven by the reconnection along the anti-parallel merging lines poleward of the cusp extending toward the dusk side when IMF By/Bz much greater than 1. The magnetic tension force on the newly reconnected field lines drives the plasma to move from dusk to dawn in the polar cusp region near the polar cap boundary. The field-aligned currents in the cusp region flow downward into the ionosphere. The return field-aligned currents extend into the polar cap in the center of the dayside convection cell. The field-aligned currents are closed through the Peterson currents in the ionosphere, which flow poleward from the polar cap boundary along the electric field direction.

  6. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cabezas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total IMF credit. This article brings up lessons  from Latin America’s long-term experience with  the IMF. It tries to assess whether the Institution  is still relevant for the region, and, if so, whether a  ‘mild’ reform is sufficient for the IMF or a more  radical reform is necessary to meet the challenges  faced by Latin American countries in a fast changing global economy. Resumen: El futuro del Fondo  Monetario Internacional: Una perspectiva latinoamericanaLa acelerada tendencia hacia la globalización de  la economía mundial está planteando enormes  demandas a las instituciones globales. El FMI ha  estado buscando una nueva legitimidad en un  mundo donde los países que solicitaban tradicionalmente el respaldo del FMI son cada vez más  independientes económicamente. América Latina,  un usuario frecuente de las facilidades crediticias  del FMI, también ha entrado en una nueva fase de  autonomía financiera con respecto al FMI. Esto  no ha pasado desapercibido, ya que América  Latina da cuenta tradicionalmente de más del 40  por ciento del total de los créditos del FMI. Este  artículo trata las lecciones de la larga experiencia  de América Latina con el FMI. Trata de determinar si la institución es todavía relevante para la  región y, en caso de ser así, si una reforma ‘moderada’ sería suficiente para el FMI o si se necesita  una reforma más radical para responder a los  desafíos que enfrentan los pa

  7. Supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emilian Dudas

    2009-01-01

    We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.

  8. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter elaborates on how to deal with one of the major challenges facing organizations worldwide; Stress. The Break enacts a quantum approach to meet the challenges by proposing a combination of three different quantum storytelling technologies; protreptic mentoring, walking and material sto...

  9. Breaking Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances

    2010-01-01

    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...

  10. Lyman Break Galaxies in the NGST Era

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, H C; Papovich, C; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dickinson, Mark; Papovich, Casey

    2002-01-01

    With SIRTF and NGST in the offing, it is interesting to examine what the stellar populations of z~3 galaxies models imply for the existence and nature of Lyman-break galaxies at higher redshift. To this end, we ``turn back the clock'' on the stellar population models that have been fit to optical and infrared data of Lyman-break galaxies at z~3. The generally young ages (typically 10^8 +- 0.5 yr) of these galaxies imply that their stars were not present much beyond z=4. For smooth star-formation histories SFR(t) and Salpeter IMFs, the ionizing radiation from early star-formation in these galaxies would be insufficient to reionize the intergalactic medium at z~6, and the luminosity density at z~4 would be significantly lower than observed. We examine possible ways to increase the global star-formation rate at higher redshift without violating the stellar-population constraints at z~3.

  11. IMF and Economic Growth : the Effects of Programs, Loans, and Compliance with Conditionality

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel

    2004-01-01

    In theory, the IMF could influence economic growth via several channels, among them advice to policy makers, money disbursed under its programs, and its conditionality. This paper tries to separate those effects empirically. Using panel data for 98 countries over the period 1970-2000 it analyzes whether IMF involvement influences economic growth in program countries. Consistent with the results of previous studies, it is shown that IMF programs reduce growth rates when their endogeneity is ac...

  12. IMPROVING ENGLISH TEACHER TALK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research shows teachers’speaking less so involvesstudents more.So English teacher talk determines tosome extent whether the teaching is successful or not.After giving a brief introduction to teacher talk inEnglish class,this paper analyzes the possible factorsthat affect teacher talk.It then suggests some im-provements of teacher talk in order to better our teach-ing methodology.

  13. Breaking Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.

  14. Comparison of plasma sheet ion composition with the IMF and solar wind plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, W.

    Plasma sheet energetic ion data (0.1- to 16 keV/e) obtained by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE-1 between 10 and 23 earth radii are compared with concurrent IMF and solar wind plasma data. The densities of H(+) and He(++) ions in the plasma sheet are found to be the highest, and the most nearly proportional to the solar wind density, when the IMF B(z) is not northward. The density of terrestrial O(+) ions increases strongly with increasing magnitude of the IMF, in apparent agreement with the notion that the IMF plays a fundamental role in the electric coupling between the solar wind and the ionosphere.

  15. IMF By-Related Cusp Currents Observed from the Ørsted Satellite and from Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz; Watermann, J.

    2001-01-01

    from ground-based magnetic observations to define the structure and location of cusp currents and their dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Example cases illustrate the close relation between IMF B-gamma-related FAC and horizontal ionospheric currents in the cusp region. Our...... statistical analysis defines for the noon region the variations in FAC latitude with IMF B-Z. Comparisons with the statistical cusp location indicate that the more equatorward region of IMF B-gamma-while the more B related FAC is located on field lines closing at the dayside poleward FAC are on "open" field...

  16. Importance of IMF low growth, environmental problem, and energy informationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hong Kon [Korea Institute of Industry and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The advancement of industry implies a high degree of entire industrial structure. The activation of industry in Korea follows the increase of fossil fuel-oriented energy consumption and it implies the increase of carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, the conversion to strategic industrial structure, which reduces energy consumption and increases efficiency, is needed for the continuous and reliable economic development. The foreign advanced industrial technology information can be a measure to protect from the risk and to take a chance in the period of retrenchment and low growth due to IMF.

  17. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, ST

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry, in particular gauge symmetry, is a fundamental principle in theoretical physics. It is intimately connected to the geometry of fibre bundles. A refinement to the gauge principle, known as ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'', leads to one of the most successful theories in modern particle physics. In this short talk, I shall try to give a taste of this beautiful and exciting concept.

  19. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships....... While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  20. On the Initial Conditions for Star Formation and the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    Density probability distribution functions (PDFs) for turbulent self-gravitating clouds should be convolutions of the local log-normal PDF, which depends on the local average density rho-ave and Mach number M, and the probability distribution functions for rho-ave and M, which depend on the overall cloud structure. When self-gravity drives a cloud to increased central density, the total PDF develops an extended tail. If there is a critical density or column density for star formation, then the fraction of the local mass exceeding this threshold becomes higher near the cloud center. These elements of cloud structure should be in place before significant star formation begins. Then the efficiency is high so that bound clusters form rapidly, and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) has an imprint in the gas before destructive radiation from young stars can erase it. The IMF could arise from a power-law distribution of mass for cloud structure. These structures should form stars down to the thermal Jeans mass ...

  1. A test of convection models for IMF Bz north

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. C.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Brace, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    The Utah State University Ionospheric Model was run to obtain diurnally reproducible ionospheric densities and temperatures for summer and winter conditions using both distorted two-cell and three-cell convection patterns. Differences due to the different convection patterns manifest themselves in the depth and location of polar holes in the F-region electron density. While the total depth of the model holes is a characteristic of the diurnally reproducible pattern, the features appear and are recognizable within 0.5 h. Langmuir probe data from 41 DE-2 passes, during which the IMF Bz component was northward, have been qualitatively checked against the model predictions. The cross polar cap electron density profiles of a large majority of the passes more closely conform to the distorted two-cell runs for both polarities of the IMF By component. This test can be generalized to rule out proposed convection patterns based on the presence/absence and position of polar electron density holes.

  2. IMF Bx effects on the ionospheric current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K.; Reistad, J.; Ostgaard, N.; Tenfjord, P.; Snekvik, K.; Finlay, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    A statistical analysis of UV images have shown a weak but significant difference in auroral intensity at the dusk side for different signs of the IMF Bx component (Reistad et al., 2014). This difference was interpreted as an effect of stronger upward Region 1 currents in the north (south) when Bx is negative (positive). The different Region 1 currents are due to the different field line curvature on newly opened field lines, which leads to more efficient conversion of solar wind kinetic energy to electromagnetic energy. However, the aurora is only an indirect measurement of the Region 1 current, and the relationship between the two quantities is not one-to-one. To our knowledge, the Bx effect has never been reported in direct studies of currents. In this study we use the high precision magnetic field instruments on the CHAMP and Swarm satellites to model global field-aligned and ionospheric currents. By binning the data with respect to sunlight conditions and IMF orientation, we test the explanation of the results by Reistad et al.

  3. Thermal Physics, Cloud Geometry, and the Stellar IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, R B

    2004-01-01

    The thermal properties of star-forming clouds have an important influence on how they fragment into stars, and it is suggested in this paper that the low-mass stellar IMF, which appears to be almost universal, is determined largely by the thermal physics of these clouds. In particular, it is suggested that the characteristic stellar mass, a little below one solar mass, is determined by the transition from an initial cooling phase of collapse to a later phase of slowly rising temperature that occurs when the gas becomes thermally coupled to the dust. Numerical simulations support the hypothesis that the Jeans mass at this transition point plays an important role in determining the peak mass of the IMF. A filamentary geometry may also play a key role in the fragmentation process because the isothermal case is a critical one for the collapse of a cylinder: the collapse and fragmentation of a cylinder can continue freely as long as the temperature continues to decrease, but not if it begins to increase. The limit...

  4. The biochemical study of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) stress in oral surgery inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaino, H

    2001-01-01

    Although intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is performed to treat the patients with maxillary fracture, this procedure is very stressful to the patients. IMF has been reported to increase noradrenaline (NA) release in the brain and elevate plasma corticosterone contents in the rat. These changes were significantly attenuated by diazepam, an anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine family. These results suggest that IMF could greatly affect the pituitary-adrenal system as a stress. In the present study, in order to examine the influence of IMF on the human body function, we measured levels of 17-hydrocorticosteroids (17-OHCS) and 17-ketosteroid (17-KS), which are metabolites of the adreno-cortical hormone cortisol, in the urine of inpatients undergoing IMF. The subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire on irritableness caused by IMF. In these patients, urinary 17-OHCS levels were significantly increased after IMF and well correlated to the results of the questionnaire. The finding suggested that urinary 17-OHCS levels reflect stress related to IMF, and that such stress mainly causes an irritated feeling. Natural killer cell activity (NK activity), which is considered to be related to stress, was measured in these patients. The relationship between 17-OHCS levels and NK activity was examined in reference to the results of the questionnaire. Questionnaire showed that most patients noted insomnia and an irritated feeling during IMF. To examine the influence of anxiolytic agents on stress related to IMF, an anxiolytic agent, ethyl loflazepate, was administered during IMF, and urinary 17-OHCS levels were measured. There was no correlation between 17-OHCS levels and NK activity in the patients. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VSA) and NK activity. Increases in 17-OHCS levels in the group treated with ethyl loflazepate, an anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine family, were significantly lower than in the untreated group. This suggests that

  5. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  6. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.10

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that \\pimix (the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than \\pisep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from \\pimix into \\pisep. We...

  7. Evolution of the Global Aurora During Positive IMF B(sub z) and Varying IMF B(sub y) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumnock, J. A.; Sharber, J. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Craven, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The DE 1 imaging instrumentation provides a full view of the entire auroral oval every 12 min for several hours during each orbit. We examined five examples of global evolution of the aurora that occurred during the northern hemisphere winter of 1981-1982 when the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was positive and the y component was changing sign. Evolution of an expanded auroral emission region into a theta aurora appears to require a change in the sign of B(sub y) during northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Theta aurora are formed both from expanded duskside emission regions (B(sub y) changes from positive to negative) and dawnside emission regions (B(sub y) changes from negative to positive), however the dawnside-originating and duskside-originating evolutions are not mirror images. The persistence of a theta aurora after its formation suggests that there may be no clear relationship between the theta aurora pattern and the instantaneous configuration of the IMF.

  8. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health.

  9. The IMF programs that practised developing countries and welfare state perceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Çelik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study IMF policies have examined with different aspects and policy practisies are analyzed. IMF policies putting into practise for long-term stability but in the long and short term income distribution/welfare are damaged.

  10. WHY IS THE FISCAL POLICY IMPOSED BY IMF PRO-CYCLIC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius-Corneliu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economies which appealed to the IMF loan faced difficulties related to financing the public and the private foreign debt. IMF imposed the promoting of a restrictive fiscal policy to the beneficiary countries, in order to decrease the budget deficit, e

  11. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  12. Determination of IMF using Hilbert–Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Dhanorkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DIS technique is presented. DIS is proposed to stably remove the unwanted shaking phenomena in the image sequences captured by cameras without the influence caused by moving object in the image or intentional motion. Local Motion Vector estimation technique is used Sum Of absolute difference (SAD method . local motion vectors(LMV of an image sequence are calculated . LMV of image sequence is used for DIS Technique, which is based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT is proposed. The HHT technique contain main block is empirical mode decomposition (EMD.The calculated Image sequence of an local motion vectors are processed by the HHT in order to define both signals. The real Signal is divided into a number of waveforms, called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, using the process of empirical mode decomposition.

  13. Talking about relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Synge, John L

    1970-01-01

    Talking about concepts ; talking about geometry ; talking about algebra ; variables, operators, functions ; pontificating about events ; the queen and the captain of the guard ; particles, world lines and the arrow of time ; the Mary Jane and the Penelope ; time ; the line-element and curvature of a surface ; the line-element and curvature of a space-time ; tensors ; the field equations ; from general to special ; particles in collision.

  14. Flux Transfer Events: 1. generation mechanism for strong southward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raeder

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a global numerical model of the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field with Earth's magnetosphere to study the formation process of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs during strong southward IMF. We find that: (i The model produces essentially all observational features expected for FTEs, in particular the bipolar signature of the magnetic field BN component, the correct polarity, duration, and intermittency of that bipolar signature, strong core fields and enhanced core pressure, and flow enhancements; (ii FTEs only develop for large dipole tilt whereas in the case of no dipole tilt steady magnetic reconnection occurs at the dayside magnetopause; (iii the basic process by which FTEs are produced is the sequential generation of new X-lines which makes dayside reconnection inherently time dependent and leads to a modified form of dual or multiple X-line reconnection; (iv the FTE generation process in this model is not dependent on specific assumptions about microscopic processes; (v the average period of FTEs can be explained by simple geometric arguments involving magnetosheath convection; (vi FTEs do not develop in the model if the numerical resolution is too coarse leading to too much numerical diffusion; and (vii FTEs for nearly southward IMF and large dipole tilt, i.e., near solstice, should only develop in the winter hemisphere, which provides a testable prediction of seasonal modulation. The semiannual modulation of intermittent FTE reconnection versus steady reconnection is also expected to modulate magnetospheric and ionospheric convection and may thus contribute to the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity.

  15. IMF / World Bank boards of governors discuss population, migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A brief presentation was given of the statements Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and Secretary General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), made before a meeting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank on resource flows to developing countries, population, international trade, and migration. The meeting was attended by finance ministers from 24 countries. The IMF Managing Director gave an overview at the meeting of the world economic situation and the need for international assistance for effective population and family planning programs. Dr. Sadik emphasized this need as a requirement for implementation of the 20-year ICPD Programme of Action. The increased investment was considered beneficial because it would increase life expectancy, lower demand for health and education services, reduce pressure in the job market, reduce economic hardship, and increase social stability. The growth of prosperity was considered by Dr. Sadik to be tied to increased demand for housing, energy, and utilities. A slower and more balanced population growth would allow for government services to meet demands and for the world to adjust to increasing numbers of people. Several ministers supported the call for increased funding of population programs and poverty reduction programs. A special communique by ministers recognized that the connections between economic growth, population, poverty reduction, health, investment in human resources, and environmental degradation must be integrated into population policy. Ministers urged the ICPD to emphasize improvements in primary school enrollment in low income countries, in access to family planning and health services, and in maternal and child mortality rates. Ministers wanted to see increases in the proportion of aid directed to population programs above the current 1.25%. Requests were made for more research into the social

  16. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk......-action relationships. While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  17. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    terrain break elaborates the terrain of Organizations anno 2015 as a terrain of complexity, streamlining, language-orientation and dis-functionality. The latter in regard to a WHO acknowledged concern for health issues related to work-related stress (Prætorius, 2012) and an ongoing urge for learning...... the challenges of the million-dollar question is stemming from the ‘bets on the future’ – or what David Boje coins as ‘antenarratives’, (Boje, 2008) that emerged through various reconfiguring story actions, on two different occasions. The paper thus elaborates on two cases of restorying events; One taking place...... in the Pyrenees of Europe in October 2015. One taking place in the hallways of the City Hall of a Municipality in Denmark in May 2015. In both cases the ‘bets on the future’ actions were given in a materialized form and drawing on a subtle form of negotiation of core leadership values; which values should matter...

  18. Constraints on a Universal IMF from UV to Near-IR Galaxy Luminosity Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I K

    2003-01-01

    We obtain constraints on the slope of a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) over a range of cosmic star-formation histories (SFH) using z=0.1 luminosity densities in the range from 0.2 to 2.2 microns. The age-IMF degeneracy of integrated spectra of stellar populations can be broken for the Universe as a whole by using direct measurements of (relative) cosmic SFH from high-redshift observations. These have only marginal dependence on uncertainties in the IMF, whereas, fitting to local luminosity densities depends strongly on both cosmic SFH and the IMF. We fit to these measurements using population synthesis and find the best-fit IMF power-law slope to be Gamma=1.15+-0.2 (0.5 < M/M_solar < 120). This slope is in good agreement with the Salpeter IMF slope (Gamma=1.35). A strong upper limit of Gamma<1.7 is obtained which effectively rules out the Scalo IMF due to its too low fraction of high-mass stars. This upper limit is at the 99.7% confidence level if we assume a closed-box chemical evolut...

  19. Dependence of O+ escape rate from the Venusian upper atmosphere on IMF directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, K.; Futaana, Y.; Stenberg, G.; Barabash, S.; Zhang, T. L.; Fedorov, A.; Okano, S.; Terada, N.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the dependence of the O+ escape rate from the Venusian upper atmosphere on the upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. Using the data obtained from the Analyser of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-4) instrument and the magnetometer (MAG) onboard Venus Express, O+ fluxes observed in the night side region is statistically calculated. The data is classified into two cases: the perpendicular IMF case and the parallel IMF case, where IMF is nearly perpendicular to the solar wind velocity and nearly parallel to it. In the period between June 21 2006 and May 31, 2010, the O+ escape rates of (5.8 ± 2.9) × 10^24 s^-1 (perpendicular IMF case) and (4.9 ± 2.2) × 10^24 s^-1 (parallel IMF case) are obtained. Since these values are not significantly different, we conclude that the IMF direction does not affect the total amount of O+ outflow from Venus. Several acceleration mechanisms must balance each other in order to keep the escape rate constant.

  20. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  1. Talk at Mealtimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This short report explores how many young people sit down with their family at mealtimes, how often they talk with their family when they do and the relationship between mealtime talk and young people's confidence in and attitudes towards communication skills. Using data from the latest annual survey of 34,910 children and young people, it shows…

  2. The statistical challenge of constraining the low-mass IMF in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Weisz, Daniel R.; Quataert, Eliot

    2017-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to explore the statistical challenges of constraining the characteristic mass (mc) and width (σ) of a lognormal sub-solar initial mass function (IMF) in Local Group dwarf galaxies using direct star counts. For a typical Milky Way (MW) satellite (MV = -8), jointly constraining mc and σ to a precision of ≲ 20 per cent requires that observations be complete to ≲ 0.2 M⊙, if the IMF is similar to the MW IMF. A similar statistical precision can be obtained if observations are only complete down to 0.4 M⊙, but this requires measurement of nearly 100× more stars, and thus, a significantly more massive satellite (MV ˜ -12). In the absence of sufficiently deep data to constrain the low-mass turnover, it is common practice to fit a single-sloped power law to the low-mass IMF, or to fit mc for a lognormal while holding σ fixed. We show that the former approximation leads to best-fitting power-law slopes that vary with the mass range observed and can largely explain existing claims of low-mass IMF variations in MW satellites, even if satellite galaxies have the same IMF as the MW. In addition, fixing σ during fitting leads to substantially underestimated uncertainties in the recovered value of mc (by a factor of ˜4 for typical observations). If the IMFs of nearby dwarf galaxies are lognormal and do vary, observations must reach down to ˜mc in order to robustly detect these variations. The high-sensitivity, near-infrared capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope have the potential to dramatically improve constraints on the low-mass IMF. We present an efficient observational strategy for using these facilities to measure the IMFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  3. Testing the Universality of the Stellar IMF with Chandra and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, D. A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Kundu, A.; Maccarone, T.; Peacock, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Basu-Zych, A.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Maraston, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF), which is often assumed to be universal across unresolved stellar populations, has recently been suggested to be bottom-heavy for massive ellipticals. In these galaxies, the prevalence of gravity-sensitive absorption lines (e.g., Na I and Ca II) in their near-IR spectra implies an excess of low-mass (m IMF observed in low-mass ellipticals. A direct extrapolation of such a bottom-heavy IMF to high stellar masses (m > or approx. = 8 Stellar Mass) would lead to a corresponding deficit of neutron stars and black holes, and therefore of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), per unit near-IR luminosity in these galaxies. Peacock et al. searched for evidence of this trend and found that the observed number of LMXBs per unit K-band luminosity (N/LK) was nearly constant. We extend this work using new and archival Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observations of seven low-mass ellipticals where N/LK is expected to be the largest and compare these data with a variety of IMF models to test which are consistent with the observed N/LK. We reproduce the result of Peacock et al., strengthening the constraint that the slope of the IMF at m > or approx. = 8 Stellar Mass must be consistent with a Kroupa-like IMF. We construct an IMF model that is a linear combination of a Milky Way-like IMF and a broken power-law IMF, with a steep slope (alpha1 = 3.84) for stars 0.5 Stellar Mass, and discuss its wider ramifications and limitations.

  4. Testing the Universality of the Stellar IMF with Chandra and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, D. A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Kundu, A.; Maccarone, T.; Peacock, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Basu-Zych, A.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Maraston, C.; Zepf, S. E.

    2017-02-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF), which is often assumed to be universal across unresolved stellar populations, has recently been suggested to be “bottom-heavy” for massive ellipticals. In these galaxies, the prevalence of gravity-sensitive absorption lines (e.g., Na i and Ca ii) in their near-IR spectra implies an excess of low-mass (m≲ 0.5 {M}ȯ ) stars over that expected from a canonical IMF observed in low-mass ellipticals. A direct extrapolation of such a bottom-heavy IMF to high stellar masses (m≳ 8 {M}ȯ ) would lead to a corresponding deficit of neutron stars and black holes, and therefore of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), per unit near-IR luminosity in these galaxies. Peacock et al. searched for evidence of this trend and found that the observed number of LMXBs per unit K-band luminosity (N/{L}K) was nearly constant. We extend this work using new and archival Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observations of seven low-mass ellipticals where N/{L}K is expected to be the largest and compare these data with a variety of IMF models to test which are consistent with the observed N/{L}K. We reproduce the result of Peacock et al., strengthening the constraint that the slope of the IMF at m≳ 8 {M}ȯ must be consistent with a Kroupa-like IMF. We construct an IMF model that is a linear combination of a Milky Way-like IMF and a broken power-law IMF, with a steep slope ({α }1=3.84) for stars 0.5 {M}ȯ , and discuss its wider ramifications and limitations.

  5. Relation of PC index to magnetic disturbances developing under conditions of northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podorozhkina, N.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.

    2012-04-01

    Substorms and storms occurring under conditions of northward IMF (BZN) are commonly examined as "extraordinary events" since they are developed when the efficiency of the interplanetary electric field EY = vBZS (Reiff and Luhmann, 1986) falls to zero. Examination of these events demonstrates that all of them occur, like to ordinary substorms and storms, under conditions that are necessary and sufficient for development of substorms (PC ≥ 1.5 mV/m) and storms ( >2 mV/m). The specified values of the PC index testify that the magnetosphere is affected by the intense interplanetary electric field EKL=vBTsin2θ/2 (Kan and Lee, 1979), where BT is the IMF tangential component and θ is an angle between BT component and the geomagnetic Z-axis. The principal difference between coupling functions EY and EKL lies in the fact that EKL function includes the IMF azimuthal (BY) component. As BY increases relative to BZ, the difference between electric fields EY and EKL quickly grows, and the value of EKL field can be as large as 5-10 mV/m even under conditions of northward IMF orientation, when EY reaches to zero. The same situation is valid for substorms triggered by sharp northward turning of the IMF BZ component following the prolonged period of southward IMF influence. Examination of these substorms demonstrates that they are initiated by increase of coupling function EKL and that the substorm sudden onsets were preceded by the PC index growth. Consistency between the IMF northward turning and substorm sudden onset in these cases is coincidence that explains why substorm are only occasionally initiated by the IMF northward turning. Thus, the "extraordinary" storms and substorms occurring under conditions of ineffective northward IMF component turned out to be events nothing out of the ordinary, if examining them in relation to proper coupling function (EKL) and monitoring them by the PC index.

  6. Talking the Talk and Walking the Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In this diverse collection, editors Killoran and Pendleton Jimenez bring together an important collection of chapters that tackle homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism. From the hallways and classrooms of elementary and secondary schools to the lecture halls of postsecondary institutions, "Unleashing the Unpopular: Talking About Sexual…

  7. The role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in IMF winding angle statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Phillips, John L.

    1996-07-01

    We examine the possible role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in past analyses of the large-scale winding of the IMF by extracting CME and shock observations from the ISEE-3 dataset and analyzing periods of the disturbed and undisturbed solar wind separately. We use the full ISEE-3 dataset representing the entire L1 mission (1978-1982). We conclude that CMEs, the shocks upstream of CMEs and other interplanetary shocks are responsible for the apparent overwinding of the IMF spiral relative to the Parker prediction. The IMF winding angle asymmetry appears to be preserved after the removal of the interplanetary disturbances.

  8. The role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in IMF winding angle statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.W. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark (United States); Phillips, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1996-07-01

    We examine the possible role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in past analyses of the large-scale winding of the IMF by extracting CME and shock observations from the ISEE-3 dataset and analyzing periods of the disturbed and undisturbed solar wind separately. We use the full ISEE-3 dataset representing the entire L{sub 1} mission (1978{endash}1982). We conclude that CMEs, the shocks upstream of CMEs and other interplanetary shocks are responsible for the apparent overwinding of the IMF spiral relative to the Parker prediction. The IMF winding angle asymmetry appears to be preserved after the removal of the interplanetary disturbances. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Application of IMF screws to assist internal rigid fixation of jaw fractures: our experiences of 168 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxi; Gao, Zhibiao; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhaoling

    2015-01-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) screws were first introduced to achieve IMF as a kind of bone borne appliance for jaw fractures in 1989. Because this method can overcome many disadvantages associated with tooth borne appliance, IMF screws have been popularly used for jaw fractures since then. From March 2011 to February 2014, we treated 168 cases with single or multiple jaw fractures by open reduction and a total of 705 IMF screws were intraoperatively applied in all the cases to achieve IMF and maintain dental occlusion as an adjuvant to open reduction. The numbers, implantation sites and complications of IMF screws were retrospectively analyzed. In our experience, we found that IMF screws were important to assist open reduction of jaw fractures but their roles should be objectively assessed and the reliability of open reduction and internal rigid fixation must be emphasized. Much attention should be paid when implanting.

  10. Hack the Planet: What we Talk About When we Talk About Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hack the Planet (Wiley, 2010) explores how an idea once basically anathema to meetings like AGU has, in the space of a few years, become part of the geoscience mainstream. Through chapters involving researchers like David Battisti, Stephen Salter, Edward Teller and Brent Constanz the book documents the roots of this shift and how scientists are breaking new ground in the controversial field. And it shows how trying to engineer the planet's climate or manage its carbon poses novel scientific, geopolitical and moral risks and rewards. This session will cover how the topic of climate engineering has moved from something geoscientists don't talk about to something geoscientists can talk about, to something, in my view, that geoscientists must talk about.

  11. Breaking the Silence: Time to Talk About Race and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, David; Ackerman-Barger, Kupiri

    2017-03-01

    Recent events in the United States have catalyzed the need for all educators to begin paying attention to and discovering ways to dialogue about race. No longer can health professions (HP) educators ignore or avoid these difficult conversations. HP students are now demanding them. Cultural sensitivity and unconscious bias training are not enough. Good will and good intentions are not enough. Current faculty development paradigms are no longer sufficient to meet the educational challenges of delving into issues of race, power, privilege, identity, and social justice.Engaging in such conversations, however, can be overwhelmingly stressful for untrained faculty. The authors argue that before any curriculum on race and racism can be developed for HP students, and before faculty members can begin facilitating conversations about race and racism, faculty must receive proper training through intense and introspective faculty development. Training should cover how best to engage in, sustain, and deepen interracial dialogue on difficult topics such as race and racism within academic health centers (AHCs). If such faculty development training-in how to conduct interracial dialogues on race, racism, oppression, and the invisibility of privilege-is made standard at all AHCs, HP educators might be poised to actualize the real benefits of open dialogue and change.

  12. IMF - metallicity: a tight local relation revealed by the CALIFA survey

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; La Barbera, Francesco; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Lyubenova, Mariya; van de Ven, Glenn; Ferreras, Ignacio; Sánchez, S F; Trager, S C; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Delgado, R González; Walcher, C J

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) have been invoked to explain the spectroscopic and dynamical properties of early-type galaxies. However, no observations have yet been able to disentangle the physical driver. We analyse here a sample of 24 early-type galaxies drawn from the CALIFA survey, deriving in a homogeneous way their stellar population and kinematic properties. We find that the local IMF is tightly related to the local metallicity, becoming more bottom-heavy towards metal-rich populations. Our result, combined with the galaxy mass-metallicity relation, naturally explains previous claims of a galaxy mass-IMF relation, derived from non-IFU spectra. If we assume that - within the star formation environment of early-type galaxies - metallicity is the main driver of IMF variations, a significant revision of the interpretation of galaxy evolution observables is necessary.

