WorldWideScience

Sample records for imaging-surface sensor array

  1. Visible Genotype Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Imai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A visible sensor array system for simultaneous multiple SNP genotyping has been developed using a new plastic base with specific surface chemistry. Discrimination of SNP alleles is carried out by an allele-specific extension reaction using immobilized oligonucleotide primers. The 3’-ends of oligonucleotide primers are modified with a locked nucleic acid to enhance their efficiency in allelic discrimination. Biotin-dUTPs included in the reaction mixture are selectively incorporated into extending primer sequences and are utilized as tags for alkaline phosphatase-mediated precipitation of colored chemical substrates onto the surface of the plastic base. The visible precipitates allow immediate inspection of typing results by the naked eye and easy recording by a digital camera equipped on a commercial mobile phone. Up to four individuals can be analyzed on a single sensor array and multiple sensor arrays can be handled in a single operation. All of the reactions can be performed within one hour using conventional laboratory instruments. This visible genotype sensor array is suitable for “focused genomics” that follows “comprehensive genomics”.

  2. Fiber Optic Geophysics Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Lucjan

    1989-01-01

    The distributed optical sensor arrays are analysed in view of specific needs of 3-D seismic explorations methods. There are compared advantages and disadventages of arrays supported by the sensors which are modulated in intensity and phase. In these systems all-fiber optic structures and their compabilities with digital geophysic formats are discussed. It was shown that the arrays based on TDM systems with the intensity modulated sensors are economically and technically the best matched for geophysic systems supported by a large number of the sensors.

  3. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R.; Shaw, Michael J.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  4. A Vacuum Microelectronic Pressure Sensor Array Integrated with Temperature Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jie; XIA Shanhong; CHEN Shaofeng

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a microsystemthat integrates a Vacuum Microelectronic pressuresensor array with a temperature sensor. The Vac-uum Microelectronic pressure sensor array consists of4 × 4 sensing elements. The temperature sensor is aPt-thin-film resistor. Computer aided design is usedto optimize the structure.

  5. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight Load Test...

  6. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  7. Piezoresistive Foam Sensor Arrays for Marine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dusek, Jeff E; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-dense pressure measurements are needed on curved surfaces in marine environments to provide marine vehicles with the detailed, real-time measurements of the near-field flow necessary to improve performance through flow control. To address this challenge, a waterproof and conformal pressure sensor array comprising carbon black-doped-silicone closed-cell foam (CBPDMS foam) was developed for use in marine applications. The response of the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays was characterized using periodic hydrodynamic pressure stimuli from vertical plunging, from which a piecewise polynomial calibration was developed to describe the sensor response. Inspired by the distributed pressure and velocity sensing capabilities of the fish lateral line, the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays have significant advantages over existing commercial sensors for distributed flow reconstruction and control. Experimental results have shown the sensor arrays to have sensitivity on the order of 5 Pascal, dynamic range of 50-500 Pascal; are...

  8. A Large Scale Virtual Gas Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Fernández-Diaz, Eduard; Chaudry, A.; Marco, Santiago; Persaud, Krishna; Perera, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    This paper depicts a virtual sensor array that allows the user to generate gas sensor synthetic data while controlling a wide variety of the characteristics of the sensor array response: arbitrary number of sensors, support for multi-component gas mixtures and full control of the noise in the system such as sensor drift or sensor aging. The artificial sensor array response is inspired on the response of 17 polymeric sensors for three analytes during 7 month. The main trends in the synthetic gas sensor array, such as sensitivity, diversity, drift and sensor noise, are user controlled. Sensor sensitivity is modeled by an optionally linear or nonlinear method (spline based). The toolbox on data generation is implemented in open source R language for statistical computing and can be freely accessed as an educational resource or benchmarking reference. The software package permits the design of scenarios with a very large number of sensors (over 10000 sensels), which are employed in the test and benchmarking of neuromorphic models in the Bio-ICT European project NEUROCHEM.

  9. Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. b.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (approximately 75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heat sinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  10. Cell Proliferation Tracking Using Graphene Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Daly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel label-free graphene sensor array is presented. Detection is based on modification of graphene FET devices and specifically monitoring the change in composition of the nutritive components in culturing medium. Micro-dispensing of Escherichia coli in medium shows feasibility of accurate positioning over each sensor while still allowing cell proliferation. Graphene FET device fabrication, sample dosing, and initial electrical characterisation have been completed and show a promising approach to reducing the sample size and lead time for diagnostic and drug development protocols through a label-free and reusable sensor array fabricated with standard and scalable microfabrication technologies.

  11. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  12. A SQUID series array dc current sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J; Drung, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.de, E-mail: dietmar.drung@ptb.de

    2008-09-15

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors are used to sense changes in various physical quantities, which can be transformed into changes in the magnetic flux threading the SQUID loop. We have developed a novel SQUID array dc current sensor. The device is based on a series array of identical dc SQUIDs. An input signal current to be measured is coupled tightly but non-uniformly to the SQUID array elements. The input signal coupling to the individual array elements is chosen such that a single-valued, non-periodic overall voltage response is obtained. Flux offsets in the individual SQUIDs which would compromise the sensor voltage response are avoided or can be compensated. We present simulations and experimental results on the SQUID Array for Dc (SQUAD) current sensor current sensor performance. A dc current resolution of <1 nA in a measurement bandwidth of 0-25 Hz is achieved for an input inductance of L{sub In}<3 nH.

  13. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  14. Development of flexible array tactile sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of an array tactile sensor for use in robotic grippers based on a flexible piezoresistive material. We start by comparing different cell structures in terms of output characteristics and we construct an array of cells in a row and columns layout. A real...... time data acquisition system scans all the cells and converts electrical resistance to tactile pressure maps. We validate that this information can be used to improve grasping and perform object recognition. Key words: piezoresistivity, tactile, sensor, pressure, robotics...

  15. Recognizing frequency characteristics of gas sensor array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel method based on independent component analyzing (ICA) in frequency domain to distinguish the frequency characteristics of multi-sensor system is presented. The conditions of this type of ICA are considered and each step of resolving the problem is discussed. For a two gas sensor array, the frequency characteristics including amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency are recognized by this method, and cross-sensitivity between them is also eliminated. From the principle of similarity, the recognition m...

  16. A Prototype Tactile Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    Active Touch Sensing. Technical Report, MIT Artificial Inteligence Laboratory, 1981. (9] Larcombe, M. Carbon Fibre Tactile Sensors. Technical Report...thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1981. [13] Purbrick, John A. A Force Transducer Employing Conductive Silicone Rubber. Technical Report, MIT Artificial

  17. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕤; 罗震; 单平; 步贤政; 袁书现; 敖三三

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot welding.The sensors array has three forms,i.e.,linear magnetic sensors array,annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array.An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigenvalues.The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal.After the eigenvalues are extracted,they are used to build a relationship with ...

  18. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  19. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  20. Time/Wavelength Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing Sensor Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel time/wavelength-multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor array is presented. This type of sensor array has the advantages of more points for multi-point measurement, simple structure and low cost.

  1. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  2. Integrated chemiresistor array for small sensor platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUGHES,ROBERT C.; CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; WESSENDORF,KURT O.; SAVIGNON,DANIEL J.; HIETALA,SUSAN LESLIE; PATEL,SANJAY V.

    2000-04-13

    Chemiresistors are fabricated from materials that change their electrical resistance when exposed to certain chemical species. Composites of soluble polymers with metallic particles have shown remarkable sensitivity to many volatile organic chemicals, depending on the ability of the analyte molecules to swell the polymer matrix. These sensors can be made extremely small (< 100 square microns), operate at ambient temperatures, and require almost no power to read-out. However, the chemiresistor itself is only a part of a more complex sensor system that delivers chemical information to a user who can act on the information. The authors present the design, fabrication and performance of a chemiresistor array chip with four different chemiresistor materials, heaters and a temperature sensor. They also show the design and fabrication of an integrated chemiresistor array, where the electronics to read-out the chemiresistors is on the same chip with the electrodes for the chemiresistors. The circuit was designed to perform several functions to make the sensor data more useful. This low-power, integrated chemiresistor array is small enough to be deployed on a Sandia-developed microrobot platform.

  3. Miniature Sensor Node with Conformal Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. De Raedt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and fabrication of a fully integrated antenna beam steering concept for wireless sensor nodes. The conformal array circumcises four cube faces with a silicon core mounted on each face. Every silicon core represents a 2 by 1 antenna array with an antenna element consisting of a dipole antenna, a balun, and a distributed MEMS phase shifter. All these components are based on a single wafer process and designed to work at 17.2 GHz. Simulations of the entire system and first results of individual devices are reported.

  4. Recognizing frequency characteristics of gas sensor array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel method based on independent component analyzing (ICA) in frequency domain to distinguish the frequency characteristics of multi-sensor system is presented. The conditions of this type of ICA are considered and each step of resolving the problem is discussed. For a two gas sensor array, the frequency characteristics including amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency are recognized by this method, and cross-sensitivity between them is also eliminated. From the principle of similarity, the recognition mean square error is no more than 0.085.

  5. Development of a Tactile Sensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    . The paper describes the related research work we have developed for sensor design, exploration and control for a robot gripping system, in order to analyze normal forces applied on the tactile pixels for gripping force control and generate tactile images for gripping positioning and object recognition....... Section 1 gives an introduction of principles and technologies in tactile sensing for robot grippers. Section 2 presents the sensor cell (taxel) and array design and characterization. Section 3 introduces object recognition and shape analysis ideas showing a few preliminary examples, where geometrical...

  6. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  7. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  8. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information of the...... of the displacement. Systems for probing lateral displacements and in-plane vibrations (1-D and 2-D) are displayed, as will systems for probing angular velocity and torsional vibrations of rotating objects....

  9. Chemical Sensors Based on Piezoresistive Cantilever Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓梅; 张大成; 王丛舜; 杜先锋; 王小宝; 阮勇

    2003-01-01

    U-shaped and rectangle piezoresistive cantilever arrays have been designed with the analysing results of stress,noise and sensitivity of the cantilevers. Based on silicon micromachining technology, the piezoresistive cantilevers were fabricated by using polysilicon as the piezoresistive materials. With the measurement results of noise and sensitivity, the Hooge factor is calculated to be 3 × 10-3, the gauge factor is 27, and the minimum detectable deflection of piezoresistive cantilevers are calculated to be 1.0nm for rectangle cantilever and 0.5 nm for the Ushaped cantilever at a 6 V bias voltage and a 1000 Hz measurement bandwidth. Using polymer-coated cantilevers as individual sensors, their responses to water vapour and ammonia were tested by measuring their output voltage signals. The measured results show that the sensor sensitivity to ammonia can reach a few ppm and the sensor responses are quick.

  10. Array of Biomimetic Hair Sensor Dedicated for Flow Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    Flow sensor arrays can be used to extract features from flow fields rather than averaging or providing local measurements provided the sensors in the array structure can be interrogated individually. This paper addresses the latest developments in fabrication and array interfacing of biomimetic

  11. Gold nanodisk array surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated for sensing applications over the last decade. The resonance wavelengths of the nanostructures are usually measured in the transmission or reflection spectrum for chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, I introduce a nanoscale gap mediated surface plasmon resonance nanodisk array for displacement sensing and a super-period gold nanodisk grating enabled surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor. The super-period gold nanodisk grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  13. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  14. Advanced flow noise reducing acoustic sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kevin; Drzymkowski, Mark; Cleckler, Jay

    2009-05-01

    SARA, Inc. has developed microphone arrays that are as effective at reducing flow noise as foam windscreens and sufficiently rugged for tough battlefield environments. These flow noise reducing (FNR) sensors have a metal body and are flat and conformally mounted so they can be attached to the roofs of land vehicles and are resistant to scrapes from branches. Flow noise at low Mach numbers is created by turbulent eddies moving with the fluid flow and inducing pressure variations on microphones. Our FNR sensors average the pressure over the diameter (~20 cm) of their apertures, reducing the noise created by all but the very largest eddies. This is in contrast to the acoustic wave which has negligible variation over the aperture at the frequencies of interest (f less or equal than 400 Hz). We have also post-processed the signals to further reduce the flow noise. Two microphones separated along the flow direction exhibit highly correlated noise. The time shift of the correlation corresponds to the time for the eddies in the flow to travel between the microphones. We have created linear microphone arrays parallel to the flow and have reduced flow noise as much as 10 to 15 dB by subtracting time-shifted signals.

  15. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-nan; Hou, Chang-jun; Huo, Dan-qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-bao; Lei, Jin-can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  16. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  17. Solvatochromic sensor array for the identification of common organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jacqueline M; Zhang, Qifan; LaGasse, Maria K; Zhang, Yinan; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-04-21

    A cross-reactive colorimetric sensor array composed of solvatochromic dyes in semi-liquid matrices was used to successfully discriminate among eleven common solvents. The multidimensional array response is attributed to both chemical (i.e., analyte-dye interactions) and physical (i.e., spot blooming and refractive index alteration) changes in the sensor spot.

  18. Broadband Field Directionally Mapping using Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays David Smith Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Box 90291 Durham, NC 27708 phone: (919) 660...splines) EM algorithm. Both algorithms were run using a simulated 30 element acoustic vector sensor array with 900 snapshots. Attention has also

  19. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; LUO Zhen; SHAN Ping; BU Xianzheng; YUAN Shuxian; AO Sansan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot weld-ing. The sensors array has three forms, i.e., linear magnetic sensors array, annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array. An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigen-values. The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal. After the eigen-values are extracted, they are used to build a relationship with the nugget information. The result shows that when the distance between the core of the array and the pole is 60 mm, the arrays work best. In this case, when the eigenvalues' range of the linear array is 0.006 5-0.015 1, the quality of the spots is eligible. To the annular and cross array, when the ranges are 0.082 9—0.131 6 and 0.085 1—0.098 2 respectively, the nugget quality is eligible.

  20. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials.

  1. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  2. Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. B.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Arrays are characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Designs include kilo pixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (-75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  3. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  4. An ultrasonic array sensor for spacecraft leak direction finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen D; Roberts, Ron; Chimenti, D E; Song, Jun Ho

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an ultrasonic array sensor useable for locating air leaks in manned spacecraft and have found that this sensor locates leaks in a 1-m(2) plate to within 2 cm. The sensor consists of a 63-element multiplexed array plus a reference element, all constructed from a single PZT disc and a printed circuit board. Cross-correlations of signals from the array elements with signals from the single reference element provide a measurement of the leak noise passing through the spacecraft skin under the array. A spatial Fourier transform reveals the dominant direction of propagation. Triangulation from multiple sensor locations can be used to find the source of the leak.

  5. Harsh Environment Gas Sensor Array for Venus Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and the Ohio State University propose to develop a harsh environment tolerant gas sensor array for atmospheric analysis in future Venus missions....

  6. Harsh Environment Gas Sensor Array for Venus Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and the Ohio State University propose to develop a harsh environment tolerant gas sensor array for atmospheric analysis in future Venus missions....

  7. Semiconductor Nanomembrane based Flight Sensors and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Phase I program would develop and demonstrate semiconductor nanomembrane (NM) based flight sensors and arrays on flexible substrates, using SOI (Silicon on...

  8. Multipath Array Processing for Co-Prime and Under-Sampled Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    freedom than physical sensors present in the array. However, the cost of the achievable degrees of freedom is a loss of approximately half of the array...of degrees of freedom of the array. A co-prime frequency comb is a novel active sonar waveform that achieves range-Doppler performance similar...localization with moving co-prime arrays,” in Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, 2015. 6 2

  9. A Sensitive and Biodegradable Pressure Sensor Array for Cardiovascular Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Clementine M; Nguyen, Amanda; Lawal, Qudus Omotayo; Chortos, Alex; Rondeau-Gagné, Simon; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-11-18

    An array of highly sensitive pressure sensors entirely made of biodegradable materials is presented, designed as a single-use flexible patch for application in cardiovascular monitoring. The high sensitivity in combination with fast response time is unprecedented when compared to recent reports on biodegradable pressure sensors (sensitivity three orders of magnitude higher), as illustrated by pulse wave velocity measurements, toward hypertension detection.

  10. Vapor Phase Detection Using Chemi-Resistor Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan S. Lewis

    1999-02-17

    This paper focuses on two main areas: understanding sensor response times so as to obtain improved time response in the field when needed for vapor tracking and classification, and improved theoretical understanding of the sensor response properties that generate the pattern on the array in response to a given analyte.

  11. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  12. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  14. Wireless Sensor Array Network DoA Estimation from Compressed Array Data via Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yin, Ming; Luo, Ji-An; Wang, Yingguan; Bao, Ming; Hu, Yu-Hen; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-23

    A compressive sensing joint sparse representation direction of arrival estimation (CSJSR-DoA) approach is proposed for wireless sensor array networks (WSAN). By exploiting the joint spatial and spectral correlations of acoustic sensor array data, the CSJSR-DoA approach provides reliable DoA estimation using randomly-sampled acoustic sensor data. Since random sampling is performed at remote sensor arrays, less data need to be transmitted over lossy wireless channels to the fusion center (FC), and the expensive source coding operation at sensor nodes can be avoided. To investigate the spatial sparsity, an upper bound of the coherence of incoming sensor signals is derived assuming a linear sensor array configuration. This bound provides a theoretical constraint on the angular separation of acoustic sources to ensure the spatial sparsity of the received acoustic sensor array signals. The Cram e ´ r-Rao bound of the CSJSR-DoA estimator that quantifies the theoretical DoA estimation performance is also derived. The potential performance of the CSJSR-DoA approach is validated using both simulations and field experiments on a prototype WSAN platform. Compared to existing compressive sensing-based DoA estimation methods, the CSJSR-DoA approach shows significant performance improvement.

  15. Magnetic noise measurements using cross-correlated Hall sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, G.; Ocio, M.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental technique for measuring magnetic fluctuations by means of a double-layer Hall sensor array is described. The technique relies on cross-correlating Hall signals from two independent sensors positioned one above the other in two separate two-dimensional-electron-gas layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by a reduction of the magnitude of the background noise floor of the correlated sensors with respect to the noise level of the best single sensor.

  16. Light Sensor Candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Knoetig, M L; Kurz, M; Hose, J; Lorenz, E; Schweizer, T; Teshima, M; Buzhan, P; Popova, E; Bolmont, J; Tavernet, J -P; Vincent, P; Shayduk, M

    2011-01-01

    We report on the characterization of candidate light sensors for use in the next-generation Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope project called Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major astro-particle physics project of about 100 telescopes that is currently in the prototyping phase. Our goal is to develop with the manufacturers the best possible light sensors (highest photon detection efficiency, lowest crosstalk and afterpulsing). The cameras of those telescopes will be based on classical super-bi-alkali Photomultiplier tubes but also Silicon Photomultipliers are candidate light sensors. A full characterisation of selected sensors was done. We are working in close contact with several manufacturers, giving them feedback and suggesting improvements.

  17. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  18. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  19. Harmful Gas Recognition Exploiting a CTL Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field.

  20. Lamb wave sensors array for nonviscous liquid sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Zhijun; HAN; Tao; JI; Xiaojun; GUO; Huawei; SHI; Wenkang

    2006-01-01

    The interdigital transducer (IDT) can excite Lamb wave in a piezoelectric plate loading with a liquid layer, and the phase velocity of Lamb wave is associated with the properties of the liquid layer. In this paper, the concept of effective permittivity is introduced to study the Lamb wave's potential application in liquid sensing. Considering the measuring of ideal nonviscous liquid, the sensors array is designed to sense the density and the dielectric constant of the liquid layer simultaneously. Using LiNbO3 as piezoelectric material, in order to improve the sensors array sensitivity and the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient, the optimized results including plate thicknesses and cut orientations are presented by numerical simulation. These studies show that the Lamb wave sensors array can be potential in liquid sensing.

  1. Towards outperforming conventional sensor arrays with fabricated individual photonic vapour sensors inspired by Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Bonam, Ravi K.; Hartley, John G.; Starkey, Timothy A.; Vukusic, Peter; Vasudev, Milana; Bunning, Timothy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Tang, Zhexiong; Palacios, Manuel A.; Larsen, Michael; Le Tarte, Laurie A.; Grande, James C.; Zhong, Sheng; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Combining vapour sensors into arrays is an accepted compromise to mitigate poor selectivity of conventional sensors. Here we show individual nanofabricated sensors that not only selectively detect separate vapours in pristine conditions but also quantify these vapours in mixtures, and when blended with a variable moisture background. Our sensor design is inspired by the iridescent nanostructure and gradient surface chemistry of Morpho butterflies and involves physical and chemical design criteria. The physical design involves optical interference and diffraction on the fabricated periodic nanostructures and uses optical loss in the nanostructure to enhance the spectral diversity of reflectance. The chemical design uses spatially controlled nanostructure functionalization. Thus, while quantitation of analytes in the presence of variable backgrounds is challenging for most sensor arrays, we achieve this goal using individual multivariable sensors. These colorimetric sensors can be tuned for numerous vapour sensing scenarios in confined areas or as individual nodes for distributed monitoring.

  2. Corroles-Porphyrins: A Teamwork for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Capuano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrins provide an excellent material for chemical sensors, and they have been used for sensing species both in air and solution. In the gas phase, the broad selectivity of porphyrins is largely dependant on molecular features, such as the metal ion complexed at the core of the aromatic ring and the peripheral substituents. Although these features have been largely exploited to design gas sensor arrays, so far, little attention has been devoted to modify the sensing properties of these macrocycles by variation of the molecular aromatic ring. In this paper, the gas sensing properties of a porphyrin analog, the corrole, are studied in comparison with those of the parent porphyrin. Results show that changes in the aromatic ring have important consequences on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors and that porphyrins and corroles can positively cooperate to enhance the performance of sensor arrays.

  3. Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Rudnick, Thomas Jeffery

    2005-07-05

    A sensor array is configured based upon capacitive sensor techniques to measure stresses at various positions in a sheet simultaneously and allow a stress map to be obtained in near real-time. The device consists of single capacitive elements applied in a one or two dimensional array to measure the distribution of stresses across a mat surface in real-time as a function of position for manufacturing and test applications. In-plane and normal stresses in rolling bodies such as tires may thus be monitored.

  4. Printed strain sensor array for application to structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Ohigashi, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the development and practical use of low-cost printed strain sensor arrays built for applications in structural health monitoring. Sensors embedded in the array were designed to provide compensation for temperature variations and to enable their use in different seasons. The evaluation was carried out in laboratory tests and with practical application on a highway bridge. Measurements on the bridge were performed 7 months and 1 year after their installation. The developed devices were fully operational and could detect and localize cracks accurately in the monitored bridge structure.

  5. Plasma-assisted cataluminescence sensor array for gaseous hydrocarbons discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Han, Jiaying; Han, Feifei; Liu, Hualin; Ouyang, Jin

    2012-06-05

    Combining plasma activation and cross-reactivity of sensor array, we have developed a plasma-assisted cataluminescence (PA-CTL) sensor array for fast sensing and discrimination of gaseous hydrocarbons, which can be potentially used for fast diagnosis of lung cancer. Based on dielectric barrier discharge, a low-temperature plasma is generated to activate gaseous hydrocarbons with low cataluminescence (CTL) activities. Extremely increased CTL responses have been obtained, which resulted in a plasma assistance factor of infinity (∞) for some hydrocarbons. On a 4 × 3 PA-CTL sensor array made from alkaline-earth nanomaterials, gaseous hydrocarbons showed robust and unique CTL responses to generate characteristic patterns for fast discrimination. Because of the difference in the component of hydrocarbons in breath, exhaled breath samples from donors with and without lung cancer were tested, and good discrimination has been achieved by this technique. In addition, the feasibility of multidimentional detection based on temperature was confirmed. It had good reproducibility and gave a linear range of 65-6500 ng/mL or 77-7700 ppmv (R > 0.98) for CH(4) with a detection limit of 33 ng/mL (38 ppmv) on MgO. The PA-CTL sensor array is simple, low-cost, thermally stable, nontoxic, and has an abundance of alkaline-earth nanomaterials to act as sensing elements. This has expanded the applications of CTL-based senor arrays and will show great potential in clinical fast diagnosis.

  6. Electrical Characterization of Spherical Copper Oxide Memristive Array Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    running, dinner-table debate etiquette, sailing, electric guitar, and the Seattle bus system, but only earned his Bachelor of Science in Electrical ... ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPHERICAL COPPER OXIDE MEMRISTIVE ARRAY SENSORS THESIS James P. Orta, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-40...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-40 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPHERICAL COPPER OXIDE MEMRISTIVE ARRAY

  7. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. S.; Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I.; Nasser, A. A. A.; Raafat, A.

    2015-03-01

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor's output resistance for O2, H2 and CO2 gases as a function of temperature.

  9. Study on Manganin High Pressure Array Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jianhua; DU Xiaosong; YANG Bangchao; ZHOU Hongre

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of thin film manganin aray gauge is fabricated by adopting a new sensor fabrication technique. The sensitive materials (manganin thin films) are first deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused silica substrates, and then covered by a layer of SiO2 thin films by electron beam evaporation. Based on impedance match method of "back configuration", the highest pressure measured in Al target is 51.68 Gpa, the highest pressure in SiO2 package is 35.396 Gpa and the piezoresistance coefficient k is 0.026 Gpa-1. The upper limit and measure precision of sensor is improved.

  10. A Mobile Ferromagnetic Shape Detection Sensor Using a Hall Sensor Array and Magnetic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashiren Farzilah Mailah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.

  11. A Mobile Ferromagnetic Shape Detection Sensor Using a Hall Sensor Array and Magnetic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misron, Norhisam; Shin, Ng Wei; Shafie, Suhaidi; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce; Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials. PMID:22346653

  12. A mobile ferromagnetic shape detection sensor using a Hall sensor array and magnetic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misron, Norhisam; Shin, Ng Wei; Shafie, Suhaidi; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce; Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile Hall sensor array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the mobile Hall sensor array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of mobile Hall sensor array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the mobile Hall sensor array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.

  13. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung

    2012-06-18

    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB.

  14. Conductive polymer sensor arrays for smart orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micolini, Carolina; Holness, F. B.; Johnson, James A.; Price, Aaron D.

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smartpolymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded in a polymeric substrate. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to evaluate the efficacy of the manufacturing of an embedded pressure sensor. PANI's stability throughout loading and unloading cycles together with the response to incremental loading cycles was investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is a good candidate for the manufacture of implant components with smart-polymer sensors embedded for the analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.

  15. Optical design of microlens array for CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongzhu; Lai, Liping

    2016-10-01

    The optical crosstalk between the pixel units can influence the image quality of CMOS image sensor. In the meantime, the duty ratio of CMOS is low because of its pixel structure. These two factors cause the low detection sensitivity of CMOS. In order to reduce the optical crosstalk and improve the fill factor of CMOS image sensor, a microlens array has been designed and integrated with CMOS. The initial parameters of the microlens array have been calculated according to the structure of a CMOS. Then the parameters have been optimized by using ZEMAX and the microlens arrays with different substrate thicknesses have been compared. The results show that in order to obtain the best imaging quality, when the effect of optical crosstalk for CMOS is the minimum, the best distance between microlens array and CMOS is about 19.3 μm. When incident light successively passes through microlens array and the distance, obtaining the minimum facula is around 0.347 um in the active area. In addition, when the incident angle of the light is 0o 22o, the microlens array has obvious inhibitory effect on the optical crosstalk. And the anti-crosstalk distance between microlens array and CMOS is 0 μm 162 μm.

  16. The design and test of MEMS piezoresistive ultrasonic sensor arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Deqin; He Changde; Zhang Hui; Yu Jiaqi; Yuan Kejing; Xue Chenyang

    2013-01-01

    The design,fabrication and packaging of a type of MEMS piezoresistive ultrasonic transducer array are introduced.The consistency of the resonance frequency and the sensitivity of the array are tested.Moreover,we detect the directivity and the multi-target identification ability of the array.The results of the consistency of the resonance frequency and the sensitivity show that there is a gap between the practical and theoretical results.This paper analyzes this problem in detail and points out the direction of improvement.As for the directivity,the actual result is consistent with the theoretical one.The results of multiple target distinguishing tests demonstrate that the smallest resolution angle of the array is 5.72° when the distance between the sensor array and measured objects is 2m.

  17. Design and optimization of a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The inspection of the hollow axle inner surfaces is a key process to guarantee the safety of high-speed trains. A novel flexible arrayed eddy current sensor was developed to improve the reliability of the non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surfaces, whose main innovative aspect was the new design of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential and arrayed configuration. Only two independent excitation traces were used in the sensor to induce eddy currents, which can be detected by 16 differential sensing elements. The lift-off effects and the influence of the excitation frequency and geometrical parameters of the proposed sensor was investigated and presented in this paper. Finite element models were built to analyze the effects of each parameter on the sensor response amplitude. Experimental validations were conducted using a representative set of sensors. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, which showed that the sensor design can substantially suppress the lift-off effects and modifications of the studied parameters can substantially improve the sensor performance.

  18. Broadband ultrasonic sensor array via optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a new approach for multiplexing fiber-based ultrasound sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR). In the present demonstration of the method, each sensor was a short section of Polyimide-coated single-mode fiber. One end of the sensing fiber was pigtailed to a mirror and the other end was connected, via a fiber optic delay line, to a 1X4 fiber coupler. The multiplexing was enabled by using a different delay to each sensor. Ultrasonic excitation was performed by a 1MHz transducer which transmitted 4μs tone-bursts above the sensor array. The ultrasound waves generated optical phase variations in the fibers which were detected using the OFDR method. The ultrasound field at the sensors was successfully reconstructed without any noticeable cross-talk.

  19. Multidimensional colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinpeng; Lu, Yuexiang; Chang, Ning; Yang, Jiaoe; Zhang, Sichun; Liu, Yueying

    2016-12-15

    An extensible multidimensional colorimetric sensor array for the detection of protein is developed based on DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) as receptors. In the presence of different proteins, the aggregation behavior of DNA-AuNPs was regulated by the high concentrations of salt and caused different color change; while DNA-AuNPs grew induced by the reduction of HAuCl4 and NH2OH as a reductant on the surface of nanoparticles exhibited different morphologies and color appearance for different proteins. The transducers based on AuNPs modified by specific and nonspecific DNA enables naked-eye discrimination of the target analytes. This extensible sensing platform with only two receptors could simultaneously discriminate ten native proteins and their thermally denatured conformations using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) at the concentration of 50nM with 100% accuracy. This opens up the possibility of the sensor array to investigate the different conformational changes of biomacromolecules, and it gives a new direction of developing multidimensional transduction principles based on plasmonic nanoparticle conjugates. Furthermore, the sensing system could discriminate proteins at the concentration of 500nM in the presence of 50% human urine, which indicated this sensor array has great potential ability in analyzing real biological fluids. In addition, the multidimensional colorimetric sensor array is suitable for analysis of target analytes in the resource-restricted regions because of rapid, simple, low cost, and in-field detection with the naked eye.

  20. Vega interstage multi-parameter measurements using FBG sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Ahlers, B.

    2006-01-01

    A new generation launcher, called Vega, has undergone its first qualification tests of force loading. Multi-parameter FBG sensor array has been installed on the Interstage 1/2 for temperature monitoring and direct comparison with conventional strain gauges. © 2006 OSA/OFS 2006.

  1. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3](2+)) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  2. Very Large Chemical Sensor Array for Mimicking Biological Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccherelli, R.; Zampetti, E.; Pantalei, S.; Bernabei, M.; Persaud, K. C.

    2009-05-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) in the mammalian olfactory system, transduce molecular properties of the odorants into electrical signals and project these into the olfactory bulb (OB). In the biological system several millions of receptor neurons of a few hundred types create redundancy and the massive convergence of the ORNs to the OB, is thought to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the system. To explore this concept, the NEUROCHEM project will build a polymeric chemical sensor array consisting of 216 (65536) sensors with tens of different types. To interface such a large sensor array, a topological array configuration with n rows and m columns, has been adopted, to reduce the total wiring connections to n+m. A method of addressing a single element in the array in isolation of the rest of the network has been developed. Over the array ten different conductive polymers with different sensing characteristics will be deposited by means of electrodeposition and inkjet printing. A smaller prototype of 64 elements has been investigated and the results are here reported and discussed.

  3. Improved Circuits with Capacitive Feedback for Readout Resistive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Oballe-Peinado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most suitable ways of distributing a resistive sensor array for reading is an array with M rows and N columns. This allows reduced wiring and a certain degree of parallelism in the implementation, although it also introduces crosstalk effects. Several types of circuits can carry out the analogue-digital conversion of this type of sensors. This article focuses on the use of operational amplifiers with capacitive feedback and FPGAs for this task. Specifically, modifications of a previously reported circuit are proposed to reduce the errors due to the non-idealities of the amplifiers and the I/O drivers of the FPGA. Moreover, calibration algorithms are derived from the analysis of the proposed circuitry to reduce the crosstalk error and improve the accuracy. Finally, the performances of the proposals is evaluated experimentally on an array of resistors and for different ranges.

  4. Two-dimensional pixel array image sensor for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuville, E.; Beche, J.-F.; Cork, C. [and others

    1996-07-01

    A 2D pixel array image sensor module has been designed for time resolved Protein Crystallography. This smart pixels detector significantly enhances time resolved Laue Protein crystallography by two to three orders of magnitude compared to existing sensors like films or phosphor screens coupled to CCDs. The resolution in time and dynamic range of this type of detector will allow one to study the evolution of structural changes that occur within the protein as a function of time. This detector will also considerably accelerate data collection in static Laue or monochromatic crystallography and make better use of the intense beam delivered by synchrotron light sources. The event driven pixel array detectors, based on the column Architecture, can provide multiparameter information (energy discrimination, time), with sparse and frameless readout without significant dead time. The prototype module consists of a 16x16 pixel diode array bump-bonded to the integrated circuit. The detection area is 150x150 square microns.

  5. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays System Based on FPGA for Image Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Jian-Hua Xu; Ya-Dong Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A FPGA-based image recognition system is designed for colorimetric sensor array in order to recognize a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The gas molecule is detected by the responsive sensor array and the responsive image is obtained. The image is decomposed to RGB color components using CMOS image sensor. An embedded image recognition archi- tecture based on Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA is designed to implement the algorithms of image recognition. The algorithm of color coherence vector is discussed in detail[X1] compared with the algorithm of color histograms, and experimental results demonstrate that both of the two algorithms could be analyzed effectively to represent different volatile organic compounds according to their different responsive images in this system.

  6. Non-specific sensor arrays for chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin; Minor, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Non-specific chemical sensor arrays have been the subject of considerable research efforts over the past thirty years with the idea that, by analogy to vertebrate olfaction, they are potentially capable of rendering complex chemical assessments with relatively modest logistical footprints. However, the actual implementation of such devices in challenging "real world" scenarios has arguably continued to fall short of these expectations. This work examines the inherent limitations of such devices for complex chemical sensing scenarios, placing them on a continuum between simple univariate sensors and complex multivariate analytical instrumentation and analyzing their utility in general-purpose chemical detection and accurate chemical sensing in the presence of unknown "unknowns." Results with simulated and acquired data sets are presented with discussion of the implications in development of chemical sensor arrays suitable for complex scenarios.

  7. Array gain for a conformal acoustic vector sensor array: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Yi-Xin; He, Zheng-Yao; Lei, Bo; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan-Liang

    2016-12-01

    An acoustic vector sensor can measure the components of particle velocity and the acoustic pressure at the same point simultaneously, which provides a larger array gain against the ambient noise and a higher angular resolution than the omnidirectional pressure sensor. This paper presents an experimental study of array gain for a conformal acoustic vector sensor array in a practical environment. First, the manifold vector is calculated using the real measured data so that the effects of array mismatches can be minimized. Second, an optimal beamformer with a specific spatial response on the basis of the stable directivity of the ambient noise is designed, which can effectively suppress the ambient noise. Experimental results show that this beamformer for the conformal acoustic vector sensor array provides good signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and is more advantageous than the delay-and-sum and minimum variance distortionless response beamformers. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592782) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274253 and 11604259).

  8. SQUID sensor array configurations for magnetoencephalography applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, J.; Robinson, S.E. [CTF Systems Inc., A subsidiary of VSM MedTech Ltd, Port Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Electrophysiological activity in the human brain generates a small magnetic field from the spatial superposition of individual neuronal source currents. At a distance of about 15 mm from the scalp, the observed field is of the order of 10{sub -13} to 10{sub -12} T peak-to-peak. This measurement process is termed magnetoencephalography (MEG). In order to minimize instrumental noise, the MEG is usually detected using superconducting flux transformers, coupled to SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors. Since MEG signals are also measured in the presence of significant environmental magnetic noise, flux transformers must be designed to strongly attenuate environmental noise, maintain low instrumental noise and maximize signals from the brain. Furthermore, the flux transformers must adequately sample spatial field variations if the brain activity is to be imaged. The flux transformer optimization for maximum brain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires analysis of the spatial and temporal properties of brain activity, the environmental noise and how these signals are coupled to the flux transformer. Flux transformers that maximize SNR can detect the smallest brain signals and have the best ability to spatially separate dipolar sources. An optimal flux transformer design is a synthetic higher-order gradiometer based on relatively short-baseline first-order radial gradiometer primary sensors. (author)

  9. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  10. Biochemical Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for detecting presence of biomolecules in a selected subset, or in each of several selected subsets, in a fluid. Each of an array of two or more carbon nanotubes ("CNTs") is connected at a first CNT end to one or more electronics devices, each of which senses a selected electrochemical signal that is generated when a target biomolecule in the selected subset becomes attached to a functionalized second end of the CNT, which is covalently bonded with a probe molecule. This approach indicates when target biomolecules in the selected subset are present and indicates presence or absence of target biomolecules in two or more selected subsets. Alternatively, presence of absence of an analyte can be detected.

  11. Parallel Calibration for Sensor Array Radio Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Brossard, Martin; Pesavento, Marius; Boyer, Rémy; Larzabal, Pascal; Wijnholds, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the theoretically achievable imaging performance, calibration of modern radio interferometers is a mandatory challenge, especially at low frequencies. In this perspective, we propose a novel parallel iterative multi-wavelength calibration algorithm. The proposed algorithm estimates the apparent directions of the calibration sources, the directional and undirectional complex gains of the array elements and their noise powers, with a reasonable computational complexity. Furthermore, the algorithm takes into account the specific variation of the aforementioned parameter values across wavelength. Realistic numerical simulations reveal that the proposed scheme outperforms the mono-wavelength calibration scheme and approaches the derived constrained Cram\\'er-Rao bound even with the presence of non-calibration sources at unknown directions, in a computationally efficient manner.