  13. On the cause of IMF By related mid- and low latitude magnetic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of the IMF By on near-Earth low and mid-latitude magnetic disturbances is presented. In particular the contribution from field-aligned currents ( FACs) connected to the polar regions is investigated. Based on statistically determined high-latitude FAC patterns for various...... Interplanetary Magnetic Field ( IMF) directions, we estimate the FAC contribution to the mid-and low latitude magnetic disturbance and its dependence on the IMF. The estimated perturbations are compared with observations from the ground and from the low-altitude polar orbiting satellite Oersted. It is found...... that the long-distance effect of the high-latitude FACs constitute the major source to IMF By and B-z related magnetic east-west disturbances at mid-and low latitudes....

  14. IMF: kriis on jõudnud poliitilisse faasi. Riskid kasvavad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    17. juunil avaldatud IMF-i prognoosis hoiatatakse, et kui Euroopa ei suuda ära hoida Kreeka pankrotti ning USA oma eelarvedefitsiiti kontrolli alla saada, võib ohtu sattuda maailmamajandus. Praegusest olukorrast Kreekas

  15. IMF Screw: An Ideal Intermaxillary Fixation Device During Open Reduction of Mandibular Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, N K; Mohan, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is conventionally used for treatment of fractures involving maxillomandibular complex both for closed reduction and as an adjuvant to open reduction. To overcome the cumbersome procedure of tooth borne appliances cortical bone screws were introduced in the year of 1989 to achieve IMF which is essentially a bone borne appliance. In our institution we treated 45 cases of mandibular fracture both single and multiple fractures by open reduction over a period of 24 months. IMF screws were used to achieve dental occlusion in all the cases. Various advantages, disadvantages and complications are discussed. In our institutional experience we found that the IMF screws are an ideal device for temporary intermaxillary fixation for the cases having only mandibular fracture.

  16. Kas BRICS-i pank suudab võistelda IMF-iga? / Mark Adomanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adomanis, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Suurte tärkavate turgude e. BRICS-i riikide pank on katse tasakaalustada suurenevat lõhet areneva maailma majandusliku võimsuse ja tema mõjuvõimu vahel rahvusvahelistele rahandusorganisatsioonidele, nagu IMF ja Maailmapank

  17. IMF-i juht hoiatab sõdade eest / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    IMF-i juht Dominique Strauss-Kahni hinnangul on taas hakanud ilmnema ülemaailmne tasakaalustamatus, mis varem vallandas finantskriisi. Ta viitas riikides suurenevale sotsiaalsele pingele ja poliitilisele ebastabiilsusele. Briti juhtiva majanduskommentaatori Jeremy Warneri arvamus

  18. Dual E × B flow responses in the dayside ionosphere to a sudden IMF By rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Maimaiti, M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Trattner, K. J.; Knipp, D. J.; Wilder, F. D.

    2017-07-01

    We report for the first time a dual transition state in the dayside ionosphere following a sudden rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the upstream magnetosheath from IMF By By > 0 during Bz rotation of lower latitude E × B flow from dusk to dawn. We propose that this sequence of events is consistent with two separate X lines coexisting on the subsolar and lobe magnetopause. Time delays are proposed for merged flux of the draped preceding IMF to exit the subsolar region before the new IMF may be processed along a newly reconfigured component reconnection X line. Finally, a strong direct correlation is observed between magnetosheath plasma density and auroral zone E × B speeds.

  19. Why brown dwarfs are special . Arguments from IMF theory vs. observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, I.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    The lower end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is the topic of an ongoing debate. Among the most popular myths is the assumption of a continuous fall off from stars to brown dwarfs in both the IMF itself and the binary statistics of stars and BDs. However, recent analytical star-formation models by Hennebelle & Chabrier (2008) or Padoan & Nordlund (2002) could model the stellar part quite well while failing to reproduce the substellar region satisfactorily. We show that the deviation of these model IMFs to the observed ones is essentially just the IMF of the separate substellar population introduced in Thies & Kroupa (2007) and later confirmed numerically in Thies et al. (2010). In addition, new estimates to the binarity and companion mass-ratio distribution resulting directly from the two-population model are presented.

  20. Kas BRICS-i pank suudab võistelda IMF-iga? / Mark Adomanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adomanis, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Suurte tärkavate turgude e. BRICS-i riikide pank on katse tasakaalustada suurenevat lõhet areneva maailma majandusliku võimsuse ja tema mõjuvõimu vahel rahvusvahelistele rahandusorganisatsioonidele, nagu IMF ja Maailmapank

  1. Effect of the IMF By component on the ionospheric flow overhead at EISCAT: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    Full Text Available We have analysed a database of ∼300 h of tristatic ionospheric velocity measurements obtained overhead at Tromsø (66.3° magnetic latitude by the EISCAT UHF radar system, for the presence of flow effects associated with the y-component of the IMF. Since it is already known that the flow depends upon IMF Bz, a least-squares multivariate analysis has been used to determine the flow dependence on both IMF By and Bz simultaneously. It is found that significant flow variations with IMF By occur, predominantly in the midnight sector (∼2100–0300 MLT, but also pre-dusk (∼1600–1700 MLT, which are directed eastward for IMF By positive and westward for IMF By negative. The flows are of magnitude 20–30 m s–1 nT–1 in the midnight sector, and smaller, 10–20 m s–1 nT–1, pre-dusk, and are thus associated with significant changes of flow of order a few hundred m s–1 over the usual range of IMF By of about ±5 nT. At other local times the IMF By-related perturbation flows are much smaller, less than ∼5 m s–1 nT–1, and consistent with zero within the uncertainty estimates. We have investigated whether these IMF By-dependent flows can be accounted for quantitatively by a theoretical model in which the equatorial flow in the inner magnetosphere is independent of IMF By, but where distortions of the magnetospheric magnetic field associated with a "penetrating" component of the IMF By field changes the mapping of the field to the ionosphere, and hence the ionospheric flow. We find that the principal flow perturbation produced by this effect is an east-west flow whose sense is determined by the north-south component of the unperturbed flow. Perturbations in the north-south flow are typically smaller by more than an order of magnitude, and generally negligible in terms of observations. Using equatorial flows which are determined from EISCAT data for zero IMF By, to which the corotation flow has been added, the theory predicts the presence

  2. How chemistry influences cloud structure, star formation, and the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S; Spaans, M; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01

    In the earliest phases of star-forming clouds, stable molecular species, such as CO, are important coolants in the gas phase. Depletion of these molecules on dust surfaces affects the thermal balance of molecular clouds and with that their whole evolution. For the first time, we study the effect of grain surface chemistry (GSC) on star formation and its impact on the initial mass function (IMF). We follow a contracting translucent cloud in which we treat the gas-grain chemical interplay in detail, including the process of freeze-out. We perform 3d hydrodynamical simulations under three different conditions, a pure gas-phase model, a freeze-out model, and a complete chemistry model. The models display different thermal evolution during cloud collapse. The equation of state (EOS) of the gas becomes softer with CO freeze-out and the results show that at the onset of star formation, the cloud retains its evolution history such that the number of formed stars differ (by 7%) between the three models. While the stel...

  3. Dark matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the dark matter (DM) fraction, fDM, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, δIMF (computed with respect to a Milky Way-like initial mass function), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Both fDM and δIMF are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the initial mass function (IMF) normalization and the DM content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for an Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, the δIMF is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ({δ _IMF}˜ 1), with {f_DM}˜ 0.35. One of the main results of this work is that for at least a few systems the δIMF are heavier than the Milky Way-like value (i.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger δIMF and smaller fDM are derived. Adopting a steeper concentration-mass relation than that from simulations, we find lower δIMF ( ≲ 1) and larger fDM. A constant M/L profile with null fDM gives the heaviest δIMF (˜2). In the MONDian framework, we find consistent results to those for our reference NFW model. If confirmed, the large scatter of δIMF for dEs would provide (further) evidence for a non-universal IMF in early-type systems. On average, our reference fDM estimates are consistent with those found for low-σe (˜ 100 km s^{-1}) early-type galaxies (ETGs). Furthermore, we find fDM consistent with values from the SMAKCED survey, and find a double-value behaviour of fDM with stellar mass, which mirrors the trend of dynamical M/L and global star formation efficiency (from abundance matching estimates) with mass.

  4. Implications of a variable IMF for the interpretation of observations of galaxy populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of a metallicity-dependent stellar initial mass function (IMF), as deduced observationally by Martín-Navarro et al., on the inferred stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of a representative sample of 186 886 SDSS galaxies. Relative to a Chabrier IMF, for which we show the implied masses to be close to minimal, the inferred masses increase in both the low- and high-metallicity regimes due to the addition of stellar remnants and dwarf stars, respectively. The resulting galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) shifts towards higher masses by 0.5 dex, without affecting the high-mass slope (and thus the need for effective quenching). The implied low-redshift SFR density increases by an order of magnitude. However, these results depend strongly on the assumed IMF parametrization, which is not directly constrained by the observations. Varying the low-end IMF slope instead of the high-end IMF slope, while maintaining the same dwarf-to-giant ratio, results in a much more modest GSMF shift of 0.2 dex and a 10 per cent increase in the SFR density relative to the Chabrier IMF. A bottom-heavy IMF during the late, metal-rich evolutionary stage of a galaxy would help explain the rapid quenching and the bimodality in the galaxy population by on the one hand making galaxies less quenched (due to the continued formation of dwarf stars) and on the other hand reducing the gas consumption time-scale. We conclude that the implications of the observational evidence for a variable IMF could vary from absolutely dramatic to mild but significant.

  5. MODEL2TALK: An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a large-scale study show that productive classroom talk…

  6. Talking to Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team, such as nurses and pharmacists, can be good sources of information. Talk to them, too. Last ... (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency ...

  7. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  8. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications ... Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science Highlights Science Education Research in NIH Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library ...

  9. Ways of Talking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    Chinese and Western people have different communication styles. Many Western friends label Chinese "inscrutable." My foreign friends say the way Chinese talk, how they formulate and deliver their thoughts, seems indirect and obscure.

  10. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  11. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources from NIH You can play an active role in your health care by talking to your ... Us Contact Us Bookmark & Share Email Updates Social Media & Outreach Twitter Facebook YouTube Footer NIH Home En ...

  12. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Simple Clear Health from NIH Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Research Underway Plain Language ... to take notes for you. Learn how to access your medical records, so you can keep track ...

  13. Detecting the bonding state of explosive welding structures based on EEMD and sensitive IMF time entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Liu, Qiang; Cheng, Wei; Yuan, Feichen

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing application of explosive welding structures in many engineering fields, interface bonding state detection has become more and more significant to avoid catastrophic accidents. However, the complexity of the interface bonding state makes this task challenging. In this paper, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and sensitive intrinsic mode function (IMF) time entropy is proposed for this task. As a self-adaptive non-stationary signal analysis method, EEMD can decompose a complicated signal into a set of IMFs with truly physical meaning, which is beneficial to allocate the structural vibration response signal containing a wealth of bonding state information to certain IMFs. Then, the time entropies of these IMFs are calculated to quantitatively assess the bonding state of the explosive welding structure. However, the IMF time entropies have different sensitivities to the bonding state. Therefore, the most sensitive IMF time entropy is selected based on a distance evaluation technique to detect the bonding state of explosive welding structures. The proposed method is applied to bonding state detection of explosive welding pipes in three cases, and the results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Wiki-talk Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jun; Kunegis, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    User interaction networks of Wikipedia of 28 different languages. Nodes (orininal wikipedia user IDs) represent users of the Wikipedia, and an edge from user A to user B denotes that user A wrote a message on the talk page of user B at a certain timestamp. More info: http://yfiua.github.io/academic/2016/02/14/wiki-talk-datasets.html

  15. A Comparison of Teacher Talk and Foreigner Talk in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Many people learning English believe that talking to native speakers,especially in natural settings is a desirable way to promote acquisition.It might be so.Yet it can be a myth because foreigner talk can’t serve as good a pedagogical purpose as teacher talk does in many ways.This paper compares some characteristics of the two kinds of talk and suggests the advantage teacher talk has over the latter.

  16. Isospin Breaking Effects on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Tantalo, Nazario

    2013-01-01

    Isospin symmetry is not exact and the corrections to the isosymmetric limit are, in general, at the percent level. For gold plated quantities, such as pseudoscalar meson masses or the kaon leptonic and semileptonic decay rates, these effects are of the same order of magnitude of the errors quoted in nowadays lattice calculations and cannot be neglected any longer. In this talk I discuss the methods that have been developed in the last few years to calculate isospin breaking corrections by starting from first principles lattice simulations. In particular, I discuss how to perform a combined QCD+QED lattice simulation and a renormalization prescription to be used in order to separate QCD from QED isospin breaking effects. A brief review of recent lattice results of isospin breaking effects on the hadron spectrum is also included.

  17. CSR as Aspirational Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Most writings on corporate social responsibility (CSR) treat lack of consistency between organizational CSR talk and action as a serious problem that needs to be eliminated. In this article, we argue that differences between words and action are not necessarily a bad thing and that such discrepan......Most writings on corporate social responsibility (CSR) treat lack of consistency between organizational CSR talk and action as a serious problem that needs to be eliminated. In this article, we argue that differences between words and action are not necessarily a bad thing...... and that such discrepancies have the potential to stimulate CSR improvements. We draw on a research tradition that regards communication as performative to challenge the conventional assumption that CSR communication is essentially superficial, as opposed to CSR action. In addition, we extend notions of organizational...... hypocrisy to argue that aspirational CSR talk may be an important resource for social change, even when organizations do not fully live up to their aspirations....

  18. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  19. Intensity asymmetries in the dusk sector of the poleward auroral oval due to IMF $\\mathit{B}_{x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Reistad, J P; Laundal, K M; Haaland, S; Tenfjord, P; Snekvik, K; Oksavik, K; Milan, S E

    2016-01-01

    In the exploration of global-scale features of the Earth's aurora, little attention has been given to the radial component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). This study investigates the global auroral response in both hemispheres when the IMF is southward and lies in the $\\textit{xz}$ plane. We present a statistical study of the average auroral response in the 12-24 magnetic local time (MLT) sector to an $\\textit{x}$ component in the IMF. Maps of auroral intensity in both hemispheres for two IMF $\\mathit{B}_{x}$ dominated conditions($ \\pm $ IMF $\\mathit{B}_{x}$) are shown during periods of negative IMF $\\mathit{B}_{z}$, small IMF $\\mathit{B}_{y}$, and local winter. This is obtained by using global imaging from the Wideband Imaging Camera on the IMAGE satellite. The analysis indicates a significant asymmetry between the two IMF $\\mathit{B}_{x}$ dominated conditions in both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere the aurora is brighter in the 15-19 MLT region during negative IMF $\\mathit{B}_{x}$. In th...

  20. Space and Time pattern of mid-velocity IMF emission in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Bini, M; Casini, G; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Pasquali, G; Stefanini, A A; Taccetti, N

    2001-01-01

    The emission pattern in the V_perp - V_par plane of Intermediate Mass Fragments with Z=3-7 (IMF) has been studied in the collision 116Sn + 93Nb at 29.5 AMeV as a function of the Total Kinetic Energy Loss of the reaction. This pattern shows that for peripheral reactions most of IMF's are emitted at mid-velocity. Coulomb trajectory calculations demonstrate that these IMF's are produced in the early stages of the reaction and shed light on geometrical details of these emissions, suggesting that the IMF's originate both from the neck and the surface of the interacting nuclei.

  1. STRUCTURAL AND COHESION FUNDS VERSUS THE IMF LOANS: IMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES FOR THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE COCRIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Structural and Cohesion Funds as well as the loans obtained by our country from the IMF have significant implications upon the Romanian financial system. This article is a comparative approach structured on five parts as it follows: the second part is a review of the specific literature regarding the theme of our work, the third part is an analysis of the absorption stage of the Structural Funds and the evolution of the stand by agreements between Romania and IMF, the fourth part is a SWOT analysis of the Structural Funds versus the IMF loans and the last section is dedicated to the econometric quantification of the efficiency of the two financing opportunities. The IMF loans ensure the coordinates of the financial stability but the structural funds represent the link between stability and the development that Romania needs. We consider and claim that Romania needs European funds. We do not ask to give up entirely to the IMF loans but we plead for having an equilibrium which could support the economical development.

  2. Strong Gravitational Lensing and the Stellar IMF of Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leier, Dominik; Saha, Prasenjit; Charlot, Stéphane; Bruzual, Gustavo; La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function is an important ingredient in galaxy formation, mainly linking the luminosity of a galaxy to its stellar mass, and driving chemical enrichment. In recent years there has been an ongoing discussion about systematic variations of the IMF in early-type galaxies and its connection with possible drivers such as velocity dispersion or metallicity. Strong gravitational lensing over galaxy scales in combination with photometric and spectroscopic data provides a powerful method to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence the functional form of the IMF. We combine photometric and spectroscopic constraints from the latest set of population synthesis models of Charlot & Bruzual, including a varying IMF, with a non-parametric analysis of the lensing mass in a sample of 18 early-type lens galaxies from the SLACS survey, with velocity dispersions in the range 200-300 km/s. We find that very bottom-heavy IMFs are excluded. However, the upper limit to the IMF slope ($\\mu \\lesss...

  3. Evolution of the magnetic field structure outside the magnetopause under radial IMF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Gilbert; Shue, Jih-Hong; Grygorov, Kostiantyn; Li, Hsien-Ming; Němeček, Zdeněk.; Å afránková, Jana; Yang, Ya-Hui; Wang, Kaiti

    2017-04-01

    We use the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms data to investigate the magnetic field structure just outside the magnetopause and its time evolution for radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) events. When the magnetic field drapes around the magnetopause in the magnetosheath region, an asymmetric magnetic field orientation in different hemispheres is expected. Our two-case study reveals some conflicts with the predicted draped field configuration in the Southern Hemisphere. The magnetosheath Bz component had a different sign depending on the upstream IMF Bx component's polarity at the beginning of the radial IMF intervals. With time, the observed Bz became northward in both cases with increasing positive values through the events. The increasing value of the Bz component may be explained by two possible mechanisms: by a change of the upstream IMF and by a reconnection between magnetosheath and magnetospheric field lines. Our study shows that both mechanisms contributed to the observed changes. Thus, there was a correlation between the change of the upstream IMF conditions and an increase in the magnetosheath northward magnetic field component. The observed formation of the boundary layer near the magnetopause proves that the reconnection process was ongoing at least for a part of the time. We suggest two possible reconnection scenarios: one near subsolar point and another tailward of the one cusp due to lobe reconnection. The asymmetry of reconnection locations causes rearrangement of the magnetic field structure near the magnetopause and turns the observed magnetosheath Bz component even further into positive values.

  4. On the self-enrichment scenario of galactic globular clusters: Constraints on the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Prantzos, N; Prantzos, Nikos; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    Galactic globular cluster (GC) stars exhibit abundance patterns which are not shared by their field counterparts, In the framework of the widely accepted "self-enrichment" scenario for GCs, we present a new method to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the polluter stars, by using the observed O/Na abundance distribution. We focus on NGC 2808, a GC for which the largest sample of O and Na abundance determinations is presently available. We consider two classes of possible "culprits" : massive Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars (4-9 Msun) and winds of massive stars (WMS) in the mass range 10-100 Msun. We obtain upper limits for the slope of the IMF (assumed to be given by a power-law) of the stars initially more massive than the present turnoff mass. We also derive lower limits for the amount of stellar residues. We find that the polluter IMF had to be much flatter than presently observed IMFs in stellar clusters, in agreement with the results of two other methods for GC IMF determination. Additionaly, ...

  5. Implications of a variable IMF for the interpretation of observations of galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a metallicity-dependent stellar initial mass function (IMF), as deduced observationally by Mart\\'in-Navarro et al. (2015c), on the inferred stellar masses and star formation rates of a representative sample of 186,886 SDSS galaxies. Compared to a universal Chabrier IMF, this variable IMF implies a large increase in the star formation rates inferred from the observed UV and IR luminosities. This extends the star formation main sequence to higher masses and increases the total low-redshift SFR density by an order of magnitude. Depending on the metallicity, the inferred galaxy masses increase either because of the addition of stellar remnants or dwarf stars relative to a Chabrier IMF, for which the implied mass is minimal. This causes a shift of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to higher masses by 0.5 dex and a factor 2.3 increase in the stellar mass density above 109 Msun. However, the results depend strongly on the assumed IMF parametrisation, which is not directly constrain...

  6. The dependence of the LLBL thickness on IMF Bz and By components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znatkova, S. S.; Antonova, E. E.; Pulinets, M. S.; Kirpichev, I. P.; Riazantseva, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    The thickness of the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is studied as a function of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using the data of THEMIS mission. The data from intersections of LLBL by Themis-A and -C satellites are analyzed. Solar wind parameters are provided by Themis-B satellite located before the bow shock. We use earlier developed method of LLBL thickness determination based on the analysis of the variation of plasma velocity in the layer perpendicular to the magnetopause. The database for the present analysis consists of 109 single satellite LLBL crossings where the values of LLBL thickness are obtained. The time shift of solar wind propagation from the spacecraft performing measurements outside the bow shock to the LLBL is taken into account. We analyze the dependence of LLBL thickness on IMF Bz and By using data of IMF measurements with 3 s resolution and produce the 180 s averaging of these data. Large scattering of the values of LLBL thickness and the weak dependence on IMF is demonstrated. Dawn-dusk asymmetry of LLBL thickness is not observed. The dependence of LLBL thickness on IMF clock angle is discussed.

  7. Evidence for a constant IMF as a function of radius in two massive ETGs

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Sam P; Davies, Roger L; Zieleniewski, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate radial gradients in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two early type galaxies using resolved measurements of several far red gravity sensitive absorption features, including the "Wing-Ford" band (FeH). We use the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field SpecTrogaph (SWIFT) to obtain resolved spectroscopic observations of NGC~1277 and IC~843, two galaxies with large central velocity dispersions and evidence for "heavy" IMFs from spectroscopic and dynamical measurements. Our observations cover the IMF sensitive features sodium \\NaI, calcium triplet CaT as well as FeH, along with MgI 0.88 and TiO 0.89. We also use published optical indices to help untangle the degenerate parameters of age, metallicity, [$\\alpha$/Fe] abundance and IMF slope. Within NGC~1277 we measure a flat FeH profile at $\\sim$0.38\\AA~with a strong [Na/Fe] gradient, from which we use stellar population models to infer an old, $\\alpha$-enhanced population with a Chabrier IMF at all radii. IC~843 also displays a (slightly st...

  8. Talking Sport and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  9. Let Them Talk!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Although human beings communicate mainly through talking and listening, schools tend to spend little classroom instruction time helping ELLs develop their English oral language skills, writes Wayne E. Wright. In reviewing the research on ELLs' oral language development, Wright concludes that bilingual programs give ELLs the best opportunities to…

  10. No Talking Shops?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KATE WESTGARTH

    2010-01-01

    @@ Western commentators on China's National People's Congress(NPC) and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC) are not always kind.Disparaging remarks about "rubber stamp organizations," "talking shops" and "showcases for photographs of ethnic minority costumes" tend to be the order of the day.

  11. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  12. The Talking Art Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Jacqui

    2009-01-01

    Every year, fourth graders at Sterling Morton Elementary School in Ohio present a talking art museum for the school and community. In this article, the author describes a lesson on art history which culminates in an activity showcasing all the students' finished paintings in gold frames. A student stands behind the painting and pokes his or her…

  13. Teachers, Let Students Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigford, Aretha Butler

    1988-01-01

    To improve oral communication skills of their students, teachers should provide opportunities for students to talk in class. Teachers are advised to: begin early, be sensitive to the individuality of students' speech patterns, and stress that there are different kinds of speech patterns for different situations. (JDD)

  14. The Talking Stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sheilah M.

    Stories have always been the means of making a message, of exploring the relationship between past and present, and of giving significance to events. A noted native artist and writer described the "talking stick" of his tribe as a talisman which gives the person who possesses it the right to speak and hold the attention of the tribe. A…

  15. Learning Talk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, Numa; Seo, Mi-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning, second language acquisition (SLA) studies have been predominantly cognitive in their theoretical assumptions and programmatic agendas. This is still largely true today. In this paper, we set out our proposals for learning talk analysis (LTA). LTA synthesizes insights from linguistic philosophy, ethnomethodology, conversation…

  16. The EU in light of IMF reform: loans as a means of entrenchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kissack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the IMF Board of Governors approved the Fourteenth General Review of Quotas, which proposes significant redistribution of voting power, displacing it from the «over-represented» European states towards the «under-represented» emerging market countries. The results, once the changes are applied, will put the four BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China among the ten largest contributors to the IMF. Using the analytical framework proposed by Barbé et al. (2014, this article considers the recent changes in the light of the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971, the transition to soft loans and the restructuring of sovereign debt. Given that the enormous loans to bailout Greece, Ireland and Portugal recommend continuing to use the IMF to promote the interests of the EU, it is argued that it is too early to speak of European decline at the heart of the Fund.

  17. Breaking out from our ivory (icy) towers – some thoughts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, David

    There are many good reasons for not confining our scientific exploits to the formal and rather cosy world of academic endeavour. This talk (& discussion it hopefully evokes) will look at the concept of this “breaking out” despite the obvious general conflicts of interests & time that face us all:...

  18. Exploring the IMF of star clusters: a joint SLUG and LEGUS effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Krumholz, M. R.; Adamo, A.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Cignoni, M.; Dale, D.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J.; Tosi, M.; Wofford, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present the implementation of a Bayesian formalism within the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (slug) stellar population synthesis code, which is designed to investigate variations in the initial mass function (IMF) of star clusters. By comparing observed cluster photometry to large libraries of clusters simulated with a continuously varying IMF, our formalism yields the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) of the cluster mass, age and extinction, jointly with the parameters describing the IMF. We apply this formalism to a sample of star clusters from the nearby galaxy NGC 628, for which broad-band photometry in five filters is available as part of the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). After allowing the upper-end slope of the IMF (α3) to vary, we recover PDFs for the mass, age and extinction that are broadly consistent with what is found when assuming an invariant Kroupa IMF. However, the posterior PDF for α3 is very broad due to a strong degeneracy with the cluster mass, and it is found to be sensitive to the choice of priors, particularly on the cluster mass. We find only a modest improvement in the constraining power of α3 when adding Hα photometry from the companion Hα-LEGUS survey. Conversely, Hα photometry significantly improves the age determination, reducing the frequency of multi-modal PDFs. With the aid of mock clusters, we quantify the degeneracy between physical parameters, showing how constraints on the cluster mass that are independent of photometry can be used to pin down the IMF properties of star clusters.

  19. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  20. STRUCTURAL AND COHESION FUNDS VERSUS THE IMF LOANS: IMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES FOR THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE COCRIS; CORINA BERICA; ANCA ELENA NUCU

    2012-01-01

    The Structural and Cohesion Funds as well as the loans obtained by our country from the IMF have significant implications upon the Romanian financial system. This article is a comparative approach structured on five parts as it follows: the second part is a review of the specific literature regarding the theme of our work, the third part is an analysis of the absorption stage of the Structural Funds and the evolution of the stand by agreements between Romania and IMF, the fourth part is a SWO...

  1. Update on ONC's Substellar IMF: A Second Peak in the Brown Dwarf Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Holger; Bayo, A.; Chini, R.; Haas, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC) has become the prototype cluster for studying the Initial Mass Function (IMF). In a deep JHK survey of the ONC with HAWK-I we detected a large population of 900 Brown Dwarfs and Planetary Mass Object candidates presenting a pronounced second peak in the substellar IMF. One of the most obvious issues of this result is the verification of cluster membership. The analysis so far was mainly based on statistical consideration. In this presentation I will show the results from using different high-resolution extinction map to determine the ONC membership.

  2. Making the Most of Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Research supports what many teachers have long known: talk is a valuable tool for learning. But how can we incorporate talk and still keep students on task, thinking collectively and deeply? Gillis offers a solid theoretical foundation for incorporating talk throughout the curriculum, and then provides practical help for implementing it, with…

  3. A Stylistic Analysis of Break,Break,Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2015-01-01

    Break, Break, Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet's grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Halam. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the lexical level and the semantic level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  4. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies a

  5. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies

  6. IMF : reservide kasutamise kõrval võiks Eesti ka laenata / Franciszek Rozwadowski ; interv. Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozwadowski, Franciszek

    2008-01-01

    IMF-i delegatsiooni juhi sõnul ei vaja Eesti IMF-i tugilaenu ja ajalugu näitab, et Eesti suudab asjadega omal käel toime tulla. Soovitatav on, et Eesti kõiki oma reserve ära ei kasutaks, selleks on kaks moodust: eelarvedefitsiidi vähendamine ja kulutuste osaline katmine laenu abil

  7. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework th

  8. IMF : reservide kasutamise kõrval võiks Eesti ka laenata / Franciszek Rozwadowski ; interv. Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozwadowski, Franciszek

    2008-01-01

    IMF-i delegatsiooni juhi sõnul ei vaja Eesti IMF-i tugilaenu ja ajalugu näitab, et Eesti suudab asjadega omal käel toime tulla. Soovitatav on, et Eesti kõiki oma reserve ära ei kasutaks, selleks on kaks moodust: eelarvedefitsiidi vähendamine ja kulutuste osaline katmine laenu abil

  9. The relationship between the Russell-McPherron effect and solar wind entry under northward IMF condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shichen; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Nowada, Motoharu; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Zhou, Xuzhi; Pu, Zuyin

    2017-04-01

    The strong magnetic storms tend to occur in March and September. This phenomenon can be explained by the Russell-McPherron (R-M) effect, since the Bz magnitude is enhanced in March and September under southward IMF condition. Same mechanism should be valid under northward IMF condition, and the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity under northward IMF condition could be expected. In this paper, the R-M effect under northward IMF condition is verified by utilizing 42 years of Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data. Cold-dense plasma sheet occurrence is chosen to investigate the monthly variation of solar wind entry under northward IMF condition. CDPS events are identified using multiple satellites' data between 1996 and 2014. We found that the seasonal variation of northward IMF and the occurrence rate of CDPS have semiannual period, these phenomena are related to the R-M effect.The R-M effect will affect the solar wind entry under northward IMF condition. Keywords: Semiannual variation, Russell-McPherron effect, Cold-dense plasma sheet

  10. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalization in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; McDermid, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    We here present the first spatially resolved study of the initial mass function (IMF) in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio (M/L). We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine M/L gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar IMF mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalizations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalization and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future, larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation.