  12. Piezoelectric impact force sensor array for tribological research on rigid disk storage media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, G.J.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Imai, S.; Tokuyama, M.; Hirose, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a method to measure impact forces on a surface by means of a piezoelectric thin film sensor array. The output signals of the sensor array provide information about the position, magnitude and wave form of the impact force. The sensor array may be used for tribological studies to

  13. Demonstration of a 4-Sensor Folded Sangac Sensor Array with Active Phase Biasing Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Qi Song; Ming-Ye Yang; Xue-Liang Zhang; Yong-Ming Hu

    2008-01-01

    A 4-sensor folded Sagnae sensor array with an active phase biasing scheme is presented. The overlapping of the signal and noise pulse is avoided through a time division multiplexing scheme and the noise pulses is eliminated almost completely. The scheme can address 16 sensors when the repeat frequency of input pulse is at 68.3 kHz. The alternative phase bias technique is demonstrated, which can provide sensors with stable phase bias. The future benefit of this technique is that the 1/f noise in the circuit can be suppressed.

  14. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-01-01

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia. PMID:23959239

  15. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs. To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  16. Digital pixel sensor array with logarithmic delta-sigma architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-08-16

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  17. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-03-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking.

  18. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trucco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  19. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Andrea; Traverso, Federico; Crocco, Marco

    2015-01-01

    For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  20. Amplitude, phase, location and orientation calibration of an acoustic vector sensor array, part I: Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, B.; Wind, J.; Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.; Druyvesteyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic vector sensor array consists of multiple sound pressure microphones and particle velocity sensors. A pressure microphone usually has an omni-directional response, yet a particle velocity sensor is directional. Currently, acoustic vector sensor arrays are under investigation for far field

  1. Amplitude, phase, location and orientation calibration of an acoustic vector sensor array, part I: Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, B.; Wind, J.; Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.; Druyvesteyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic vector sensor array consists of multiple sound pressure microphones and particle velocity sensors. A pressure microphone usually has an omni-directional response, yet a particle velocity sensor is directional. Currently, acoustic vector sensor arrays are under investigation for far field

  2. Gait Dynamics Sensing Using IMU Sensor Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Kardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.

  3. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, H P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ramseyer, J P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Grange, W [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Braun, T [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, D [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hunziker, P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Jung, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hegner, M [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gerber, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples.

  4. Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-22

    oxides. W03 is known to be such a redox active material and has been widely studied in connection with electrochromic display devices (Dautremont... devices . Quinone- Viologen Connected Microelectrodes: Use of an Electroactive Molecular Material With An Intrinsic pH Dependence. W03 is an example of an...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Interim Technical Report Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications 6

  5. Research of optical rainfall sensor based on CCD linear array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Bifeng; LIU; Yuyan; LU; Ying; WU; Shangqian

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall monitoring is one of the most important meteorological observation elements for the disaster weather. The maintenance of current tipping bucket rain gauge and weighing type rain gauge is a critical issue. The optical rainfall sensor based on CCD linear array is mainly studied in this paper. Because of the maintenance-free time and good adaptability,it can be widely used in the automatic rainfall monitoring in severe environment and have a good perspective in using.

  6. Gust prediction via artificial hair sensor array and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander M.; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Beblo, Richard V.; Reich, Gregory W.

    2017-04-01

    Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) is an important aspect of flight dynamics and control that reduces structural loadings and enhances ride quality. In conventional GLA systems, the structural response to aerodynamic excitation informs the control scheme. A phase lag, imposed by inertia, between the excitation and the measurement inherently limits the effectiveness of these systems. Hence, direct measurement of the aerodynamic loading can eliminate this lag, providing valuable information for effective GLA system design. Distributed arrays of Artificial Hair Sensors (AHS) are ideal for surface flow measurements that can be used to predict other necessary parameters such as aerodynamic forces, moments, and turbulence. In previous work, the spatially distributed surface flow velocities obtained from an array of artificial hair sensors using a Single-State (or feedforward) Neural Network were found to be effective in estimating the steady aerodynamic parameters such as air speed, angle of attack, lift and moment coefficient. This paper extends the investigation of the same configuration to unsteady force and moment estimation, which is important for active GLA control design. Implementing a Recurrent Neural Network that includes previous-timestep sensor information, the hair sensor array is shown to be capable of capturing gust disturbances with a wide range of periods, reducing predictive error in lift and moment by 68% and 52% respectively. The L2 norms of the first layer of the weight matrices were compared showing a 23% emphasis on prior versus current information. The Recurrent architecture also improves robustness, exhibiting only a 30% increase in predictive error when undertrained as compared to a 170% increase by the Single-State NN. This diverse, localized information can thus be directly implemented into a control scheme that alleviates the gusts without waiting for a structural response or requiring user-intensive sensor calibration.

  7. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  8. A sensor array is the solution to the CBRNE problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, James A.

    2004-11-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosives (CBRNE) is a threat to all forces that deploy to any part of the globe. Lightweight expeditionary forces are especially vulnerable because they operate with minimum force structure in or near enemy forces and may become indirect targets due to the proximity of opposing forces. There is currently no integrated tactical, agile CBRNE detect-to-warn and detect-to-treat detection system suitable for lightweight expeditionary forces. The current solutions are often outside the deployment and support constraints of expeditionary forces. Expeditionary forces, typically, require a 30-day capability without re-supply and must maximize resources. Situational awareness is limited with little or no automation. Due to the limitations in existing detectors, no detector has been found to be the magic bullet for all types of agents. An array of sensors that are redundant and overlap the capabilities of each and the limitations of each technology, on the other hand, would provide a level of security that is progressively more acceptable to the warfighter. Initially, the array will be composed of integrated commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) CBRNE samplers, identification devices, tamper sensors, and communications and alert equipment. The sensor array will plug-and-play new technologies as they become available.

  9. Pyroelectric sensor arrays for detection and thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Penetration of uncooled (room temperature operation) thermal detector arrays into high volume commercial products depends on very low cost technology linked to high volume production. A series of innovative and revolutionary developments is now allowing arrays based on bulk pyroelectric ceramic material to enter the consumer marketplace providing everything from sophisticated security and people monitoring devices to hand held thermal imagers and visual IR thermometers for preventative maintenance and building inspection. Although uncooled resistive microbolometer detector technology has captured market share in higher cost thermal imager products we describe a pyroelectric ceramic technology which does not need micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and vacuum packaging to give good performance. This is a breakthrough for very low cost sensors and imagers. Recent developments in a variety of products based on pyroelectric ceramic arrays are described and their performance and applicability compared and contrasted with competing technologies.

  10. Design of Fixed Beamformers Based on Vector-Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hawes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector-sensor arrays such as those composed of crossed dipole pairs are used as they can account for a signal’s polarisation in addition to the usual direction of arrival information, hence allowing expanded capacity of the system. The problem of designing fixed beamformers based on such an array, with a quaternionic signal model, is considered in this paper. Firstly, we consider the problem of designing the weight coefficients for a fixed set of vector-sensor locations. This can be achieved by minimising the sidelobe levels while keeping a unitary response for the main lobe. The second problem is then how to find a sparse set of sensor locations which can be efficiently used to implement a fixed beamformer. We propose solving this problem by converting the traditional l1 norm minimisation associated with compressive sensing into a modified l1 norm minimisation which simultaneously minimises all four parts of the quaternionic weight coefficients. Further improvements can be made in terms of sparsity by converting the problem into a series of iteratively solved reweighted minimisations, as well as being able to enforce a minimum spacing between active sensor locations. Design examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  11. NOTE: Sampling and reconstruction schemes for biomagnetic sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Adele; Della Penna, Stefania; Nappi, Ciro; Vardaci, Emanuele; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we generalize the approach of Ahonen et al (1993 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40 859-69) to two-dimensional non-uniform sampling. The focus is on two main topics: (1) searching for the optimal sensor configuration on a planar measurement surface; and (2) reconstructing the magnetic field (a continuous function) from a discrete set of data points recorded with a finite number of sensors. A reconstruction formula for Bz is derived in the framework of the multidimensional Papoulis generalized sampling expansion (Papoulis A 1977 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 24 652-4, Cheung K F 1993 Advanced Topics in Shannon Sampling and Interpolation Theory (New York: Springer) pp 85-119) in a particular case. Application of these considerations to the design of biomagnetic sensor arrays is also discussed.

  12. Sampling and reconstruction schemes for biomagnetic sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Adele; Della Penna, Stefania; Nappi, Ciro; Vardaci, Emanuele; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2002-09-21

    In this paper we generalize the approach of Ahonen et al (1993 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40 859-69) to two-dimensional non-uniform sampling. The focus is on two main topics: (1) searching for the optimal sensor configuration on a planar measurement surface; and (2) reconstructing the magnetic field (a continuous function) from a discrete set of data points recorded with a finite number of sensors. A reconstruction formula for Bz is derived in the framework of the multidimensional Papoulis generalized sampling expansion (Papoulis A 1977 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 24 652-4, Cheung K F 1993 Advanced Topics in Shannon Sampling and Interpolation Theory (New York: Springer) pp 85-119) in a particular case. Application of these considerations to the design of biomagnetic sensor arrays is also discussed.

  13. Simulation of Current Measurement Using Magnetic Sensor Arrays and Its Error Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJing; YAOJian-jun; WANGJian-hua

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic sensor arrays are proposed to measure electric current in a non-contac tway. In order to achieve higher accuracy, signal processing techniques for magnetic sensor arrays are utilized. Simulation techniques are necessary to study the factors influencing the accuracy of current measurement. This paper presents a simulation method to estimate the impact of sensing area and position of sensors on the accuracy of current measurement. Several error models are built up to support computer-aided design of magnetic sensor arrays.

  14. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  15. Ultrasensitive sliver nanorods array SERS sensor for mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyuan; Yang, Boyue; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Yanjun; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-01-15

    With years of outrageous mercury emissions, there is an urgent need to develop convenient and sensitive methods for detecting mercury ions in response to increasingly serious mercury pollution in water. In the present work, a portable, ultrasensitive SERS sensor is proposed and utilized for detecting trace mercury ions in water. The SERS sensor is prepared on an excellent sliver nanorods array SERS substrate by immobilizing T-component oligonucleotide probes labeled with dye on the 3'-end and -SH on the 5'-end. The SERS sensor responses to the specific chemical bonding between thymine and mercury ions, which causes the previous flexible single strand of oligonucleotide probe changing into rigid and upright double chain structure. Such change in the structure drives the dyes far away from the excellent SERS substrate and results in a SERS signal attenuation of the dye. Therefore, by monitoring the decay of SERS signal of the dye, mercury ions in water can be detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed optimal SERS sensor owns a linear response with wide detecting range from 1pM to 1μM, and a detection limit of 0.16pM is obtained. In addition, the SERS sensor demonstrates good specificity for Hg(2+), which can accurately identify trace mercury ions from a mixture of ten kinds of other ions. The SERS sensor has been further executed to analyze the trace mercury ions in tap water and lake water respectively, and good recovery rates are obtained for sensing both kinds of water. With its high selectivity and good portability, the ultrasensitive SERS sensor is expected to be a promising candidate for discriminating mercury ions in the fields of environmental monitoring and food safety.

  16. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  17. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  18. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  19. WO{sub 3} thin film based multiple sensor array for electronic nose application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgir, Niranjan S., E-mail: niranjanpr@yahoo.com, E-mail: deepakcct1991@gmail.com; Goyal, C. P.; Datta, N.; Kaur, M.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Thin Film Devices Section, Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai–400085 (India); Goyal, Deepak, E-mail: niranjanpr@yahoo.com, E-mail: deepakcct1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Devices Section, Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai–400085 (India); Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Multiple sensor array comprising 16 x 2 sensing elements were realized using RF sputtered WO{sub 3} thin films. The sensor films were modified with a thin layer of sensitizers namely Au, Ni, Cu, Al, Pd, Ti, Pt. The resulting sensor array were tested for their response towards different gases namely H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, NO and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH. The sensor response values measured from the response curves indicates that the sensor array generates a unique signature pattern (bar chart) for the gases. The sensor response values can be used to get both qualitative and quantitative information about the gas.

  20. High-resolution displacement sensor using squid array amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Barmatz, M.; Paik, H.

    Improvement in the measurement of displacement has profound implications for gravitational physics. Examples of high-impact projects that can benefit from a better displacement sensor are: detection of gravitational waves, test of the equivalence principle, search for the postulated ?axion? particle, and test of the inverse square law of gravity. We describe the concept of a new displacement sensor that makes use of a recent development in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. The SQUID array amplifier, invented by Welty and Martinis (IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 3, 2605, 1993), has about the same noise as a conventional SQUID; however, it can work at a much higher frequency of up to 5 MHz. We explain how the higher bandwidth can be translated into higher resolution using a bridge-balancing scheme that can simultaneously balance out both the carrier signal at the bridge output and the electrostatic force acting on the test mass.

  1. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  2. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  3. Arrays of Remote Autonomous Sensors Using On-Board Hybrid Power Supplies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is significant need for arrays of miniature sensors that are completely wireless. Ideally these sensors would be built as an integrated device, including...

  4. Colorimetric plasmon resonance microfluidics on nanohole array sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Hsiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the label-free colorimetric visualization in microfluidics using plasmon resonance on a large-area and over a wide field-of-view (>100 mm2 nanohole array device called nanoLycurgus Cup Array (nanoLCA. We demonstrate the spectral detection and colorimetric sensing of static solutions of different concentrations of glycerol–water confined in parallel microfluidic channels integrated with nanoLCA. Taking advantage of the large sensor area and the colorimetric sensing capability of nanoLCA, we visualize in real-time the modulation of two immiscible solutions (water and oil, generated with integrated flow-focus microfluidics, in a label-free manner. Finite Element Method (FEM based simulation tool (COMSOL was used to verify the droplet formation in the microfluidics. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD electromagnetic simulation was used to identify the resonance modes of the plasmonic sensor. Finally, we demonstrate the real-time monitoring of streptavidin–biotin biomolecular interaction with the plasmonic biosensor.

  5. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  6. Modified Michelson fiber-optic interferometer: A remote low-coherence distributed strain sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo

    2003-01-01

    A simple modified Michelson fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric quasi-distributed sensing system permitting absolute length measurement in remote reflective sensor array is proposed. The sensor reflective signals characteristics have been analyzed and the relationship between light signal intensities and sensors number was given for multiplexing potential evaluation. The proposed sensing scheme will be useful for the remote measurement of strain. An important application could be deformation sensing in smart structures. Experimentally, a three sensors array has been demonstrated.

  7. Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    all orientations. However, when used with linear array sensors, the exciting magnetic flux density (Bx) of the orthogonal coils is not uniform over...array sensors, the exciting magnetic flux density (Bx) of the orthogonal coils is not uniform over the sensor region, resulting in an output signal...of the y-direction coil. The magnetic flux density components, Bx, generated by the y-direction coil, is not uniform over the sensor region, which

  8. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Hui; Yang, Jing-Li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  9. Focal Plane Array Sensor for Imaging Infrared Seeker of Antitank Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.R. Warrier

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological issues and Processes for fabrication of mercury cadmium telluride detector arrays, charge coupled device readout arrays and integration of these into a focal plane array sensor have been discussed. Mini arrays of 16 X 16 size have been realised and tested to prove the technology and process schedule with a view to scaling up this for larger arrays to be used in the antitank guided missile.

  10. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain geographical...

  11. Study of acoustic signal in the process of resistance spot welding based on array sensor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was performed to study acoustic field signal in order to improve RSW quality. Researchers firstly built an acoustic array sensor system, which included 8 MPA-416 acoustic sensors, data acquisition card and LabVIEW. The system obtained the acoustic field information in the process of nugget growing. Due to the nonlinearity field signal, array sensor algorithm was utilized to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of acoustic field and reduced noise. The experiment and calculation results show that array sensor system can acquire acoustic field signal of nugget growing in the RSW process and array processing algorithm based on acoustic field can extract characteristic parameters to evaluate RSW quality. It was concluded that the acoustic array sensor system offers a new methodology for RSW quality inspection.

  12. Integrated microfluidic spectroscopic sensor using arrayed waveguide grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhixiong; Glidle, Andrew; Ironside, Charles N.; Sorel, Marc; Strain, Michael; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Yin, Huabing

    2013-08-01

    With non-invasive properties and high sensitivities, portable optical biosensors are extremely desirable for point-of-care (POC) applications. Lab-on-a-chip technology such as microfluidics has been treated as an ideal approach to integrate complex sample processing and analysis units with optical detection elements. The work in this paper has developed an integrated dispersive component in combination with a microfluidic chip, providing a portable and inexpensive platform for on-chip spectroscopic sensing. We demonstrate an integrated microfluidic spectroscopic sensor by using an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device. In particular, a visible AWG device (λc=680nm) with chip size of 12.1mm by 1.5mm was designed and fabricated by employing flamed hydrolysis deposited (FHD) silica as the waveguide material. A straight input waveguide is used to perform device characterization while a perpendicular curved waveguide is employed to introduce laser excitation light. A polymer microfluidic chip is integrated with the AWG device by oxygen plasma bonding. To prove effectiveness of the integrated spectroscopic sensor, fluorescence spectrum of an organic fluorophore (Cy5) was tested. Reconstructed spectrum by using the AWG device is compared with the outcome from a conventional spectrometer and a good consistency is presented.

  13. Data set from gas sensor array under flow modulation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Fonollosa, Jordi; Fernández, Luis; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in neuroscience suggest that sniffing, namely sampling odors actively, plays an important role in olfactory system, especially in certain scenarios such as novel odorant detection. While the computational advantages of high frequency sampling have not been yet elucidated, here, in order to motivate further investigation in active sampling strategies, we share the data from an artificial olfactory system made of 16 MOX gas sensors under gas flow modulation. The data were acquired on a custom set up featured by an external mechanical ventilator that emulates the biological respiration cycle. 58 samples were recorded in response to a relatively broad set of 12 gas classes, defined from different binary mixtures of acetone and ethanol in air. The acquired time series show two dominant frequency bands: the low-frequency signal corresponds to a conventional response curve of a sensor in response to a gas pulse, and the high-frequency signal has a clear principal harmonic at the respiration frequency. The data are related to the study in [1], and the data analysis results reported there should be considered as a reference point. The data presented here have been deposited to the web site of The University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository (https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+array+under+flow+modulation). The code repository for reproducible analysis applied to the data is hosted at the GutHub web site (https://github.com/variani/pulmon). The data and code can be used upon citation of [1]. PMID:26217733

  14. Spatiotemporal and geometric optimization of sensor arrays for detecting analytes in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S [La Canada, CA; Freund, Michael S [Winnipeg, CA; Briglin, Shawn S [Chittenango, NY; Tokumaru, Phillip [Moorpark, CA; Martin, Charles R [Gainesville, FL; Mitchell, David [Newtown, PA

    2009-09-29

    Sensor arrays and sensor array systems for detecting analytes in fluids. Sensors configured to generate a response upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more analytes can be located on one or more surfaces relative to one or more fluid channels in an array. Fluid channels can take the form of pores or holes in a substrate material. Fluid channels can be formed between one or more substrate plates. Sensor can be fabricated with substantially optimized sensor volumes to generate a response having a substantially maximized signal to noise ratio upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more target analytes. Methods of fabricating and using such sensor arrays and systems are also disclosed.