  11. IMF-screws or arch bars as conservative treatment for mandibular condyle fractures: quality of life aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; de Mol van Otterloo, J.J.; van der Ploeg, T.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arch bars as treatment for a fractured mandibular condyle are inconvenient to patients and lead to lowered quality of life (QOL). To overcome these inconveniences, IMF-screws (IMFS) to facilitate intermaxillary fixation during surgery have been developed. The purpose of the present study i

  12. Comparative study on microbial removal in immersed membrane filtration (IMF) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Au, Y L; Nagaoka, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the effect of microbial removal using IMF for high quality drinking water production. The comparison of IMF and IMF-PAC configuration was carried out in the study to highlight the importance of PAC in the system. The specific objective of this study was to study the effect of PAC adsorption in the IMF-PAC system particularly in removing microbial substances from contaminated raw water. A bench scale IMF-PAC configuration using a flat sheet microfiltration membrane was set up for experimental purposes. Experimentally, the result has shown high removal of microbial substances with the IMF-PAC system compared to IMF. The result of E. coli removal achieved was below the detectable level due to the microbial size, which is bigger than membrane pore size. The addition of PAC has shown a direct effect on total microbial removal. The adsorption of microbial onto PAC surfaces reduced the amount of smaller microbial present in permeate samples. As a conclusion, the configuration of IMF is a promising separation process in removing microbial substances, especially when the system is combined with PAC.

  13. How does a low-mass cut-off in the stellar IMF affect the evolution of young star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; de Grijs, R; Rose, M; Kim, Sungsoo S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) can affect the mass loss and survival of star clusters. We find that IMFs with radically different low-mass cut-offs (between 0.1 and 2 Msun) do not change cluster destruction time-scales as much as might be expected. Unsurprisingly, we find that clusters with more high-mass stars lose relatively more mass through stellar evolution, but the response to this mass loss is to expand and hence significantly slow their dynamical evolution. We also argue that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to have clusters with different IMFs that are initially "the same", since the mass, radius and relaxation times depend on each other and on the IMF in a complex way. We conclude that changing the IMF to be biased towards more massive stars does speed up mass loss and dissolution, but that it is not as dramatic as might be thought.

  14. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach...... to analysing talk and mobile action in what are arguably two quintessentially Nordic mobility practices, namely cycling and skiing. More specifically the focus is on investigating and comparing how a child learns to cycle in a bike-friendly urban infrastructure, and how a child learns to ski cross...... is collaboratively constructed in interaction by the participants as part and parcel of their kinaesthetic experience of the respective material environment and infrastructure. Especially when skiing, the more malleable snowscape is (re)territorialised by laying down tracks, which can be reused by participants, both...

  15. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  16. Listen, talk and understand

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2006-01-01

    It’s a fact, we are getting through to each other. The signs that the Staff Association and the staff are talking and listeningto each other are very encouraging and recent demonstration of thishas spurred us on. These indications have enabled us today to begin thepreparations for the difficult issues at stake in the coming months. Theyencourage us to persevere with calm and confidence, because:

  17. Learning to talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messum, Piers

    2001-05-01

    Is imitation a necessary part of learning to talk? The faithful replication by children of such arbitrary phenomena of English as tense and lax vowel properties, ``rhythm,'' and context-dependent VOT's seems to insist that it is. But a nonimitative account of this is also possible. It relies on two principal mechanisms. First, basic speech sounds are learned by emulation: attempting to reproduce the results achieved by other speakers but without copying their actions to do so. The effectiveness of the output provides sufficient feedback to inform the child of the adequacy of its performance and to guide refinement. Second, phonetic phenomena such as those above appear through aerodynamic accommodation. Key elements of this are (a) that speech breathing is a complex motor skill which dominates other articulatory processes during acquisition and starts pulsatile before becoming smooth, and (b) that a child-scale production system imposes constraints on talking which do not operate in the adult speaker. Much of ``the terrible complexity of phonetic patterns'' [J. Pierrehumbert, Lang. Speech 46, 115-154 (2003)] then becomes epiphenomenal: appearing not as a result of young learners copying phonetic detail that is not linguistically significant, but of them reconciling conflicting production demands while just talking.

  18. A WAY BACK IN: THE CERN POST-CAREER BREAK FELLOWSHIP

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This video showcases the Post Career Break Fellowship programme launched in 2014. It is aimed at people looking to return to work in science and engineering after a break for personal reasons such as family or caring responsibilities or health issues for at least 2 years. The video features two current post career break fellows, talking about their journey of starting a career, taking some time off and returning to science.

  19. Field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp and polar cap region during northward IMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2002-01-01

    [1] The field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp and polar cap region are examined using magnetic data from the low-altitude polar-orbiting satellite Orsted. The study is confined to cases where the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a steady northward component and to a rather narrow region...

  20. Multi-instrument observations of nightside plasma patches under conditions of IMF Bz positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. C. Howells

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from two multi-instrument case studies showing patches of cold, long-lived plasma in the winter nightside ionosphere during times when the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF Bz was positive. These enhancements were coincident with the antisunward convective plasma drift, flowing from polar to nightside auroral latitudes. In the first case, on 5 December 2005 with IMF By negative, two regions of enhanced electron density were observed extended in MLT in the magnetic midnight sector separated by lower densities near midnight. It is likely that the earlier enhancement originated on the dayside near magnetic noon and was transported to the nightside sector in the convective flow, whilst the later feature originated in the morning magnetic sector. The lower densities separating the two enhancements were a consequence of a pair of lobe cells essentially blocking the direct antisunward cross polar flow from the dayside. A second case study on 4 February 2006 with IMF By positive revealed a single nightside enhancement likely to have originated in the morning magnetic sector. These multi-instrument investigations, incorporating observations by the EISCAT radar facility, the SuperDARN network and radio tomography, reveal that plasma flowing from the dayside can play a significant role in the nightside ionosphere under conditions of IMF Bz positive. The observations are reinforced by simulations of flux-tube transport and plasma decay.

  1. Moral Hazard; Does IMF Financing Encourage Imprudence by Borrowers and Lenders?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven T Phillips; Timothy D. Lane

    2002-01-01

    Examines the issue of moral hazard inrelation to IMF loans to countries in financial difficulties. Concerns about moral hazard have had a prominent place in recent discussions on how the architecture of the international financial system should be reformed and what the IMF’s role should be.

  2. Mapping the core mass function onto the stellar IMF: multiplicity matters

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, K; Goodwin, S P; Whitworth, A P

    2013-01-01

    Observations indicate that the central portions of the Present-Day Prestellar Core Mass Function (CMF) and the Stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF) both have approximately log-normal shapes, but that the CMF is displaced to higher mass than the IMF by a factor F = 4+/-1. This has lead to suggestions that the shape of the IMF is directly inherited from the shape of the CMF - and therefore, by implication, that there is a self-similar mapping from the CMF onto the IMF. If we assume a self-similar mapping, it follows (i) that F = N0/eta, where eta is the mean fraction of a core's mass that ends up in stars, and N0 is the mean number of stars spawned by a single core; and (ii) that the stars spawned by a single core must have an approximately log-normal distribution of relative masses, with universal standard deviation sigma0. Observations can be expected to deliver ever more accurate estimates of F, but this still leaves a degeneracy between eta and N0; and sigma0 is also unconstrained by observation. Here we sho...

  3. Differences in proportion and dynamics of recipient hematopoiesis following hematopoietic cell transplantation in CML and IMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebolts, Udo; Thiele, Jürgen; Zander, Thomas; Ditschkowski, Markus; Beelen, Dietrich W; Kröger, Nicolaus; Fehse, Boris; Wickenhauser, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Since decades myeloablation followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation offered the only opportunity to cure leukemia patients and only recently the development of STI571 created a further alternative in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). While among all leukemias this transplantation regimen had the best outcome in CML, trials with reduced intensity conditioning regimens (RIC) were rather humbling and recurrence of the neoplastic clone occurred frequently. However, the same therapy in patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) resulted in a more favorable outcome. Therefore, long-term mixed chimerism (mCh) was determined on bone marrow (BM) biopsies derived from five IMF patients and from eight CML patients of the pre STI era following sex-mismatched transplantation. All patients presented lasting hematologic remission and were matched concerning age, sex and appearance of GvHD. Analysis of late transplant period (day +100) revealed a concentration of host cells within the CD34+ precursor cell compartment in both diseases. However, in IMF BM biopsies only up to 8% recipient CD34+ precursors but in CML biopsies up to 26% recipient CD34+ precursors were detected. Taken into account that in CML up to 10% of the host BM CD34+ precursors bear the BCR-ABL translocation our data suggest that the neoplastic CD34+ progenitor cell population might dispose of better strategies to escape immune surveillance in CML than in IMF.

  4. IMF: majanduskriis tuleb sügavam ja pikem / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Valuutafondi (IMF) prognoosi kohaselt on ülemaailmne majanduskriis esialgsetest hinnangutest sügavam ning toibumine sellest võtab finantsturgude stabiliseerumise pikaajalise protsessi tõttu kauem aega. Kaart: Halvim jääb tänavusse aastasse

  5. Non-IMF mandibular fracture reduction techniques: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Enkh-Orchlon; van Minnen, Baucke; Bos, Ruud R M

    2017-08-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) techniques are commonly used in mandibular fracture treatment to reduce bone fragments and re-establish normal occlusion. However, non-IMF reduction techniques such as repositioning forceps may be preferable due to their quick yet adequate reduction. The purpose of this paper is to assess which non-IMF reduction techniques and reduction forceps are available for fracture reduction in the mandible. A systematic search was performed in the databases of Pubmed and EMBASE. The search was updated until February 2016 and no initial date and language preference was set. 14 articles were selected for this review, among them ten articles related to reduction forceps and four articles describing other techniques. Thus, modification and design of reduction forceps and other reduction techniques are qualitatively described. Few designs of repositioning forceps have been proposed in the literature. Quick and adequate reduction of fractures seems possible with non-IMF techniques resulting in anatomic repositioning and shorter operation time, especially in cases with good interfragmentary stability. Further development and clinical testing of reduction forceps is necessary to establish their future role in maxillofacial fracture treatment. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient epileptic seizure detection by a combined IMF-VoE feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Yueming; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Junming; Guo, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Automatic seizure detection from the electroen-cephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in an on-demand closed-loop therapeutic system. A new feature, called IMF-VoE, is proposed to predict the occurrence of seizures. The IMF-VoE feature combines three intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from the empirical mode decomposition of a EEG signal and the variance of the range between the upper and lower envelopes (VoE) of the signal. These multiple cues encode the intrinsic characteristics of seizure states, thus are able to distinguish them from the background. The feature is tested on 80.4 hours of EEG data with 10 seizures of 4 patients. The sensitivity of 100% is obtained with a low false detection rate of 0.16 per hour. Average time delays are 19.4s, 13.2s, and 10.7s at the false detection rates of 0.16 per hour, 0.27 per hour, and 0.41 per hour respectively, when different thresholds are used. The result is competitive among recent studies. In addition, since the IMF-VoE is compact, the detection system is of high computational efficiency and able to run in real time.

  7. Non Equilibrated IMF Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions around the Fermi Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantelli, S.; Bidini, L.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Poggi, S.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.

    2001-11-01

    The first experimental data obtained with the FIASCO setup for the reaction 116Sn+93Nb at 29.5AMeV confirm the existence of a midvelocity emission of LCPs and IMFs that may come from the neck rupture during the first phase of the reaction

  8. Magnetospheric Magnetic Reconnection with Southward IMF by a 3D EMPM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Yan, X. Y.; Cai, D. S.; Lembege, B.

    2004-01-01

    We report our new simulation results on magnetospheric magnetic reconnection with southward IMF using a 3D EMPM model, with greater resolution and more particles using the parallelized 3D HPF TRISTAN code on VPP5000 supercomputer. Main parameters used in the new simulation are: domain size is 215 x 145 x 145, grid size = 0.5 Earth radius, initial particle number is 16 per cell, the IMF is southward. Arrival of southward IMF will cause reconnection in the magnetopause, thus allowing particles to enter into the inner magnetosphere. Sunward and tailward high particle flow are observed by satellites, and these phenomena are also observed in the simulation near the neutral line (X line) of the near-Earth magnetotail. This high particle flow goes along with the reconnected island. The magnetic reconnection process contributes to direct plasma entry between the magnetosheath to the inner magnetosphere and plasma sheet, in which the entry process eats the magnetosheath plasma to plasma sheet temperatures. We investigate magnetic, electric fields, density, and current during this magnetic reconnection with southward IMF. Further investigation with this simulation will provide insight into unsolved problems, such as the triggering of storms and substorms, and the storm-substorm relationship. New results will be presented at the meeting.

  9. MOND and IMF variations in early-type galaxies from ATLAS3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Cardone, V. F.; Napolitano, N. R.; Jetzer, Ph.

    2014-02-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) represents a phenomenological alternative to dark matter (DM) for the missing mass problem in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We analyse the central regions of a local sample of ˜220 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey, to see if the data can be reproduced without recourse to DM. We estimate dynamical masses in the MOND context through Jeans analysis and compare to ATLAS3D stellar masses from stellar population synthesis. We find that the observed stellar mass-velocity dispersion relation is steeper than expected assuming MOND with a fixed stellar initial mass function (IMF) and a standard value for the acceleration parameter a0. Turning from the space of observables to model space (a) fixing the IMF, a universal value for a0 cannot be fitted, while, (b) fixing a0 and leaving the IMF free to vary, we find that it is `lighter' (Chabrier like) for low-dispersion galaxies and `heavier' (Salpeter like) for high dispersions. This MOND-based trend matches inferences from Newtonian dynamics with DM and from the detailed analysis of spectral absorption lines, adding to the converging lines of evidence for a systematically varying IMF.

  10. Fiscal Forecasting: the Track Record of the IMF, OECD, and EC

    OpenAIRE

    Artis, Michael J; Marcellino, Massimiliano

    1999-01-01

    We analyse the relative performance of the IMF, OECD and EC in forecasting the government deficit, as a ratio to DGP, for the G7 countries. Interesting differences across countries emerge, sometimes supporting the hypothesis of an asymmetric loss function (i.e., of a preference for underprediction or overprediction), and potential benefits from forecast pooling.

  11. The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-04

    dependent on exports to the United States. Increased emerging market default risk can be seen in the dramatic rise of credit default swap (CDS) prices for...emerging market sovereign bonds. Financial markets are currently pricing the risk that Pakistan, Argentina, Ukraine, and Iceland will default on...6 Figure 1. Outstanding IMF Credit (1990-2008, SDR

  12. Antiparallel magnetic merging signatures during IMF BY>>0: longitudinal and latitudinal cusp aurora bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Massetti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A prominent dayside auroral event, occurred during an IMF BY-dominated time interval, and characterized by the contemporaneous longitudinal and latitudinal cusp bifurcations, is reported. The event was recorded the 19 December 2002, between about 09:30–10:45 UT, by the ITACA2 twin auroral monitors system, in the Greenland-Svalbard zone. The splitting of the ionospheric footprint of the geomagnetic cusp, traced by the dayside auroral activity, was recently identified with the signatures of antiparallel reconnection episodes ongoing at different magnetopause locations, during large IMF BY periods. The first part of the event showed a broad longitudinal bifurcation of the red-dominated cusp aurora, displaced in the prenoon and postnoon, with a separation up to ~1800 km, during northeast directed IMF (clock-angle rotating from 45° to 90°. This observation widens the range of IMF regimes that are known to drive a longitudinal bifurcation of the cusp, since previous case-studies reported these events to occur during southeast/southwest oriented IMF (clock-angle ≈135°. The second part of the event, developed when the IMF turned to a nearly horizontal orientation (BY>>0, BZ~0, clock-angle ~90°, and exhibited the simultaneous activation of the cusp auroras in three distinct areas: i two of them associated to the above-mentioned longitudinally bifurcated cusp (~73°–75° CGM latitude, type 1 cusp aurora, and linked to (nearantiparallel magnetic reconnection patches equatorward the northern and the southern cusp, ii the other one characterized by isolated high-latitude (~76°–77° CGM latitude, type 2 cusp aurora rayed arc(s with intense green emission, and triggered by (nearantiparallel merging at the northern lobe (usually observed during positive IMF BZ, poleward the local cusp. During this phase, the longitudinal separation of the low-latitude type~1 cusp aurora was about 1000 km wide, with a 500 km gap, while the latitudinal separation

  13. Talk of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maybe, before we speak of time, or maybe whilst we are speaking of time, or maybe after we have spoken of time, in the various modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should give time to the talk of time. There are various different modes of time’s insistence to exist, such as quantum physics in conversation with relativity theory where time is constructed as a fourth dimension of space. Or there are the modes of time in history, religion, psychology and philosophy, and each of these modes is composed, and composes its own specific object called time, and a particular subject who understands and interprets time in that particular mode. Yet, before, whilst or after these modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should maybe give time to time’s time. Give time for the various times to articulate themselves in the various modes of existence, thereby creating both a whole plurality of differing subjects, as well as plurality of differing objects, all called ‘time’. Once time has been given time to talk its talk, to articulate itself within the various modes, it will be interrupted by the articulations of time in various modes of time still to come. These disruptions of time by time always still to come opens the door for a theological narrative – a narrative on time, but created by the coming of messianic times, interpreted in the mode of hope but also in the mode of a promise from the past.

  14. Multi-fault detection of rolling element bearings under harsh working condition using IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuejun

    2014-10-28

    When operating under harsh condition (e.g., time-varying speed and load, large shocks), the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are always manifested as low signal noise ratio, non-stationary statistical parameters, which cause difficulties for current diagnostic methods. As such, an IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis (IMF-AEOA) is proposed for bearing fault detection under such conditions. This approach is established through combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), envelope order tracking and fault sensitive analysis. In this scheme, EEMD provides an effective way to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into IMFs with different frequency bands. The envelope order tracking is further employed to transform the envelope of each IMF to angular domain to eliminate the spectral smearing induced by speed variation, which makes the bearing characteristic frequencies more clear and discernible in the envelope order spectrum. Finally, a fault sensitive matrix is established to select the optimal IMF containing the richest diagnostic information for final decision making. The effectiveness of IMF-AEOA is validated by simulated signal and experimental data from locomotive bearings. The result shows that IMF-AEOA could accurately identify both single and multiple faults of bearing even under time-varying rotating speed and large extraneous shocks.

  15. Bib:talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Khawaja, Iram

    På Ballerup Bibliotekerne blev ord som integration og gensidig forståelse omsat til praktisk handling i 2006. Med økonomisk støtte fra Biblioteksstyrelsens udviklingspulje for skole- og folkebiblioteker kørte Ballerup Bibliotekerne i efteråret et dialogprojekt "Unge mødes og dialog opstår. Vores ...... opbygget, har løftet BIB:talk-projektets kvalitet markant. Opbakningen fra resten af personalet på biblioteket har været fantastisk og alle har følt ejerskab til projektet....

  16. IMF-screws or arch bars as conservative treatment for mandibular condyle fractures: Quality of life aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, B; de Mol van Otterloo, J J; van der Ploeg, T; Tuinzing, D B; Forouzanfar, T

    2015-09-01

    Arch bars as treatment for a fractured mandibular condyle are inconvenient to patients and lead to lowered quality of life (QOL). To overcome these inconveniences, IMF-screws (IMFS) to facilitate intermaxillary fixation during surgery have been developed. The purpose of the present study is to investigate and compare QOL for patients treated for a fractured mandibular condyle with either IMFS or arch bars. This research trial was conducted from 2010 to 2014 as part of an earlier prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in which the use of IMFS was compared to the use of arch bars in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. In total, 50 patients were included: 30 (60%) male patients and 20 (40%) female patients (mean age: 31.8 years, standard deviation [SD] = 13.9 years, range = 18-64 years). A total of 24 (48%) patients were allocated in the IMFS group, and 26 (52%) patients were assigned to the arch-bars control group. Significant results were observed in the subscales social isolation, possibility to eat and vary diet, influence on sleep, and satisfaction with the given treatment, all in favour of IMFS. In conclusion, using IMFS as a method for conservative treatment of condylar fractures led to a higher QOL during the 6-week period of fracture healing. In comparison to arch bars, patients treated with IMFS experienced less social isolation, had fewer problems with eating, and express the feeling they are able to continue their normal diet. Furthermore it seems that the use of IMFS has a lower negative impact on social and financial aspects of the patient. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Breaking Bad News in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines. PMID:25709183

  18. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  19. La riforma del FMI: alcune questioni organizzatIve e operative (Reforming the IMF: Some Organizational and Operational Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available While financial crises during the 1990s have started a lively debate on IMF policies toward member countries, reform of the Fund's organizational structure and operations have been largely ignored. Improved organization and operations would increase IMF efficiency and membership participation, which would in turn increase IMF effectiveness in enhancing global economic conditions. In this paper, a number of such issues--quotas, voting structure and decision making; executive board and ministerial committees; management structure and staff; political dimensions, transparency and credibility--are assessed.

  20. On the Predictability of Substorms Following Sharp Northward Turnings of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, Larry R.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Reeves, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that there is an association between changes of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) that are expected to lead to a reduction in magnetospheric convection (northward turnings, reductions) and the onset of the expansion phase of substorms. This has been previously demonstrated by analyses of IMF data during time intervals associated with identified substorm onsets. Here we examine whether observations of northward turnings of the IMF can be used to predict the occurrence of substorms. We first identified sharp northward turnings that follow an interval of steady, southward IMF using measurements from the Wind spacecraft during the first 180 days of 1997. We also required that the northward turning be observed by either IMP-8 or GEOTAIL, in addition to Wind, and that one of the observing satellites be sufficiently close to the Earth-Sun line, or that the two observing satellites be sufficiently separated, that we are reasonably certain that the northward turning affected the magnetosphere. We also used the dual observations to estimate the arrival of the northward turning at the Earth. Using these criteria, we predicted 17 substorms. We then searched for the following signatures of substorm onset around the time of the predicted onset: auroral brightening followed by auroral bulge expansion observed by Polar UVI, geosynchronous particle injection, geosynchronous magnetic field dipolarization, and an appropriate magnetic disturbance at the surface of the Earth. Of the 17 predictions of substorms, 10 were successful in that a substorm onset was observed within 12 min of the predicted onset, 1 is indeterminate due to a lack of data at the Earth, 1 had unusual activity that we have not been able to identify, and 5 were unsuccessful. The failure of these last 5 predictions is explicable. Two of the northward turnings that failed to produce substorms were preceded by the lowest average of the set. The remaining 3 were the only cases in which the

  1. On the breaking of statistical isotropy through inflationary relics

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Juan C Bueno

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we elaborate on a mechanism to generate local contributions to the curvature perturbation in isolated patches of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mechanism, based on the generation of an out-of-equilibrium configuration in fluctuating scalar fields of mass $m\\sim H$ during a sustained stage of fast-roll inflation, has been recently shown to be capable of accounting for some of the most robust large-angle anomalies detected in the CMB. In this talk, we show in detail how the embedding of the mechanism into models including vector fields can result in the breaking of statistical isotropy in isolated patches of the CMB.

  2. Constructing Communication: Talking to Scientists About Talking to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has started to explore "scientific understandings of publics" alongside public understandings of science. This study builds on this work to examine the ways in which public communication is talked about by scientists and engineers. The author identifies a range of ways of talking about...

  3. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  4. Tracing magnetic separators and their dependence on IMF clock angle in global magnetospheric simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Komar, C M; Dorelli, J C; Glocer, A; Kuznetsova, M M

    2013-01-01

    A new, efficient, and highly accurate method for tracing magnetic separators in global magnetospheric simulations with arbitrary clock angle is presented. The technique is to begin at a magnetic null and iteratively march along the separator by finding where four magnetic topologies meet on a spherical surface. The technique is verified using exact solutions for separators resulting from an analytic magnetic field model that superposes dipolar and uniform magnetic fields. Global resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are performed using the three-dimensional BATS-R-US code with a uniform resistivity, in eight distinct simulations with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angles ranging from 0 (parallel) to 180 degrees (anti-parallel). Magnetic nulls and separators are found in the simulations, and it is shown that separators traced here are accurate for any clock angle, unlike the last closed field line on the Sun-Earth line that fails for southward IMF. Trends in magnetic null locations and the struc...

  5. Toward a Complete Census of the Low Mass IMF in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberto, Massimo; Andersen, Morten; Barman, Travis; Bellini, Andrea; da Rio, Nicola; de Mink, Selma; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Lu, Jessica R.; Luhman, Kevin; Manara, Carlo Felice; Meyer, Michael; Platais, Imants; Pueyo, Laurent; Soderblom, David; Soummer, Remi; Stahler, Steve; Tan, Jonathan Charles

    2015-08-01

    A 52-orbit Hubble Treasury Program is currently under way to investigate two fundamental questions of star formation: a) the low- mass tail of the IMF, down to a few Jupiter masses; b) the dynamical evolution of clusters, as revealed by stellar proper motions. The program targets the Orion Nebula Cluster using WFC3 and ACS in coordinated parallel mode to perform a synoptic survey in the 1.345micron H2O feature and in the F775W Ic broad-band. In this poster we present early results from the IR survey, aimed at discovering and classify all brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects in the field, extending the IMF down to lowest masses formed by gravitational collapse. Using the latest generation of high contrast image processing we are also searching for faint companions, reaching down to sub-arcsecond separations and 10-4 flux ratios.

  6. Book review: Unholy trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO Richard Peet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Breitenbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this timely book Richard Peet and his team lay the foundation with an excellent analysis of the process of globalisation and the resultant emergence of the global economy. The authors are especially critical of the increasing influence of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO on the economy and the consequences experienced by peoples, cultures and the environment. The single ideology of neo-liberalism is blamed for the undesirable outcomes. This book considers concepts of power, political interest, hegemony, discourse, responsibility and the power of practicality, in critically examining the IMF, World Bank and WTO. The conclusion is reached that “all three institutions play roles greatly different from those originally agreed to under the charters that set them up”.

  7. FTE Dependence on IMF Orientation and Presence of Hall Physics in Global MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, K. M.; Germaschewski, K.; Lin, L.; Raeder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are poleward traveling flux ropes that form in the dayside magnetopause and represent significant coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere during times of southward IMF. In the 35 years since their discovery, FTEs have been extensively observed and modeled; however, there is still no consensus on their generation mechanism. Previous modeling efforts have shown that FTE occurrence and size depend on the resistivity model that is used in simulations and the structure of X-lines in the magnetopause. We use Hall OpenGGCM, a global Hall-MHD code, to study the formation and propagation of FTEs in the dayside magnetopause using synthetic solar wind conditions. We examine large scale FTE structure and nearby magnetic separators for a range of IMF clock angles and dipole tilts. In addition, we investigate how FTE formation and recurrence rate depends on the presence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law compared with resistive MHD.

  8. Talking About Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2015-01-01

    Taking as its starting point the Nordic cultural policy debates surrounding audience development, which concentrate either on reaching out to new target groups or on artistic quality, this article suggests that the focus on the audience’s experience of theatre performances has thus far been...... underdeveloped. Through qualitative audience investigations, this article shows how talking about theatre offers a method by which to explore theatre experiences from an audience perspective, and thus provides invaluable knowledge for theatres and cultural politicians in search of larger and broader audiences....... The analysis discusses audience experience with regard to the sensory, the artistic and the symbolic level of two specific Swedish-Danish performances, thereby demonstrating how this approach offers a useful tool for theatrical institutions engaged in audience development....

  9. How the IMF $\\mathit{B}_{y}$ induces a $\\mathit{B}_{y}$ component in the closed magnetosphere and how it leads to asymmetric currents and convection patterns in the two hemispheres

    CERN Document Server

    Tenfjord, P; Snekvik, K; Laundal, K M; Reistad, J P; Haaland, S; Milan, S E

    2016-01-01

    We used the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetohydrodynamics model to study the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) IMF $\\mathit{B}_{y}$ component on the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere-ionosphere system. When the IMF reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field with IMF $\\mathit{B}_{y}$ $\

  10. Euroala päästab end IMF-i kaudu, Eesti osa on seni teadmata / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    19. detsembril leppisid Euroopa Liidu rahandusministrid kokku uues võlakriisi ühisabi mehhanismis, kuid enne ühisabiplaaniga liitumise lubamist peab IMF tuvastama, kas Eesti üldse jaksab raha anda

  11. Towards a sovereign bankruptcy procedure and greater restraint in IMF crisis lending. An interim assessmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curzio Giannini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the area of the international financial architecture relating tosovereign crisis resolution. It is argued that shifting part of the burden of crisisresolution onto creditors may encourage debtor countries to take early action to counter an unsustainable debt path. Collective action clauses, the sovereign debt restructuring mechanism, and ceilings on IMF loans, are all necessary components of a new and better crisis resolution framework.