  15. Spatiotemporal and geometric optimization of sensor arrays for detecting analytes in fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (La Canada, CA); Freund, Michael S. (Winnipeg, CA); Briglin, Shawn S. (Chittenango, NY); Tokumaru, Phillip (Moorpark, CA); Martin, Charles R. (Gainesville, FL); Mitchell, David (Newtown, PA)

    2009-09-29

    Sensor arrays and sensor array systems for detecting analytes in fluids. Sensors configured to generate a response upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more analytes can be located on one or more surfaces relative to one or more fluid channels in an array. Fluid channels can take the form of pores or holes in a substrate material. Fluid channels can be formed between one or more substrate plates. Sensor can be fabricated with substantially optimized sensor volumes to generate a response having a substantially maximized signal to noise ratio upon introduction of a fluid containing one or more target analytes. Methods of fabricating and using such sensor arrays and systems are also disclosed.

  16. Detecting changes of a distant gas source with an array of MOX gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J; Trincavelli, Marco

    2012-11-27

    We address the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an open sampling system. The main challenge is the turbulent nature of gas dispersion and the response dynamics of the sensors. We propose a change point detection approach and evaluate it on individual gas sensors in an experimental setup where a gas source changes in intensity, compound, or mixture ratio. We also introduce an efficient sensor selection algorithm and evaluate the change point detection approach with the selected sensor array subsets.

  17. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  18. Amplitude, phase, location and orientation calibration of an acoustic vector sensor array, part II: Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wind, J.; Xu, B.; Bree, H.E. de; Druyvesteyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic vector sensor array consists of multiple sound pressure microphones and particle velocity sensors. A pressure microphone usually has an omni-directional response, yet a particle velocity sensor is directional and usually has a response pattern as a figure of eight. Currently, acoustic

  19. Amplitude, phase, location and orientation calibration of an acoustic vector sensor array, part II: Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wind, J.; Xu, B.; Bree, H.E. de; Druyvesteyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic vector sensor array consists of multiple sound pressure microphones and particle velocity sensors. A pressure microphone usually has an omni-directional response, yet a particle velocity sensor is directional and usually has a response pattern as a figure of eight. Currently, acoustic ve

  20. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  1. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-λ) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization (~20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. ~30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160×120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  2. In-plane shear piezoelectric wafer active sensor phased arrays for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Zhou, Wensong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Chonghe; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new way for guided wave structural health monitoring using in-plane shear (d36 type) piezoelectric wafer active sensors phased arrays. Conventional piezoelectric wafer active sensors phased arrays based on inducing into specific Lamb wave modes (d31 type) has already widely used for health monitoring of the thin-wall structures. Rather than Lamb wave modes, the in-plane shear piezoelectric wafer active sensors phased arrays induces in-plane shear horizontal (SH) guided waves. The SH guided waves are distinct with the Lamb waves with simple waveform and less additional converted wave modes and the zero symmetric mode (SH0) is non-dispersive. In this paper, the advantage of the shear horizontal wave and the in-plane shear piezoelectric wafers capability to generate SH waves is first reviewed. Then finite element analysis of a 4-in-plane shear wafer active sensors phased array embedded on a rectangular aluminium plate is performed. In addition, numerical simulations with respect to creaks with different sizes as well as locations are implemented by the in-plane shear wafer active sensors phased array. For comparison purposes, the same numerical simulations using the conventional piezoelectric wafer active sensors phased arrays are also employed at the same time. Results indicate that the in-plane shear (d36 type) piezoelectric wafer active sensors phased arrays has the potential to identify damage location and assess damage severity in structural health monitoring.

  3. A radiosonde using a humidity sensor array with a platinum resistance heater and multi-sensor data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunbo; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenjie; Shang, Chunxue; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Yinsheng

    2013-07-12

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a radiosonde which can measure the meteorological temperature, humidity, pressure, and other atmospheric data. The system is composed of a CPU, microwave module, temperature sensor, pressure sensor and humidity sensor array. In order to effectively solve the humidity sensor condensation problem due to the low temperatures in the high altitude environment, a capacitive humidity sensor including four humidity sensors to collect meteorological humidity and a platinum resistance heater was developed using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. A platinum resistance wire with 99.999% purity and 0.023 mm in diameter was used to obtain the meteorological temperature. A multi-sensor data fusion technique was applied to process the atmospheric data. Static and dynamic experimental results show that the designed humidity sensor with platinum resistance heater can effectively tackle the sensor condensation problem, shorten response times and enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor array can improve measurement accuracy and obtain a reliable initial meteorological humidity data, while the multi-sensor data fusion technique eliminates the uncertainty in the measurement. The radiosonde can accurately reflect the meteorological changes.

  4. A Radiosonde Using a Humidity Sensor Array with a Platinum Resistance Heater and Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a radiosonde which can measure the meteorological temperature, humidity, pressure, and other atmospheric data. The system is composed of a CPU, microwave module, temperature sensor, pressure sensor and humidity sensor array. In order to effectively solve the humidity sensor condensation problem due to the low temperatures in the high altitude environment, a capacitive humidity sensor including four humidity sensors to collect meteorological humidity and a platinum resistance heater was developed using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS technology. A platinum resistance wire with 99.999% purity and 0.023 mm in diameter was used to obtain the meteorological temperature. A multi-sensor data fusion technique was applied to process the atmospheric data. Static and dynamic experimental results show that the designed humidity sensor with platinum resistance heater can effectively tackle the sensor condensation problem, shorten response times and enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor array can improve measurement accuracy and obtain a reliable initial meteorological humidity data, while the multi-sensor data fusion technique eliminates the uncertainty in the measurement. The radiosonde can accurately reflect the meteorological changes.

  5. A Low-cost Soft Tactile Sensing Array using 3D Hall Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; de Boer, G.; Kow, J; Ghajari, M; Alazmani, A; R. Hewson; Culmer, P

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential for robotic systems to safely interact with the external world and to precisely manipulate objects. Existing tactile sensors are typically either expensive or limited by poor performance, and most are not mechanically compliant. This work presents MagTrix, a soft tactile sensor array based on four 3D Hall sensors with corresponding permanent magnets. MagTrix has the capability to precisely measure triaxis force (1 mN resolution) and to determine contact area. In ...

  6. Fiber optic strain twin-sensor-array for smart structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士刚; 苑立波

    2008-01-01

    A multiplexed white light interferometric fiber optic twin-sensor-array was designed to monitor the structural health of large buildings. In this sensing system, based on a Michelson interferometer, an optical path matching technique is used to demodulate each twin-sensor. Each twin-sensor-array consists of a 2×N sensing element linked by a 3 dB coupler. When one of the twin-sensor is used to measure strain, variations caused by temperature can be compensated for by referencing the other twin-sensor. The multiplexing capacity of the sensing scheme has been analyzed and experimental results with a 2×3 twin-sensor-array are given.

  7. Printable polythiophene gas sensor array for low-cost electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Josephine B.; Liu, Vincent; Subramanian, Vivek; Sivula, Kevin; Luscombe, Christine; Murphy, Amanda; Liu, Jinsong; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2006-07-01

    A route for generating arrays of printable polythiophene-based gas sensor materials suitable for low-cost manufacturing is demonstrated. Materials with complementary sensor responses are synthesized by incorporating functional groups into the molecule, either along the polymer backbone or as end-capping groups. Using these materials as printable sensor inks, a functional, integrated gas sensor array chip is fabricated using additive deposition techniques. The sensor array shows sensitivity to a range of volatile organic compounds down to concentrations of 10ppm. A three-terminal thin film transistor structure is used, allowing the extraction of multiple parameters that help to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for sensor response and the role of the functional groups in this response.

  8. A Bio-Hybrid Tactile Sensor Incorporating Living Artificial Skin and an Impedance Sensing Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheneler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a bio-hybrid tactile sensor array that incorporates a skin analogue comprised of alginate encapsulated fibroblasts is described. The electrical properties are modulated by mechanical stress induced during contact, and changes are detected by a ten-channel dual-electrode impedance sensing array. By continuously monitoring the impedance of the sensor array at a fixed frequency, whilst normal and tangential loads are applied to the skin surface, transient mechanotransduction has been observed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the preliminary prototype bio-hybrid tactile sensor.

  9. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: Proof of Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) by Sandra Harrison and Gail Vaucher ARL...Missile Range, NM 88002-5501 ARL-TR-7133 October 2014 Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof...2014–September 30, 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) 5a

  10. Evolutionary Adaptive Discovery of Phased Array Sensor Signal Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Milos Manic

    2011-05-01

    Tomography, used to create images of the internal properties and features of an object, from phased array ultasonics is improved through many sophisiticated methonds of post processing of data. One approach used to improve tomographic results is to prescribe the collection of more data, from different points of few so that data fusion might have a richer data set to work from. This approach can lead to rapid increase in the data needed to be stored and processed. It also does not necessarily lead to have the needed data. This article describes a novel approach to utilizing the data aquired as a basis for adapting the sensors focusing parameters to locate more precisely the features in the material: specifically, two evolutionary methods of autofocusing on a returned signal are coupled with the derivations of the forumulas for spatially locating the feature are given. Test results of the two novel methods of evolutionary based focusing (EBF) illustrate the improved signal strength and correction of the position of feature using the optimized focal timing parameters, called Focused Delay Identification (FoDI).

  11. Beamforming and Power Control in Sensor Arrays Using Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Náthalee C.; Fernandes, Marcelo A.C.; Neto, Adrião D.D.

    2015-01-01

    The use of beamforming and power control, combined or separately, has advantages and disadvantages, depending on the application. The combined use of beamforming and power control has been shown to be highly effective in applications involving the suppression of interference signals from different sources. However, it is necessary to identify efficient methodologies for the combined operation of these two techniques. The most appropriate technique may be obtained by means of the implementation of an intelligent agent capable of making the best selection between beamforming and power control. The present paper proposes an algorithm using reinforcement learning (RL) to determine the optimal combination of beamforming and power control in sensor arrays. The RL algorithm used was Q-learning, employing an ε-greedy policy, and training was performed using the offline method. The simulations showed that RL was effective for implementation of a switching policy involving the different techniques, taking advantage of the positive characteristics of each technique in terms of signal reception. PMID:25808769

  12. Beamforming and Power Control in Sensor Arrays Using Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Náthalee C. Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of beamforming and power control, combined or separately, has advantages and disadvantages, depending on the application. The combined use of beamforming and power control has been shown to be highly effective in applications involving the suppression of interference signals from different sources. However, it is necessary to identify efficient methodologies for the combined operation of these two techniques. The most appropriate technique may be obtained by means of the implementation of an intelligent agent capable of making the best selection between beamforming and power control. The present paper proposes an algorithm using reinforcement learning (RL to determine the optimal combination of beamforming and power control in sensor arrays. The RL algorithm used was Q-learning, employing an ε-greedy policy, and training was performed using the offline method. The simulations showed that RL was effective for implementation of a switching policy involving the different techniques, taking advantage of the positive characteristics of each technique in terms of signal reception.

  13. Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays for Dengue virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudeep; Akhmechet, Roman; Chen, Likun; Nugen, Sam; Baeumner, Antje; Erickson, David

    2007-09-01

    Here we present our work towards the development of Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays (NOSA), which is an optofluidic architecture for performing label free, highly parallel, detections of biomolecular interactions. The approach is based on the use of optically resonant devices whose resonant wavelength is shifted due to a local change in refractive index caused by a positive binding event between a surface bound molecule and it solution phase target. A special two stage micro-/nanofluidics architecture is used to first functionalize the devices and then to deliver the targets. Two variants of the NOSA will be presented here. The first approach utilizes a 1D resonant cavity in a 1D silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide with a unique differential size functionalization approach. This approach allows binding events at one or at a combination of the many sensing sites which causes a unique shift in the output resonator spectrum. The latter approach consists of a SOI waveguide evanescently coupled to multiple 1-D photonic crystal resonators of different sizes along the length, each of which is functionalized with a different oligonucleotide probe. These devices have an extremely low limit of detection and are compatible with aqueous environments. The primary advantage of these devices over existing technology is that it combines the sensitivity (limit of detection) of nanosensor technology with the parallelism of the microarray type format. Our initial application is in the detection of viral RNA of Dengue virus.

  14. Model-based Processing of Microcantilever Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J W; Clague, D S; Candy, J V; Sinensky, A K; Lee, C L; Rudd, R E; Burnham, A K

    2005-04-27

    We have developed a model-based processor (MBP) for a microcantilever-array sensor to detect target species in solution. We perform a proof-of-concept experiment, fit model parameters to the measured data and use them to develop a Gauss-Markov simulation. We then investigate two cases of interest, averaged deflection data and multi-channel data. For this evaluation we extract model parameters via a model-based estimation, perform a Gauss-Markov simulation, design the optimal MBP and apply it to measured experimental data. The performance of the MBP in the multi-channel case is evaluated by comparison to a ''smoother'' (averager) typically used for microcantilever signal analysis. It is shown that the MBP not only provides a significant gain ({approx} 80dB) in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but also consistently outperforms the smoother by 40-60 dB. Finally, we apply the processor to the smoothed experimental data and demonstrate its capability for chemical detection. The MBP performs quite well, apart from a correctable systematic bias error.

  15. Fiber grating sensor demodulation technique using a linear array of photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Lei, Mu; Ping, Du

    2008-12-01

    The article describes the theory, characters and performance of the linear array of photodetectors includes CCD, PDA, CMOS and InGaAs, presents fiber grating sensor demodulation technique using linear InGaAs array and designs the demodulation system based on this technique. Furthermore, the system is used to measure the strain and temperature respectively, and prove the system have a good practicability. The demodulation system has a high resolution and measurement precision, changes the size of traditional Fiber Grating Sensors demodulation system essentially, and realizes basically the intelligence of the FBG sensors and lays a foundation for the industrialization of the FBG sensors.

  16. Experimental research and identification of mine fire by using bionic smell sensors array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hong-min; Luo Hai-zhu [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). Institute of Safety Science and Engineering

    2007-08-15

    The paper discusses the present situation of smell identification technology and give a brief account of kinds of smell sensors and their development. The sensitivity of the smell sensors array to different odors, the identification mechanism of different odor source substances and their mixture ratio were studied. The change of background value with working conditions underground and its influence on smell sensors were studied. Results indicate that the small sensors array can identify the kinds of mine fire, the burning objects, and the mixing ratio, based on the ANN. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Ultra-Thin Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array for Gap Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁天怀; 陈祥林; 黄毅平

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-thin flexible eddy current proximity sensor array was developed for online measurements of tiny gaps between large smooth metallic and nonmetallic surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The probe of the flexible eddy current sensor array, which includes a set of sensor coils, is fabricated on a thin flexible substrate using the flexible printed circuit board process which allows the probe to be very thin and flexible so that it can conform to the surface geometry of the measured objects. The sensor coils are connected to an inductance-capacitance oscillator, which converts the distance between the sensor coil and the metallic target to a frequency output. Experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the sensor system can reach ±0.5% for a 2-mm gap and the sensor system is suitable for online gap measurements.

  18. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  19. Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses...

  20. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  1. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay.

  2. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie;

    2016-01-01

    Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  3. Bottom-up fabrication of nanohole arrays loaded with gold nanoparticles: extraordinary plasmonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Quint, Stefan B; Klenk, Simon; Pacholski, Claudia

    2014-12-18

    A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas.

  4. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panida Lorwongtragool

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  5. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwongtragool, Panida; Sowade, Enrico; Watthanawisuth, Natthapol; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2014-01-01

    A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities. PMID:25340447

  6. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  7. Low-power Broadband Digitizer for Millimeter-Wave Sensor Array Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiplexing in frequency domain using a bank of high-Q micro-resonators is an emerging method of reading out large arrays of transition-edge sensors and...

  8. Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses off the...

  9. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Bae, Jang-Han; Jung, Chang Jin; Cho, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Young Ju

    2016-05-26

    The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB) as one of the sensor combination methods. The three-layered housing structure that included independent pressure sensor units using the FDB method not only enabled elimination of the crosstalk among channels, but also allowed various array patterns to be created for effective pulse measurement. The sensors were arranged in a circular-type arrangement such that they could estimate the direction of the radial artery and precisely measure the pulse wave. The performance of the fabricated sensor array was validated by evaluating the sensor sensitivity per channel, and the possibility of estimating the blood vessel direction was demonstrated through a radial artery pulse simulator. We expect the proposed sensor to allow accurate extraction of the pulse indices for pulse diagnosis.

  10. A Circular aperture-array structure optical system for digital sun sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the first type of Rayleigh Sommerfeld diffraction formula, an imaging model of circular aperture-array structure digital sun sensor optical system is developed. Then a 6×6 circular aperture-array structure optical system is designed. The results of numerical simulation show that the optical system is designed well and is conformed to the requirements of miniaturization and high accuracy of sun sensor.

  11. Passive ranging with flank and towed array sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, S.P.; IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Koersel, A.C. van

    2003-01-01

    In the current sensor suites on board submarines the Passive Ranging Sonar (PRS) is a separate sensor, usually with three or more hydrophone groups on either side of the submarine. The aperture of this sensor is limited by the length of the boat, which makes ranging up to moderate distances possible

  12. Prime Microlens Arrays for Hartmann-Shack Sensors: An Economical Fabrication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Monteiro, D. W.; Akhzar-Mehr, O.; Vdovin, G.

    A Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor consists basically of two elements: a microlens array and a photosensitive detector. This paper presents a technique to fabricate close-packed microlens arrays compliant to the sensor requirements. The method is based on bulk-silicon anisotropic etching and requires a single etch mask. We first etch a micromirror array in a KOH solution and use it later as a mold for the replication of microlens arrays. The elements in the fabricated microlens arrays feature excellent fit to a parabolic mirror surface, 100% optical fill factor, excellent parallelism of the optical axes and very high precision of the array pitch. The uniformity of the focal length of the microlenses is high (in the order of 5%) and the surface roughness — expressed in terms of wavefront — is of the order of 8-13 nm. This technology also enables simple single-mask fabrication of arbitrary aspherical optical surfaces.

  13. Study of cross-shaped ultrasonic array sensor applied to partial discharge location in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jisheng; Xin, Xiaohu; Luo, Yongfen; Ji, Haiying; Li, Yanming; Deng, Junbo

    2013-11-01

    A conformal combined sensor is designed and it is used in Partial Discharge (PD) location experiments in transformer oil. The sensor includes a cross-shaped ultrasonic phased array of 13 elements and an ultra-high-frequency (UHF) electromagnetic rectangle array of 2 × 2 elements. Virtual expansion with high order cumulants, the ultrasonic array can achieve the effect of array with 61 elements. This greatly improves the aperture and direction sharpness of original array and reduces the cost of follow-up hardware. With the cross-shaped ultrasonic array, the results of PD location experiments are precise and the maximum error of the direction of arrival (DOA) is less than 5°.

  14. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  15. Arrays of biomimetic hair flow-sensor dedicated for measuring flow patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Next to image sensors, future’s robots will definitely use a variety of sensing mechanisms for navigation and prevention of risks to human life, for example flow-sensor arrays for 3D hydrodynamic reconstruction of the near environment. This paper aims to quantify the possibilities of our artificial

  16. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  17. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Ami; Lu, Yijiang; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH4, NH3, SO2, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA). A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1–30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system. PMID:27463716

  18. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Hannon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH4, NH3, SO2, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA. A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1–30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system.