  12. Is coverage a factor in non-Gaussianity of IMF parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Fikani, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, Feynman and Ruzmaikin (1994) showed that IMF parameters for the 1973 to 1990 period are not log-normally distributed as previously suggested by Burlaga and King (1979) for the data obtained over a shorter time period (1963-75). They studied the first four moments, namely: mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis. For a Gaussian distribution, moments higher than the variance should vanish. In particular, Feynman and Ruzmaikin obtained very high values of kurtosis during some periods of their analysis. We note that the coverage for IMF parameters is very uneven for the period analyzed by them, ranging from less than 40% to greater than 80%. So a question arises as to whether the amount of coverage is a factor in their analysis. We decided to test this for the B(sub z) component of IMF, since it is an effective geoactive parameter for short term disturbances. Like them, we used 1-hour averaged data available on the Omnitape. We studied the scatter plots of the annual mean values of B(sub z)(nT) and its kurtosis versus the percent coverage for the year. We obtain a correlation coefficient of 0.48 and 0.42 respectively for the 1973-90 period. The probability for a chance occurrence of these correlation coefficients for 18 pair of points is less than 8%. As a rough measure of skewness, we determined the percent asymmetry between the areas of the histograms representing the distributions of the positive and the negative values of B(sub z) and studied its correlation with the coverage for the year. This analysis yields a correlation coefficient of 0.41 When we extended the analysis for the whole period for which IMF data are available (1963-93) the corresponding correlation coefficients are 0.59, 0.14, and 0.42. Our findings will be presented and discussed

  13. Predictions of Substorms and Intensifications Following Northward Turnings of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, L. R.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Substorms are often observed to occur at the end of intervals of Southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), i.e. following the northward turning. Despite the significant correlation between northward turning and substorms, no direct causal relationship between northward turnings and substorms has been demonstrated. Assuming such a causal relationship, we predict that substorms will occur within a particular interval following the observation of a northward turning in the IMF. We observe 16 northward turnings following steady, southward IMF in data taken by the WIND spacecraft magnetic field instrument (MFI). To ensure that the northward turning was observed at the magnetosphere, we require that the northward turning also be observed by instruments on either one of Geotail or IMP-8 while the separation of the second spacecraft from WIND was more that 10 R(sub E). These two-spacecraft observations also allow us to predict more accurately the arrival time of the northward turning at the Earth. Of the predictions substorms, 10 predictions were clearly successful to within +/- 12 min. Five predictions failed, but the failures reveal clear shortcomings in the criteria for a northward turning that we correct. The failures were caused by an increase in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) simultaneous with the northward turning in 3 cases, and a weak southward IMF preceding the northward turning in 2 cases. The final northward turning arrived in the recovery phase of an ongoing substorm, and resulted in unusual auroral activity. The implication of the predictability of substorms following sharp northward turnings is that the postulated causal relationship between northward turnings and substorm onset exists. The effect of increases in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) to negate the triggering ability of northward turnings suggests that the triggering mechanism involves sharp reductions in the magnetospheric convection electric field.

  14. On the Effect of IMF Turning on Ion Dynamics at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, D. C.; Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a rotation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) on the transport of magnetospheric ion populations at Mercury. We focus on ions of planetary origin and investigate their large-scale circulation using three-dimensional single-particle simulations. We show that a nonzero Bx component of the IMF leads to a pronounced asymmetry in the overall circulation pattern . In particular, we demonstrate that the centrifugal acceleration due to curvature of the E x B drift paths is more pronounced in one hemisphere than the other, leading to filling of the magnetospheric lobes and plasma sheet with more or less energetic material depending upon the hemisphere of origin. Using a time-varying electric and magnetic field model, we investigate the response of ions to rapid (a few tens of seconds) re-orientation of the IMF. We show that, for ions with gyroperiods comparable to the field variation time scale, the inductive electric field should lead to significant nonadiabatic energization, up to several hundreds of eVs or a few keVs. It thus appears that IMP turning at Mercury should lead to localized loading of the magnetosphere with energetic material of planetary origin (e.g., Na+).

  15. Optimum IMFs Selection Based Envelope Analysis of Bearing Fault Diagnosis in Plunger Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliao Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the plunger pump always works in a complicated environment and the hydraulic cycle has an intrinsic fluid-structure interaction character, the fault information is submerged in the noise and the disturbance impact signals. For the fault diagnosis of the bearings in plunger pump, an optimum intrinsic mode functions (IMFs selection based envelope analysis was proposed. Firstly, the Wigner-Ville distribution was calculated for the acquired vibration signals, and the resonance frequency brought on by fault was obtained. Secondly, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD was employed for the vibration signal, and the optimum IMFs and the filter bandwidth were selected according to the Wigner-Ville distribution. Finally, the envelope analysis was utilized for the selected IMFs filtered by the band pass filter, and the fault type was recognized by compared with the bearing character frequencies. For the two modes, inner race fault and compound fault in the inner race and roller of rolling element bearing in plunger pump, the experiments show that a promising result is achieved.

  16. MOND and IMF variations in early-type galaxies from $\\rm ATLAS^{3D}$

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Cardone, V F; Napolitano, N R; Jetzer, Ph

    2013-01-01

    MOdified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) represents a phenomenological alternative to dark matter (DM) for the missing mass problem in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We analyze the central regions of a local sample of $\\sim 220$ early-type galaxies from the $\\rm ATLAS^{3D}$ survey, to see if the data can be reproduced without recourse to DM. We estimate dynamical masses in the MOND context through Jeans analysis, and compare to $\\rm ATLAS^{3D}$ stellar masses from stellar population synthesis. We find that the observed stellar mass--velocity dispersion relation is steeper than expected assuming MOND with a fixed stellar initial mass function (IMF) and a standard value for the acceleration parameter $a_{\\rm 0}$. Turning from the space of observables to model space, a) fixing the IMF, a universal value for $a_{\\rm 0}$ cannot be fitted, while, b) fixing $a_{\\rm 0}$ and leaving the IMF free to vary, we find that it is "lighter" (Chabrier-like) for low-dispersion galaxies, and "heavier" (Salpeter-like) for high disp...

  17. Cloning and Expression of SFRP5 in Tibetan Chicken and its Relationship with IMF Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zuo, Lu-Lu; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Ya-Ou; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang; Liao, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sen; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5), an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is relevant to the adipocyte differentiation. In order to clarify its role in regulating intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Tibetan chicken, the full-length sequence of the Tibetan chicken SFRP5 gene was cloned. The relative expression of SFRP5 gene was detected using quantitative RT-PCR in various tissues of 154 days old Tibetan chicken, as well as in breast muscle, thigh muscle, and adipose tissue at different growth stages. The results showed that SFRP5 gene was expressed in all examined tissues but highly enriched in adipose tissue. Temporal expression profile showed that the expression of SFRP5 was gradually decreased in breast muscle, but was fluctuated in thigh muscle and adipose tissue with the growth of Tibetan chicken. Furthermore, correlation analysis demonstrated that the expression of SFRP5 in breast muscle, thigh muscle and adipose tissue was correlated with IMF content at different levels. The results indicated that Tibetan chicken SFRP5 is involved in IMF deposition.

  18. Structural adjustment and public spending on health: evidence from IMF programs in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between health policy in low-income countries (LICs) and structural adjustment programs devised by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been the subject of intense controversy over past decades. While the influence of the IMF on health policy can operate through various pathways, one main link is via public spending on health. The IMF has claimed that its programs enhance government spending for health, and that a number of innovations have been introduced to enable borrowing countries to protect health spending from broader austerity measures. Critics have pointed to adverse effects of Fund programs on health spending or to systematic underfunding that does not allow LICs to address health needs. We examine the effects of Fund programs on government expenditures on health in low-income countries using data for the period 1985-2009. We find that Fund programs are associated with higher health expenditures only in Sub-Saharan African LICs, which historically spent less than any other region. This relationship turns negative in LICs in other regions. We outline the implications of these findings for health policy in a development context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Relationship Between Molecular Marker of Western Main Pig H-FABP Gene and IMF Content.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei-Jun; Sun, Shi-Duo; Li, Ying; Chen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Gong-She

    2005-05-01

    By using 265 pigs from eight breeds including Duroc,Landrace,Large White,Neijiang,Rongchang,Hanjiang Black,Hanzhong White,Bamei and wild ones, the genetic variations of 5'-upstream region from and the second intron in porcine H-FABP gene were checked by PCR-RFLP molecular marker with HinfI, Hae III and MspI,and effect of H-FABP gene on IMF content was then analyzed by least square analysis.The results showed as follows:(1) 8 pig breeds and wild pig had polymorphism at Hinf I-RFLP site. In above detected breeds,large white,Bamei pig, Hanjiang Black,Hanzhong White pig breeds and wild pig presented low polymorphism while other breeds have mediate polymorphism;(2)Among the tested breeds only 4 Chinese local pig breeds had no polymorphism at the Hae III-RFLP and Msp I-RFLP sites,but Duroc,Landrace,Largewhite, Hanzhong White pig breeds and wild pig had polymorphism. Wild pig at the Hae III-RFLP , Landrace,Largewhite and wild pig at the Hae III-RFLP and Msp I-RFLP sites were low polymorphism,others were mediate polymorphism;(3) H-FABP gene increased IMF content significantly(p0.05). Genetic effect of H-FABP gene on IMF content were HH>Hh>hh,DD.

  20. Field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp and polar cap region during northward IMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2002-01-01

    [1] The field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp and polar cap region are examined using magnetic data from the low-altitude polar-orbiting satellite Orsted. The study is confined to cases where the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a steady northward component and to a rather narrow region...... spanning similar to 4 hours around magnetic noon. We examine individual passes using a maximum variance analysis method, and we complement, for a single event, with ground-based data from the Greenland meridian chain of magnetometers. We suggest that when an east-west component B-y of the IMF exists...... for positive IMF B-z, the two NBZ (northward B-z) field-aligned currents that prevail over the polar region rotate to form the two field-aligned currents equatorward and poleward of the east-west flowing ionospheric DPY current in the dayside. The high accuracy of the Orsted data makes it possible to uncover...

  1. Formation of Massive Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters. II. IMF and Primordial Mass Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Sanghamitra; Bierbaum, Matt; Rasio, Frederic A

    2011-01-01

    A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is the runaway merger in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole. In this paper we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code for N-body systems with N as high as 10^6 stars. Our code now includes an explicit treatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation we generally see a decrease in core collapse time (tcc). Moreover, primordial mass segregation increases the average mass in the core, thus reducing the central relaxation time,...

  2. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gears Based on IMF AR Model and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate autoregressive (AR model can reflect the characteristics of a dynamic system based on which the fault feature of gear vibration signal can be extracted without constructing mathematical model and studying the fault mechanism of gear vibration system, which are experienced by the time-frequency analysis methods. However, AR model can only be applied to stationary signals, while the gear fault vibration signals usually present nonstationary characteristics. Therefore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD, which can decompose the vibration signal into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, is introduced into feature extraction of gear vibration signals as a preprocessor before AR models are generated. On the other hand, by targeting the difficulties of obtaining sufficient fault samples in practice, support vector machine (SVM is introduced into gear fault pattern recognition. In the proposed method in this paper, firstly, vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions, then the AR model of each IMF component is established; finally, the corresponding autoregressive parameters and the variance of remnant are regarded as the fault characteristic vectors and used as input parameters of SVM classifier to classify the working condition of gears. The experimental analysis results show that the proposed approach, in which IMF AR model and SVM are combined, can identify working condition of gears with a success rate of 100% even in the case of smaller number of samples.

  3. Young and embedded clusters in Cygnus-X: evidence for building up the IMF?

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F F S; Joncour, I

    2016-01-01

    We provide a new view on the Cygnus-X north complex by accessing for the first time the low mass content of young stellar populations in the region. CFHT/WIRCam camera was used to perform a deep near-IR survey of this complex, sampling stellar masses down to ~0.1 M$_\\odot$. Several analysis tools, including a extinction treatment developed in this work, were employed to identify and uniformly characterise a dozen unstudied young star clusters in the area. Investigation of their mass distributions in low-mass domain revealed a relatively uniform log-normal IMF with a characteristic mass of 0.32$\\pm$0.08 M$_\\odot$ and mass dispersion of 0.40$\\pm$0.06. In the high mass regime, their derived slopes showed that while the youngest clusters (age < 4 Myr) presented slightly shallower values with respect to the Salpeter's, our older clusters (4 Myr < age < 18 Myr) showed IMF compliant values and a slightly denser stellar population. Although possibly evidencing a deviation from an 'universal' IMF, these resul...

  4. Abundance ratios and IMF slope in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC~1396 with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Mentz, J J; Peletier, R F; Falcón-Barroso, J; Lisker, T; van de Ven, G; Loubser, S I; Hilker, M; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Napolitano, N; Cantiello, M; Capaccioli, M; Norris, M; Paolillo, M; Smith, R; Beasley, M A; Lyubenova, M; Munoz, R; Puzia, T

    2016-01-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (M$_V = -16.60$, Mass $\\sim 4\\times10^8$ M$_\\odot$), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the VLT/ MUSE spectrograph in the wavelength region from $4750-9350$ \\AA{}. In this paper we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galacto-centric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of $\\sim$ 6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]$\\sim$ $-0.4$, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] $\\sim +0.1$, and under-abundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around $-0.1$, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from $\\sim+0.1$ in the centre to $\\sim +0.2$ dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1...

  5. The Policies of the IMF and the World Bank and the Rights of Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Pigrau Solé

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available 50 years after the holding of the Bretton Woods Conference which gave way to the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank (WB, it would seem appropriate to evaluate their track record in the light of International Law and the Rights of peoples. The enormous impact that the activities of both organisms have had and still have on the living conditions of millions of people throughout the world make such an evaluation necessary.Through an analysis of the juridical nature of the IMF and the WB together with a detailed look at its aims as well as its capacity to make decisions and the results of its actions, an attempt is made to show that these organizations do not conform -neither in their operation nor behaviour nor in the results to which these lead- to fundamental rules of International Law and that they are, as a consequence, technically responsable for such non-fulfillment to these rules and should be made to be so to full effects. However, in the current international context, it would be, politically speaking,almost implausible to raise the question of their legal responsibility and is, furthermore very difficult to do so from a legal point of view. What is questioned here is not only the management of the IMF and the WB but also its very own configuration and the essence of the concepts and the policies which they apply.

  6. IMF soovitab uue töölepinguseaduse kiiresti vastu võtta / Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Peep, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Tallinnskii Vestnik juuli 2008, lk. 3. Eestis viibinud IMF-i delegatsiooni hinnangul sõltub Eesti majanduskasvu taastumine suurel määral majanduse konkurentsivõimest, delegatsioon toetab kavatsust leida edasisi võimalusi kokkuhoiuks ning soovitab töölepinguseaduse eelnõu kiiresti vastu võtta ja ellu viia. Rahandusminister Ivari Padari arvamus IMF-i hinnangute kohta

  7. Talk to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...

  8. Superconductivity and symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, L.G., E-mail: sarasua@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-02-15

    In the present work we consider the relation between superconductivity and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGBS). We show that ODLRO does not require in principle SBGS, even in the presence of particle number fluctuations, by examining exact solutions of a fermionic pairing model. The criteria become equivalent if a symmetry breaking field is allowed, which can be attributed to the interaction with the environment. However, superconducting states without SBGS are not forbidden.

  9. The impact of IMF conditionality on government health expenditure: A cross-national analysis of 16 West African nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) policy reforms-so-called 'conditionalities'-affect government health expenditures? We collected archival documents on IMF programmes from 1995 to 2014 to identify the pathways and impact of conditionality on government health spending in 16 West African countries. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we find that IMF policy reforms reduce fiscal space for investment in health, limit staff expansion of doctors and nurses, and lead to budget execution challenges in health systems. Further, we use cross-national fixed effects models to evaluate the relationship between IMF-mandated policy reforms and government health spending, adjusting for confounding economic and demographic factors and for selection bias. Each additional binding IMF policy reform reduces government health expenditure per capita by 0.248 percent (95% CI -0.435 to -0.060). Overall, our findings suggest that IMF conditionality impedes progress toward the attainment of universal health coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Teacher Talk in College English Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹灿; 王劲

    2014-01-01

    English teachers mainly pass on knowledge through teacher talk in China. This paper focuses on the analysis of charac⁃teristics of teacher talk and discusses some ways to make teacher talk more comprehensible for learners ’input. It has been conclud⁃ed that with conscious improvement or exploration on teacher talk in practice, teachers can greatly enhance their teacher talk and make an effective combination between teacher talk and comprehensible input.

  11. IMF-induced escape of molecular ions from the Martian ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kubota

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Mars does not possess a significant global intrinsic magnetic field, the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere and can induce ion escapes from it. Phobos-2 and recent Mars Express (MEX observations have shown that the escaping ions are O+ as well as molecular O2+ and CO2+. While O+ escape can be understood by the ion pick-up of non-thermal O corona extended around the planet, regarding the heavy molecular O2+ and CO2+, which are buried in the lower ionosphere, a novel escape mechanism needs to considered. Here we attack this problem by global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulations. First, we clarify the global structure of the streamlines that result from the interaction with the solar wind. Then, by focusing on the streamlines that dip into the low-altitude part of the dayside ionosphere, we investigate the escape path of the molecular ions. The effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF on the molecular ion escape process are investigated by comparing the results with and without IMF. IMF has little effect on O+ escape via ion pick-up mediated by solar wind electron impact ionization of the O corona. O2+ and CO2+ are shoveled from the low-altitude regions of the dayside ionosphere by magnetic tension in the presence of IMF. These ions are pulled by the U-shaped field lines to the north and south poles, and at the terminator, they are concentrated in the noon–midnight meridian plane. These ions remain confined to the noon–midnight plane as they are transported to the nightside to form the tail ray. Then they escape along the streamlines open to the interplanetary space. Under a typical solar wind and IMF condition expected at Mars, O+, O2+ and CO2+ escape fluxes are 8.0 × 1023, 3.5 × 1023 and 5.0 × 1022 ion s−1, respectively, which are in good agreement with the MEX observations.

  12. Response of the auroral electrojet indices to abrupt southward IMF turnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Gjerloev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of the behavior of the auroral electrojet indices following abrupt southward turnings of the IMF Bz. The auroral electrojet indices are calculated from observations made by more than 100 ground based stations provided by the SuperMAG collaborators. Based on three simple criteria we selected 73 events. In each event the interval of analysis started at the time of the IMF Bz southward turning and ended 45 minutes later or at the onset of any abrupt energy unloading event in the magnetosphere, regardless of size. We refer to this period as the "pre-unloading phase". To isolate the dependence of the auroral electrojets on the solar induced ionospheric conductivity during this phase we separated the standard AU/AL indices into two new sets of indices defined by the upper and lower envelope of the north-south component for all sunlit stations (AUs/ALs and for all stations in darkness (AUd/ALd. Based on events and statistical analyses we can conclude that following a southward turning of the IMF Bz the AUd/ALd indices show no measurable response while the AUs/ALs indices clearly intensify. The intensifications of AUs/ALs are dependent on the intensity of the solar wind driver (as measured by IMF Bz or the Akasofu ε parameter. The lack of AUd/ALd response does not depend on the intensity of any subsequent substorm.

    We find that during these isolated events the ionospheric current system is primarily confined to the sunlit ionosphere. This truncated version of the classical global DP-2 current system suggests that auroral electrojet continuity is not maintained across the terminator. Because of its conductivity dependence on the solar zenith angle, this truncated global current pattern is expected to be highly dependent on UT and season and thus can be asymmetric between hemispheres. Thus we argue that the global two-cell DP-2 current system

  13. Talking about Teaching 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese Society for Engineering Education (SPEE was publically launched in 2010. Its start-up initiatives and consolidation process were complemented with the simultaneous establishment of SPEE international links. In 2010-11 international workshops were run with the support of University of Porto (UPorto and FEUP. Later on, in 2011, SPEE joined the International Society for Engineering Education (IGIP and together both societies organized the SPEE-IGIP Flash Moment within the 1st World Engineering Education Flash Week. SPEE has participated in other initiatives, such as CISTI 2011 (Chaves, Portugal, ICECE 2011 (Guimarães, Portugal, Educa Berlin 2011 (collaborating with the IGIP and SEFI workshop “The Role of Pedagogy in Online Engineering Education”, and has also organized Special Tracks in CLME 2011 (Maputo, Mozambique and in the 41st International Conference of IGIP (Villach, Austria. Here, SPEE organized a Special Track entitled “Talking about Teaching 2012 (TaT’12”. In the Special Track Session TaT’12 within IGIP2012, SPEE intended to contribute to promote the discussion on Engineering Education (EE by providing an opportunity for debating and sharing approaches, developments and experiences, in line with the mission of both SPEE and IGIP. “Talking about Teaching” is the name of a thought-provoking column of Susan Zvacek, from Fort Hays State University, in the SPEE Newsletter and it was planned to give continuity to her reflections and to potentiate them within TaT’12 and in future TaT’xx. The proposed topics were concerned not only with resources in EE and with the constant demand on the use of technology, but also with the effectiveness of knowledge in order to guaranty simultaneously the spirit of engineering leadership in society and the lifelong learning capability. They also included the perspective of EE oriented for STEM teachers and students, as well as the sharing of resources with developing countries

  14. Breaking reciprocity in nanophotonics: optomechanical interactions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alù, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Lorentz reciprocity refers to a fundamental symmetry relation that governs several physical systems. In this talk, we will discuss our recent theoretical, design, experimental, and commercialization efforts in the area of non-reciprocal photonics, using temporal modulation of metamaterial elements to realize isolation for guided waves in nanophotonic systems and radio-frequency circuits, and for propagating waves in free-space, as well as to break the symmetry between emission and absorption in optical and radio-frequency open systems.

  15. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format....... In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  16. Talking about sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丹; 廖玉宏

    2004-01-01

    1.你经常积极参加体育锻炼吗?4.你喜欢打篮球、排球还是乒乓球? Do you like to一沪一_,___5.你经常参加乒乓球友谊比赛吗? Do you often at悦nd the___6.百米跑在学生中是受欢迎的活动吗? 15 the___among the pupils?7.你们曾经获得过冠军称号吗? Have you ever一‘__?Doyo耳益‘一二__eve甲砍emoon?答案:1 .t欧e,active_p叭in physicaltrainingZ一held aoports meet-IngPollg3 .favourite sPort 4.Pla丫baoketball volleyball or Ping pongb心friendlymatoh6.100一me吮raee popular7·wonthe 5 .PingeliamPi-onsliips,90 in for sportsg.Praetise running 10,do Physiealexero了SeS- 廖玉宏Talking about sports@刘晓丹 @廖玉宏

  17. news interview talk: Organisational properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language practices that govern the organisation of news interview talk ..... second principle - that of recipient design - stipulates that a descriptive item must be ..... design language activities for South African business-news interviewer trainees.

  18. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Let's Talk About Hemorrhagic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 About 13 percent of ... Should I Limit Sodium? How Do I Understand "Nutrition Facts" Labels? How Can I Quit Smoking? How ...

  20. Let's Talk about Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Let's Talk About Ischemic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 The majority of strokes ... Should I Limit Sodium? How Do I Understand "Nutrition Facts" Labels? How Can I Quit Smoking? How ...

  1. Reliability on ISS Talk Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiora, Mike

    2015-01-01

    1. Overview of ISS 2. Space Environment and it effects a. Radiation b. Microgravity 3. How we ensure reliability a. Requirements b. Component Selection i. Note: I plan to stay away from talk about Rad Hardened components and talk about why we use older processors because they are less susceptible to SEUs. c. Testing d. Redundancy / Failure Tolerance e. Sparing strategies 4. Operational Examples a. Multiple MDM Failures on 6A due to hard drive failure In general, my plan is to only talk about data that is currently available via normal internet sources to ensure that I stay away from any topics that would be Export Controlled, ITAR, or NDA-controlled. The operational example has been well-reported on in the media and those are the details that I plan to cover. Additionally I am not planning on using any slides or showing any photos during the talk.

  2. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  3. Structure of the Outer Cusp and Sources of the Cusp Precipitation during Intervals of a Horizontal IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, Jean; Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.; Simunek, J.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Stenuit, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Savin, S.; hide

    2003-01-01

    The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly penetrate into the magnetosphere. Since the main transport processes are connected with merging of the interplanetary and magnetospheric field lines: the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Orientation plays a decisive role in the formation of the high-altitude cusp. The importance of the sign of the IMF B(sub Z) component for this process was suggested about 40 years ago and later it was documented by many experimental investigations. However, situations when IMF Bz is the major IMF component are rather rare. The structure of the cusp during periods of a small IMF B(sub Z) is generally unknown, probably due to the fully 3-D nature of the interaction. The present case study reveals the importance of horizontal IMF components on the global magnetospheric configuration as well as on small-scale processes at the cusp-magnetosheath interface. We have used simultaneous measurements of several spacecraft (ISTP program) operating in different regions of interplanetary space and two closely spaced satellites (INTERBALL-1/MAGION-4) crossing the cusp-magnetosheath boundary to show the connection between the short- and large-scale phenomena. In the northern hemisphere, observations suggest a presence of two spots of cusp-like precipitation supplied by reconnection occurring simultaneously in both hemispheres. A source of this bifurcation is the positive IMF B(sub y) component further enhanced by the field draping in the magnetosheath. This magnetic field component shifts the entry point far away from the local noon but in opposite sense in either hemisphere. The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly

  4. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Metallicity calibrations of galaxies with low star formation rates: the influence of a stochastic IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalvast, Mieke; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of the consequences of an initial mass function (IMF) that is stochastically sampled on the main emission lines used for gas-phase metallicity estimates in extragalactic sources. We use the stochastic stellar population code slug and the photoionization code cloudy to show that the stochastic sampling of the massive end of the mass function can lead to clear variations in the relative production of energetic emission lines such as [O iii] relative to that of Balmer lines. We use this to study the impact on the Te, N2O2, R23 and O3N2 metallicity calibrators. We find that stochastic sampling of the IMF leads to a systematic overestimate of O/H in galaxies with low star formation rates (SFRs; ≤10-3 M⊙ yr-1) when using the N2O2, R23 and O3N2 strong-line methods, and an underestimate when using the Te method on galaxies of sub-solar metallicity. We point out that while the SFRH α-to-SFRUV ratio can be used to identify systems where the IMF might be insufficiently sampled, it does not provide sufficient information to fully correct the metallicity calibrations at low SFRs. Care must therefore be given in the choice of metallicity indicators in such systems, with the N2O2 indicator proving most robust of those tested by us, with a bias of 0.08 dex for models with SFR = 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 and solar metallicity.

  6. Cusp and LLBL as Sources of the Isolated Dayside Auroral Feature During Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.-W.; Gallagher, D. L.; Spann, J. F.; Mende, S. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Newell, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An intense dayside proton aurora was observed by Imager for Magnetopause-to- Aurora Global Exploration Far Ultra-Violet imager (IMAGE FUV) for an extensive period of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on 17 and 18 September 2000. This aurora partially coincided with the auroral oval and intruded farther poleward into the polar cap, and it showed longitudinal motions in response to IMF By variation. Intense magnetosheath-like electron and ion precipitations have been simultaneously detected by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) above the poleward portion of the high-latitude dayside aurora. They resemble the typical plasmas observed in the low-altitude cusp. However, less intense electrons and more energetic ions were detected over the equatonvard part of the aurora. These plasmas are closer to the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) plasmas. Under strongly northward IMF, global ionospheric convection derived from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar measurements showed a four-cell pattern with sunward convection in the middle of the dayside polar cap and the dayside aurora corresponded to two different convection cells. This result further supports two source regions for the aurora. The cusp proton aurora is on open magnetic field lines convecting sunward whereas the LLBL proton aurora is on closed field lines convecting antisunward. These IMAGE, DMSP, and SuperDARN observations reveal the structure and dynamics of the aurora and provide strong evidence for magnetic merging occurring at the high-latitude magnetopause poleward from the cusp. This merging process was very likely quasi-stationary.

  7. ULF foreshock under radial IMF: THEMIS observations and global kinetic simulation Vlasiator results compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, Minna; Rami, Vainio; Archer, Martin; Hietala, Heli; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    For decades, a certain type of ultra low frequency waves with a period of about 30 seconds have been observed in the Earth's quasi-parallel foreshock. These waves, with a wavelength of about an Earth radius, are compressive and propagate with an average angle of 20 degrees with respect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The latter property has caused trouble to scientists as the growth rate for the instability causing the waves is maximized along the magnetic field. So far, these waves have been characterized by single or multi-spacecraft methods and 2-dimensional hybrid-PIC simulations, which have not fully reproduced the wave properties. Vlasiator is a newly developed, global hybrid-Vlasov simulation, which solves the six-dimensional phase space utilising the Vlasov equation for protons, while electrons are a charge-neutralising fluid. The outcome of the simulation is a global reproduction of ion-scale physics in a holistic manner where the generation of physical features can be followed in time and their consequences can be quantitatively characterised. Vlasiator produces the ion distribution functions and the related kinetic physics in unprecedented detail, in the global scale magnetospheric scale with a resolution of a couple of hundred kilometres in the ordinary space and 20 km/s in the velocity space. We run Vlasiator under a radial IMF in five dimensions consisting of the three-dimensional velocity space embedded in the ecliptic plane. We observe the generation of the 30-second ULF waves, and characterize their evolution and physical properties in time. We compare the results both to THEMIS observations and to the quasi-linear theory. We find that Vlasiator reproduces the foreshock ULF waves in all reported observational aspects, i.e., they are of the observed size in wavelength and period, they are compressive and propagate obliquely to the IMF. In particular, we discuss the issues related to the long-standing question of oblique propagation.