  19. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Ami; Lu, Yijiang; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M

    2016-07-25

    We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH₄, NH₃, SO₂, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA). A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1-30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system.

  20. AGV trace sensing and processing technology based on RGB color sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kebao; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Juncheng; Yun, Yuliang

    2009-05-01

    AGV(Automatic Guided Vehicle) is widely used in manufacturing factories, harbors, docks and logistics fields, because of its accurate automatic tracking. An AGV tracking method of detecting trace color based on RGB color sensor is provided here. DR, DG, DB values of trace color are obtained by color sensor, with which hue value denoting trace color characteristic can be calculated. Combined with graph theory algorithm, hue value can be used as a parameter for tracking deviation and branch identification to implement shortest path tracking. In addition, considering discreteness and uncertainty of single sensor in detecting trace information, sensor array is adopted for information fusion to achieve accurate tracking. Compared to tracking trace by single intensity sensor, AGV tracking based on RGB color sensor array has much better trace tracking and branch identification performances on complex roads.

  1. Semiconductor Sensor Array Based Electronic Nose for Milk, Rancid Milk and Yoghurt Odors Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.; Sadistap, S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the use semiconductor sensor array based electronic nose for the identification of milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors. A low cost sensor array, serial data acquisition system and E-nose software package (ESP) tool are used to generate the database, feature extraction and normalization. The MLP NN is trained using the NeuroSolutions for the identification. The network has successfully classified milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors with 96% success rate. A sensitivity analysis is done to test the performance of the sensor data in the trained network

  2. Array of 12 coils to measure the position, alignment, and sensitivity of magnetic sensors over temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husstedt, Hendrik; Ausserlechner, Udo; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    A measurement setup is presented that allows one to determine the position, alignment, and sensitivity of magnetic sensors over temperature. To this end, an array of 12 coils is used where the number of coils is larger than the number of unknowns to increase accuracy, and to ensure an adequate measurement signal for an arbitrary orientation of the magnetic sensors. With this coil array, a 3D sensing system is analyzed which is used during the testing of automotive magnetic sensors. In particular, the influence of assembly tolerances, and the variation of temperature are examined.

  3. A comparison of minimum norm and MUSIC for a combined MEG/EEG sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, H.; Argin, F.; Klinkenbusch, L.

    2012-09-01

    Many different algorithms for imaging neuronal activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG) have been developed so far. We validate the result of other authors that a combined MEG/EEG sensor array provides smaller source localisation errors than a single MEG or single EEG sensor array for the same total number of sensors. We show that Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) provides smaller localisation errors than an unweighted minimum norm method for activity located in the cortical sulcus regions. This is important for many medical applications, e.g. the localisation of the origin of epileptic seizures (focal epilepsy) that can be located very deep in the cortical sulcus.

  4. Odour Mapping Under Strong Backgrounds With a Metal Oxide Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Calvo, José María Blanco; Lechón, Miguel; Bermúdez i Badia, Sergi; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    This work describes the data from navigation experiments with the mobile robot, equipped with the sensor array of three MOX gas sensors. Performed four series of measurements aim to explore the capabilities of sensor array to build the odour map with one or two odour sources in the wind tunnel space. It was demonstrated that the method based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is able to discriminate two odour sources, that in future can be used in the surge-and-cast robot navigation algorithm.

  5. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2016-08-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as “fingerprints” and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma.

  6. A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Weifen; Kong, Hao; Wang, He; Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array based on catalytic nanomaterials for the discrimination of ten sweeteners, including five natural sugars and five artificial sweeteners. The CL response patterns ("fingerprints") can be obtained for a given compound on the nanomaterial array and then identified through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Moreover, each pure sweetener was quantified based on the emission intensities of selected sensor elements. The linear ranges for these sweeteners lie within 0.05-100 mM, but vary with the type of sweetener. The applicability of this array to real-life samples was demonstrated by applying it to various beverages, and the results showed that the sensor array possesses excellent discrimination power and reversibility.

  7. Least-Square Collaborative Beamforming Linear Array for Steering Capability in Green Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NikNoordini NikAbdMalik; Mazlina Esa; Nurul Mu’azzah Abdul Latiff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-This paper presents a collaborative beamforming (CB) technique to organize the sensor node’s location in a linear array for green wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this method, only selected clusters and active CB nodes are needed each time to perform CB in WSNs. The proposed least-square linear array (LSLA) manages to select nodes to perform as a linear antenna array (LAA), which is similar to and as outstanding as the conventional uniform linear array (ULA). The LSLA technique is also able to solve positioning error problems that exist in the random nodes deployment. The beampattern fluctuations have been analyzed due to the random positions of sensor nodes. Performances in terms of normalized power gains are given. It is demonstrated by a simulation that the proposed technique gives similar performances to the conventional ULA and at the same time exhibits lower complexity.

  8. TiO2 nanotube array sensor for detecting the SF6 decomposition product SO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jinbin; Jia, Yichao; Xiao, Peng; Tang, Ju

    2012-01-01

    The detection of partial discharge through analysis of SF(6) gas components in gas-insulated switchgear, is significant for the diagnosis and assessment of the operating state of power equipment. The present study proposes the use of a TiO(2) nanotube array sensor for detecting the SF(6) decomposition product SO(2), and the application of the anodic oxidation method for the directional growth of highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube arrays. The sensor response of 10-50 ppm SO(2) gas is tested, and the sensitive response mechanism is discussed. The test results show that the TiO(2) nanotube sensor array has good response to SO(2) gas, and by ultraviolet radiation, the sensor can remove attached components very efficiently, shorten recovery time, reduce chemical poisoning, and prolong the life of the components.

  9. TiO2 Nanotube Array Sensor for Detecting the SF6 Decomposition Product SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of partial discharge through analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear, is significant for the diagnosis and assessment of the operating state of power equipment. The present study proposes the use of a TiO2 nanotube array sensor for detecting the SF6 decomposition product SO2, and the application of the anodic oxidation method for the directional growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays. The sensor response of 10–50 ppm SO2 gas is tested, and the sensitive response mechanism is discussed. The test results show that the TiO2 nanotube sensor array has good response to SO2 gas, and by ultraviolet radiation, the sensor can remove attached components very efficiently, shorten recovery time, reduce chemical poisoning, and prolong the life of the components.

  10. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhili

    2017-04-11

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  11. Design and performance of the ULTRA 320x240 uncooled focal plane array and sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Robert J.; Howard, Philip E.

    1996-06-01

    The ULTRA (Uncooled, Low cost, Technology Reinvestment Alliance) Consortium, consisting of the Honeywell Technology Center of Honeywell Incorporated, the Autonetics Missile Systems Division of Rockwell International Corporation, Inframetrics Incorporated, and the New Jersey Institute of Technology, has been formally working together over the past year in an effort to develop, manufacture and sell industrial and military sensors and components incorporating silicon microbolometer uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) technology. Towards that end, Rockwell has been actively engaged in developing the UFPA component, with assistance from Honeywell, with the intention of being a merchant supplier of the UFPA. Inframetrics has been developing subsystems required to construct and characterize a prototype sensor, and NJIT is designing a Multi-Wavelength Imaging Pyrometry system around the performance of the uncooled prototype sensor. TRP Office funding administered by ARPA has been key to the significant advances made over the course of the year in this program. This paper will describe both the UFPA component specification and the prototype sensor. It will give a architectural overview of the detector array, with the anticipated performance characteristics. Multiplexer design and simulation, and array processing, will be addressed. A description of the array packaging, interface requirements, and unique design considerations will be provided. Anticipated and actual component performance will be explained and contrasted. The background of the sensor development will be presented. An overview of the camera architecture will be given, with some discussion of trade-offs in subsystem design of the sensor. Specific emphasis is placed on the radiometric evaluation of the sensor.

  12. Challenges and the state of the technology for printed sensor arrays for structural monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shiv; Bland, Scott; DeMott, Robert; Anderson, Nickolas; Jursich, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Printed sensor arrays are attractive for reliable, low-cost, and large-area mapping of structural systems. These sensor arrays can be printed on flexible substrates or directly on monitored structural parts. This technology is sought for continuous or on-demand real-time diagnosis and prognosis of complex structural components. In the past decade, many innovative technologies and functional materials have been explored to develop printed electronics and sensors. For example, an all-printed strain sensor array is a recent example of a low-cost, flexible and light-weight system that provides a reliable method for monitoring the state of aircraft structural parts. Among all-printing techniques, screen and inkjet printing methods are well suited for smaller-scale prototyping and have drawn much interest due to maturity of printing procedures and availability of compatible inks and substrates. Screen printing relies on a mask (screen) to transfer a pattern onto a substrate. Screen printing is widely used because of the high printing speed, large selection of ink/substrate materials, and capability of making complex multilayer devices. The complexity of collecting signals from a large number of sensors over a large area necessitates signal multiplexing electronics that need to be printed on flexible substrate or structure. As a result, these components are subjected to same deformation, temperature and other parameters for which sensor arrays are designed. The characteristics of these electronic components, such as transistors, are affected by deformation and other environmental parameters which can lead to erroneous sensed parameters. The manufacturing and functional challenges of the technology of printed sensor array systems for structural state monitoring are the focus of this presentation. Specific examples of strain sensor arrays will be presented to highlight the technical challenges.

  13. Array calibration of angularly dependent gain and phase uncertainties with carry-on instrumental sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buhong; WANG Yongliang; CHEN Hui; GUO Ying

    2004-01-01

    Array calibration with angularly dependent gain and phase uncertainties has long been a difficult problem. Although many array calibration methods have been reported extensively in the literature, they almost all assumed an angularly independent model for array uncertainties. Few calibration methods have been developed for the angularly dependent array uncertainties. A novel and efficient auto-calibration method for angularly dependent gain and phase uncertainties is proposed in this paper, which is called ISM (Instrumental Sensors Method). With the help of a few well-calibrated instrumental sensors, the ISM is able to achieve favorable and unambiguous direction-of-arrivals (DOAs) estimate and the corresponding angularly dependent gain and phase estimate simultaneously, even in the case of multiple non-disjoint sources. Since the mutual coupling and sensor position errors can all be described as angularly dependent gain/phase uncertainties, the ISM proposed still works in the presence of a combination of all these array perturbations. The ISM can be applied to arbitrary array geometries including linear arrays. The ISM is computationally efficient and requires only one-dimensional search, with no high-dimensional nonlinear search and convergence burden involved. Besides, no small error assumption is made, which is always an essential prerequisite for many existing array calibration techniques. The estimation performance of the ISM is analyzed theoretically and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and behavior of the proposed ISM.

  14. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M.; Rensing, P.A.; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Allard, B.A.M.; Meulendijks, N.N.M.M.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Zwart, R.M. de; Houben, R.J.; Enting, E.; Veen, S.J.J.F. van; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be

  15. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M.; Rensing, P.A.; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Allard, B.A.M.; Meulendijks, N.N.M.M.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Zwart, R.M. de; Houben, R.J.; Enting, E.; Veen, S.J.J.F. van; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrate

  16. Haussdorff and hellinger for colorimetric sensor array classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    ; however, each sensor reading consists of hundreds of pixel values, and methods for combining these readings from multiple sensors must be developed to make a classification system. In this work we examine two distance based classification methods, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Gaussian process (GP...

  17. A flexible touch-pressure sensor array with wireless transmission system for robotic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Ding; Wu, Can; Wang, Weihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, touch, pressure, and deformation, with high sensitivity and resolution. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, and strain gauges. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance touch sensor and pressure sensor. Compared with general sensor, the touch-pressure sensor which is reported in this paper not only can measure large pressure but also has a high resolution in the small range so that it can feel slight touch. The sensor has a vertical structure. The upper layer is made of silicone rubber as the capacitive layer and the lower layer employs multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon black filled silicone rubber as the resistive layer. The electrodes are made by conductive silver adhesives. In addition, the electrodes are connected to the pads on the top surface of the flexible printed circuit board by enamelled wires which made it easier to fabricate sensor array. The resolution of the touch-pressure sensor in the range of 0-10 N and 10-100 N are 0.1 N and 1 N, respectively. The experimental data of the sensor are sent by ZigBee wireless technology which reduces the complexity of the wiring and provides a convenient way to apply and maintain the sensor array.

  18. A flexible touch-pressure sensor array with wireless transmission system for robotic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Ding; Wu, Can; Wang, Weihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, touch, pressure, and deformation, with high sensitivity and resolution. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, and strain gauges. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance touch sensor and pressure sensor. Compared with general sensor, the touch-pressure sensor which is reported in this paper not only can measure large pressure but also has a high resolution in the small range so that it can feel slight touch. The sensor has a vertical structure. The upper layer is made of silicone rubber as the capacitive layer and the lower layer employs multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon black filled silicone rubber as the resistive layer. The electrodes are made by conductive silver adhesives. In addition, the electrodes are connected to the pads on the top surface of the flexible printed circuit board by enamelled wires which made it easier to fabricate sensor array. The resolution of the touch-pressure sensor in the range of 0-10 N and 10-100 N are 0.1 N and 1 N, respectively. The experimental data of the sensor are sent by ZigBee wireless technology which reduces the complexity of the wiring and provides a convenient way to apply and maintain the sensor array.

  19. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  20. In-situ Instrumental Setup for Influence Study of Hard-axis Bias Magnetic Field on MR transfer curves of sing MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Pong, P W T

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of home-made measurement setups for the characterization of MR sensor is proposed and described here. The MR loops of MR sensors can be obtained with the instrument using two-point probe measurement and four-point probe measurement. Two pairs of Helmholtz coils can supply a hard-axis magnetic field and a soft-axis magnetic field for the sensor. The single MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor in Wheatstone bridge were characterized and compared here. The influence of hard-bias magnetic field on MR transfer curves of sing MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor are investigated. The corresponding optimal hard-axis magnetic fields were obtained through Helmholtz coils to eliminate the hysteresis for linear response of single MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor.

  1. Realization of 16-channel digital PGC demodulator for fiber laser sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lin; He Jun; Li Fang; Liu Yuliang, E-mail: wlcas@semi.ac.cn [Optoelectronics System Laboratory, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a 16-element DFB FL (distributed feedback fiber laser) sensor array system interrogated by NI-PXI-based (PCI extensions for Instrumentation) digital PGC (phase generated carrier) technique. The lasing wavelengths of the DFB FLs are changed by the external strains or temperatures, and hence they can be used as sensors by detecting the wavelength shifts. An unbalanced MI (Michelson interferometer) is employed in the sensor array system to amplify the wavelength shifts of DFB FL sensors to detectable phase shifts. The output phase signals of the MI are separated into different channels by a DWDM, and then detected by a low-noise photodiode array. The digital PGC algorithm is realized on a PXI platform (NI, National Instruments), which consists of three FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) modules and a high performance system controller. The normalization of the interference fringe is proposed and realized in this paper to reduce the influence of the light intensity fluctuations, and a trigger mechanism is introduced into the digital multi-channel PGC demodulation scheme to synchronize the date among different channels. A 16-element DFB fiber laser sensor array system has been set up in the experiment and the demodulated results have demonstrated a minimum detectable wavelength shift of 1x10{sup -6} pmA/{radical}Hz, a linearity of as high as 0.9994, and a dynamic range of 110dB-100Hz.

  2. FY04 LDRD Final Report Stroke Sensor Development Using Microdot Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J C; Wilson, T S; Alvis, R M; Paulson, C N; Setlur, U S; McBride, M T; Brown, S B; Bearinger, J P; Colston, B W

    2005-11-15

    major thrust area for the Medical Technology Program (M-division). Through MTP, LLNL has a sizable investment and recognizable expertise in stroke treatment research. The proposed microdot array sensor for stroke will complement this existing program in which mechanical devices are being designed for removing the thrombus. The following list of stroke projects and their relative status shows that MTP has a proven track record of taking ideas to industry: The goal of this LDRD funded project was to develop and demonstrate a minimally invasive optical fiber-based sensor for rapid and in-vivo measurements of multiple stroke biomarkers (e.g. pH and enzyme). The development of this sensor also required the development of a new fabrication technology for attaching indicator chemistries to optical fibers. A benefit of this work is to provide clinicians with a tool to assess vascular integrity of the region beyond the thrombus to determine whether or not it is safe to proceed with the removal of the clot. Such an assessment could extend the use of thrombolytic drug treatment to acute stroke victims outside the current rigid temporal limitation of 3 hours. Furthermore, this sensor would also provide a tool for use with emerging treatments involving the use of mechanical devices for removing the thrombus. The sensor effectively assesses the risk for reperfusion injury.

  3. Fully printed, highly sensitive multifunctional artificial electronic whisker arrays integrated with strain and temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shingo; Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2014-04-22

    Mammalian-mimicking functional electrical devices have tremendous potential in robotics, wearable and health monitoring systems, and human interfaces. The keys to achieve these devices are (1) highly sensitive sensors, (2) economically fabricated macroscale devices on flexible substrates, and (3) multifunctions beyond mammalian functions. Although highly sensitive artificial electronic devices have been reported, none have been fabricated using cost-effective macroscale printing methods and demonstrate multifunctionalities of artificial electronics. Herein we report fully printed high-sensitivity multifunctional artificial electronic whiskers (e-whisker) integrated with strain and temperature sensors using printable nanocomposite inks. Importantly, changing the composition ratio tunes the sensitivity of strain. Additionally, the printed temperature sensor array can be incorporated with the strain sensor array beyond mammalian whisker functionalities. The sensitivity for the strain sensor is impressively high (∼59%/Pa), which is the best sensitivity reported to date (>7× improvement). As the proof-of-concept for a truly printable multifunctional artificial e-whisker array, two- and three-dimensional space and temperature distribution mapping are demonstrated. This fully printable flexible sensor array should be applicable to a wide range of low-cost macroscale electrical applications.

  4. Vinegar Classification Based on Feature Extraction and Selection From Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xingyi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide gas sensor array based devices were often cited in publications dealing with food products. However, during the process of using a tin oxide gas sensor array to analysis and identify different gas, the most important and difficult was how to get useful parameters from the sensors and how to optimize the parameters. Which can make the sensor array can identify the gas rapidly and accuracy, and there was not a comfortable method. For this reason we developed a device which satisfied the gas sensor array act with the gas from vinegar. The parameters of the sensor act with gas were picked up after getting the whole acting process data. In order to assure whether the feature parameter was optimum or not, in this paper a new method called “distinguish index”(DI has been proposed. Thus we can assure the feature parameter was useful in the later pattern recognition process. Principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to combine the optimum feature parameters. Good separation among the gases with different vinegar is obtained using principal component analysis. The recognition probability of the ANN is 98 %. The new method can also be applied to other pattern recognition problems.

  5. Differentiating surface and bulk interactions in nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    Detecting specific target analytes and differentiating them from interfering background effects is a crucial but challenging task in complex multi-component solutions commonly encountered in environmental, chemical, biological, and medical sensing applications. Here we present a simple nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor platform that can differentiate the adsorption of a thin protein layer on the sensor surface (surface effects) from bulk refractive index changes (interfering background effects) at a single sensing spot, exploiting the different penetration depths of multiple propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited in the ring-hole nanostructures. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with an effective thickness of 1.91nm is detected and differentiated from a 10-3 change in the bulk refractive index unit of the solution. The noise level of the retrieved real-time sensor output compares favorably with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensors, but is achieved using a sign...

  6. Distributed thin film sensor array for damage detection and localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    The authors have developed a capacitive-based thin film sensor for monitoring strain on mesosurfaces. Arranged in a network configuration, the sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. The measurement principle is based on a measurable change in capacitance provoked by strain. In the case of bidirectional in-plane strain, the sensor output contains the additive measurement of both principal strain components. In this paper, we present an algorithm for retrieving unidirectional strain from the bidirectional measurements of the capacitive-based thin film sensor when place in a hybrid dense sensor network with state-of-the-art unidirectional strain sensors. The algorithm leverages the advantages of a hybrid dense network for application of the thin film sensor to reconstruct the surface strain maps. A bidirectional shape function is assumed, and it is differentiated to obtain expressions for planar strain. A least squares estimator (LSE) is used to reconstruct the planar strain map from the networks measurements, after the system's boundary conditions have been enforced in the model. The coefficients obtained by the LSE can be used to reconstruct the estimated strain map. Results from numerical simulations and experimental investigations show good performance of the algorithm.

  7. Massive Sensor Array Fault Tolerance: Tolerance Mechanism and Fault Injection for Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Um

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As today's machines become increasingly complex in order to handle intricate tasks, the number of sensors must increase for intelligent operations. Given the large number of sensors, detecting, isolating, and then tolerating faulty sensors is especially important. In this paper, we propose fault tolerance architecture suitable for a massive sensor array often found in highly advanced systems such as autonomous robots. One example is the sensitive skin, a type of massive sensor array. The objective of the sensitive skin is autonomous guidance of machines in unknown environments, requiring elongated operations in a remote site. The entirety of such a system needs to be able to work remotely without human attendance for an extended period of time. To that end, we propose a fault-tolerant architecture whereby component and analytical redundancies are integrated cohesively for effective failure tolerance of a massive array type sensor or sensor system. In addition, we discuss the evaluation results of the proposed tolerance scheme by means of fault injection and validation analysis as a measure of system reliability and performance.

  8. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  9. Development of Diamond and Silicon MEMS Sensor Arrays with Integrated Readout for Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possas-Abreu, Maira; Ghassemi, Farbod; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Descours, Emilie; Lissorgues, Gaelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an autonomous instrument based on an array of eight resonant microcantilevers for vapor detection. The fabricated sensors are label-free devices, allowing chemical and biological functionalization. In this work, sensors based on an array of silicon and synthetic diamond microcantilevers are sensitized with polymeric films for the detection of analytes. The main advantage of the proposed system is that sensors can be easily changed for another application or for cleaning since the developed gas cell presents removable electrical connections. We report the successful application of our electronic nose approach to detect 12 volatile organic compounds. Moreover, the response pattern of the cantilever arrays is interpreted via principal component analysis (PCA) techniques in order to identify samples. PMID:28538653

  10. Chemically responsive nanoporous pigments: colorimetric sensor arrays and the identification of aliphatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jin Ho; Lim, Sung H; Park, Erwin; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2008-11-18

    A general method has been developed for the preparation of microspheres of nanoporous pigments, their formulation into chemically responsive pigment inks, and the printing of these inks as colorimetric sensor arrays. Using an ultrasonic-spray aerosol-gel synthesis from chemically responsive dyes and common silica precursors, 16 different nanoporous pigment microspheres have been prepared and characterized. New colorimetric sensor arrays have been created by printing inks of these chemically responsive pigments as primary sensor elements; these arrays have been successfully tested for the detection, identification, and quantitation of toxic aliphatic amines. Among 11 structurally similar amines, complete identification of each analyte without confusion was achieved using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Furthermore, visual identification of ammonia gas was easily made at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health), PEL (permissible exposure limits), and 0.1 PEL concentrations with high reproducibility.

  11. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN applications.

  12. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a MEMS nano-Tesla ferromagnetic-piezoelectric magnetic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Peng; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Bidthanapally, Rao; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Petrov, Vladimir; Qu, Hongwei

    2016-06-01

    A self-biased MEMS magnetic sensor array with ferromagnetic-piezoelectric composites has been fabricated and characterized. The array with two Quartz-Nickel-Metglas cantilevers with nano-tesla sensitivity was fabricated by MEMS processes including silicon-quartz low temperature bonding, quartz wafer thinning, and electroplating of thick nickel thin films. Under self-biasing due to magnetization grading of ferromagnetic layer, magnetoelectric coefficients of 6.6 and 5.6 V/cm Oe and resolutions of ˜0.58 and ˜0.75 nT are obtained at the mechanical resonant frequencies of 191.5 and 184.8 Hz for the two sensors in the array, respectively. Such arrays have the potential for applications in biomagnetic imaging technologies including magneto-cardiography.

  14. Cell-Based Odorant Sensor Array for Odor Discrimination Based on Insect Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termtanasombat, Maneerat; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Misawa, Nobuo; Yamahira, Shinya; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    The olfactory system of living organisms can accurately discriminate numerous odors by recognizing the pattern of activation of several odorant receptors (ORs). Thus, development of an odorant sensor array based on multiple ORs presents the possibility of mimicking biological odor discrimination mechanisms. Recently, we developed novel odorant sensor elements with high sensitivity and selectivity based on insect OR-expressing Sf21 cells that respond to target odorants by displaying increased fluorescence intensity. Here we introduce the development of an odorant sensor array composed of several Sf21 cell lines expressing different ORs. In this study, an array pattern of four cell lines expressing Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 was successfully created using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane film template and cell-immobilizing reagents, termed biocompatible anchor for membrane (BAM). We demonstrated that BAM could create a clear pattern of Sf21 sensor cells without impacting their odorant-sensing performance. Our sensor array showed odorant-specific response patterns toward both odorant mixtures and single odorant stimuli, allowing us to visualize the presence of 1-octen-3-ol, geosmin, bombykol, and bombykal as an increased fluorescence intensity in the region of Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, we successfully developed a new methodology for creating a cell-based odorant sensor array that enables us to discriminate multiple target odorants. Our method might be expanded into the development of an odorant sensor capable of detecting a large range of environmental odorants that might become a promising tool used in various applications including the study of insect semiochemicals and food contamination.

  15. Fabrication and Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, James S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Busch, Sara E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Porter, Frederick S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron pitch and smaller arrays of devices up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss the fabrication techniques used for each type of array focusing on unique aspects where processes vary to achieve the particular designs and required device parameters. For example, we evaluate various material combinations in the production of the thick metal heatsinking, including superconducting and normal metal adhesion layers. We also evaluate the impact of added heatsinking on the membrane isolated devices as it relates to basic device parameters. Arrays can be characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Device parameters can be measured simultaneously so that environmental events such as thermal drifts or changes in magnetic fields can be controlled. For some designs, we will evaluate the uniformity of parameters impacting the intrinsic performance of the microcalorimeters under bias in these arrays and assess the level of thermal crosstalk.

  16. Design and calibration of a six-axis MEMS sensor array for use in scoliosis correction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, David; Yue, Shichao; Lou, Edmond; Moussa, Walied A.

    2014-08-01

    A six-axis sensor array has been developed to quantify the 3D force and moment loads applied in scoliosis correction surgery. Initially this device was developed to be applied during scoliosis correction surgery and augmented onto existing surgical instrumentation, however, use as a general load sensor is also feasible. The development has included the design, microfabrication, deployment and calibration of a sensor array. The sensor array consists of four membrane devices, each containing piezoresistive sensing elements, generating a total of 16 differential voltage outputs. The calibration procedure has made use of a custom built load application frame, which allows quantified forces and moments to be applied and compared to the outputs from the sensor array. Linear or non-linear calibration equations are generated to convert the voltage outputs from the sensor array back into 3D force and moment information for display or analysis.

  17. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, Erik Eduard

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a microbioreactor array with integrated sensoss suitable for on-line screening of micro organisms is described. Therefore, an array of 2 micro bioreactors compatible with the 96-well microtiterplate format has been made and tested. The developed system was shown to 

  18. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Properties of Arterial Pulsation Measurement Using Pressure Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shing Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, a pulse taking platform is based on a single sensor, which initiates a feasible method of quantitative pulse diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to implement a pulse taking platform with a tactile array sensor. Three-dimensional wrist pulse signals are constructed, and the length, width, ascending slope, and descending slope are defined following the surface of the wrist pulse. And the pressure waveform of the wrist pulse obtained through proposed pulse-taking platform has the same performance as the single sensor. Finally, the results of a paired samples t-test reveal that the repeatability of the proposal platform is consistent with clinical experience. On the other hand, the results of ANOVA indicate that differences exist among different pulse taking depths, and this result is consistent with clinical experience in traditional Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis (TCMPD. Hence, the proposed pulse taking platform with an array sensor is feasible for quantification in TCMPD.

  20. Crosstalk suppression in networked resistive sensor arrays using virtual ground technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai Saxena, Raghvendra; Semwal, Sushil Kumar; Singh Rana, Pratap; Bhan, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    In 2D resistive sensor arrays, the interconnections are reduced considerably by sharing rows and columns among various sensor elements in such a way that one end of each sensor is connected to a row node and other end connected to a column node. This scheme results in total N + M interconnections for N × M array of sensors. Thus, it simplifies the interconnect complexity but suffers from the crosstalk problem among its elements. We experimentally demonstrate that this problem can be overcome by putting all the row nodes at virtually equal potential using virtual ground of high gain operational amplifiers in negative feedback. Although it requires large number of opamps, it solves the crosstalk problem to a large extent. Additionally, we get the response of all the sensors lying in a column simultaneously, resulting in a faster scanning capability. By performing lock-in-amplifier based measurements on a light dependent resistor at a randomly selected location in a 4 × 4 array of otherwise fixed valued resistors, we have shown that the technique can provide 86 dB crosstalk suppression even with a simple opamp. Finally, we demonstrate the circuit implementation of this technique for a 16 × 16 imaging array of light dependent resistors.

  1. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J. M.; Barbastathis, G.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2012-11-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa-1. A high resolution of 25 mm s-1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%.

  2. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM, the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm.

  3. A NEW FABRICATION PROCESS FOR A FLEXIBLE SKIN WITH TEMPERATURE SENSOR ARRAY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Gwo-Bin; HUANG Fu-Chun; Lee Chia-Yen; Mian Jiun-Jih

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a novel technique for fabrication of a flexible skin with a temperature sensor array (40 × 1 sensors). A simplified MEMS technology using platinum resistors as sensing materials, which are sandwiched between two polyimide layers as flexible substrates is developed. The two polyimide layers are deposited on top of a thin aluminum layer, which serves as a sacrificial layer such that the flexible skin can be released by metal etching and peeled off easily. The flexible skin with a temperature sensor array has a high mechanical flexibility and can be handily attached on a highly curved surface to detect tiny temperature distribution inside a small area. The sensor array shows a linear output and has a sensitivity of 7.SmV/℃ (prior to amplifiers) at a drive current of 1 mA. To demonstrate its applications, two examples have been demonstrated, including measurement of temperature distribution around a micro heater of a micro PCR (polymerase chain reaction) chip for DNA amplification and detection of separation point for flow over a circular cylinder. The development of the flexible skin with a temperature sensor array may be crucial for measuring temperature distribution on any curved surface in the fields of aerodynamics, space exploration, auto making and biomedical applications etc.

  4. Development of multianalyte sensor arrays for continuous monitoring of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Richards, J.B.; Brown, S.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Healey, B.G.; Chadha, S.; Walt, D. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Industrial development has led to the release of numerous hazardous materials into the environment posing a potential threat to surrounding waters. Environmental analysis of sites contaminated by several chemicals calls for continuous monitoring of multiple analytes. Monitoring can be achieved by using imaging bundles (300--400 {micro}m in diameter), containing several thousand individual optical fibers for the fabrication of sensors. Multiple sensor sites are created at the distal end of the fiber by immobilizing different analyte-specific fluorescent dyes. By coupling these imaging fibers to a charge coupled device (CCD), one has the ability to spatially and spectrally discriminate the multiple sensing sites simultaneously and hence monitor analyte concentrations.

  5. Extraction and evaluation of gas-flow-dependent features from dynamic measurements of gas sensors array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz; Jasiński, Grzegorz; Jasiński, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Gas analyzers based on gas sensors are the devices which enable recognition of various kinds of volatile compounds. They have continuously been developed and investigated for over three decades, however there are still limitations which slow down the implementation of those devices in many applications. For example, the main drawbacks are the lack of selectivity, sensitivity and long term stability of those devices caused by the drift of utilized sensors. This implies the necessity of investigations not only in the field of development of gas sensors construction, but also the development of measurement procedures or methods of analysis of sensor responses which compensate the limitations of sensors devices. One of the fields of investigations covers the dynamic measurements of sensors or sensor-arrays response with the utilization of flow modulation techniques. Different gas delivery patterns enable the possibility of extraction of unique features which improves the stability and selectivity of gas detecting systems. In this article three utilized flow modulation techniques are presented, together with the proposition of the evaluation method of their usefulness and robustness in environmental pollutants detecting systems. The results of dynamic measurements of an commercially available TGS sensor array in the presence of nitrogen dioxide and ammonia are shown.

  6. A Method of Reducing Random Drift in the Combined Signal of an Array of Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Invention [0003] The present invention relates to the components of inertial measurement units, sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. More...METHOD OF REDUCING RANDOM DRIFT IN THE COMBINED SIGNAL OF AN ARRAY OF INERTIAL SENSORS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described...royalties thereon or therefore. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the

  7. A Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting SF6 decomposition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tie, Jing; Zhang, Jinbin

    2013-10-30

    The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor's response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  8. Passive Detection of Narrowband Sources Using a Sensor Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Candy, J V; Guidry, B L

    2007-10-24

    In this report we derive a model for a highly scattering medium, implemented as a set of MATLAB functions. This model is used to analyze an approach for using time-reversal to enhance the detection of a single frequency source in a highly scattering medium. The basic approach is to apply the singular value decomposition to the multistatic response matrix for a time-reversal array system. We then use the array in a purely passive mode, measuring the response to the presence of a source. The measured response is projected onto the singular vectors, creating a time-reversal pseudo-spectrum. We can then apply standard detection techniques to the pseudo-spectrum to determine the presence of a source. If the source is close to a particular scatterer in the medium, then we would expect an enhancement of the inner product between the array response to the source with the singular vector associated with that scatterer. In this note we begin by deriving the Foldy-Lax model of a highly scattering medium, calculate both the field emitted by the source and the multistatic response matrix of a time-reversal array system in the medium, then describe the initial analysis approach.

  9. X-ray imaging sensor arrays on foil using solution processed organic photodiodes and organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan-Laurens; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Rodriguez, Francisco G.; Maas, Joris; Simon, Matthias; Reutten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Shafique, Umar; Andriessen, Ronn; Heremans, Paul; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate organic imaging sensor arrays fabricated on flexible plastic foil with the solution processing route for both photodiodes and thin film transistors. We used the photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM blend for fabricating the photodiodes using spin coating and pentacene as semiconductor material for the TFTs. Photodiodes fabricated with P3HT:PCBM absorb in the green part of the visible spectrum which matches with the typical scintillator output wavelength. The arrays consist of 32x32 pixels with variation in pixel resolution of 200μmx200μm, 300μmx300μm and of 1mmx1mm. The accurate reproducibility of shadow images of the objects demonstrates the potential of these arrays for imaging purposes. We also demonstrate that the crosstalk is relatively insignificant despite the fact that the active photodiode forms a continuous layer in the array. Since both photodiodes and TFTs are made of organic material, they are processed at low temperatures below 150°C on foil which means that these imaging sensors can be flexible, light weight and low cost when compared to conventional amorphous silicon based imaging sensors on rigid substrates. In combination with a scintillator on top of the arrays, we show the potential of these arrays for the X-ray imaging applications.

  10. Highly sensitive label-free dual sensor array for rapid detection of wound bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Roya; Shukla, Anita

    2017-06-15

    Wound infections are a critical healthcare concern worldwide. Rapid and effective antibiotic treatments that can mitigate infection severity and prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance are contingent upon timely infection detection. In this work, dual electrochemical pH and cell-attachment sensor arrays were developed for the real-time spatial and temporal monitoring of potential wound infections. Biocompatible polymeric device coatings were integrated to stabilize the sensors and promote bacteria attachment while preventing non-specific cell and protein fouling. High sensitivity (bacteria concentration of 10(2) colony forming units (CFU)/mL and -88.1±6.3mV/pH over a pH range of 1-13) and stability over 14 days were achieved without the addition of biological recognition elements. The dual sensor array was demonstrated to successfully monitor the growth of both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) over time through lag and log growth phases and following antibiotic administration and in simulated shallow wounds conditions. The versatile fabrication methods utilized in sensor development, superior sensitivity, prolonged stability, and lack of non-specific sensor fouling may enable long-term in situ sensor array operation in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Multi-Modality CMOS Sensor Array for Cell-Based Assay and Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Taiyun; Park, Jong Seok; Butts, Jessica C; Hookway, Tracy A; Su, Amy; Zhu, Chengjie; Styczynski, Mark P; McDevitt, Todd C; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated multi-modality CMOS cellular sensor array with four sensing modalities to characterize different cell physiological responses, including extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance mapping, optical detection with shadow imaging and bioluminescence sensing, and thermal monitoring. The sensor array consists of nine parallel pixel groups and nine corresponding signal conditioning blocks. Each pixel group comprises one temperature sensor and 16 tri-modality sensor pixels, while each tri-modality sensor pixel can be independently configured for extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance measurement (voltage excitation/current sensing), and optical detection. This sensor array supports multi-modality cellular sensing at the pixel level, which enables holistic cell characterization and joint-modality physiological monitoring on the same cellular sample with a pixel resolution of 80 μm × 100 μm. Comprehensive biological experiments with different living cell samples demonstrate the functionality and benefit of the proposed multi-modality sensing in cell-based assay and drug screening.

  12. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  13. Tomographic Imaging on Distributed Unattended Ground Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    around the next corner, what is upstairs, where is the person in a red jacket , or even what was the person in the red jacket doing 5 minutes ago...cameras and detectors to seismic , acoustic, magnetic, smoke, toxin, and temperature sensors. A working example of just such a network was developed at

  14. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of illegal materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2012-01-01

    and signal processing enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability, data acquisition time and data processing algorithms are necessary. In this research we work towards the development of a rapid, easy in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives) sensor based on a colorimetric sensing...

  15. Chemometric Classification of Unknown Vapors by Conversion of Sensor Array Pattern Vectors to Vapor Descriptors: Extension from Mass-Transducing Sensors To Volume-Transducing Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Wise, Barry M.

    2001-06-28

    A new chemometric method was recently described for classifying unknowns by transforming the vector containing the responses from a multivariate detector to a vector containing descriptors of the detected analyte (Grate et al. 1999). This approach was derived for sensor arrays where each sensor's signal is proportional to the amount of vapor sorbed by a polymer on the sensor surface. In this case, the response is proportional to the partition coefficient, K, and the concentration of the vapor in the gas phase, Cv, where K is the ratio of the concentration of vapor in the sorbent polymer phase, Cs, to Cv.

  16. Simulation of Eddy-Current Corrosion Detection Using a Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, V.; Bowler, J. R.

    2003-03-01

    A computer simulation has been developed to evaluate eddy-current probes containing magnetic field sensor arrays for the detection and evaluation of hidden corrosion. The simulation is used to assess probes that incorporate magneto-resistive or Hall devices in a closely-spaced, linear array. These probes will allow rapid data acquisition over a track width determined by the length of the array. The benefit of the simulation is that adjustments to the virtual probe parameters are easily made allowing improvements in sensitivity, imaging capability and resolution. A number of probe designs have been studied in this way including the "racetrack" probe.