  8. A global MHD simulation study of the vortices at the magnetosphere boundary under the southward IMF condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D.; Walker, R. J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    One of the significant problems in magnetospheric physics concerns the nature and properties of the processes which occur at the magnetopause boundary; in particular how energy, momentum, and plasma the magnetosphere receives from the solar wind. Basic processes are magnetic reconnection [Dungey, 1961] and viscouslike interaction, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability [Dungey 1955, Miura, 1984] and pressure-pulse driven [Sibeck et al. 1989]. In generally, magnetic reconnection occurs efficiently when the IMF is southward and the rate is largest where the magnetosheath magnetic field is antiparallel to the geomagnetic field. [Sonnerup, 1974; Crooker, 1979; Luhmann et al., 1984; Park et al., 2006, 2009]. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven by the velocity shear at the boundary, which occur frequently when the IMF is northward. Also variation of the magnetic field and the plasma properties is reported to be quasi-periodic with 2-3min [Otto and Fairfield, 2000] and period of vortex train with 3 to 4 minutes by global MHD simulation [Ogino, 2011]. The pressure-pulse is driven by the solar wind. And the observations of the magnetospheric magnetic field response show quasi-periodic with a period of 8 minutes [Sibeck et al., 1989; Kivelson and Chen, 1995]. There have been few studies of the vortices in the magnetospheric boundary under southward IMF condition. However it is not easy to find the generation mechanism and characteristic for vortices in complicated 3-dimensional space. Thus we have performed global MHD simulation for the steady solar wind and southward IMF conditions. From the simulation results, we find that the vortex occurs at R= 11.7Re (IMF Bz = -2 nT) and R= 10.2Re (IMF Bz = -10 nT) in the dayside magnetopause boundary. Also the vortex rotates counterclockwise in duskside magnetopause (clockwise in dawnside) and propagates tailward. Across the vortex, magnetic field and plasma properties clearly show quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of 8

  9. Ionospheric flow during extended intervals of northward but By -dominated IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Sigwarth

    Full Text Available We present SuperDARN radar observations of the nightside high-latitude ionospheric flow during two 6-hour intervals of quasi-steady northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. During both intervals (01:30–07:30 UT on 2 December and 21:00–03:00 UT on 14/15 December 1999, the solar wind and IMF remained relatively steady with Bz positive and By negative, such that the IMF clock angle was ~ - 50° to - 60°. Throughout both intervals the radar data clearly indicate the presence of a highly distorted By-dominated twin cell flow pattern, indicative of an open magnetosphere, which is confirmed by DMSP and auroral data. Estimates of the changes in open flux present during each interval indicate approximately balanced dayside and nightside reconnection at rates of ~ 30–35 kV over the full 6 h. However, strong bursts of flow with speeds of over ~ 1000 ms-1 are observed near magnetic midnight on time scales of ~ 1 h, which are associated with increases in the transpolar voltage. These are indicative of the net closure of open flux by recon-nection in the tail. During one large flow burst, the night-side reconnection rate is estimated to have been ~ 1.5 times the dayside rate, i.e. ~ 45–60 kV compared with ~ 30–40 kV. Magnetic bays, which would indicate the formation of a sub-storm current wedge, are not observed in association with these bursts. In addition, no low-latitude Pi2s or geostationary particle injections were observed, although some local, small amplitude Pi2-band (5–50 mHz activity does accompany the bursts. Coincident measurements of the flow and of the low amplitude magnetic perturbations reveal nightside ionospheric conductances of no more than a few mho, indicative of little associated precipitation. Therefore, we suggest that the flow bursts are the ionospheric manifestation of bursty reconnection events occurring in the more distant geomagnetic tail. The main implication of these findings is that, under the circumstances

  10. On the occurrence of magnetic reconnection equatorward of the cusps at the Earth's magnetopause during northward IMF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Thresher, S.; Trenchi, L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Petrinec, S. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Marcucci, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection changes the topology of magnetic field lines. This process is most readily observable with in situ instrumentation at the Earth's magnetopause as it creates open magnetic field lines to allow energy and momentum flux to flow from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Most models use the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to determine the location of these magnetopause entry points, known as reconnection lines. Dayside locations of magnetic reconnection equatorward of the cusps are generally found during sustained intervals of southward IMF, while high-latitude region regions poleward of the cusps are observed for northward IMF conditions. In this study we discuss Double Star magnetopause crossings and a conjunction with a Polar cusp crossing during northward IMF conditions with a dominant IMF BY component. During all seven dayside magnetopause crossings, Double Star detected switching ion beams, a known signature for the presence of reconnection lines. In addition, Polar observed a cusp ion-energy dispersion profile typical for a dayside equatorial reconnection line. Using the cutoff velocities for the precipitating and mirrored ion beams in the cusp, the distance to the reconnection site is calculated, and this distance is traced back to the magnetopause, to the vicinity of the Double Star satellite locations. Our analysis shows that, for this case, the predicted line of maximum magnetic shear also coincides with that dayside reconnection location.

  11. IMF dependence of Saturn's auroras: modelling study of HST and Cassini data from 12–15 February 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To gain better understanding of auroral processes in Saturn's magnetosphere, we compare ultraviolet (UV auroral images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST with the position of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere calculated using a magnetic field model that employs Cassini measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF as input. Following earlier related studies of pre-orbit insertion data from January 2004 when Cassini was located ~ 1300 Saturn radii away from the planet, here we investigate the interval 12–15 February 2008, when UV images of Saturn's southern dayside aurora were obtained by the HST while the Cassini spacecraft measured the IMF in the solar wind just upstream of the dayside bow shock. This configuration thus provides an opportunity, unique to date, to determine the IMF impinging on Saturn's magnetosphere during imaging observations, without the need to take account of extended and uncertain interplanetary propagation delays. The paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere is then employed to calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure and ionospheric open-closed field line boundary for averaged IMF vectors that correspond, with appropriate response delays, to four HST images. We show that the IMF-dependent open field region calculated from the model agrees reasonably well with the area lying poleward of the UV emissions, thus supporting the view that the poleward boundary of Saturn's auroral oval in the dayside ionosphere lies adjacent to the open-closed field line boundary.

  12. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalisation in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    We here present the first spatially-resolved study of the IMF in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio. We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine mass-to-light ratio (M/L) gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar initial mass function function (IMF) mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massiv...

  13. Survival characteristics of environmental and clinically derived strains of Cronobacter sakazakii in infant milk formula (IMF) and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D; Molloy, C; Iversen, C; Carroll, J; Cagney, C; Fanning, S; Duffy, G

    2011-03-01

    The study aimed to compare survival of Cronobacter sakazakii strains in plant-derived infant milk formula (IMF) ingredients and their thermotolerance in reconstituted IMF. Inulin and lecithin were inoculated with isolates of C. sakazakii including the typed clinical strains, NCTC 11467(T) and BAA 894; a mutant strain in which the wcaD gene had been disrupted; and two environmental strains isolated from IMF processing facilities. Samples were stored and examined for C. sakazakii. All strains were still detectable in both matrices after 338 days storage, except for the mutant strain that was no longer detectable at that time. Higher numbers of the environmental strains were recoverable after 338 days than the clinical strains. The thermotolerance of the five strains was investigated in reconstituted IMF at 55, 60 and 65°C. The clinically derived type strain, NCTC 11467(T), and the mutant strain were shown to be significantly more thermotolerant than other strains tested. Environmental strains were more persistent than the clinical strains in inulin and lecithin, indicating that patho-adaptation may have contributed to a reduction in the desiccation tolerance phenotype. However, the thermotolerance results could indicate that the ability to produce extracellular polysaccharide decreases thermotolerance. These results indicate that desiccation resistance may play a role in survival of C. sakazakii in dry IMF ingredients and processing plants; however, this trait may be of less importance in clinical environs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...

  15. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from...

  16. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re...

  17. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  18. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  19. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship...

  20. The smart-talk trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, J; Sutton, R I

    1999-01-01

    In today's business world, there's no shortage of know-how. When companies get into trouble, their executives have vast resources at their disposal: their own experiences, colleagues' ideas, reams of computer-generated data, thousands of publications, and consultants armed with the latest managerial concepts and tools. But all too often, even with all that knowledge floating around, companies are plagued with an inertia that comes from knowing too much and doing too little--a phenomenon the authors call the knowing-doing gap. The gap often can be traced to a basic human propensity: the willingness to let talk substitute for action. When confronted with a problem, people act as though discussing it, formulating decisions, and hashing out plans for action are the same as actually fixing it. And after researching organizations of all shapes and sizes, the authors concluded that a particular kind of talk is an especially insidious inhibitor of action: "smart talk." People who can engage in such talk generally sound confident and articulate; they can spout facts and may even have interesting ideas. But such people often exhibit the less benign aspects of smart talk as well: They focus on the negative, and they favor unnecessarily complex or abstract language. The former lapses into criticism for criticism's sake; the latter confuses people. Both tendencies can stop action in its tracks. How can you shut the smart-talk trap and close the knowing-doing gap? The authors lay out five methods that successful companies employ in order to translate the right kind of talk into intelligent action.

  1. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-08-31

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Cluster obsrvations of high-altitude cusp during multiple fast-turning IMF%IMF Bz多次快速反向期间极尖区的Cluster观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红涛; 马淑英; Dunlop M W; Bogdanova Y; Davies J A; Pitout F

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2003年2月12日,ACE卫星观测到IMF Bz分量的4次快速反向:从稳定的北向(Bz~9 nT)快速转为稳定的南向(Bz~-8 nT);在持续南向约34 min后Bz再次转为稳定北向(Bz~5 nT);约22 min后,ACE卫星观测到南向的IMF;IMF保持南向约46 min后第二次转回稳定的北向(Bz~6 nT).

  3. Application of immersed MF (IMF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for wastewater reclamation: A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Ng, K S; Tg Hamzah, Tg Hazmin; Roger, P; Ismail, M R; Shahabudin, S M; Abdul Hamid, M H

    2007-01-01

    A pilot scale membrane plant was constructed and monitored in Shah Alam, Malaysia for municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial application purposes. The aim of this study was to verify its suitability under the local conditions and environmental constraints for secondary wastewater reclamation. Immersed-type crossflow microfiltration (IMF) was selected as the pretreatment step before reverse osmosis filtration. Secondary wastewater after chlorine contact tank was selected as feed water. The results indicated that the membrane system is capable of producing a filtrate meeting the requirements of both WHO drinking water standards and Malaysian Effluent Standard A. With the application of an automatic backwash process, IMF performed well in hydraulic performance with low fouling rate being achieved. The investigations showed also that chemical cleaning is still needed because of some irreversible fouling by microorganisms always remains. RO treatment with IMF pretreatment process was significantly applicable for wastewater reuse purposes and promised good hydraulic performance.

  4. Double Star, Cluster, and ground-based observations of magnetic reconnection during an interval of duskward oriented IMF: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a space- and ground-based study exploiting data from the coordinated Cluster and Double Star missions in order to investigate dayside magnetic reconnection under BY+ dominated IMF conditions. In-situ observations of magnetosheath flux transfer events combined with measurements of pulsed poleward and dawnward directed flows in the pre-noon sector high-latitude northern hemisphere ionosphere are interpreted as indications of pulsed magnetic reconnection during an interval in which the IMF remained relatively steady. Observations of newly-reconnected magnetic flux tubes anchored in the northern hemisphere both at mid-latitudes and in the vicinity of the subsolar point suggests that during BY+ dominated IMF, reconnection is not, as proposed previously, limited to the high-latitude magnetopause.

  5. The Galactic IMF: origin in the combined mass distribution functions of dust grains and gas clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Casuso, E

    2011-01-01

    We present here a theoretical model to account for the stellar IMF as a result of the composite behaviour of the gas and dust distribution functions. Each of these has previously been modelled and the models tested against observations. The model presented here implies a relation between the characteristic size of the dust grains and the characteristic final mass of the stars formed within the clouds containing the grains, folded with the relation between the mass of a gas cloud and the characteristic mass of the stars formed within it. The physical effects of dust grain size are due to equilibrium relations between the efficiency of grains in cooling the clouds, which is a falling function of grain size, and the efficiency of grains in catalyzing the production of molecular hydrogen, which is a rising function of grain size. We show that folding in the effects of grain distribution can yield a reasonable quantitative account of the IMF, while gas cloud mass function alone cannot do so.

  6. Dark Matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R

    2015-01-01

    In this work we analyze the dark matter (DM) fraction, \\fdm, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, \\dimf\\ (computed with respect to a Milky-Way-like IMF), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. Both \\fdm\\ and \\dimf\\ are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the IMF normalization and the dark matter content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for a NFW profile, the \\dimf\\ is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ($\\dimf \\sim 1$), with $\\fdm \\sim 0.35$. One of the main results of the present work is that for at least a few systems the \\dimf\\ is heavier than the Milky-Way-like value (i.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger \\dimf\\ and smaller...

  7. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasahara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  8. The stellar and sub-stellar IMF of simple and composite populations

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Thies, Ingo; Dabringhausen, Joerg; Marks, Michael; Maschberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The current knowledge on the stellar IMF is documented. It is usually described as being invariant, but evidence to the contrary has emerged: it appears to become top-heavy when the star-formation rate density surpasses about 0.1 Msun/(yr pc^3) on a pc scale and it may become increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing metallicity. It ends quite abruptly below about 0.1 Msun with brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars having their own IMFs. The most massive star of mass mmax formed in an embedded cluster with stellar mass Mecl correlates strongly with Mecl being a result of gravitation-driven but resource limited growth and fragmentation induced starvation. There is no convincing evidence whatsoever that massive stars do form in isolation. Massive stars form above a density threshold in embedded clusters which become saturated when mmax = mmax\\star \\approx 150Msun which appears to be the canonical physical upper mass limit of stars. Super-canonical massive stars arise naturally due to stellar mergers induce...

  9. The IMF and Star Formation History of the Stellar Clusters in the Vela D Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, F; Vanzi, L; Massi, Fabrizio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a Near-Infrared deep photometric survey of a sample of six embedded star clusters in the Vela-D molecular cloud, all associated with luminous (~10^3 Lsun) IRAS sources. The clusters are unlikely to be older than a few 10^6 yrs, since all are still associated with molecular gas. We employed the fact that all clusters lie at the same distance and were observed with the same instrumental setting to derive their properties in a consistent way, being affected by the same instrumental and observational biases. We extracted the clusters' K Luminosity Functions (KLF) and developed a simple method to correct them for extinction, based on colour-magnitude diagrams. The reliability of the method has been tested by constructing synthetic clusters from theoretical tracks for pre-main sequence stars and a standard Initial Mass Function (IMF). The clusters' IMFs have been derived from the dereddened KLFs by adopting a set of pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and assuming coeval star formation. ...

  10. IMF dependence of energetic oxygen and hydrogen ion distributions in the near-Earth magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Kronberg, E. A.; Nykyri, K.; Trattner, K. J.; Daly, P. W.; Chen, G. X.; Du, A. M.; Ge, Y. S.

    2017-05-01

    Energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth plasma sheet can provide important information for understanding the entry of ions into the magnetosphere and their transportation, acceleration, and losses in the near-Earth region. In this study, 11 years of energetic proton and oxygen observations (> 274 keV) from Cluster/Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors were used to statistically study the energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth region. The dawn-dusk asymmetries of the distributions in three different regions (dayside magnetosphere, near-Earth nightside plasma sheet, and tail plasma sheet) are examined in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The results show that the energetic ion distributions are influenced by the dawn-dusk interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. The enhancement of ion intensity largely correlates with the location of the magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. The results imply that substorm-related acceleration processes in the magnetotail are not the only source of energetic ions in the dayside and the near-Earth magnetosphere. Energetic ions delivered through reconnection at the magnetopause significantly affect the energetic ion population in the magnetosphere. We also believe that the influence of the dawn-dusk IMF direction should not be neglected in models of the particle population in the magnetosphere.

  11. IMF dependence of energetic oxygen and hydrogen ion distributions in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Kronberg, Elena; Nykyri, Katariina; Daly, Patrick; Chen, Gengxiong; Du, Aimin; Ge, Yasong

    2017-04-01

    Energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth plasma sheet can provide important information for understanding the entry of ions into the magnetosphere, and their transportation, acceleration, and losses in the near-Earth region. In this study, 11 years of energetic proton and oxygen observations (> 100 keV) from Cluster/RAPID were used to statistically study the energetic ion distributions in the near-Earth region. The dawn-dusk asymmetries of the distributions in three different regions (dayside magnetosphere, near-Earth nightside plasma sheet, and tail plasma sheet) are examined in northern and southern hemispheres. The results show that the energetic ion distributions are influenced by the dawn-dusk IMF direction. The enhancement of intensity largely correlates with the location of the magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and the consequent formation of a diamagnetic cavity in the same quadrant of the magnetosphere. The results imply that substorm-related processes in the magnetotail are not the only source of energetic ions in the dayside and the near-Earth plasma sheet. We propose that large-scale cusp diamagnetic cavities can be an additional source and can thus significantly affect the energetic ion population in the magnetosphere. We also believe that the influence of the dawn-dusk IMF direction should not be neglected in models of the particle population in the magnetosphere.

  12. Separator Reconnection at the Magnetopause for Predominantly Northward and Southward IMF: Techniques and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how to track magnetic separators in three-dimensional simulated magnetic fields with or without magnetic nulls, apply these techniques to enhance our understanding of reconnection at the magnetopause. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3-D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. Moreover, the techniques have a number of advantages over prior separator finding techniques applied to the magnetosphere. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity for two clock angles. We go beyond previous work examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs). Our analysis of reconnection on the magnetopause yields a number of interesting conclusions: Reconnection occurs all along the separator even during predominately northward IMF cases. Multiple separators form in low-resistivity conditions, and in the region of an FTE the separator splits into distinct branches. Moreover, the local contribution to the reconnection rate, as determined by the local parallel electric field, drops in the vicinity of the FTE with respect to the value when there are none.

  13. Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

  14. The structure of the distanct geomagnetic tail during long periods of northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, J.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a newly developed, parallelized, global MHD magnetosphere - ionosphere simulation model with a 400 R(sub E) long tail to study the evolution, structure, and dynamics of the distant magnetotail during extended periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We find that the tail evolves to a nearly time stationary structure about one solar wind transit time after the IMF turns northward. Four regions of different magnetic topology can be distinguished which extend at least to the end of the simulation box at 400 R(sub E). Besides lobe field lines and open solar wind field lines tailward of an X-line, there is a broad boundary layer of closed field lines which we call the tail flank boundary layer (TFBL). Just inside the TFBL there is a region of closed field loops. Besides the X-line we find two O-lines which are enclosed by the closed field loops and are roughly aligned with the tail axis. Together they form a U shaped separator between the northward and the southward plasma sheet fields.

  15. Observations of IMF and seasonal effects in high-latitude convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and seasonal effects in the convection of nightside ionospheric plasma are described. The findings are based on a statistical analysis of observations made with the Johns Hopkins University/ Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador. For positive sign of the IMF dusk-dawn component, By greater than 0 the dawn cell is more crescent shaped and the dusk cell more round while for BY less than 0 these pairings of size and shape are reversed. The more extreme crescent /round cell dichotomy is obtained for BY greater than 0. The return flows associated with the crescent-shaped cell dominate at midnight MLT (magnetic local time); the reversal in the zonal velocity in the 67 deg-69 deg lambda (magnetic latitude) interval occurs 2.5 hr earlier in summer than in winter. The maximum effects are obtained on the nightside for the pairings By greater than 0, summer and BY less than 0, winter; the first produces the more structured cell in the morning, the second in the evening, and this cell dominates the return flow at midnight. The difference in the zonal flow reversals for these pairings exceeds 4 hr in MLT.

  16. Kelvin-Helmholtz wave at the subsolar magnetopause boundary layer under radial IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorov, K.; Němeček, Z.; Šafránková, J.; Přech, L.; Pi, G.; Shue, J.-H.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first observation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) rolled-up vortex at the dayside magnetopause layers under a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The study uses measurements of four Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes aligned along the YGSE axis about 10 RE upstream of the Earth and located in different regions of the near-Earth environment. THEMIS C and A serve as monitors of the quiet solar wind and fluctuating magnetosheath conditions, respectively, and THEMIS D and E observe the magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) crossings. The analysis shows the following: (1) a radial IMF changes to the southward pointing magnetosheath magnetic field; (2) dayside reconnection forms the thin but dense LLBL; (3) a large velocity shear at the LLBL inner edge excites a train of KH waves; and (4) in spite of a short path from the subsolar point (≈5 RE), one of the KH waves exhibits all features of a fully developed rolled-up vortex.

  17. Observations of magnetospheric substorms occurring with no apparent solar wind/IMF trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Belian, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Murphree, J.S. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    An outstanding topic in magnetospheric physics is whether substorms are always externally triggered by disturbances in either the interplanetary magnetic field or solar wind, or whether they can also occur solely as the result of an internal magnetospheric instability. Over the past decade, arguments have been made on both sides of this issue. Horwitz and McPherron have shown examples of substorm onsets which they claimed were not externally triggered. However, as pointed out by Lyons, there are several problems associated with these studies that make their results somewhat inconclusive. In particular, in the McPherron et al. study, fluctuations in the B{sub y} component were not considered as possible triggers. Furthermore, Lyons suggests that the sharp decreases in the AL index during intervals of steady IMF/solar wind, are not substorms at all but rather that they are just enhancements of the convection driven DP2 current system that are often observed to occur during steady magnetospheric convection events. In the present study, we utilize a much more comprehensive dataset (consisting of particle data from the Los Alamos energetic particle detectors at geosynchronous orbit, IMP 8 magnetometer and plasma data, Viking UV auroral imager data, mid-latitude Pi2 pulsation data, ground magnetometer data and ISEE1 magnetic field and energetic particle data) to show as unambiguously as possible that typical substorms can indeed occur in the absence of an identifiable trigger in the solar wind/IMF.

  18. Constraining the PopIII IMF with high-z GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Maio, U.; Ciardi, B.; Salvaterra, R.

    2017-04-01

    We study the signatures of enrichment from PopIII stars in observations of PopII GRBs (GRBIIs) at high redshift by using numerical N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular cooling, star formation and metal spreading from stellar populations with different initial mass functions (IMFs), yields and lifetimes. PopIII and PopII star formation regimes are followed simultaneously and both a top-heavy and a Salpeter-like IMF for pristine PopIII star formation are adopted. We find that the fraction of GRBIIs hosted in a medium previously enriched by PopIII stars (PopIII-dominated) is model-independent. Typical abundance ratios, such as [Si/O] versus[C/O] and [Fe/C] versus[Si/C], can help to disentangle enrichment from massive and intermediate PopIII stars, while low-mass first stars are degenerate with regular PopII generations. The properties of galaxies hosting PopIII-dominated GRBIIs are not very sensitive to the particular assumption on the mass of the first stars.

  19. Constraining the PopIII IMF with high-z GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Q; Ciardi, B; Salvaterra, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility to detect and distinguish signatures of enrichment from PopIII stars in observations of PopII GRBs (GRBIIs) at high redshift by using numerical N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular cooling, star formation and metal spreading from stellar populations with different initial mass functions (IMFs), yields and lifetimes. PopIII and PopII star formation regimes are followed simultaneously and both a top-heavy and a Salpeter-like IMF for pristine PopIII star formation are adopted. We find that the fraction of GRBIIs hosted in a medium previously enriched by PopIII stars (PopIII-dominated) is model independent. Typical abundance ratios, such as [Si/O] vs [C/O] and [Fe/C] vs [Si/C], can help to disentangle enrichment from massive and intermediate PopIII stars, while low-mass first stars are degenerate with regular PopII generations. The properties of galaxies hosting PopIII-dominated GRBIIs are not very sensitive to the particular assumption on the mass of the first...

  20. Talk talk, not just small talk. Exploring English contrastive focus reduplication with the help of corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widlitzki Bianca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive focus reduplication (CR is a type of reduplication in English which picks out a prototypical or intensified reading of the reduplicated element and shows contrastive stress on the reduplicant: for instance, speakers may use talk talk to indicate that a ‘real talk’ - as opposed to e.g. ‘just small talk’- took place. The present paper pursues an empirical, corpus-linguistic approach to CR: Based on three mega-corpora of contemporary English, the following aspects in particular are investigated: the importance of the co-text of CR, the possibility of emerging default interpretations for some frequent CRs, and the function(s CR serves in discourse. In addition, it contains the first analysis of the sociolinguistics of the phenomenon, based on a corpus of blogs. It emerges that contrasts and/or synonyms are commonly employed to clarify the meaning of CR - most frequently in the form of the unreduplicated base (not talk, but talk talk or an explanatory phrase (talk talk, by which I mean a serious conversation. CR is most frequent in blogs maintained by women and by young speakers. Its presence in blogs shows that CR is not limited to (fictional representations of spoken dialogue. Though generally rare, it is also found in other genres (such as fiction, news, and even academic prose. Apart from its disambiguating function, CR is also used for creative purposes (as a kind of wordplay and apparently serves to build rapport between interlocutors (or bloggers and readers via reference to common ground.

  1. Is talking to yourself thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2017-08-03

    The question whether talking to yourself is thinking is considered from two viewpoints: radical behaviorism and teleological behaviorism. For radical behaviorism, following Skinner (1945), mental events such as 'thinking' may be explained in terms of private behavior occurring within the body, ordinarily unobservable by other people; thus, radical behaviorism may identify talking to yourself with thinking. However, to be consistent with its basic principles, radical behaviorism must hold that private behavior, hence thinking, is identical with covert muscular, speech movements (rather than proprioception of those movements). For teleological behaviorism, following Skinner (1938), all mental terms, including 'thinking,' stand for abstract, temporally extended patterns of overt behavior. Thus, for teleological behaviorism, talking to yourself, covert by definition, cannot be thinking. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Do the IMF and the World Bank influence voting in the UN General Assembly?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2010-01-01

    Using panel data for 188 countries over the 1970–2008 period, this paper analyzes empirically the influence of the IMF and the World Bank on voting patterns in the UN General Assembly. Countries receiving adjustment projects and larger non-concessional loans from the World Bank vote more frequently in line with the average G7 country. The same is true for countries obtaining non-concessional IMF programs. Regarding voting coincidence with the United States, World Bank non-concessional loans h...

  3. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-03-18

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.

  4. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  5. Computational Linguistics and Talking Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Hausser, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The practical task of building a talking robot requires a theory of how natural language communication works. Conversely, the best way to computationally verify a theory of natural language communication is to demonstrate its functioning concretely in the form of a talking robot, the epitome of human - machine communication. To build an actual robot requires hardware that provides appropriate recognition and action interfaces, and because such hardware is hard to develop the approach in this book is theoretical: the author presents an artificial cognitive agent with language as a software syst

  6. TEACHER TALK AND LEARNER OPPORTUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanWeidong

    2004-01-01

    Adopting the position that maximizing learner involvement is conducive to second language acquisition, this paper aims to explore the relationship between teacher talk and learner opportunities in language classrooms in senior schools through classroom observation techniques. Four excellent high school teachers from Zhejiang province in China are involved in this research. The results reveal that such features as minimal teacher talking time, referential questions, extended wait time,discoursal feedback can increase potential of learning opportunities through classroom interaction in language classrooms in high schools.

  7. What Do Entrepreneurs Talk About When They Talk About Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, William B.; Ingram, Amy E.

    This research focuses on “the rhetoric of entrepreneurial practice.” We conducted quantitative and qualitative linguistic analysis of ways that entrepreneurs talk about failure based on 89 usable transcriptions of presentations given at Stanford University between 2001 and 2013. Findings highlight...

  8. What Do Entrepreneurs Talk About When They Talk About Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, William B.; Ingram, Amy E.

    This research focuses on “the rhetoric of entrepreneurial practice.” We conducted quantitative and qualitative linguistic analysis of ways that entrepreneurs talk about failure based on 89 usable transcriptions of presentations given at Stanford University between 2001 and 2013. Findings highlight...

  9. Fission: statistical nucleon pair breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru))

    1984-06-01

    In order to explain the odd-even effect observed in low energy fission fragment distributions it has been recently required a double mechanism of nucleon pair breaking: before scission (early pair breaking) and at scission (late pair breaking), respectively. In the present work we show that, using the same formulae but considering only the early pair breaking mechanism, one can reproduce fairly well all the available experimental data on the odd-even effects.

  10. Maternal Talk About Disappearance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Beverly A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined maternal talk about events regarding hidden, missing, or absent persons or objects, and the relationship of maternal language to children's acquisition of words for disappearance, among 12 mother-infant pairs. Results found that infants who had acquired "gone" and similar terms experienced more disappearance events than children…

  11. Jamie Foxx Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Jamie Foxx, Academy Award winning actor and singer, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  12. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  13. Talking Peace in the Ogaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    , and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace....

  14. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal act...

  15. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    . Our analysis of four examples reveals that there is no fixed relationship between the organization of talk and practical action. Instead, people manipulate this relationship on a moment-by-moment basis, often coordinating the two into a single, integral package, or relying on one stream of action...

  16. Let's Talk about Student Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doree, Suzanne; Jardine, Richard; Linton, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article offers our ideas on why it is important to teach our students how to speak about mathematics and some practical resources for incorporating speaking activities, helping students prepare, evaluating student presentations, and getting your department to talk about student presentations. The ideas in this article were compiled when the…

  17. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    the geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...

  18. Talk by Philippe Descola and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    DESCOLA, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    One hour talk, followed by hour of discussion, chaired by Stephen Hugh-Jones and filmed by Alan Macfarlane on 13 February 2004 Talk to anthropology seminar at Cambridge University by Philippe Descola on 'Ontologies', followed by questions and discussion.

  19. Self-talk effectiveness and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Galanis, Evangelos

    2017-08-01

    Self-talk interventions in sport have been receiving increased research attention in recent years. The findings have provided robust support that self-talk strategies enhance sport performance. Identifying the mechanisms that explain the beneficial effects of self-talk is important for developing a comprehensive self-talk theory and informing practice. Among the mechanisms proposed to explaining the effectiveness of self-talk, is its attentional effects. This article reviews the literature considering the effects of self-talk on attention. The findings suggest that self-talk can help enhancing attentional focus and attentional performance, but also help countering the aversive effects of distraction and ego depletion. The present evidence suggests that attention is a potential key mechanism in the self-talk performance relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  1. EL ja IMF üritavad suruda Ungarit kärpenõuetega põlvili / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni rahandusvolinik Olli Rehn ja IMF-i esindaja otsustasid katkestada Ungariga peetavad laenukõnelused, sest riigi peaminister Viktor Orban üritab vähendada eelarvekärpeid ja kehtestada pankadele ja kindlustusettevõtetele lisamaksu

  2. Evidence For A Mild Steepening And Bottom-Heavy IMF In Massive Galaxies From Sodium And Titanium-Oxide Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Spiniello, C; Koopmans, L V E; Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    We measure equivalent widths (EW) - focussing on two unique features (NaI and TiO2) of low-mass stars (\\leq 0.3 M\\odot) - for luminous red galaxy spectra from the the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and X-Shooter Lens Survey (XLENS) in order to study the low-mass end of the IMF. We compare these EWs to those derived from simple stellar population models computed with different IMFs, ages,[{\\alpha}/Fe], and elemental abundances. We find that models are able to simultaneously reproduce the observed NaD {\\lambda}5895 and NaI {\\lambda}8190 features for the lower-mass (~{\\sigma}*) ETGs but deviate increasingly for more massive ETGs, due do strongly mismatching NaD EWs. The TiO2 {\\lambda}6230 feature and the NaI {\\lambda}8190 feature, may be a powerful IMF diagnostic, with age and metallicity effects orthogonal to the effect of IMF on the feature's strength. We find that both features correlate strongly with galaxy velocity dispersion. The XLENS ETG (SDSSJ0912+0029) and one SDSS ETG (SDSSJ0041-0914) appear to requi...