  17. Development of Kilo-Pixel Arrays of Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C. A.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Smith, D. R.; Swetz, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing kilo-pixel arrays of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for future X-ray astronomy observatories or for use in laboratory astrophysics applications. For example, Athena/XMS (currently under study by the european space agency) would require a close-packed 32x32 pixel array on a 250-micron pitch with pixel/second. We present characterization of 32x32 arrays. These detectors will be readout using state of the art SQUID based time-domain multiplexing (TDM). We will also present the latest results in integrating these detectors and the TDM readout technology into a 16 row x N column field-able instrument.

  18. Equivalent thermal history reconstruction from a partially crystallized glass-ceramic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Bauke

    2015-11-01

    The basic concept of a thermal history sensor is that it records the accumulated exposure to some unknown, typically varying temperature profile for a certain amount of time. Such a sensor is considered to be capable of measuring the duration of several (N) temperature intervals. For this purpose, the sensor deploys multiple (M) sensing elements, each with different temperature sensitivity. At the end of some thermal exposure for a known period of time, the sensor array is read-out and an estimate is made of the set of N durations of the different temperature ranges. A potential implementation of such a sensor was pioneered by Fair et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 141, 245 (2008)], based on glass-ceramic materials with different temperature-dependent crystallization dynamics. In their work, it was demonstrated that an array of sensor elements can be made sensitive to slight differences in temperature history. Further, a forward crystallization model was used to simulate the variations in sensor array response to differences in the temperature history. The current paper focusses on the inverse aspect of temperature history reconstruction from a hypothetical sensor array output. The goal of such a reconstruction is to find an equivalent thermal history that is the closest representation of the true thermal history, i.e., the durations of a set of temperature intervals that result in a set of fractional crystallization values which is closest to the one resulting from the true thermal history. One particular useful simplification in both the sensor model as well as in its practical implementation is the omission of nucleation effects. In that case, least squares models can be used to approximate the sensor response and make reconstruction estimates. Even with this simplification, sensor noise can have a destabilizing effect on possible reconstruction solutions, which is evaluated using simulations. Both regularization and non-negativity constrained least squares

  19. Performance Analysis for Lateral-Line-Inspired Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    frequency is encoded in the nerve fibers connected to the lateral line [10], indicating that at least some high level information about vortices is being...Mogdans. Responses to dipole stimuli of anterior lateral line nerve fibres in goldfish, carassius auratus, under still and running water conditions...M. Humphreys. Wall-pressure-array measure- ments beneath a separating/ reattaching flow region. Physics of Fluids, 15(3):706–717, March 2003. [37

  20. Condition-Based Maintenance using Sensor Arrays and Telematics

    CERN Document Server

    Palem, Gopalakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of uniquely addressable embeddable devices has raised the bar on Telematics capabilities. Though the technology itself is not new, its application has been quite limited until now. Sensor based telematics technologies generate volumes of data that are orders of magnitude larger than what operators have dealt with previously. Real-time big data computation capabilities have opened the flood gates for creating new predictive analytics capabilities into an otherwise simple data log systems, enabling real-time control and monitoring to take preventive action in case of any anomalies. Condition-based-maintenance, usage-based-insurance, smart metering and demand-based load generation etc. are some of the predictive analytics use cases for Telematics. This paper presents the approach of condition-based maintenance using real-time sensor monitoring, Telematics and predictive data analytics.

  1. A portable interferometric micro-array reader on image sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Zafra, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Microarrays constitute a valuable analytical tool for multiplex and high-throughput analysis and are widely used in genomics and proteomics with many potential applications. During the last decades, protein chips have found increasing acceptance for diagnostic applications due to several advantages over conventional bioanalysis such as miniaturization, parallelization, real-time and sensitivity. Even though the majority of DNA-sensor systems relies on labeling of DNA, the recent prog...

  2. Wearable autonomous microsystem with electrochemical gas sensor array for real-time health and safety monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Mu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaowen; Guo, Min; Jin, Rong; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high demand for a wearable autonomous multi-analyte gas sensor system for real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a system level solution through synergistic integration of sensors, electronics, and data analysis algorithms. Electrochemical sensors featuring ionic liquids were chosen to provide low-power room-temperature operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, good selectivity, and a long operating life with low maintenance. The system utilizes a multi-mode electrochemical instrumentation circuit that combines all signal condition functions within a single microelectronics chip to minimize system cost, size and power consumption. Embedded sensor array signal processing algorithms enable gas classification and concentration estimation within a real-world mixture of analytes. System design and integration methodologies are described, and preliminary results are shown for a first generation SO(2) sensor and a thumb-drive sized prototype system.

  3. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2016-02-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor.

  4. Integrated label-free silicon nanowire sensor arrays for (bio)chemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Arpita; Nieuwkasteele, van Jan; Carlen, Edwin T.; Berg, van den Albert

    2013-01-01

    We present a label-free (bio)chemical analysis platform that uses all-electrical silicon nanowire sensor arrays integrated with a small volume microfluidic flow-cell for real-time (bio)chemical analysis and detection. The integrated sensing platform contains an automated multi-sample injection syste

  5. Sparsity and super-resolution in sound source localization with sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) is a method for solving such undetermined problems which achieves simultaneously sparsity, thus super-resolution, and computational...

  6. Sparsity and super-resolution in sound source localization with sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) is a method for solving such undetermined problems which achieves simultaneously sparsity, thus super-resolution, and computational...

  7. Data representation and feature selection for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Kostesha, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the strategic research project Xsense at the Technical University of Denmark, we are developing a colorimetric sensor array which can be useful for detection of explosives like DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence...

  8. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  9. X-ray imaging sensor arrays on foil using solution processed organic photodiodes and organic transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Moet, D.; Steen, J.L. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Maas, J.; Simon, M.; Reutten, W.; Douglas, A.; Raaijmakers, R.; Malinowski, P.E.; Myny, K.; Shafique, U.; Andriessen, R.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate organic imaging sensor arrays fabricated on flexible plastic foil with the solution processing route for both photodiodes and thin film transistors. We used the photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM blend for fabricating the photodiodes using spin coating and pentacene as semiconductor material for

  10. Compact Printed Arrays with Embedded Coupling Mitigation for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine G. Kakoyiannis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors emerged as narrowband, resource-constrained devices to provide monitoring services over a wide life span. Future applications of sensor networks are multimedia-driven and include sensor mobility. Thus, sensors must combine small size, large bandwidth, and diversity capabilities. Compact arrays, offering transmit/receive diversity, suffer from strong mutual coupling (MC, which causes lower antenna efficiency, loss of bandwidth, and signal correlation. An efficient technique to reduce coupling in compact arrays is described herein: a defect was inserted in the ground plane (GNDP area between each pair of elements. The defect disturbed the GNDP currents and offered multidecibel coupling suppression, bandwidth recovery, and reduction of in-band correlation. Minimal pattern distortion was estimated. Computational results were supported by measurements. The bandwidth of unloaded arrays degraded gracefully from 38% to 28% with decreasing interelement distance (0.25 to 0.10. Defect-loaded arrays exhibited active impedance bandwidths 37–45%, respectively. Measured coupling was reduced by 15–20 dB.

  11. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Oballe-Peinado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor.

  12. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsien-Chin; Huang, Su-Hua; Jiang, Joe-Air; Lee, Yeun-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES) array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA) platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC) source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives. PMID:28165412

  13. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chin Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives.

  14. High-Accuracy, Compact Scanning Method and Circuit for Resistive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The zero-potential scanning circuit is widely used as read-out circuit for resistive sensor arrays because it removes a well known problem: crosstalk current. The zero-potential scanning circuit can be divided into two groups based on type of row drivers. One type is a row driver using digital buffers. It can be easily implemented because of its simple structure, but we found that it can cause a large read-out error which originates from on-resistance of the digital buffers used in the row driver. The other type is a row driver composed of operational amplifiers. It, very accurately, reads the sensor resistance, but it uses a large number of operational amplifiers to drive rows of the sensor array; therefore, it severely increases the power consumption, cost, and system complexity. To resolve the inaccuracy or high complexity problems founded in those previous circuits, we propose a new row driver which uses only one operational amplifier to drive all rows of a sensor array with high accuracy. The measurement results with the proposed circuit to drive a 4 × 4 resistor array show that the maximum error is only 0.1% which is remarkably reduced from 30.7% of the previous counterpart.

  15. Development of a MEMS-based sensor array to characterise in situ loads during scoliosis correction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, D; Lou, E; Moussa, W

    2008-08-01

    Finite element analysis was implemented in three stages to design a piezoresistive, micro-electro-mechanical systems sensor array consisting of four-terminal sensors placed on deformable silicon diaphragms. This sensor array was used to retrofit the Contrel-Dubousset instrumentation in order to capture forces and moments applied by surgeons in real time during scoliosis correction surgery. Outputs from the sensor array have been designed to be compatible with a low-power wireless data transmission system that is currently being developed with a collaborating team in the biomedical industry. The designed sensor array is capable of resolving forces of up to 1000 N and moments of up to 4000 N mm in three dimensions during surgery. A process flow to produce the first prototyped version of this micro sensor with known performance characteristics is presented and tested. Acceptable correlation was found between the performance of the manufactured prototypes, numerical simulation and similar documented devices.

  16. Enzyme sensor array for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Jana [University of Greifswald, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Wittmann, Christine [Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Department of Technology (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme sensor array for the simultaneous determination of the three biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by pattern recognition using an artificial neural network and its application to different food samples is described. A combination of a monoamine oxidase, a tyramine oxidase and a diamine oxidase (with specific activities sufficient for rapid detection) are immobilised each on a separate screen-printed thick-film electrode via transglutaminase and glutaraldehyde to compare these cross-linking reagents with regard to their suitability. To calculate the amount of a specific biogenic amine, the raw data from multichannel software were transferred to a neural network. The sensor array takes 20 min to complete (excluding statistical data analysis) with only one extraction and subsequent neutralisation step required prior to sensor measurement. The lower detection limits with the enzyme sensor were 10 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine, and 5 mg/kg for putrescine with a linear range up to 200 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine and 100 mg/kg for putrescine. The application area of the enzyme sensor array was tested from fish to meat products, sauerkraut, beer, dairy products, wine and further fermented foods and compared with the data of conventional LC analyses (mean correlation coefficient: 0.854). (orig.)

  17. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  18. Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted Structures Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Ye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In eddy current non-destructive testing of a multi-layered riveted structure, rotating current excitation, generated by orthogonal coils, is advantageous in providing sensitivity to defects of all orientations. However, when used with linear array sensors, the exciting magnetic flux density ( B x of the orthogonal coils is not uniform over the sensor region, resulting in an output signal magnitude that depends on the relative location of the defect to the sensor array. In this paper, the rotating excitation coil is optimized to achieve a uniform B x field in the sensor array area and minimize the probe size. The current density distribution of the coil is optimized using the polynomial approximation method. A non-uniform coil design is derived from the optimized current density distribution. Simulation results, using both an optimized coil and a conventional coil, are generated using the finite element method (FEM model. The signal magnitude for an optimized coil is seen to be more robust with respect to offset of defects from the coil center. A novel multilayer coil structure, fabricated on a multi-layer printed circuit board, is used to build the optimized coil. A prototype probe with the optimized coil and 32 giant magnetoresistive (GMR sensors is built and tested on a two-layer riveted aluminum sample. Experimental results show that the optimized probe has better defect detection capability compared with a conventional non-optimized coil.

  19. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual

  20. Correction of Faulty Sensors in Phased Array Radars Using Symmetrical Sensor Failure Technique and Cultural Algorithm with Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three issues regarding sensor failure at any position in the antenna array are discussed. We assume that sensor position is known. The issues include raise in sidelobe levels, displacement of nulls from their original positions, and diminishing of null depth. The required null depth is achieved by making the weight of symmetrical complement sensor passive. A hybrid method based on memetic computing algorithm is proposed. The hybrid method combines the cultural algorithm with differential evolution (CADE which is used for the reduction of sidelobe levels and placement of nulls at their original positions. Fitness function is used to minimize the error between the desired and estimated beam patterns along with null constraints. Simulation results for various scenarios have been given to exhibit the validity and performance of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Arrays of TiO2 Nanowires as Photoelectrochemical Sensors for Hydrazine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ongaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes based on arrays of TiO2 nanowires were prepared by template sol-gel synthesis with the goal of developing a hydrazine photoelectrochemical sensor. Experimental conditions were chosen so that the gelation reaction occurred inside the nanopores of track-etched polycarbonate membranes, with consequent filling with TiO2 nanowires. Different procedures for the removal of the template were examined, in order to obtain arrays of self-standing TiO2 nanowires. The nanowire arrays were bound to fluorine doped tin oxide substrates to produce handy photoelectrodes. The photocurrent recorded with the photoelectrodes in the presence of hydrazine showed significant dependence on the pollutant concentration. The development of a photoelectrochemical sensor for hydrazine detection in water samples, based on this principle, is presented.

  2. Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial filtering velocimetry sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Finn; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors based on spatial filtering for measuring fluctuations in angular velocity of rotating solid structures. The algorithm is applicable for signals with moderate signal-to-noise ratios, and delivers...... a "real-time" output (0-1 kHz). The sensors use optical spatial-filtering velocimetry on the dynamical speckles arising from scattering off a rotating solid object with a non-specular surface. The technology measures the instantaneous angular velocity of a target, without being biased by any linear...... factor is directly related to the thermal expansion and refractive-index coefficients of the optics (> 10(-5) K-1 for glass). By cascade-coupling an array of sensors, the ensemble-averaged angular velocity is measured in "real-time". This will reduce the influence of pseudo-vibrations arising from...

  3. Performance investigation of side-coupled interlaced symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-12-01

    We design symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal sensor arrays (SSPhCSAs) which can be used in refractive index sensing, and the performance of the structure is investigated. The structure consists of four symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal (SSPhC) cavities side-coupled to a W1 photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide. Each cavity has slightly different cavity spacing with different resonant frequency. By using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method, the simulation result obtained indicates the performance of the sensor arrays. The sensitivities of the four sensor units are 178, 252, 328 and 398 nm/RIU, respectively, with the detection limit of 10-3. The crosstalk lower than 20 dB is obtained.

  4. An optode sensor array for long term in situ Oxygen measurements in soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars F; Jensen, Louise Askær; Walpersdorf, Eva Christine

    2013-01-01

    characteristics of the sensor array system are presented along with a novel approach for temperature compensation of O2 optodes. During in situ application over several months in a peat bog, we used the new device to document pronounced variations in O2 distribution aft er marked shift s in water level. Th e......Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We...... constructed an O2 optode sensor array for long-term in situ measurements in soil and sediment. Th e new device consists of a 1.3-m-long, cylindrical, spear-shaped rod equipped with 10 sensor spots along the shaft . Each spot contains a thermocouple fi xed with a robust fi beroptic O2 optode made...

  5. Vector-Sensor Array Processing for Polarization Parameters and DOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method allowing a complete characterization of wave signals received on a vector-sensor array. The proposed technique is based on wavefields separation processing and on estimation of fundamental waves attributes as the state of polarization state and the direction of arrival. Estimation of these attributes is an important step in data processing for a wide range of applications where vector sensor antennas technology is involved such as seismic processing, electromagnetic fields studies, and telecommunications. Compared to the classic techniques, the proposed method is based on computation of multicomponent wideband spectral matrices which enable to take into account all information given by the vector sensor array structures and thus provide a complete characterization of a larger number of sources.

  6. FBG sensor array-based-low speed impact localization system on composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Yaozhang; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Lu, Shizeng; Jia, Lei

    2016-03-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors-based impact localization system on composite structure and a novel localization algorithm independent of wave velocity were proposed. Six FBG sensors constitute two isosceles right triangle FBG arrays. Impact signals were detected by a high-speed FBG interrogation system. Morlet wavelet transform was employed to extract time differences of impact signals. The straight lines equations, which are through impact source and FBG sensors of right-angled vertices of FBG arrays, can be obtained by the time differences. The coordinate of impact source is the intersection of straight lines. Testing experiments were carried out on composite plate within 400 mm × 400 mm monitor area. The experimental results showed that the maximum and average errors were 20.92 and 8.67 mm, respectively. This article provides a simple and stable impact source localization system independent of wave velocity.

  7. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  8. Towards sensor array materials: can failure be delayed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekid, Samir; Saheb, Nouari; Khan, Shafique M. A.; Qureshi, Khurram K.

    2015-06-01

    Further to prior development in enhancing structural health using smart materials, an innovative class of materials characterized by the ability to feel senses like humans, i.e. ‘nervous materials’, is discussed. Designed at all scales, these materials will enhance personnel and public safety, and secure greater reliability of products. Materials may fail suddenly, but any system wishes that failure is known in good time and delayed until safe conditions are reached. Nervous materials are expected to be the solution to this statement. This new class of materials is based on the novel concept of materials capable of feeling multiple structural and external stimuli, e.g. stress, force, pressure and temperature, while feeding information back to a controller for appropriate real-time action. The strain-stress state is developed in real time with the identified and characterized source of stimulus, with optimized time response to retrieve initial specified conditions, e.g. shape and strength. Sensors are volumetrically embedded and distributed, emulating the human nervous system. Immediate applications are in aircraft, cars, nuclear energy and robotics. Such materials will reduce maintenance costs, detect initial failures and delay them with self-healing. This article reviews the common aspects and challenges surrounding this new class of materials with types of sensors to be embedded seamlessly or inherently, including appropriate embedding manufacturing techniques with modeling and simulation methods.

  9. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  10. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law ...calibration exercises were conducted. The first exercise examined the MSA-Phase I dynamic sensors (ultrasonic anemometers); the second assessed the MSA...Phase I thermodynamic sensors (barometers, thermometers, hygrometers, and pyranometers). This report documents the results of a detailed calibration

  11. GPS Array as a Sensor of Lithosphere, Troposphere and Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese dense array of GPS receivers (GEONET) started operation in 1993, and is currently composed of ~1200 stations. GPS (or GNSS in general) receivers can be compared to a Swiss army knife: it could be used not only for positioning (a knife) but also for various purposes, e.g. remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor or ionospheric electrons (screw driver, tin opener etc). Dense GPS arrays have been found extremely useful for variety of geophysical studies. In this lecture, I briefly review their historical achievements, recent highlights, and future perspectives. In Japan, first generation GPS stations were implemented in 1993 (the Kanto-Tokai region) and 1994 (nationwide) by GSI, Japan. Shortly after the launch, they successfully caught coseismic crustal movement of several major earthquakes, the 1994 October Shikotan (Mw8.3), the 1994 December Sanriku (Mw7.6), and the 1995 January Kobe (Mw7.0) earthquakes. These earthquakes accelerated the densification of the GPS network, achieving 1000 in the number of stations within the following 2-3 years. In addition to coseismic jumps, important discoveries continued in 1990s, e.g. large-scale afterslip of interplate thrust earthquakes and slow slip events (SSE). Later it was shown that tilt- and strainmeter can better observe short-term SSEs, and InSAR can draw more detailed maps of coseismic crustal movements. Now GPS array is recognized as a good tool to measure crustal movement with high temporal resolution and stability and with moderate sensitivity and spatial resolution. GPS data are also useful to study hydrosphere. Seasonal crustal movements in Japan mainly reflect changes in hydrological loads. Multipath signatures in GPS data also provide useful information on the environment around the antenna, e.g. soil moisture, snow depth and vegetation. I will compare the snow depth record over a winter inferred by analyzing GPS multipath signatures, and observed by a conventional apparatus. GPS can also measure

  12. [Optimization method of MOS sensor array for identification of traditional Chinese medicine based on electronic nose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui-Qin; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Lin, Hui; Su, Yu-Zhen; Lin, Xiang-Long; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of sensor array is a significant topic in the application of electronic nose (EN). Stepwise discriminant analysis and cluster analysis combining with screening of typical index were employed to optimize the original array in the classification of 100 samples from 10 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine based on alpha-FOX3000 EN. And the identification ability was evaluated by three algorithm including principle component analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis and random forest. The results showed that the identification ability of EN was improved since not only the effective information was maintained but also the redundant one was eliminated by the optimized array. The optimized method was eventually established, it was accurate and efficient. And the optimized array was built up, that is, S1, S2, S5, S6, S8, S12.