  3. Läti riik ei suuda IMF-i nõuet mingi hinnaga täita / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2009-01-01

    Isegi ametiasutuste palkade ja kulude vähendamisel 40% võrra ei suudaks Läti järgida viieprotsendise puudujäägi nõuet, mille täitmise korral on IMF valmis andma edasisi laene. Valitsuse siht on jõuda sel aastal seitsmeprotsendise defitsiidini

  4. EL ja IMF üritavad suruda Ungarit kärpenõuetega põlvili / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni rahandusvolinik Olli Rehn ja IMF-i esindaja otsustasid katkestada Ungariga peetavad laenukõnelused, sest riigi peaminister Viktor Orban üritab vähendada eelarvekärpeid ja kehtestada pankadele ja kindlustusettevõtetele lisamaksu

  5. IMF and [Na/Fe] abundance ratios from optical and NIR Spectral Features in Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; Ferreras, I; Pasquali, A; Prieto, C Allende; Rock, B; Aguado, D S; Peletier, R F

    2016-01-01

    We present a joint analysis of the four most prominent sodium-sensitive features (NaD, NaI8190, NaI1.14, and NaI2.21), in the optical and Near-Infrared spectral range, of two nearby, massive (sigma~300km/s), early-type galaxies (named XSG1 and XSG2). Our analysis relies on deep VLT/X-Shooter long-slit spectra, along with newly developed stellar population models, allowing for [Na/Fe] variations, up to 1.2dex, over a wide range of age, total metallicity, and IMF slope. The new models show that the response of the Na-dependent spectral indices to [Na/Fe] is stronger when the IMF is bottom heavier. For the first time, we are able to match all four Na features in the central regions of massive early-type galaxies, finding an overabundance of [Na/Fe], in the range 0.5-0.7dex, and a bottom-heavy IMF. Therefore, individual abundance variations cannot be fully responsible for the trends of gravity-sensitive indices, strengthening the case towards a non-universal IMF. Given current limitations of theoretical atmospher...

  6. PERILAKU HARGA DAN VOLUME PERDAGANGAN (Studi Peristiwa Dampak Penundaan Pencairan Bantuan IMF pada Saham Dominasi Asing dengan Pendekatan Koreksi Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini - Mahgianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Theoritically has been stated that any relevant informations can create any market reactions indicated by price behaviour and trading volume. Research aimed  at analysing market reaction through any indicator of  cumulative abnormal return (CAR and cumulative abnormal trading volume (CATVA resulted by the delay of IMF grant.  Research was focused on the broad dominance stock and domestic dominance stock as a comparation. Market model approach was used in this analysis and the beta corection model to determine the expected return. Results show that delay of IMF grant contain any negative informations indicated by the significant reduce of CAR and CATVA, before and after annoucement.   Keywords: prive behaviour, CAR, CATVA, trading volume ABSTRAK   Secara teoritis dinyatakan bahwa informasi yang relevan dapat menimbulkan reaksi pasar yang dapat tercermin dari harga dan volume perdagangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji reaksi pasar melalui indikator cumulative abnormal return (CAR dan cumulative abnormal trading volume (CATVA akibat pengumuman penundaan pencairan bantuan IMF. Obyek penelitian dilakukan pada saham dominasi asing dan sebagai pembanding dilakukan pula pengujian pada saham dominasi domestik. Pengujian dilakukan dengan pendekatan market model dan menambahkan model koreksi beta untuk penentuan expected return. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pengumuman penundaan bantuan IMF memiliki kandungan informasi negatif yang terlihat dari adanya penurunan CAR dan CATVA yang signifikan sebelum dan setelah pengumuman.   Kata kunci: Perilaku harga, CAR, CATVA, volume perdagangan

  7. Chemistry of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy: a Top-Light IMF, Outflows and the R-Process

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew; Mottini, Marta

    2013-01-01

    From chemical abundance analysis of stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), we conclude that the alpha-element deficiencies cannot be due to the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) time-delay scenario of Tinsley (1979). Instead, the evidence points to low [alpha/Fe] ratios resulting from an initial mass function (IMF) deficient in the highest mass stars. The critical evidence is the 0.4 dex deficiency of [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and other hydrostatic elements, contrasting with the normal trend of r-process [Eu/Fe]r with [Fe/H]. Supporting evidence comes from the hydrostatic element (O, Mg, Na, Al, Cu) [X/Fe] ratios, which are inconsistent with iron added to the Milky Way (MW) disk trends. Also, the ratio of hydrostatic to explosive (Si, Ca, Ti) element abundances suggests a relatively top-light IMF. Abundance similarities with the LMC, Fornax and IC 1613, suggest that their alpha-element deficiencies also resulted from IMFs lacking the most massive SNII. For such a top-light IMF, the normal trend of r-process [Eu...

  8. The impact of X-rays on molecular cloud fragmentation and the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S

    2010-01-01

    Star formation is regulated through a variety of feedback processes. In this study, we treat feedback by X-rays and discuss its implications. Our aim is to investigate whether star formation is significantly affected when a star forming cloud resides in the vicinity of a strong X-ray source. We perform an Eulerian grid simulation with embedded Lagrangian sink particles of a collapsing molecular cloud near a massive, 10^7 M_o black hole. The chemical and thermal changes caused by radiation are incorporated into the FLASH code. When there is strong X-ray feedback the star forming cloud fragments into larger clumps whereby fewer but more massive protostellar cores are formed. Competitive accretion has a strong impact on the mass function and a near-flat, non-Salpeter IMF results.

  9. Formation of a strong southward IMF near the solar maximum of cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed observations of the solar activities and the solar wind parameters associated with large geomagnetic storms near the maximum of solar cycle 23. This analysis showed that strong southward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs, formed through interaction between an interplanetary disturbance, and background solar wind or between interplanetary disturbances are an important factor in the occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms. Based on our analysis, we seek to improve our understanding of the physical processes in which large negative Bz's are created which will lead to improving predictions of space weather.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (Flare and stream dynamics; Interplanetary magnetic fields; Interplanetary shocks

  10. Global Auroral Energy Deposition during Substorm Onset Compared with Local Time and Solar Wind IMF Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M.; Fillingim, M. O.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The global images made by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) aboard the IASTP/Polar Satellite are used to derive the global auroral energy deposited in the ionosphere resulting from electron precipitation. During a substorm onset, the energy deposited and its location in local time are compared to the solar wind IMF conditions. Previously, insitu measurements of low orbiting satellites have made precipitating particle measurements along the spacecraft track and global images of the auroral zone, without the ability to quantify energy parameters, have been available. However, usage of the high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution of consecutive UVI images enables quantitative measurement of the energy deposited in the ionosphere not previously available on a global scale. Data over an extended period beginning in January 1997 will be presented.

  11. Teacher Talk and EFL Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程东岳

    2014-01-01

    Teacher talk and teacher-student classroom interaction have always been the central issue among the various classroom researches. Teacher talk is undoubtedly important in EFL (English as a foreign language) classroom in China. This paper attempts to discuss the features of teacher talk in EFL classroom, mainly of NNS (non-native speaker) teachers and the implications and suggestions of how to make teacher talk more appropriate and stimulative.

  12. Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Liou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancements of aurora and auroral electrojets in response to sudden compression of the magnetosphere by shocks/pressure pulses are well known and have been attributed by some to compression-enhanced magnetic field reconnection. To examine such a view, we analyze a fortuitous event that is comprised of a series of pressure pulses (< 20 min on November 8, 2000. These pressure pulses were preceded by a large, northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF that lasted more than 15 hours such that effects from reconnection can be minimized. Auroral images acquired by ultraviolet imager on board the Polar satellite clearly show intensifications of the aurora that occurred first near local noon and progressively extended from dayside to nightside. The area-integrated global auroral power reached ~30 gigawatts (GW. It is also found that the global auroral power is well correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure (correlation coefficient r ~0.90, rather than the change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. In-situ measurements of particle data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite indicate that the magnetospheric source for the pressure-enhanced auroras is most likely the central plasma sheet. Other ionospheric parameters such as the auroral electrojet (AE index, magnetic storm index (Sym-H, and the cross polarcap potential drop also show a one-to-one correspondence to the pressure pulses. In one instance the auroral electrojets AE index reached more than 200 nT, the cross polar-cap potential drop (ÎŚpc inferred from the SuperDARN radar network ionospheric plasma convection increased to ~60 kV. The observed increases in the auroral emissions, AE, and polar cap potential were not associated with substorms. Our result strongly suggests that solar wind pressure pulses are an important source of geomagnetic activity during northward IMF periods.

  13. Prediction of SYM-H index by NARX neural network from IMF and solar wind data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    SYM-H is one of the important indices for space weather. It indicates the intensity of magnetic storm, similarly to Dst index but with much higher time-resolution. In this paper an artificial neural network (ANN) of Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) has been developed to predict SYM-H index from solar wind and IMF data. In comparison with usual BP and Elman network, the new NRAX model shows much better prediction capability. For 15 testing great storms including 5 super-storms of Min. SYM-H < -200 nT, the cross-correlation of SYM-H indices between NARX network predicted and really observed is 0.91 as a whole. For the 5 individual super-storms, the lowest coefficients is 0.91 relating to the super-storm of March 2001 with Min.SYM-H of -434 nT; while for the two super-storms with Min. SYM-H ranging from -300 nT to -400 nT, the correlations reach as high as 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. The remarkable improvement of the model performance can be attributed to such a key feedback from the network output of SYM-H with a suitable length (about 120 min) to the input, which implies that some information on the quasi real-time ring currents with a proper length of history does its work in the prediction. It tells us that, in addition to the direct driving by solar wind and IMF, the own status of the ring current plays an important role in its evolution especially for recovery phase and must properly be considered in storm-time SYM-H prediction by ANN. The neural network model of NARX developed in this paper provides an effective way to achieve it.

  14. Dayside aurorae and polar arcs under south-east IMF orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We document a characteristic spatial and temporal structure of the aurora in the postnoon sector present during a 10-h-long interval of very steady southeast IMF orientation (clock angle=135° ending in a sharp south-to-north transition. Focus is placed on the detailed morphology of auroral forms/activities corresponding to merging and lobe convection cells obtained from SuperDARN convection data and Greenland magnetograms. The ground optical instruments at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (76° MLAT recorded different auroral forms/activities as the station moved to higher magnetic local times (MLTs in the 13:00–17:00 MLT sector. Whereas the 13:00–15:00 MLT sector is characterized by classical poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs associated with merging cell transients, the aurora in the 15:00–17:00 MLT sector shows instead a characteristic latitudinal bifurcation consisting of standard oval forms and polar arcs, and a corresponding composite pattern of merging and lobe convection cells. The merging and lobe cells respond to the southward and northward IMF transitions by activation/fading and fading/activation, respectively. A sequence of brightening events is characterized by successive activations progressing in latitude from the merging cell regime to the lobe cell regime. Emphasis is placed on the association between polar arc brightenings and the activation of the channel of enhanced sunward flow in the lobe cell. The observations are discussed in relation to recent work on solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interconnection topology.

  15. Double-cusp simulation during northward IMF using 3D PIC global code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Amin; Kalaee, Mohammad Javad

    2017-07-01

    The cusp has important effects on the transportation of particles and their energy from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, and ionosphere, and high-altitude atmosphere. The cusp can be considered to be a part of the magnetospheric boundary layer with weaker magnetic fields. It has been studied since 1971 by different satellite observations. Despite many years of investigation, some problems, such as the boundaries, shapes, and method of construction, remain to be solved. The double cusp was first reported by Wing using the observation of the DMSP satellite. He also compared the results of observations with the results of a 2D MHD simulation. In this study, by performing simulations and analyzing the results, we report the observation of a V-shaped double-cusp structure under the northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). In our simulation, the double cusp was seen only for electrons, although a weak double cusp was observed for ions as well. We showed that this double cusp occurred because of electron precipitation from different sources of solar wind and magnetosphere with different magnetic field strengths. In previous studies of the double cusp, there were debates on its spatial structure or on its temporal behavior due to the cusp movement caused by the sharp solar wind effects on the magnetosphere shape. Here we report the spatial detection of the double cusp similar to the one observed by the DMSP satellite, but for the northward IMF case. Also, we investigate the asymmetry along the dawn-dusk side of the magnetosphere using our 3D PIC simulation code.

  16. THEMIS observations of double-onset substorms and their association with IMF variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On 16 July 2008, two pairs of consecutive bursts of Pi2 pulsations were recorded simultaneously across the THEMIS ground-based observatory system. Wavelet transformation reveals that for each high-latitude pair, the dominant frequency of the first burst is higher than that of the second. But at low latitudes, the dominant frequency does not change. It is suggested that both pairs result from fast magnetospheric cavity waves with the second burst also containing shear Alfvén waves. INTERMAGNET magnetograms at auroral latitudes showed magnetic variations affected by two recurrent electrojets for each pair. The ground-based magnetometers and those at geostationary orbit sensed magnetic perturbations consistent with the formation of the substorm current wedge. Four consecutive enhancements of energetic electron and ion fluxes detected by the THEMIS probes in the dayside magnetosphere appeared in the later afternoon and then in the early afternoon. The horizontal magnetic variation vectors had vortex patterns similar to those induced by the upward and downward field-aligned currents during substorm times. The hodogram at mid-L stations had a polarization pattern similar to the one induced by the substorm current wedge for each Pi2 burst. The mapping of ground Pi2 onset timing to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF observations shows that they appear under two cycles of north-to-south and then north variation. CLUSTER 4 in the south lobe observed wave-like magnetic fluctuations, probably driven by near-Earth reconnection, similar to those on the ground. These two observations are consistent with the link of double-onset substorms to magnetotail reconnection externally triggered by IMF variations.

  17. High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate statistical, systematic variations of the high-latitude convection cell structure during northward IMF. Using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for six and a half years (February 2001 till July 2007, and mapping the spatially distributed measurements to a common reference plane at ionospheric level in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid, we obtained regular drift patterns according to the various IMF conditions. We focus on the particular conditions during northward IMF, where lobe cells at magnetic latitudes >80° with opposite (sunward convection over the central polar cap are a permanent feature in addition to the main convection cells at lower latitudes. They are due to reconnection processes at the magnetopause boundary poleward of the cusp regions. Mapped EDI data have a particular good coverage within the central part of the polar cap, so that these patterns and their dependence on various solar wind conditions are well verified in a statistical sense. On average, 4-cell convection pattern are shown as regular structures during periods of nearly northward IMF with the tendency of a small shift toward negative clock angles. The positions of these high-latitude convection foci are within 79° to 85° magnetic latitude and 09:00–15:00 MLT. The MLT positions are approximately symmetric ±2 h about 11:30 MLT, i.e. slightly offset from midday toward prenoon hours, while the maximum (minimum potential of the high-latitude cells is at higher magnetic latitudes near their maximum potential difference at ≈−10° to −15° clock angle for the North (South Hemisphere. With increasing clock angle distances from ≈IMFBz+, a gradual transition occurs from the 4-cell pattern via a 3-cell to the common 2-cell convection pattern, in the course of which one of the medium-scale high-latitude dayside cells diminishes and disappears while the

  18. Dialogic Talk in Diverse Physical Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dale L.; Lelliott, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Dialogic talk, in which different ideas are considered, promotes conceptual understanding in science, and is in line with South Africa's school curriculum. The problem is that dialogic talk is difficult to facilitate and may run counter to cultural norms. As a result, classroom talk is often not dialogic. This paper reports on the nature of…

  19. Genderlects: Girl Talk and Boy Talk in a Middle-Years Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the gendered nature of talk in one multicultural, eighth-grade classroom, discussing how talk is an integral part of engendering. Looks at how the genderlects "Boy Talk" and "Girl Talk" contributed to classroom inequities. Offers suggestions to teachers for ways to validate and utilize the girls' discourse practices to their advantage,…

  20. Talk about Talk with Young Children: Pragmatic Socialization in Two Communities in Norway and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cultures vary in subtle ways in the talk about talk that children hear and learn to produce. Twenty-two three-year-old children and their families in respectively Oslo, Norway and Cambridge, Massachusetts were observed during mealtime with the aim of identifying talk-focused talk. The analysis distinguished talk…

  1. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  2. String Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, John H

    2001-07-25

    We consider the 3+1 visible sector to live on a Hanany-Witten D-brane construction in type IIA string theory. The messenger sector consists of stretched strings from the visible brane to a hidden D6-brane in the extra spatial dimensions. In the open string channel supersymmetry is broken by gauge mediation while in the closed string channel supersymmetry is broken by gravity mediation. Hence, we call this kind of mediation ''string mediation''. We propose an extension of the Dimopoulos-Georgi theorem to brane models: only detached probe branes can break supersymmetry without generating a tachyon. Fermion masses are generated at one loop if the branes break a sufficient amount of the ten dimensional Lorentz group while scalar potentials are generated if there is a force between the visible brane and the hidden brane. Scalars can be lifted at two loops through a combination of brane bending and brane forces. We find a large class of stable non-supersymmetric brane configurations of ten dimensional string theory.

  3. Symmetry breaking. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocchi, F. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Classe di Scienze, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in

  4. Role of IMF By in the prompt electric field disturbances over equatorial ionosphere during a space weather event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, D.; Hui, Debrup; Rout, Diptiranjan; Sekar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Archana; Reeves, G. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    On 7 January 2005 (Ap=40) prompt penetration electric field perturbations of opposite polarities were observed over Thumba and Jicamarca on a few occasions during 13:45-16:30 UT. However, the electric field was found to be eastward during 14:45-15:30 UT over both Thumba and Jicamarca contrary to the general expectation wherein opposite polarities are expected at nearly antipodal points. On closer scrutiny, three important observational features are noticed during 14:10-15:15 UT. First, during 14:10-14:45 UT, despite increasing southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz condition, the already westward electric field over Thumba weakened (less westward) while the eastward electric field over Jicamarca intensified (more eastward). Second, the electric field not only became anomalously eastward over Thumba but also got intensified further during 14:45-15:00 UT similar to Jicamarca. Third, during 15:00-15:15 UT, despite IMF Bz remaining steadily southward, the eastward electric field continued to intensify over Thumba but weakened over Jicamarca. It is suggested that the changes in IMF By component under southward IMF Bz condition are responsible for skewing the ionospheric equipotential patterns over the dip equator in such a way that Thumba came into the same DP2 cell as that of Jicamarca leading to anomalous electric field variations. Magnetic field measurements along the Indian and Jicamarca longitude sectors and changes in high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns provide credence to this proposition. Thus, the present investigation shows that the variations in IMF By are fundamentally important to understand the prompt penetration effects over low latitudes.

  5. Talking about English Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu JinRong

    2016-01-01

    Classroom teaching is a subject of science and it is also a subject of art. so designs of classroom teaching should follow certain principles; and it ought to have the general characteristics of art. Here, I will talk about my views in English classroom teaching, and I hope that I can get some comments , I hope sincerely that as many as possible mistakes will be pointed out, in order that I can correct them, so as to improve my English teaching level.

  6. From Running Gluon Mass to Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Orlando; Dudal, D; Frederico, T; de Paula, W; Vandersickel, N

    2011-01-01

    The gluon propagator is one of the fundamental Green's functions of QCD. It is an essential ingredient in, for example, the modeling of the Schwinger-Dyson equation used to describe hadronic phenomenology. From the Landau gauge gluon propagator, computed with lattice QCD methods, we discuss its interpretation as a massive propagator and measure the gluon mass as a function of the momenta. Special attention is given to the mass at infrared scales. In the last part of the talk, the gluon mass and chiral symmetry breaking are related via an effective model for QCD.

  7. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  8. Corpuscular Breaking of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    Are topological solitons elementary or composites? We answer this question by drawing up a corpuscular formalism in which solitons are coherent states of quantum constituents. This naturally leads to a functional integral representation, in which the classical saddle point is reached as the most probable distribution of corpuscles in the $\\hbar = 0$ limit and where quantum corpuscular corrections correspond to excursions away from such a distribution that occur only for finite $\\hbar$. Several striking features come up. Topological charge emerges as a collective flow of quantum numbers carried by individual corpuscles. Moreover, the corpuscular corrections are not reducible to any known form of quantum corrections, such as loop expansions in the coupling constant $\\hbar g^2$ or semiclassical $e^{-1/\\hbar g^2}$ effects. Corpuscular corrections are stronger and appear already at order $\\sqrt{\\hbar g^2}$. In SUSY theories quantum corpuscular corrections generically break supersymmetry. We show that a domain wall...

  9. Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Shadmi, Y; Shadmi, Yael; Shirman, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. The study of DSB has recently enjoyed dramatic progress, fueled by advances in our understanding of the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. These advances have allowed for direct analysis of DSB in strongly coupled theories, and for the discovery of new DSB theories, some of which contradict early criteria for DSB. We review these criteria, emphasizing recently discovered exceptions. We also describe, through many examples, various techniques for directly establishing DSB by studying the infrared theory, including both older techniques in regions of weak coupling, and new techniques in regions of strong coupling. Finally, we present a list of representative DSB models, their main properties, an...

  10. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  11. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the Center of NGC 1407 from Non-parametric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Villaume, Alexa

    2017-03-01

    It is now well-established that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) can be determined from the absorption line spectra of old stellar systems, and this has been used to measure the IMF and its variation across the early-type galaxy population. Previous work focused on measuring the slope of the IMF over one or more stellar mass intervals, implicitly assuming that this is a good description of the IMF and that the IMF has a universal low-mass cutoff. In this work we consider more flexible IMFs, including two-component power laws with a variable low-mass cutoff and a general non-parametric model. We demonstrate with mock spectra that the detailed shape of the IMF can be accurately recovered as long as the data quality is high (S/N ≳ 300 Å‑1) and cover a wide wavelength range (0.4–1.0 μm). We apply these flexible IMF models to a high S/N spectrum of the center of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Fitting the spectrum with non-parametric IMFs, we find that the IMF in the center shows a continuous rise extending toward the hydrogen-burning limit, with a behavior that is well-approximated by a power law with an index of ‑2.7. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of extreme (super-Salpeter) IMFs in the cores of massive galaxies.

  12. TALK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    在世界杯期司对iCast富媒体的使用是中央电视台广告部、央视国际、未来广告以及广告主们多方碰撞而产生的合作。这次合作是作为央视整合策略的一种尝试,也是作为央视国际拓展广告服务的一种尝试。目前来看,这种尝试碰撞出了积极的火花,取得了成功。

  13. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  14. Symmetry Breaking by Nonstationay Optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prestwich, S.; Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new partial symmetry breaking method that can be used to break arbitrary variable/value symmetries in combination with depth first search, static value ordering and dynamic variable ordering. The main novelty of the method is a new dominance detection technique based on local search in

  15. Symmetry Breaking by Nonstationay Optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prestwich, S.; Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new partial symmetry breaking method that can be used to break arbitrary variable/value symmetries in combination with depth first search, static value ordering and dynamic variable ordering. The main novelty of the method is a new dominance detection technique based on local search in

  16. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  17. IMF-Therapy (Intention controlled Myo-Feedback)--an innovative method in the treatment of peripheral nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K; Schmidt, U; Schmidhammer, R

    2007-01-01

    Physiotherapy is a well established part of the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve paralysis. The aim of this type of treatment is to re-establish arbitrary functions by improving the patients' active and passive mobility as well as their strength and stamina. IMF-Therapy (Intention controlled Myo-Feedback) is an innovative method in the treatment of peripheral nerve lesions that goes beyond the purely neuro-scientific framework and also takes into account methods and concepts of the psychology of learning. The essential assumption is that things learnt in the past are firmly established in the long term motor memory and can be reactivated by the patient. From results achieved in 32 patients treated with this therapy it can be concluded that IMF-Therapy may be a promising additional rehabilitation tool in peripheral nerve lesion.

  18. The efficiency of 'viscous interaction' between the solar wind and the magnetosphere during intense northward IMF events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined 11 cases when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was intensely northward (greater than 10 nT) for long durations of time (greater than 3 hours), to quantitatively determine an uppler limit on the efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere. We have specifically selected these large B(sub N) events to minimize the effects of magnetic reconnection. Many of these cases occurred during intervals of high-speed streams associated with coronal mass ejections when viscous interaction effects might be at a maximum. It is found that the typical efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere is 1.0 x 10(exp -3) to 4.0 x 10(exp -3), 100 to 30 times less efficient than during periods of intense southward IMFs. Other energy sinks not included in these numbers are discussed. Estimates of their magnitudes are provided.

  19. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...... is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy....

  20. Demand inducement as cheap talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, P

    1999-12-01

    The doctor-patient interaction is analysed in a game of cheap talk. Causes and consequences of imperfect agency are examined. One form of imperfect agency, supplier-induced demand, is a feature of neologism proof equilibria with some parameter values but not with others. The model is used to evaluate two tests that have been used to test for the existence of supplier-induced demand. The analysis suggests that the two tests, which compare the medical utilization of informed and uninformed consumers, are not valid.

  1. IMF By effects on ground magnetometer response to increased solar wind dynamic pressure derived from global MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Dogacan Su; Zou, Shasha; Slavin, James A.

    2017-05-01

    During sudden solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements, the magnetosphere undergoes rapid compression resulting in a reconfiguration of the global current systems, most notably the field-aligned currents (FACs). Ground-based magnetometers are traditionally used to study such compression events. However, factors affecting the polarity and magnitude of the ground-based magnetic perturbations are still not well understood. In particular, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By is known to create significant asymmetries in the FAC patterns. We use the University of Michigan Block Adaptive Tree Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS'R'US) magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the effects of IMF By on the global variations of ground magnetic perturbations during solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements. Using virtual magnetometers in three idealized simulations with varying IMF By, we find asymmetries in the peak amplitude and magnetic local time of the ground magnetic perturbations during the preliminary impulse (PI) and the main impulse (MI) phases. These asymmetries are especially evident at high-latitude ground magnetometer responses where the peak amplitudes differ by 50 nT at different locations. We show that the FACs related with the PI are due to magnetopause deformation, and the FACs related with the MI are generated by vortical flows within the magnetosphere, consistent with other simulation results. The perturbation FACs due to pressure enhancements and their magnetospheric sources do not differ much under different IMF By polarities. However, the conductance profile affected by the superposition of the preexisting FACs and the perturbation FACs including their closure currents is responsible for the magnitude and location asymmetries in the ground magnetic perturbations.

  2. Multi-instrument probing of the polar ionosphere under steady northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Pryse

    Full Text Available Observations are presented of the polar ionosphere under steady, northward IMF. The measurements, made by six complementary experimental techniques, including radio tomography, all-sky and meridian scanning photometer optical imaging, incoherent and coherent scatter radars and satellite particle detection, reveal plasma parameters consistent with ionospheric signatures of lobe reconnection. The optical green-line footprint of the reconnection site is seen to lie in the sunward plasma convection of the lobe cells. Downstream in the region of softer precipitation the reverse energy dispersion of the incoming ions can be identified. A steep latitudinal density gradient at the equatorward edge of the precipitation identifies the general location of an adiaroic boundary, separating the open field lines of polar lobe cells from the closed field of viscous-driven cells. Enhancements in plasma density to the south of the gradient are interpreted as ionisation being reconfigured as it is thrust against the boundary by the antisunward flow of the viscous cells near noon. Each of the instruments individually provides valuable information on certain aspects of the ionosphere, but the paper demonstrates that taken together the different experiments complement each other to give a consistent and comprehensive picture of the dayside polar ionosphere..

    Key words. Ionosphere (polar ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; polar cap phenomena

  3. Effects of strong IMF Bz southward events on the equatorial and mid-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Astafyeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dayside ionospheric response to five intense geomagnetic storms (Dst<−120 nT that occurred in 2001–2005 was investigated by use of simultaneous TEC measurements by the CHAMP, SAC-C, TOPEX/Jason-1 satellites. Since the satellites passed over different longitudinal sectors and measured TEC in different range of altitudes, it was possible to obtain information about altitudinal and longitudinal ionosphere redistribution during these storms. Severe enhancements (up to ~350% of the equatorial and mid-latitude TEC above ~430 km with concurrent traveling of the equatorial anomaly crests for a distance of 10–15° of latitude were observed during two of the five events analyzed here (6 November 2001 and 8 November 2004. This phenomenon, known as the dayside ionosphere uplift, or the "daytime super-fountain effect", occurred after sudden drop in IMF Bz and consequent penetration of the electric fields to the low-latitude ionosphere. However, the same order Bz negative events caused comparatively weak changes in the dayside TEC (up to ~80 TECU during the other three events of 18 June 2003, 11 February 2004 and 24 August 2005. At the main phase of these storms there were mostly observed formation of the "typical" dual peak structure of the equatorial anomaly rather than the reinforcement of the fountain effect and the anomaly itself. Possible reasons and factors responsible for the development of the extreme ionosphere effects are discussed in the paper.

  4. Therapeutic effect of TENS on post-IMF trismus and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagade, O O; Obilade, T O

    2003-12-01

    The study set out to investigate the therapeutic effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) in the alleviation of pain and post-IMF trismus, in patients undergoing jaw exercises to hasten mouth opening after being treated for fractures of the mandible. Two groups of patients, with 10 patients in each group, were used for the study. The groups were the experimental and the control groups. They were all treated for mandibular fractures, and had their jaws immobilized for 6 weeks, immediately after which they were started on jaw exercises. The Inter-incisal distances and number of acceptable wooden spatulae that the jaws could accommodate were noted and recorded. The experimental group was then placed on the TENS therapy for 20 minutes, after which the new inter-incisal distances and the number of acceptable wooden spatulae were recorded. The control group had no TENS therapy; the patients only waited for 20 minutes without any stimulation, before the new inter-incisal distances and the number of acceptable wooden spatulae were measured and recorded. It was observed that the inter-incisal distance and the number of acceptable wooden spatulae significantly increased in patients in the experimental group compared to the control group. It was concluded that TENS could be useful in relieving the pain associated with forced mouth-opening exercises aimed at overcoming trismus caused by muscle spasm, which is associated with prolonged immobilization of the jaws for the treatment of facial fractures.

  5. Daily variation at Concordia station (Antarctica and its dependence on IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cafarella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available After some short test surveys, during the 2004–2005 summer expedition in Antarctica, a geomagnetic French-Italian observatory was installed on the plateau (geographic coordinates: 75.1° S, 123.4° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 88.9° S, 54.3° E; UT=LT−8 very close to the geomagnetic pole. In this paper we present some peculiarities of the daily variation as observed at this polar cap observatory during the years 2005 and 2006, taking into account the different Loyd seasons and different interplanetary magnetic field conditions. Some interesting results emerge from the analysis, confirming the dependence of the daily variation (and of the associated polar current systems on the IMF Bz and By components. In particular the analysis showed that different Bz conditions correspond to different contribution to daily variation of ionospheric and field aligned currents, while particular By conditions lead to a time shift of the diurnal variation, indicating an asymmetry with respect to the noon meridian.

  6. Large-Scale Structures in Earth Foreshock Waves during Radial IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Palmroth, Minna; Vainio, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Wave instabilities in the foreshock region of Earth's bow shock lead to formation of magnetic field and density fluctuations, commonly observed by spacecraft as 30-second waves. These waves are oblique to the interplanetary magnetic field, with the mechanism leading to oblique propagation still under discussion. Using the VLASIATOR (http://vlasiator.fmi.fi) global hybrid-Vlasov simulation code, we performed runs of radial and near-radial IMF conditions and were able to reproduce the development of these oblique foreshock wave instabilities, revealing a peculiar global structure, in which waves with different wave-vector directions are arranged around central spines, which are spatially offset from the bow shock's nose. We present analysis of the waves' growth behaviour and combine them with artificial observations, comparing to in-situ spacecraft data. Furthermore, we employed a test particle approach to investigate the formation mechanism of the instabilities' large-scale structure, and found that a coupling between the microphysics of wave-particle interaction and global-scale shock and foreshock geometry is essential to explain them.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gamma Vel cluster membership and IMF (Prisinzano+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofre, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-04-01

    We derived a list as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster Gamma Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, based on spectra acquired with FLAMES a the VLT using the GIRAFFE intermediate-resolution spectrograph. In addition, we used literature photometry and X-ray data. For each membership criterion, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Halpha lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Table 5 lists the fundamental parameters of the confirmed and possible members in Gamma Velorum, i.e. photometry, radial velocities, equivalent widths of the lithium line, the Halpha activity index, the X-ray flag, the gravity gamma index and the stellar masses. Finally the binarity and membership flags are given. (1 data file).

  8. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.

    2009-09-01

    This paper has two parts: one about observational constraints related to the empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD), and the other about inhomogeneous models of chemical evolution, in particular the theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD). In the first part, the EDOD is deduced from subsamples related to two different samples involving (i) N=532 solar neighbourhood (SN) stars within the range, -1.5Prochaska et al. in Astron. J. 120:2513, 2000); (3) the fit to thin disk data implies an oxygen abundance range similar to its thick disk counterpart, with the extension of conclusion (2) to the thin disk, and the evolution of the thick + thin disk as a whole (Haywood in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388:1175, 2008) cannot be excluded; (4) leaving outside the outer halo, a fit to the data related to different environments is provided by models with a strictly universal IMF but different probabilities of a region being active, which implies different global efficiencies of the star formation rate; (5) a special case of stellar migration across the disk can be described by models with enhanced star formation, where a fraction of currently observed SN stars were born in situ and a comparable fraction is due to the net effect of stellar migration, according to recent results based on high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations (Ro\\vskar et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 684:L79, 2008).

  9. Unusually long lasting multiple penetration of interplanetary electric field to equatorial ionosphere under oscillating IMF Bz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Hong, Minghua; Wan, Weixing; Du, Aimin; Lei, Jiuhou; Zhao, Biqiang; Wang, Wenbin; Ren, Zhipeng; Yue, Xinan

    2008-01-01

    During November 11-16, 2003, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B z oscillated between northward and southward directions, which suggests discontinuous magnetic reconnection associated with the multiple pulses-like reconnection electric field. The Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements of ionospheric zonal electric field showed similar fluctuations during this period. The high correlation coefficient of 0.71 between the reconnection electric field and equatorial zonal electric field during 125 hours suggests that the interplanetary electric field (IEF) pulsively penetrated into the equatorial ionosphere due to the discontinuous magnetic reconnection. It is implied that the short lifetime (<3 hours) dawn-dusk IEF pulses can penetrate into ionosphere without shielding, in other words, they may exhibit the ``shielding immunity''. The averaged penetration efficiency is about 0.136 and highly local time-dependent. Furthermore, the intense AU and AL indices imply that the multiple electric field penetration is associated with a ``High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA).''

  10. Missing Massive Stars in Starbursts: Stellar Temperature Diagnostics and the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Rigby, J R

    2004-01-01

    Determining the properties of starbursts requires spectral diagnostics of their ultraviolet radiation fields, to test whether very massive stars are present. We test several such diagnostics, using new models of line ratio behavior combining Cloudy, Starburst99 and up-to-date spectral atlases. For six galaxies we obtain new measurements of HeI 1.7 um / Brackett 10, a difficult to measure but physically simple (and therefore reliable) diagnostic. We obtain new measurements of HeI 2.06 um / Brackett gamma in five galaxies, and find that it and [OIII]/Hbeta are generally unreliable diagnostics in starbursts. The heteronuclear and homonuclear mid--infrared line ratios (notably [NeIII] 15.6 um / [NeII] 12.8 um) consistently agree with each other and with HeI 1.7 um / Br10; this argues that the mid-infrared line ratios are reliable diagnostics of spectral hardness. In a sample of 27 starbursts, [NeIII]/[NeII] ratios are significantly less excited than model predictions for a Salpeter IMF extending to 100 solar mass...

  11. Distinct responses of the low-latitude ionosphere to CME and HSSWS: The role of the IMF Bz oscillation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zuluaga, J.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Mora-Páez, H.; Alazo-Cuartas, K.

    2016-11-01

    In this work an attempt to identify the role of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the response of the ionosphere to different solar phenomena is presented. For this purpose, the day-to-day variability of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) and the main ionospheric disturbances are analyzed during one coronal mass ejection (CME) and two high-speed solar wind streams (HSSWSs). The EIA parameters considered are the zonal electric field and both the strength and position of its northern crest. The disturbances being the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric field (PPMEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) are studied using the magnetic response of their equivalent current systems. In accordance, ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems receivers and magnetometers at geomagnetic low latitudes in the American sector are used. During both phenomena, patterns of PPMEF related to fluctuations of the IMF are observed. Diurnal and semidiurnal magnetic oscillations are found to be likely related to DDEF. Comparisons among the EIA parameters and the DDEF magnetic response exhibit poor relation during the CME in contrast to good relation during the HSSWSs. It is concluded that the response of the low-latitude ionosphere to solar phenomena is largely determined through the oscillation frequency of the IMF Bz by affecting the generation of the PPMEF and DDEF differently. This is seen as an effect of how the energy from the solar wind is transferred into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system.

  12. The Inframammary Fold (IMF): A Poorly Appreciated Landmark in Prosthetic/Alloplastic Breast Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery-Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara; Ibrahim, Amir; Saba, Salim; Karamanoukian, Raffy; Chahine, Fadl; Papazian, Nazareth

    2017-08-01

    The inframammary fold (IMF) is the most critical visual landmark that affects final aesthetic outcome of augmentation mammoplasty and even post-mastectomy alloplastic breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, structural integrity of this landmark is greatly overlooked and very often neglected. Excessive undermining of the lower breast pole with aggressive disruption/lowering and subsequent poor reconstitution of the IMF scaffold combined with imbalanced implant-tissue dynamics may result in downward implant displacement with creep bottoming and upward tilt of the nipples. The current report reviews the experience of the senior author (BA) over 30 years in breast aesthetic and reconstructive surgery with IMF reconstruction and fixation to the chest wall at the inferior border of the implant. Illustrative cases are presented. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Overlapping ion structures in the mid-altitude cusp under northward IMF: signature of dual lobe reconnection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On some rare occasions, data from the Cluster Ion Spectrometer (CIS in the mid-altitude cusp reveal overlapping ion populations under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. While the poleward part of the cusp exhibits the expected reverse dispersion due to lobe reconnection, its equatorward part shows a second ion population at higher-energy that coexists with the low energy tail of the dispersion. This second population is either dispersionless or slightly dispersed with energies increasing with increasing latitudes, indicative of lobe reconnection as well. Our analysis of a case that occurred 3 September 2002 when the IMF stayed northward for more than two hours suggests that the second population comes from the opposite hemisphere and is very likely on newly-closed field lines. We interpret this overlap of cusp populations as a clear mid-altitude signature of re-closed magnetic field lines by double lobe reconnection (reconnection in both hemispheres under northward IMF. This interpretation is supported by modelling performed with the Cooling model and an MHD model.

  14. A Prolonged Southward IMF-Bz Event of May 02--04, 1998: Solar, Interplanetary Causes and Geomagnetic Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P; Rastogi, R G; Yoshikawa, A; Fujiki, K; Tokumaru, M; Yan, Y

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation was carried out to understand a prolonged (~44 hours) weakly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz) condition during May 02--04, 1998. In-situ observations, during the period, showed the passage of an expanding magnetic cloud embedded in an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME), followed up by a shock and an interplanetary discontinuity driven by another ICME. It is the arrival of the ICMEs and the upfront shocks that cause the prolonged southward IMF-Bz condition. The magnetic configuration of the source regions of the IMF associated with the ICME interval were also examined, which showed open magnetic field structures, emanating from a small active region on the north of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The structures remained constantly to the north of the HCS, both on April 29 and May 01, suggesting no change in their polarity. The draping of these outward directed radial field lines around the propagating CMEs in the shocked plasma explained the observed pola...

  15. Is it acceptable for a psychiatrist to break confidentiality to prevent spousal violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Myriam; Sastre, Maria Teresa Muñoz; Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul Clay

    2009-01-01

    When is it acceptable for a psychiatrist to break confidentiality to protect the wife of a potentially violent patient? 153 lay persons, 13 nursing personnel, 10 physicians, and 10 psychologists in France indicated this acceptability in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all combinations of 5 factors: gravity of threat (death or beating), certainty of mental illness (certain or not), time spent talking with patient (considerable or little), his attitude toward psychotherapy (rejection, indecision, or acceptance), and whether the physician consulted an expert. Lay people favored breaking confidentiality more than did nursing personnel or psychologists. Consulting an expert had greatest impact. Lay participants were composed of groups that found breaking confidentiality "always acceptable" (22 participants), "depending on many circumstances" (106), requiring "consultation with an expert" (31), and "never acceptable" (27). Lay people in France are influenced by situational factors when deciding if a psychiatrist should break confidentiality to protect a patient's wife.

  16. BizTalk Server 2010 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggers, Steef-Jan

    2012-01-01

    This book will explain step-by-step in each recipe how to, for example, implement a certain orchestration pattern, test a BizTalk artifact, monitor BizTalk with a third party tool, or secure a message. The recipes in this book are easy to understand and follow as the author discusses real-world scenarios. The range of topics covered in this book will bring out the forward-thinking BizTalk developer in you. The examples are supported by relevant background information for ease of understanding. This book is for professional BizTalk Developers and administrators to take their skills to the next

  17. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  18. Mothers talk about their children with schizophrenia: a performance autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B

    2005-06-01

    This article presents the script for a performance autoethnography that explores how mothers of adults with schizophrenia talk about their children. The script draws on my own experience as a mother of a person with schizophrenia, interviews I conducted with mothers of people with schizophrenia, and written accounts by mothers of people with schizophrenia. Autoethnography refers to an approach to social science research in which the experience of the researcher is recognized as a salient part of the research process. Autoethnography typically uses non-traditional genres, such as this script, for presenting research to address ethical and political problems in the representation of research. These genres allow researchers to both break with and continue the ethnographic tradition of representing the lives and experiences of others.

  19. Evidence of Ni break-up from total production cross sections in p+Ni collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Budzanowski, A; Filges, D; Goldenbaum, F; Hodde, H; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Kistryn, M; Kistryn, St; Kliczewski, St; Kowalczyk, A; Kozik, E; Kulessa, P; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Piskor-Ignatowicz, B; Pysz, K; Rudy, Z; Siudak, R; Wojciechowski, M

    2009-01-01

    The total production cross sections of light charged particles (LCPs), intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and heavy reaction products of p+Ni collisions available in the literature have been compared with predictions of a two-step model in the proton beam energy range from reaction threshold up to approximately 3 GeV. Model cross sections were calculated assuming, that the reaction proceeds via an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon collisions followed by evaporation of particles from an equilibrated, heavy target residuum. The shape of the excitation functions was well described by model calculations for all reaction products. The magnitude of the cross sections was reasonably well reproduced for heavy reaction products, i.e. for nuclei heavier than Al, but the cross sections for lighter products were systematically underestimated. This fact was used as an argument in favor of a significant break-up contribution to the reaction mechanism. The present conclusions are supported by recently published result...

  20. Dayside aurora and the role of IMF ∣By∣/∣Bz∣: detailed morphology and response to magnetopause reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Denig

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We document the detailed spatio-temporal structure of the dayside aurora during intervals of ongoing dayside magnetopause reconnection, primarily during interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz≤0 conditions. The present study is based on ground auroral observations in combination with particle precipitation data from a DMSP spacecraft. We describe auroral forms corresponding to the following particle precipitation regimes identified by Newell and Meng (1994: (i central plasma sheet (CPS, (ii precipitation void, (iii dayside boundary plasma sheet (BPS, and (iv cusp (LLBL/cusp/mantle. Two distinctly different auroral configurations are observed, corresponding to different regimes of the IMF clock angle (θ and the ∣By∣/∣Bz∣ ratio. Two regimes are defined. In regime (I θ lies within ∼ 90–135° and ∣By∣/∣Bz∣>1 (By-dominated, while in regime (II θ is in the range 135°–180° and ∣By∣/∣Bz∣Bz-dominated. Within regime (I the auroral response to reconnection events typically progresses from lower to higher latitudes in stages as indicated below: (A equatorward boundary intensifications (EBIs: sequential brightenings of closely spaced, fragmented, rayed bands (BPS aurora within the ∼08:00–15:00 MLT sector, each of which are moving noonward/sunward, (B poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs: forms expanding westward from the postnoon side (By>0 and later appearing as a poleward expanding form in the convection throat in the ∼09:00–12:00 MLT sector, with a fading phase in the regime of mantle precipitation. During strongly southward IMF conditions (regime II, the intense PMAF activity is replaced by a more latitudinally restricted, but longitudinally wide aurora of moderate intensity. The latter auroral state is accompanied by a 2-cell convection pattern which is rather symmetrical about noon. This state is very different from the convection/FAC configuration present during IMF regime (I, with its strong zonal flows

  1. IMF and [Na/Fe] abundance ratios from optical and NIR spectral features in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; Vazdekis, A.; Ferreras, I.; Pasquali, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Röck, B.; Aguado, D. S.; Peletier, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a joint analysis of the four most prominent sodium-sensitive features (Na D, Na I λ8190Å, Na I λ1.14 μm, and Na I λ2.21 μm), in the optical and near-infrared spectral ranges, of two nearby, massive (σ ˜ 300 km s-1), early-type galaxies (named XSG1 and XSG2). Our analysis relies on deep Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter long-slit spectra, along with newly developed stellar population models, allowing for [Na/Fe] variations, up to ˜1.2 dex, over a wide range of age, total metallicity, and initial mass function (IMF) slope. The new models show that the response of the Na-dependent spectral indices to [Na/Fe] is stronger when the IMF is bottom heavier. For the first time, we are able to match all four Na features in the central regions of massive early-type galaxies finding an overabundance of [Na/Fe] in the range 0.5-0.7 dex and a bottom-heavy IMF. Therefore, individual abundance variations cannot be fully responsible for the trends of gravity-sensitive indices, strengthening the case towards a non-universal IMF. Given current limitations of theoretical atmosphere models, our [Na/Fe] estimates should be taken as upper limits. For XSG1, where line strengths are measured out to ˜0.8 Re, the radial trend of [Na/Fe] is similar to [α/Fe] and [C/Fe], being constant out to ˜0.5 Re, and decreasing by ˜0.2-0.3 dex at ˜0.8 Re, without any clear correlation with local metallicity. Such a result seems to be in contrast to the predicted increase of Na nucleosynthetic yields from asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II supernovae. For XSG1, the Na-inferred IMF radial profile is consistent, within the errors, with that derived from TiO features and the Wing-Ford band presented in a recent paper.

  2. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-Type Galaxies From Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the center of NGC 1407 from Non-Parametric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie; Villaume, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    It is now well-established that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) can be determined from the absorption line spectra of old stellar systems, and this has been used to measure the IMF and its variation across the early-type galaxy population. Previous work focused on measuring the slope of the IMF over one or more stellar mass intervals, implicitly assuming that this is a good description of the IMF and that the IMF has a universal low-mass cutoff. In this work we consider more flexible IMFs, including two-component power-laws with a variable low-mass cutoff and a general non-parametric model. We demonstrate with mock spectra that the detailed shape of the IMF can be accurately recovered as long as the data quality are high (S/N$\\gtrsim300$) and cover a wide wavelength range (0.4um-1.0um). We apply these flexible IMF models to a high S/N spectrum of the center of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Fitting the spectrum with non-parametric IMFs, we find that the IMF in the center shows a continuous ri...

  3. Advice on Giving a Scientific Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one speaker exciting and another boring? You have been to good talks and you have sat through far too many poor ones, so what makes the difference? It doesn't really matter whether it is a scientific talk, a public talk or a classroom lecture: Your prime concern is to think about the audience. You are talking to them. You are performing. Look at them; talk to them; think about what they are hearing and seeing. They very much want you to give a good talk -- that is why they have chosen to be your audience. But at the start of your talk they are worried you might not, so they are nervous. Your first job is to relax them and get their trust that you are going to do a good job. Then you will relax and you will be off to a great start. Of course your content matters; if you have a great discovery, they will forgive you anything. But it is still better to make a good presentation. I give some advice here on what to do, and what not to do, when giving any kind of talk, but with emphasis on short scientific talks presented at conferences. You should be a little nervous at the start of a talk - that is caused by your concern to do a good job. With a good start your talk will flow, you will then present your discoveries, and with a good ending your audience will applaud appreciatively and want to ask you questions. You will have enjoyed performing and want to do it again. Speaking can be fun for you, and rewarding for your audiences.

  4. Exploring TED Talks as Linked Data for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Davide; Chawla, Saniya; Dietze, Stefan; Marenzi, Ivana; Fetahu, Besnik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the TED Talks dataset which exposes all metadata and the actual transcripts of available TED talks as structured Linked Data. The TED talks collection is composed of more than 1800 talks, along with 35?000 transcripts in over 30 languages, related to a wide range of topics. In this regard, TED talks metadata available in…

  5. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  6. Characteristics of penetration electric fields to the equatorial ionosphere during southward and northward IMF turnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta

    2013-07-01

    The signatures of abrupt turnings of the vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Bz, can be seen at equatorial latitudes through the prompt transmission of high-latitude electric fields to the lower latitudes, called as prompt penetration electric field (PPE). The present work studies the signatures of PPE in daytime equatorial electrojet (EEJ) index derived in the Indian sector during 2001-2005. The signatures are observed in polar (PCN index) and equatorial (EEJ index) ionosphere almost instantaneously (<1 min). The communication time of 12±6 min is observed between bow shock nose and the equatorial ionosphere, and it is found to have inverse relationship with radial component of solar wind velocity during southward and northward Bz turnings which might indicate magnetosphere crossing time scale by solar wind. Ionospheric reconfiguration time during southward turnings shows inverse relationship with solar wind flow in contrast to northward turnings with "no relationship," indicating differences in underlying physical mechanisms during both turnings. We observe no local time dependence (within 06-18 h) in conductivity-corrected EEJ signatures associated with Bz turnings. Regression analysis between conductivity-corrected EEJ and interplanetary electric field shows higher efficiency during northward turnings. However, further analysis investigating the effect of actual orientation of Bz indicates that the magnitude of northward Bz does not have influence on the ionospheric signatures. It is noticed that the response signatures are mainly controlled by the magnitudes of southward Bz. Thus, the present study signifies the role of inner magnetospheric shielding electric field in addition to ceasing of convection during northward turnings.

  7. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    in combination with a series of design-oriented workshops with a group of senior citizens, have guided the design of our Ticket-to-Talk-Television example concept. We will reflect upon the overall approach as well as the design activities that were undertaken in relation to the concept developed.......In this paper we discuss a particular perspective on interactivity and sociability in the design of new TV technologies for social interaction. We will argue that current research on Social TV builds on a too narrow conception of interaction in everyday social life. In consequence, rather than...... turning the TV media itself into an arena for peer-to-peer synchronous interaction amongst TV viewers we will discuss the idea of Social TV as a resource that when part of a larger socio-material fabric can help accommodate the circumstantial nature of social interactions as they emerge and play out...

  8. Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.

    "Talking Science" does not mean simply talking about science; it means doing science through the medium of language. This is a book about communication, scientific, and technical education. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the specific themes and methods of the book. Each analyzes a brief classroom episode, looking from two different points of view at…

  9. Early Environmental Correlates of Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Adkins, Daniel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2008-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to examine contextual, child, and maternal factors that are associated with mothers' early emotion talk in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample. DESIGN: Emotion talk (positive and negative labels) was coded for 1111 mothers while engaged with their 7-month-olds in viewing an emotion-faces picture book. Infant attention during the interaction was also coded. Mothers' parenting style (positive engagement and negative intrusiveness) was coded during a dyadic free-play interaction. Demographic information was obtained, as well as maternal ratings of child temperament and mother's knowledge of infant development. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that social context and maternal qualities are significant predictors of mothers' early positive and negative emotion talk. In particular, mothers who were African American, had higher income, and who showed more positive engagement when interacting with their infants demonstrated increased rates of positive and negative emotion talk with their infants. For negative emotion talk, social context variables moderated other predictors. Specifically, infant attention was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for African American mothers, and knowledge of infant development was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for non-African American mothers. The positive association between maternal positive engagement and negative emotion talk was greater for lower-income families than for higher-income families. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' emotion language with infants is not sensitive to child factors but is associated with social contextual factors and characteristics of the mothers themselves.

  10. Theoretical summary talk of QCD 2002

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Basu

    2003-11-01

    This is a summary of the talks on QCD, not including QCD at finite temperature or density (which are discussed elsewhere) presented at the QCD 2002 meeting held at IIT, Kanpur. I have attempted to give only an overview of the talks since the details may be found in the individual contributions.

  11. Library science talks : eleventh season 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss National Library in Berne, the Association of International Librarians and Information Specialists AILIS and the CERN Scientific Information Service are pleased to announce their 2005 series of Library Science Talks. The series offers library and archive staff the possibility of learning from and communicating with personalities in library services and organizations. The talks cover important and topical issues for librarians.

  12. Communicative Teacher Talk in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuelian

    2009-01-01

    Communicative approach has become popular in ELT in recent years. Good teacher talk lays focus on how effectively it could promote genuine communication in the classroom. In this essay, communicative teacher talk is studied, and its features are explored based on authentic classroom transcripts, and a summary of the existing problems is provided.

  13. A Grounded Theory of Future Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesh, Coleen

    A study examined the ways that people talk to policy and decision makers about the future and constructed a model of future talk. Specifically, speeches given to government policy makers about science and technology were analyzed in order to discover how people communicate information about the future. Each incident was reviewed and assigned a…

  14. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics.

  15. Electroweak symmetry breaking and beyond the Standard Model physics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, I shall first discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism and then highlight some of its deficiencies making a case for the need to go beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The BSM tour will be guided by symmetry arguments. I shall pick up four specific BSM scenarios, namely, supersymmetry, little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification, and the Higgsless approach. The discussion will be confined mainly on their electroweak symmetry breaking aspects.

  16. On coffee talk and break-room chatter: perceptions of women who gossip in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sally D; Timme, Diane R; Hart, Jason W

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined perceptions of female gossipers in the workplace. Male and female participants (N=129) were asked to think of a woman who either frequently or rarely contributed negative information about other people during conversation. Participants then completed ratings on the target using the six dimensions of the FIRO-B. As predicted, high gossipers were perceived as having a greater need to exert control of others, but less need for others to control them, than low gossipers. Higher gossipers were also perceived as less emotionally warm than low gossipers. The implications of these findings for gossip research are presented.

  17. Prediction of SYM-H index during large storms by NARX neural network from IMF and solar wind data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to the Dst index, the SYM-H index may also serve as an indicator of magnetic storm intensity, but having distinct advantage of higher time-resolution. In this study the NARX neural network has been used for the first time to predict SYM-H index from solar wind (SW and IMF parameters. In total 73 time intervals of great storm events with IMF/SW data available from ACE satellite during 1998 to 2006 are used to establish the ANN model. Out of them, 67 are used to train the network and the other 6 samples for test. Additionally, the NARX prediction model is also validated using IMF/SW data from WIND satellite for 7 great storms during 1995–1997 and 2005, as well as for the July 2000 Bastille day storm and November 2001 superstorm using Geotail and OMNI data at 1 AU, respectively. Five interplanetary parameters of IMF Bz, By and total B components along with proton density and velocity of solar wind are used as the original external inputs of the neural network to predict the SYM-H index about one hour ahead. For the 6 test storms registered by ACE including two super-storms of min. SYM-H<−200 nT, the correlation coefficient between observed and NARX network predicted SYM-H is 0.95 as a whole, even as high as 0.95 and 0.98 with average relative variance of 13.2% and 7.4%, respectively, for the two super-storms. The prediction for the 7 storms with WIND data is also satisfactory, showing averaged correlation coefficient about 0.91 and RMSE of 14.2 nT. The newly developed NARX model shows much better capability than Elman network for SYM-H prediction, which can partly be attributed to a key feedback to the input layer from the output neuron with a suitable length (about 120 min. This feedback means that nearly real information of the ring current status is effectively directed to take part in the prediction of SYM-H index by ANN. The proper history length of the output-feedback may mainly reflect

  18. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during northward IMF conditions: Global 3-Dimensional MHD simulations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a

  19. On the location of dayside magnetic reconnection during an interval of duskward oriented IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We present space- and ground-based observations of the signatures of magnetic reconnection during an interval of duskward-oriented interplanetary magnetic field on 25 March 2004. In situ field and plasma measurements are drawn from the Double Star and Cluster satellites during traversals of the pre-noon sector dayside magnetopause at low and high latitudes, respectively. These reveal the typical signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs, namely bipolar perturbations in the magnetic field component normal to the local magnetopause, enhancements in the local magnetic field strength and mixing of magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasmas. Further evidence of magnetic reconnection is inferred from the ground-based signatures of pulsed ionospheric flow observed over an extended interval. In order to ascertain the location of the reconnection site responsible for the FTEs, a simple model of open flux tube motion over the surface of the magnetopause is employed. A comparison of the modelled and observed motion of open flux tubes (i.e. FTEs and plasma flow in the magnetopause boundary layer indicates that the FTEs observed at both low and high latitudes were consistence with the existence of a tilted X-line passing through the sub-solar region, as suggested by the component reconnection paradigm. While a high latitude X-line (as predicted by the anti-parallel description of reconnection may have been present, we find it unlikely that it could have been responsible for the FTEs observed in the pre-noon sector under the observed IMF conditions. Finally, we note that throughout the interval, the magnetosphere was bathed in ULF oscillations within the solar wind electric field. While no one-to-one correspondence with the pulsed reconnection rate suggested by the ground-based observation of pulsed ionospheric flow has been demonstrated, we note that similar periodicity oscillations were observed throughout the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. These

  20. High-latitude electromagnetic and particle energy flux during an event with sustained strongly northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a prolonged interval of strongly northward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field on 16 July 2000, 16:00-19:00 UT to characterize the energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere for conditions associated with minimum solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. With reconnection occurring tailward of the cusp under northward IMF conditions, the reconnection dynamo should be separated from the viscous dynamo, presumably driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability. Thus, these conditions are also ideal for evaluating the contribution of a viscous interaction to the coupling process. We derive the two-dimensional distribution of the Poynting vector radial component in the northern sunlit polar ionosphere from magnetic field observations by the constellation of Iridium satellites together with drift meter and magnetometer observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 and F15 satellites. The electromagnetic energy flux is then compared with the particle energy flux obtained from auroral images taken by the far-ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft. The electromagnetic energy input to the ionosphere of 51 GW calculated from the Iridium/DMSP observations is eight times larger than the 6 GW due to particle precipitation all poleward of 78° MLAT. This result indicates that the energy transport is significant, particularly as it is concentrated in a small region near the magnetic pole, even under conditions traditionally considered to be quiet and is dominated by the electromagnetic flux. We estimate the contributions of the high and mid-latitude dynamos to both the Birkeland currents and electric potentials finding that high-latitude reconnection accounts for 0.8 MA and 45kV while we attribute <0.2MA and ~5kV to an interaction at lower latitudes having the sense of a viscous interaction. Given that these

  1. Getting started with BizTalk services

    CERN Document Server

    Fancey, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A practical book that acts as a clear and concise introduction to BizTalk Services. Full of real-world scenarios, each area of BizTalk Services is explained in detail, essentially enabling you to smoothly design your own integration solutions with minimal effort. This book is intended for those who want to understand BizTalk Services, what it can do, and how to build integration solutions using it in their organizations. If you are a developer, architect, or project manager, this book will quickly get you acquainted with this powerful cloud integration technology. It would be helpful to have s

  2. Dynamical masses of early-type galaxies: a comparison to lensing results and implications for the stellar IMF and the distribution of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J; Bender, R; Thomas, D; Gebhardt, K; Magorrian, J; Corsini, E M; Wegner, G; Seitz, S

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the distribution of luminous and dark matter in Coma early-type galaxies. Dynamical masses obtained under the assumption that mass follows light do not match with the masses of strong gravitational lens systems of similar velocity dispersions. Instead, dynamical fits with dark matter halos are in good agreement with lensing results. We derive mass-to-light ratios of the stellar populations from Lick absorption line indices, reproducing well the observed galaxy colours. Even in dynamical models with dark matter halos the amount of mass that follows the light increases more rapidly with galaxy velocity dispersion than expected for a constant stellar initial mass function (IMF). While galaxies around sigma ~ 200 km/s are consistent with a Kroupa IMF, the same IMF underpredicts luminous dynamical masses of galaxies with sigma ~ 300 km/s by a factor of two and more. A systematic variation of the stellar IMF with galaxy velocity dispersion could explain this trend with a Salpeter IMF for the...

  3. Do manatees talk during sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Gilbertson, Tamra; Evans, William E.

    2002-05-01

    On January 13, 1999, manatee vocalizations were recorded during a mating herd event in the Orange River, Florida. Although copulation could not be observed, multiple males were observed with exposed penises. During one 25 min sample (1300-1325 h), over 400 manatee signals were recorded. In March 2000, each signal was captured and digitized from the analog tape using a Marantz PMD 501, Ashly equalizer (gain=0, filter=0), MAC 8100, and Canary 1.2.1. In general, signals were 100-200 ms in length, highly harmonic (up to 8 harmonics ranging from 1 to 16 kHz), with little or no frequency modulation. Intervals between signals ranged from less than 1 s to 14 s (mean = 3 s), indicating that manatees do indeed talk (a lot) during sex. Noise from two passing boats was also recorded during the sample period. One abnormally low-frequency signal (0.4 kHz) was recorded during one boat pass. This apparent manatee vocalization could be seen and heard below the boat noise frequency band.

  4. Isospin breaking from diquark clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, W. R.; Dedonder, Jean-Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Background: Although SU(2) isospin symmetry is generally assumed in the basic theory of the strong interaction, a number of significant violations have been observed in scattering and bound states of nucleons. Many of these violations can be attributed to the electromagnetic interaction but the question of how much of the violation is due to it remains open. Purpose: To establish the connection between diquark clustering in the two-nucleon system and isospin breaking from the Coulomb interaction between the members of diquark pairs. Method: A schematic model based on clustering of quarks in the interior of the confinement region of the two-nucleon system is introduced and evaluated. In this model the Coulomb interaction is the source of all isospin breaking. It draws on a picture of the quark density based on the diquark-quark model of hadron structure which has been investigated by a number of groups. Results: The model produces three isospin breaking potentials connecting the unbroken value of the low-energy scattering amplitude to those of the p p , n n , and n p singlet channels. A simple test of the potentials in the three-nucleon energy difference problem yields results in agreement with the known binding energy difference. Conclusion: The illustrative model suggests that the breaking seen in the low-energy nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction may be understood in terms of the Coulomb force between members of diquark clusters. It allows the prediction of the charge symmetry breaking interaction and the n n scattering length from the well measured n p singlet scattering length. Values of the n n scattering length around -18 fm are favored. Since the model is based on the quark picture, it can be easily extended, in the SU(3) limit, to calculate isospin breaking in the strange sector in the corresponding channels. A natural consequence of isospin breaking from diquark clustering is that the breaking in the strange sector, as measured by the separation energy

  5. Talk and task mastery: the importance of socially shared talk during computer-based problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Fran; White, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine more closely the ways that children use socially constructed dialogue to mediate task mastery a hierarchical set of computer tasks were presented in an animated game format (ToonTalk) to three adult/child (US Kindergarten) dyads over five sessions. Transcriptions of the adult-child talk were used to determine (1) the types of discourses utilized by the children (i.e., procedural, conversation, narrative) during problem solving and (2) the relationship of this talk to task mastery. It was found that (1) shared talk was associated with more successful problem solving; (2) socially shared talk did not have to be on task to be beneficial; and (3) procedural discourse was more successfully and frequently used for independent problem solving if first requested by the child. These results highlight the importance of socially shared talk in the development of problem solving strategies even when using computer technology.

  6. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Dwarfs - Clouds and Chemistry at the Bottom of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars show evidence of complicated atmospheres, including a variety of molecular species and clouds. Infrared observations are one of the best probes of the physics of these objects, but up until recently these observations have been limited in studies from ground-based telescopes by atmospheric absorption and insufficient sensitivity. With the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope with its Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument we now have the capability to undertake a systematic study of the atmospheric structure and chemistry in these cool objects. The IRS Dim Suns team has compiled spectra from objects ranging from M1 dwarfs with effective temperatures 3,800K of down to T8 dwarfs with effective temperatures of 700. This talk will present these results and discuss their implications for our understanding of cool dwarf atmospheric physics and structure.

  7. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Dwarfs - Clouds and Chemistry at the Bottom of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars show evidence of complicated atmospheres, including a variety of molecular species and clouds. Infrared observations are one of the best probes of the physics of these objects, but up until recently these observations have been limited in studies from ground-based telescopes by atmospheric absorption and insufficient sensitivity. With the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope with its Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument we now have the capability to undertake a systematic study of the atmospheric structure and chemistry in these cool objects. The IRS Dim Suns team has compiled spectra from objects ranging from M1 dwarfs with effective temperatures 3,800K of down to T8 dwarfs with effective temperatures of 700. This talk will present these results and discuss their implications for our understanding of cool dwarf atmospheric physics and structure.

  8. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  9. Talking to someone with hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000361.htm Talking to someone with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... It may be hard for a person with hearing loss to understand a conversation with another person. Being ...

  10. Talking to your parents about emotional problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think you definitely can't talk to your parents or guardians, reach out to another trusted adult. This might be a school counselor, teacher, religious leader, school nurse, or doctor. Definitely don't ...

  11. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Shyness My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  12. Mealtime Talk that Supports Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Beals, Diane E.

    2006-01-01

    Participation in dinner table conversations offers children opportunities to acquire vocabulary, practice producing and understanding stories and explanations, acquire general knowledge, and learn how to talk in culturally appropriate ways. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin talking with your teen about drugs and alcohol is now. Children as young as 9 years old may become curious about drinking and they may try alcohol. By Saying Nothing, you are Saying Something Saying ...

  14. An Analysis of Break,Break,Break Based on the Stylistic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2014-01-01

    Break,Break,Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet’s grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hal am. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the phonological level and the grammatical level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  15. Talk talk talk …’ Virginia Woolf, Ireland and Maria Edgeworth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. H. Davis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Woolf’s only visit to Ireland and her attitude to the country as revealed in her diary and in a review of a book about Maria Edgeworth. She considered the fault of the Irish to be their loquaciousness. Her diary reveals her belief that Irish literature had declined since Dean Swift. Woolf, both in her twenties and when she visited Ireland in 1934, revealed a certain antipathy to the country. She asserted, for example, that the Irish propensity to talk had prevented the production of literature of any quality after the eighteenth century. In the 1909 review, Woolf, while criticising the author of a book about Maria Edgeworth, attacks Edgeworth herself. But her words imply that she had not read Maria’s Irish novels. Bloomsbury’s ‘snobbery’ and Woolf’s Feminism throughout the essay are evident in her implicit criticism of the way that Edgeworth sacrificed love for duty. In dismissing Edgeworth’s achievement, Woolf betrays a degree of ignorance that is worth considering.

  16. The Dynamics of Classroom Small Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jasmine

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates how classroom small talk between a teacher and students constitutes a distinct interaction pattern which varies significantly from pedagogical discourse of an institutional nature such as the initiation/response/feedback (IRF) pattern described in previous literature (Mehan, 1979; Sinclair & Coulthard, 1975). By presenting a piece of extended small talk in an ESL secondary classroom in Hong Kong and contrasting it with a piece of typical teacher-orchestrated institution...

  17. Dynamical effects and IMF production in peripheral and semi-central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Plagnol, E.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Lecolley, J.F.; Metivier, V.; Tamain, B.; Bougault, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Charvet, J.L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee] [and others; INDRA Collaboration

    1996-03-01

    Experimental data obtained with the 4{pi} multidetector system INDRA were used to study the intermediate mass fragment (IMF, Z{>=}3) production in peripheral and semi-central collisions of Xe and Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. It is found that a large fraction of the IMF`s detected originates from the midrapidity region. They are supposed to result either from a fast sequential decay or from a neck emission. The size of this effect as well as the competition between the projectile evaporation and `midrapidity` emission are presented as a function of the transverse energy of Z=1 and Z=2 particles. This observable was used as an impact parameter selector. (author). 17 refs.

  18. A C$^{18}$O study of the origin of the power-law nature in the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Norio

    2009-01-01

    We have performed C$^{18}$O ($J$=1--0) mapping observations of a $20'\\times20'$ area of the OMC-1 region in the Orion A cloud. We identified 65 C$^{18}$O cores, which have mean radius, velocity width in FWHM, and LTE mass of 0.18$\\pm$0.03 pc, 0.40$\\pm$0.15 km s$^{-1}$, and 7.2$\\pm$4.5 $M_\\odot$, respectively. All the cores are most likely to be gravitationally bound by considering the uncertainty in the C$^{18}$O abundance. We derived a C$^{18}$O core mass function, which shows a power-law-like behavior above 5 $M_\\odot$. The best-fit power-law index of $-2.3\\pm0.3$ is consistent with those of the dense core mass functions and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) previously derived in the OMC-1 region. This agreement strongly suggests that the power-law form of the IMF has been already determined at the density of $\\sim10^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$, traced by the C$^{18}$O ($J$=1--0) line.

  19. Observations at Low Latitudes of Magnetic Merging Signatures Within a Flux Transfer Event During a Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Flux transfer events (FTE) have been postulated to result from transient magnetic merging. If so, the ion distributions within an event should exhibit features known to result from merging. Observations of a FTE by instruments on the Polar spacecraft revealed classical merging signatures that included: 1) D-shaped, accelerated, magnetosheath ion distributions, 2) a well defined de Hoffman-Teller frame, 3) local stress balance, and 4) a P-N magnetic field signature. This FTE was observed near the magnetic equator at approx. 13 MLT under conditions of a moderately northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) (clock angle of less than 10 deg). The nature of the ion distributions and the consistency of the measured cutoff speed with that calculated from the measured local magnetic field and the derived de Hoffman-Teller speed show the ion injection to be local. Coupled with the northward IMF these results lead to the conclusion that component merging in the low latitude region was responsible for the FTE.

  20. The impact of magnetic fields on the IMF in star-forming clouds near a supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S; Spaans, M; Cazaux, S

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in the centers of galaxies is thought to yield massive stars with a possibly top-heavy stellar mass distribution. It is likely that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the distribution of stellar masses inside star-forming molecular clouds. In this context, we explore the effects of magnetic fields, with a typical field strength of 38 {\\mu}G, such as in RCW 38, and a field strength of 135 {\\mu}G, similar to NGC 2024 and the infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06, on the initial mass function (IMF) near (\\leq 10 pc) a 10^7 solar mass black hole. Using these conditions, we perform a series of numerical simulations with the hydrodynamical code FLASH to elucidate the impact of magnetic fields on the IMF and the star-formation efficiency (SFE) emerging from an 800 solar mass cloud. We find that the collapse of a gravitationally unstable molecular cloud is slowed down with increasing magnetic field strength and that stars form along the field lines. The total number of stars formed during the simulations...

  1. The Low-Mass Stellar IMF at High Redshift Faint Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, R F G; Feltzing, S; Houdashelt, M L; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.; Gilmore, Gerard; Feltzing, Sofia; Houdashelt, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Low-mass stars, those with main-sequence lifetimes that are of order the age of the Universe, provide unique constraints on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) when they formed. Star counts in systems with simple star-formation histories are particularly straightforward to interpret, and those in old systems allow one to determine the low-mass stellar IMF at large look-back times and thus at high redshift. We present the faint stellar luminosity function (based on optical HST data) in an external galaxy, the Ursa Minor dwarf Spheroidal (dSph). This relatively-nearby (distance 70kpc) companion galaxy to the Milky Way has a stellar population with narrow distributions of age and of metallicity, remarkably similar to that of a classical halo globular cluster such as M92 or M15, i.e. old and metal-poor. Contrasting with globular clusters, the internal velocity dispersion of the Ursa Minor dSph indicates the presence of significant amounts of dark matter. We find that the main sequence stellar luminosity function of t...

  2. The Bretton Woods Institutions and the Environment: Organizational Learning within the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lindenthal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to a growing public awareness, in the last 40 years environmental impacts of development projects financed and supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF have come into view. Since then, the member states have pressured both organizations to implement environmental concerns. We analyze the reactions of the World Bank and the IMF’s bureaucracies towards their principals’ demands. To reveal if, and to what extent, the observed reactions of both bureaucracies towards environmental integration can be assessed as organizational learning, we develop in a first step a heuristic model that allows for a distinction between different levels of learning (compliant and non-compliant, single-loop and double-loop. In a second step we describe the efforts of the bureaucracies of the World Bank (from the 1970s until today and the IMF (from the 1990s until today to integrate environmental protection into their activities. Due to our interest in the quality of the organizational changes, we finally analyze if and to what extent the bureaucracies’ reactions to the new external demand qualify as organizational learning. Furthermore, we discuss which factors helped or hindered organizational learning.

  3. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  4. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  5. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  6. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  7. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  8. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  9. Hole localization and symmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of some theoretical work on the symmetry breaking of electronic wavefunctions that followed the early work on Bagus and Schaefer who observed that a considerable lower SCF energy could be obtained for an ionized state of the O2 molecule with a 1s hole if the symmetry re

  10. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet

  11. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  12. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  13. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent chi......Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre......-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. Methods: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...

  14. Asymmetric structures of field-aligned currents and convection of ionospheric plasma controlled by the IMF azimuthal component and season of year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukianova, R. Yu.; Kozlovsky, A.; Christiansen, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of using the statistical model of field-aligned currents (FACs) based on satellite data and the numerical model of the electric potential distribution in order to detect the asymmetric part in FAC structures and ionospheric plasma convection controlled by the IMF azimuthal (B...... y ) component at different seasons of the year. These structures can be identified by plotting diagrams, which represent differences in corresponding maps for opposite signs of IMF B y . Circular near-pole current symmetric about the noon meridian and corresponding convection vortices around...

  15. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  16. Breaking Wave Characteristics and Breaking Wave Forces on Slender Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Chella, Mayilvahanan Alagan

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind farms have become an increasingly important source of clean and renewable energy. Most recent offshore wind farms are deployed close to the coast in shallow waters. One of the major factors influencing the initial investment of this technology is the design of the substructure and foundation. The physical processes associated with the non-linear shallow water hydrodynamics are rather complex since the wave motion is strongly influenced by the seabed. Breaking wave...

  17. Staying on the Same Wavelength: Talking about Talking in Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrills, Dariel

    2009-01-01

    Participants in speech and language therapy sessions engage in talk about talking to accomplish different social actions: identifying and explaining linguistic concepts; correcting language use; and repairing misunderstanding. Different traditions in interaction research have examined the practices of topic management, correction, and repair in…

  18. Get Them Talking! Using Student-Led Book Talks in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip details one teacher's implementation of student-led book talks in her primary-grade classroom. The author describes a simple gradual-release method that she has successfully used with her students in order to get them talking about the books that they are reading independently. She found that when used in the readers' workshop…

  19. Staying on the Same Wavelength: Talking about Talking in Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrills, Dariel

    2009-01-01

    Participants in speech and language therapy sessions engage in talk about talking to accomplish different social actions: identifying and explaining linguistic concepts; correcting language use; and repairing misunderstanding. Different traditions in interaction research have examined the practices of topic management, correction, and repair in…

  20. Breaking GSM with rainbow Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998 the GSM security has been academically broken but no real attack has ever been done until in 2008 when two engineers of Pico Computing (FPGA manufacture) revealed that they could break the GSM encryption in 30 seconds with 200'000$ hardware and precomputed rainbow tables. Since then the hardware was either available for rich people only or was confiscated by government agencies. So Chris Paget and Karsten Nohl decided to react and do the same thing but in a distributed open source form (on torrent). This way everybody could "enjoy" breaking GSM security and operators will be forced to upgrade the GSM protocol that is being used by more than 4 billion users and that is more than 20 years old.

  1. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  2. On Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S P

    2008-01-01

    A discrepancy between the Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is non-zero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated SUSY breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

  3. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  4. Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2001-01-01

    In his article, "Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls," W. Ray Crozier argues that biographical evidence points to considerable individual variation in writers' output over the life span even when allowance is made for longevity and length of writing career. This issue has been neglected by psychological accounts of creativity. Crozier outlines a theoretical framework for understanding variation in terms of an "artistic career." This is conceptualised as a sequence of projects, the success of ...

  5. Explaining quantum spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Emch, Gérard G.

    Two accounts of quantum symmetry breaking (SSB) in the algebraic approach are compared: the representational and the decompositional account. The latter account is argued to be superior for understanding quantum SSB. Two exactly solvable models are given as applications of our account: the Weiss-Heisenberg model for ferromagnetism and the BCS model for superconductivity. Finally, the decompositional account is shown to be more conducive to the causal explanation of quantum SSB.

  6. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  7. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  8. Fision: Nucleon pair breaking before scission

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Modesto

    1984-01-01

    In order to explain the odd-even effect observed in low energy fission fragment distributions it has been recently required a double mechanism of nucleon pair breaking: before scission (early pair breaking) and at scission (late pair breaking), respectively. In the present work we show that, using the same formulae but considering only the early pair breaking mechanism, one can reproduce fairly well all the available experimental data on the odd-even effects.

  9. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    . Conversely, if the force is loaded rapidly it is more likely that the maximum breaking force is measured. Paradoxically, no clear differences in breaking force were observed in experiments on gold nanowires, despite being conducted under very different conditions. Here we explore the breaking behaviour...

  10. The SL2S Galaxy-scale Lens Sample. V. Dark Matter Halos and Stellar IMF of Massive ETGs out to Redshift 0.8

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Marshall, Philip J; Suyu, Sherry H; Gavazzi, Raphael; Auger, Matthew; Nipoti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the Universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the SL2S and SLACS surveys and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar IMF across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of an NFW profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at $\\log{M_*} = 11.5$ and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. Th...

  11. Detecting the Gender Dimension of the Choice of the Teaching Profession Prior to the Economic Crisis and IMF (International Monetary Fund) Memorandum in Greece--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, Anna; Vergidis, Dimitris K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is the investigation of, and the sociological approach to, and interpretation of the attitudes of male and female students in the University Department of Primary Education (U.D.P.E.) at the University of Patras in Greece, before the enforcement of the IMF Memorandum, concerning the choice of the teaching…

  12. Distant Tail Plasma Jetting and B(sub z) Properties at Slow-Mode Shocks: A Model of Reconnection During Northward IMFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    66 slow-mode shock events in the distant geotail were used to study the earthward and tailward flow properties of the x-type neural line. A large number of events occurred during northward IMFs, and a model was developed to match them.

  13. Boosting Lyα and He II λ1640 Line Fluxes from Population III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-12-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Lyα and He ii λ1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Lyα flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Lyα flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ∼4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  14. Boosting Lya and HeII 1640A Line Fluxes from Pop III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Forero-Romero, Jaime E

    2016-01-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Lya and HeII 1640A line strengths for population III galaxies, undergoing continuous and bursts of star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous works, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Lya flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Lya flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ~4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the...

  15. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patte

  16. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. V. DARK MATTER HALOS AND STELLAR IMF OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OUT TO REDSHIFT 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Suyu, Sherry H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M {sub *} = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  17. A Possible Solution for the M/L-[Fe/H] Relation of Globular Clusters in M31: A metallicity and density dependent top-heavy IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The observed mass-to-light ($M/L$) ratios of a large sample of GCs in M31 show an inverse trend with metallicity compared to what is expected from Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models with an invariant canonical stellar IMF, in the sense that the observed $M/L$ ratios decrease with increasing metallicity. We show that incorporating the effect of dynamical evolution the SSP models with a canonical IMF can not explain the decreasing $M/L$ ratios with increasing metallicity for the M31 GCs. The recently derived top-heavy IMF as a function of metallicity and embedded cluster density is proposed to explain the lower than expected $M/L$ ratios of metal-rich GCs. We find that the SSP models with a top-heavy IMF, retaining a metallicity- and cluster mass- dependent fraction of the remnants within the clusters, and taking standard dynamical evolution into account can successfully explain the observed $M/L-[Fe/H]$ relation of M31 GCs. Thus we propose that the kinematical data of GCs can be used to constrain the top-h...

  18. Spread-F during the magnetic storm of 22 January 2004 at low latitudes: Effect of IMF-Bz in relation to local sunset time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; P Janardhan; Thai Lan Hoang; Louis Condori; T K Pant; D S V V D Prasad; B Reinisc

    2014-08-01

    The paper describes the results of spread-F at low latitude stations around the world during the magnetic storm starting at 0130 UT on 22 January 2004. The storm can be divided into two phases, first phase up to 1000 UT when interplanetary magnetic field IMF-Bz was highly fluctuating around a small positive value and the second phase after a sudden large southward turning of IMF-Bz at 1030 UT. The first phase produced strong spread-F at Jicamarca, Sao Luis, and Ascension Island and caused complete inhibition of spread-F at Thumba and Waltair in India. It generated weak spread-F at Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam and strong spread-F at Hainan and Chung Li. The strong spread-F at Hainan and Chung Li were caused by the positive IMF-Bz during the first phase of the storm and not by the negative pulse of IMF-Bz at 1000 UT.

  19. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypoethetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  20. On the Translating Styles of Two Chinese Versions in Break, Break, Break%评Break,Break,Break两种译文的翻译风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖红

    2011-01-01

    美国著名翻译家提莫志克指出,翻译就其本质而言只能是一部分翻译,忠实地再现原文所有的信息根本不可能,诗歌的准确翻译就更不容易了。对丁尼生的一首短诗的两种译文进行评析,希望通过分析能对此诗有更深刻的理解。%Tymocko, famous American translator, points out that translation is actually only the translation of part of the language because it is impossible to reproduce all the messages. It is even more difiqeuh to translate a poem. For profound understanding, this paper contrasts two Chinese versions of Break, Break, Break, a short poem of Tennyson.

  1. Statistical investigation of IMF Bz effects on energetic (0.1- to 16-keV) magnetospheric O+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1995-12-01

    More than 2 years of magnetospheric O+ data from the Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft are compared, in a statistical manner, with concurrent data on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the solar wind plasma in an attempt to clarify the geophysical responses to varying solar wind inputs, in particular to variations in the GSM Bz component of the IMF. It is found that the energy density of 0.1- to 16-keV O+ ions in the plasma sheet, inside of 23RE, is well correlated with the average solar wind energy flux during the preceding few hours, whether that flux is measured by its electromagnetic (Poynting) component P or by its far greater kinetic component K. Although P and K are well correlated with each other, the correlation of the O+ energy density is slightly better with K than with P during times of positive Bz, while the opposite holds for negative Bz. In either case the O+ energy density is more nearly proportional to K, and, given a typical value of K, there is at most a marginal (less than a factor of 2) increase in this density associated with a negative Bz. Except for this latter effect, which can perhaps be taken as evidence that a change in polarity of Bz from positive to negative may induce ``unloading'' of internal tail energy, there is no evidence in these O+ data, including data from the inner magnetosphere (L<10), that a negative, or southward, Bz is inherently favorable to the transfer of solar wind power across the magnetopause. These findings, together with the results of correlating the hourly AE index with P and K, suggest that the strong dependence of the AE on the Bz polarity is substantially exaggerated by the lack of AE magnetometers above 71° magnetic latitude.

  2. A Vortical Dawn Flank Boundary Layer for Near-Radial IMF: Wind Observations on 24 October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Gratton, F. T.; Gnavi, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2014-01-01

    We present an example of a boundary layer tailward of the dawn terminator which is entirely populated by rolled-up flow vortices. Observations were made by Wind on 24 October 2001 as the spacecraft moved across the region at the X plane approximately equal to -13 Earth radii. Interplanetary conditions were steady with a near-radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Approximately 15 vortices were observed over the 1.5 hours duration of Wind's crossing, each lasting approximately 5 min. The rolling up is inferred from the presence of a hot tenuous plasma being accelerated to speeds higher than in the adjoining magnetosheath, a circumstance which has been shown to be a reliable signature of this in single-spacecraft observations. A blob of cold dense plasma was entrained in each vortex, at whose leading edge abrupt polarity changes of field and velocity components at current sheets were regularly observed. In the frame of the average boundary layer velocity, the dense blobs were moving predominantly sunward and their scale size along the X plane was approximately 7.4 Earth radii. Inquiring into the generation mechanism of the vortices, we analyze the stability of the boundary layer to sheared flows using compressible magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz theory with continuous profiles for the physical quantities. We input parameters from (i) the exact theory of magnetosheath flow under aligned solar wind field and flow vectors near the terminator and (ii) the Wind data. It is shown that the configuration is indeed Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable. This is the first reported example of KH-unstable waves at the magnetopause under a radial IMF.

  3. Different responses of northern and southern high latitude ionospheric convection to IMF rotations: a case study based on SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ambrosino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We use SuperDARN data to study high-latitude ionospheric convection over a three hour period (starting at 22:00 UT on 2 January 2003, during which the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF flipped between two states, one with By>>|Bz| and one with Bz>0, both with negative Bx. We find, as expected from previous works, that day side ionospheric convection is controlled by the IMF in both hemispheres. For strongly northward IMF, we observed signatures of two reverse cells, both in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, due to lobe reconnection. On one occasion, we also observed in the NH two viscous cells at the sides of the reverse cell pair. For duskward IMF, we observed in the NH a large dusk clockwise cell, accompanied by a smaller dawn cell, and the signature of a corresponding pattern in the SH. On two occasions, a three cell pattern, composed of a large clockwise cell and two viscous cells, was observed in the NH. As regards the timings of the NH and SH convection reconfigurations, we find that the convection reconfiguration from a positive Bz dominated to a positive By dominated pattern occurred almost simultaneously (i.e. within a few minutes in the two hemispheres. On the contrary, the reconfiguration from a By dominated to a northward IMF pattern started in the NH 8–13 min earlier than in the SH. We suggest that part of such a delay can be due to the following mechanism: as IMF Bx<0, the northward-tailward magnetosheath magnetic field reconnects with the magnetospheric field first tailward of the northern cusp and later on tailward of the southern cusp, due to the IMF draping around the magnetopause.

  4. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  5. The Democratic Potential of Theatre Talks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    of democratization of culture and the democracy theory by James S. Fishkin. The analysis is based on the empirical material of 31 theatre talks carried through as a part of an audience development project and is focused on four different aspects of the democratic potential of theatre: First, how the theatre talks...... approach to a target-oriented approach to audience development in which the content of the performance should be matched with certain audience segments. And fourth, the article points to an outcome of the experience related to the challenging of one own view point and thus expanding ones horizon....

  6. "What we talk about when we talk about impact" - ChALS 2015 presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Konkiel, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    This talk was presented in Gothenburg, Sweden on 23 September 2015, as part of the annual ChALS conference. The theme of ChALS 2015 was "Make your mark". A recording of the talk was also made, and a link will be posted here when it is available.   Abstract: Can metrics ever demonstrate research “impact” as it’s traditionally understood or are we just kidding ourselves? This talk will tease out what exactly we mean when we say “impact” and how academia’s inclination to quantify it lies i...

  7. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  8. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  9. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  10. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  11. Shh! Less Talk Can Mean More Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, D. B.; Fisher, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    In a study in which two different instructor styles were identified, the Method in which the instructor talked less and related error correction to the different types of skill involved was found to be more effective. Bus driver instructors were the study's subjects. (AG)

  12. Let's Talk about Emotional Changes After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Let's Talk About Emotional Changes After Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 Right after a stroke, a survivor may respond one way, yet weeks ... because of biological or psychological causes due to stroke. These changes may vary with time and can ...

  13. Everyday Political Talk and Political Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Scott; Graham, Todd; Jackson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Taking forward a new agenda of online political deliberation – where the focus is on non-political online “third spaces”, and recognising pluralistic notions of the ‘political’ (Author A, 2008; Author C, 2012a) – this study examined the dynamics of political talk across three general interest UK-bas

  14. Astro Talk in Social Media - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.

    2015-03-01

    Social media is a new trend in communicating and connecting to people. It is also a good choice to build awareness of astronomy as issues spread easily and quickly, creating hot topics. This paper will analyze the trend of astro talk in Indonesia and hope to inspire astronomers to use social media in raising awareness.

  15. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  16. Get the Facts, Talk about HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, urges members of the black community to talk about HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  17. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  18. Power Talk in DC Micro Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Power talk is a novel concept for communication among units in a Micro Grid (MG), where information is sent by using power electronics as modems and the common bus of the MG as a communication medium. The technique is implemented by modifying the droop control parameters from the primary control...

  19. Girl talk as a transformative treshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    for the girl talk is centred on catastrophes or Nakbas, as they are referred to in Arabic. Not only al-Nakba of 1948 when the Palestinians were displaced from their homeland, but also the many recurring wars and the individual catastrophes that involve dead family members, rapes, loss of children and abusive...

  20. Talking with Children about Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Rita, and other natural disasters will be felt by young children in the affected areas for a long time to come. This article offers tips on how to talk with children about natural disasters in order to clear up any confusion they might have, how to answer their questions with sensitivity, and how to…