  13. Intelligent Design of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Arrays Using Reciprocal Kernel Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Andrew W.

    Metal oxides are a staple of the sensor industry. The combination of their sensitivity to a number of gases, and the electrical nature of their sensing mechanism, make the particularly attractive in solid state devices. The high temperature stability of the ceramic material also make them ideal for detecting combustion byproducts where exhaust temperatures can be high. However, problems do exist with metal oxide sensors. They are not very selective as they all tend to be sensitive to a number of reduction and oxidation reactions on the oxide's surface. This makes sensors with large numbers of sensors interesting to study as a method for introducing orthogonality to the system. Also, the sensors tend to suffer from long term drift for a number of reasons. In this thesis I will develop a system for intelligently modeling metal oxide sensors and determining their suitability for use in large arrays designed to analyze exhaust gas streams. It will introduce prior knowledge of the metal oxide sensors' response mechanisms in order to produce a response function for each sensor from sparse training data. The system will use the same technique to model and remove any long term drift from the sensor response. It will also provide an efficient means for determining the orthogonality of the sensor to determine whether they are useful in gas sensing arrays. The system is based on least squares support vector regression using the reciprocal kernel. The reciprocal kernel is introduced along with a method of optimizing the free parameters of the reciprocal kernel support vector machine. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be simpler and to perform better than an earlier kernel, the modified reciprocal kernel. Least squares support vector regression is chosen as it uses all of the training points and an emphasis was placed throughout this research for extracting the maximum information from very sparse data. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be effective in modeling the sensor

  14. A composite sensor array impedentiometric electronic tongue Part II. Discrimination of basic tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G; Di Francesco, F; Marchetti, A; Ferro, M; Leardi, R; Ahluwalia, A

    2007-05-15

    An impedentiometric electronic tongue based on the combination of a composite sensor array and chemometric techniques aimed at the discrimination of soluble compounds able to elicit different gustative perceptions is presented. A composite array consisting of chemo-sensitive layers based on carbon nanotubes or carbon black dispersed in polymeric matrices and doped polythiophenes was used. The electrical impedance of the sensor array was measured at a frequency of 150 Hz by means of an impedance meter. The experimental set-up was designed in order to allow the automatic selection of a test solution and dipping of the sensor array following a dedicated measurement protocol. Measurements were carried out on 15 different solutions eliciting 5 different tastes (sodium chloride, citric acid, glucose, glutamic acid and sodium dehydrocholate for salty, sour, sweet, umami and bitter, respectively) at 3 concentration levels comprising the human perceptive range. In order to avoid over-fitting, more than 100 repetitions for each sample were carried in a 4-month period. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect and remove outliers. Classification was performed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A fairly good degree of discrimination was obtained.

  15. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pimentel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  16. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Li, Jian-Qing; Song, Ai-Guo

    2016-12-06

    With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements' bypass currents, which were injected into array's non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT) with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC) was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT's measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  17. Array of Love-wave sensors based on quartz/Novolac to detect CWA simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, D; Fontecha, J; Fernández, M J; Aleixandre, M; Gràcia, I; Cané, C; Horrillo, M C

    2011-09-15

    An array of Love-wave sensors based on quartz and Novolac has been developed to detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs). These weapons are a risk for human health due to their efficiency and high lethality; therefore an early and clear detection is of enormous importance for the people safety. Love-wave devices realized on quartz as piezoelectric substrate and Novolac as guiding layer have been used to make up an array of six sensors, which have been coated with specific polymers by spin coating. The CWAs are very dangerous and for safety reasons their well known simulants have been used: dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP), dipropyleneglycol methyl ether (DPGME), dimethylmethyl acetamide (DMA), dichloroethane (DCE), dichloromethane (DCM) and dichloropentane (DCP). The array has been exposed to these CWA simulants detecting very low concentrations, such as 25 ppb of DMMP, a simulant of nerve agent sarin. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) as data pre-processing and discrimination technique, and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) as patterns classification technique have been applied. The performance of the sensor array has shown stability, accuracy, high sensitivity and good selectivity to these simulants.

  18. Multi-channel optical sensor-array for measuring ballistocardiograms and respiratory activity in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüser, Christoph; Kerekes, Anna; Winter, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Our work covers improvements in sensors and signal processing for unobtrusive, long-term monitoring of cardiac (and respiratory) rhythms using only non-invasive vibration sensors. We describe a system for the unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs by means of an array of novel optical ballistocardiography (BCG) sensors placed underneath a regular bed mattress. Furthermore, we analyze the systems spatial sensitivity and present proof-of-concept results comparing our system to a more conventional BCG system based on a single electromechanical-film (EMFi) sensor. Our preliminary results suggest that the proposed optical multi-channel system could have the potential to reduce beat-to-beat heart rate estimation errors, as well as enable the analysis of more complex breathing patterns.

  19. Planar Array Sensor for High-speed Component Distribution Imaging in Fluid Flow Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Hampel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar array sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements ispresented which may be applied to visualize surface fluid distributions. The sensor ismanufactured using printed-circuit board fabrication technology and comprises of 64 x 64interdigital sensing structures. An associated electronics measures the electricalconductivity of the fluid over each individual sensing structure in a multiplexed manner byapplying a bipolar excitation voltage and by measuring the electrical current flowing from adriver electrode to a sensing electrode. After interrogating all sensing structures, a two-dimensional image of the conductivity distribution over a surface is obtained which in turnrepresents fluid distributions over sensor’s surface. The employed electronics can acquire upto 2500 frames per second thus being able to monitor fast transient phenomena. The systemhas been evaluated regarding measurement accuracy and depth sensitivity. Furthermore, theapplication of the sensor in the investigation of two different flow applications is presented.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fermented milk aroma compounds by a potentiometric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruskar, Mirjana; Major, Nikola; Krpan, Marina; Vahcić, Nada

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports on the application of an electronic tongue for simultaneous determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid content in probiotic fermented milk. The alphaAstree electronic tongue by Alpha M.O.S. was employed. The sensor array comprised of seven non-specific, cross-sensitive sensors developed especially for food analysis coupled with a reference Ag/AgCl electrode. Samples of plain, strawberry, apple-pear and forest-fruit flavored probiotic fermented milk were analyzed both by standard methods and by the potentiometric sensor array. The results obtained by these methods were used for the development of neural network models for rapid estimation of aroma compounds content in probiotic fermented milk. The highest correlation (0.967) and lowest standard deviation of error for the training (0.585), selection (0.503) and testing (0.571) subset was obtained for the estimation of ethanol content. The lowest correlation (0.669) was obtained for the estimation of acetaldehyde content. The model exhibited poor performance in average error and standard deviations of errors in all subsets which could be explained by low sensitivity of the sensor array to the compound. The obtained results indicate that the potentiometric electronic tongue coupled with artificial neural networks can be applied as a rapid method for the determination of aroma compounds in probiotic fermented milk.

  1. Optimizing Concentric Circular Antenna Arrays for High-Altitude Platforms Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Albagory

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN has gained interest in many applications and it becomes important to improve its performance. Antennas and communication performance are most important issues of WSN. In this paper, an adaptive concentric circular array (CCA is proposed to improve the link between the sink and sensor nodes. This technique is applied to the new High – Altitude Platform (HAP Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. The proposed array technique is applied for two coverage scenarios; a wider coverage cell of 30 km radius and a smaller cell of 8 km radius. The feasibility of the link is discussed where it shows the possibility of communications between the HAP sink station and sensor nodes located on the ground. The proposed CCA array is optimized using a modified Dolph-Chebyshev feeding function. A comparison with conventional antenna models in literature shows that the link performance in terms of bit energy to noise power spectral density ratio can be improved by up to 11.37 dB for cells of 8 km radius and 16.8 dB in the case of 30 km radius cells that make the link at 2.4 GHz feasible and realizable compared to using conventional antenna techniques.

  2. Application of Gas Sensor Arrays in Assessment of Wastewater Purification Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Guz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR. A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To analyze the measurement results, artificial neural networks were used. E-nose—gas sensors array and artificial neural networks proved to be a suitable method for the monitoring of treated wastewater quality. Neural networks used for data validation showed high correlation between the electronic nose readouts and: (I chemical oxygen demand (COD (r = 0.988; (II total suspended solids (TSS (r = 0.938; (III turbidity (r = 0.940; (IV pH (r = 0.554; (V nitrogen compounds: N-NO3 (r = 0.958, N-NO2 (r = 0.869 and N-NH3 (r = 0.978; (VI and volatile organic compounds (VOC (r = 0.987. Good correlation of the abovementioned parameters are observed under stable treatment conditions in a laboratory batch reactor.

  3. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-14

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the "Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry" technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.

  4. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  5. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  6. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum based on the gold film sensor using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei

    2015-10-01

    Hg2+ ions are one of the most toxic heavy metal ion pollutants, and are caustic and carcinogenic materials with high cellular toxicity. The Hg2+ ions can accumulate in the human body through the food chain and cause serious and permanent damage to the brain with both acute and chronic toxicity. According to the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml (10 nM) in drinking water. If the Hg2+ ions are higher than 2.5 ng/ml in serum, that will bring mercury poisoning. The traditional testing for Hg2+ ions includes atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These methods are usually coupled with gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. However, these instrument-based techniques are rather complicated, time-consuming, costly, and unsuitable for online and portable use. An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01 ng/ml for Hg2+ ions in fetal calf serum and that is lower than that was required Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml by the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. This sensor was designed on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg2+-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg2+ ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. A good liner relation was got with the coefficients of 0.9116 in 30% fetal calf serums with the linear part over a range of 0.01 ng/ml to10 ng/ml.

  7. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  8. Fibre-optic sensors using long-period gratings and microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael Shun Yee

    In this project, two fibre-optic sensing systems were developed which use long-period fibre grating (LPG) and Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibre for temperature and bending measurement. In order to realize the LPG grating sensor, two novel LPG fabrication techniques, namely, the microlens array technique and the plano-convex microlens techniques were also developed in this project. The microlens array is characterized by a higher transmission efficiency of UV laser light and higher LPG inscription efficiency than other conventional method, such as the amplitude mask technique. By using the same hydrogen loaded germanosilicate fibre and UV laser irradiation, the microlens array technique can produce an LPG rejection band with a peak loss of -11 dB after 50 seconds of UV laser irradiation while using a metal amplitude mask, a -10.9 dB resonant peak can only be produced after 200 seconds of UV laser irradiation. The microlens array technique was further improved by polishing the microlens array to produce the piano-convex microlens array via which the problems of damage to the microlens array and fibre due to internal focusing and excessive power on the inscription plane were eliminated. Also, the new method is capable of selective control of resonant peaks at higher harmonic frequencies by using the plano-convex microlens array with different polishing depths. In the second stage of the study, a highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a packaged LPG was developed. In addition, a low-cost and high return loss fibre-optic switch was implemented with this packaged LPG. In this project a simple LPG bending sensor was developed which is based on the measurement of total transmitted power, instead of the wavelength shift. It has been shown that the total transmitted power from a LPG has a linear response with respect to the bending curvature within the range from 0 to 0.001 mm-1. Therefore, this kind of LPGs can be used as bending sensors for different

  9. Fabrication of Microstripline Wiring for Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, J. M.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S.; Brekosky, R. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Erwin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadlier, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a process to integrate microstripline wiring with transition edge sensors (TES). The process includes additional layers for metal-etch stop and dielectric adhesion to enable recovery of parameters achieved in non-microstrip pixel designs. We report on device parameters in close-packed TES arrays achieved with the microstrip process including R(sub n), G, and T(sub c) uniformity. Further, we investigate limits of this method of producing high-density, microstrip wiring including critical current to determine the ultimate scalability of TES arrays with two layers of wiring.

  10. Hygroscopic particle behavior studied by interdigitated array microelectrode impedance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelholz, Eric; Tsui, Lok-kun; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-01-09

    The hygroscopic behavior of soluble salts bears importance in many research fields including atmospheric sciences, corrosion, porous building materials, and pharmaceuticals. Several methods have been used to study deliquescence (solid to liquid) and efflorescence (liquid to solid) phase transitions of these salts. In this study, we measured the deliquescence and efflorescence RH values of single salt microparticles deposited on an interdigitated microelectrode sensor via electrical impedance. The salts examined were NaCl, LiCl, NaBr, KCl, and MgCl2. Measured values were in agreement with in situ optical microscopic observations and, with the exception of MgCl2, literature values. In the case of MgCl2, deliquescence occurred at 33% RH and 12-15% RH, with the latter range being previously unreported. The depressed deliquescence RH was hypothesized to be a result of the formation of a metastable MgCl2 hydrate. Incomplete efflorescence of MgCl2 was also observed after exposure to <1.5% RH for up to 22 h due to formation of solid shells which trapped fluid. The phenomena elucidated by these results provide an explanation for the anomalous water retention and uptake behavior of MgCl2 below 33% RH reported elsewhere in the literature. The results presented in this study validate the use of this method as an alternative or complementary method for study of bulk-phase transitions of substrate-deposited particles across a broad RH range. These findings also demonstrate the utility of this method for detection of fluid trapping which cannot be directly ascertained by gravimetric and line-of-sight techniques commonly used in the study of hygroscopic particles.

  11. Fast direction of arrival algorithm based on vector-sensor arrays using wideband sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guo-cang; HUI Jun-ying; CHEN Yang

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic vector sensor (AVS) can capture more information than a conventional acoustic pressure sensor (APS). As a result, more output channels are required when multiple AVS are formed into arrays, making processing the data stream computationally intense. This paper proposes a new algorithm based on the propagator method for wideband coherent sources that eliminates eigen-decomposition in order to reduce the computational burden. Data from simulations and lake trials showed that the new algorithm is valid: it resolves coherent sources, breaks left/right ambiguity, and allows inter element spacing to exceed a half-wavelength.

  12. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other different data fusion methods.

  13. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds.

  14. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Hall Effect Sensor Array Applied to Recycling Hard Drive Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths are an important resource for many electronic components and technologies. Examples abound including Neodymium magnets used in mobile devices and computer hard drives (HDDs), and a variety of renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind turbines). Approximately 21,000 metric tons of Neodymium is processed annually with less than 1% being recycled. An economic system to assist in the recycling of magnet material from post-consumer goods, such as Neodymium Iron Boron magnets commonly found in hard drives is presented. A central component of this recycling measurement system uses an array of 128 Hall Effect sensors arranged in two columns to detect the magnetic flux lines orthogonal to the HDD. Results of using the system to scan planar shaped objects such as hard drives to identify and spatially locate rare-earth magnets for removal and recycling from HDDs are presented. Applications of the sensor array in other identification and localization of magnetic components and assemblies will be presented.

  16. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin

    2014-02-15

    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively.

  17. Monolithic photovotaic PbS-on-Si infrared-sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, J.; Zogg, H.; Maissen, C.; Blunier, S. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Industrielle Forschung, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., ETH-Honggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (CH)); Ishida, A. (Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    The authors have grown epitaxial narrow-gap PbS-on-Si substrates using a stacked CaF{sub 2}-BaF{sub 2} intermediate buffer layer, and have fabricated linear arrays of photovoltaic infrared (IR) sensors in the PbS layer for the first time. The sensors of the array exhibit resistance-area products at zero bias of 3{Omega}{center dot}cm{sup 2} at 200 K (3.4-{mu}m cutoff wavelength) and 2{center dot}10{sup 5} {Omega}{center dot}cm{sup 2} at 84 K (4-{mu}m cutoff), with corresponding detectivities of 2{center dot}10{sup 10} and 1{center dot}10{sup 13}cm{center dot}{radical}Hz/W, respectively.

  18. Aircraft Aerodynamic Parameter Detection Using Micro Hot-Film Flow Sensor Array and BP Neural Network Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ruiyi; Zhu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Air speed, angle of sideslip and angle of attack are fundamental aerodynamic parameters for controlling most aircraft. For small aircraft for which conventional detecting devices are too bulky and heavy to be utilized, a novel and practical methodology by which the aerodynamic parameters are inferred using a micro hot-film flow sensor array mounted on the surface of the wing is proposed. A back-propagation neural network is used to model the coupling relationship between readings of the sensor array and aerodynamic parameters. Two different sensor arrangements are tested in wind tunnel experiments and dependence of the system performance on the sensor arrangement is analyzed. PMID:23112638

  19. Quickest Detection of a Random Signal in Background Noise Using a Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor H Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detecting the onset of a signal impinging at an unknown angle on a sensor array is considered. An algorithm based on parallel CUSUM tests matched to each of a set of discrete beamforming angles is proposed. Analytical approximations are developed for the mean time between false alarms, and for the detection delay of this algorithm. Simulations are included to verify the results of this analysis.

  20. Circuit design for the retina-like image sensor based on space-variant lens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongxun; Hao, Qun; Jin, Xuefeng; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yue; Song, Yong; Fan, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Retina-like image sensor is based on the non-uniformity of the human eyes and the log-polar coordinate theory. It has advantages of high-quality data compression and redundant information elimination. However, retina-like image sensors based on the CMOS craft have drawbacks such as high cost, low sensitivity and signal outputting efficiency and updating inconvenience. Therefore, this paper proposes a retina-like image sensor based on space-variant lens array, focusing on the circuit design to provide circuit support to the whole system. The circuit includes the following parts: (1) A photo-detector array with a lens array to convert optical signals to electrical signals; (2) a strobe circuit for time-gating of the pixels and parallel paths for high-speed transmission of the data; (3) a high-precision digital potentiometer for the I-V conversion, ratio normalization and sensitivity adjustment, a programmable gain amplifier for automatic generation control(AGC), and a A/D converter for the A/D conversion in every path; (4) the digital data is displayed on LCD and stored temporarily in DDR2 SDRAM; (5) a USB port to transfer the data to PC; (6) the whole system is controlled by FPGA. This circuit has advantages as lower cost, larger pixels, updating convenience and higher signal outputting efficiency. Experiments have proved that the grayscale output of every pixel basically matches the target and a non-uniform image of the target is ideally achieved in real time. The circuit can provide adequate technical support to retina-like image sensors based on space-variant lens array.

  1. Mission-Oriented Sensor Arrays and UAVs - a Case Study on Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, N. M.; Freire, I. L.; Trindade, O.; Simões, E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA), proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013), aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software) from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical). As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  2. Electrowetting liquid lens array on curved substrates for wide field of view image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yousung; Lee, Muyoung; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    In this research, electrowetting liquid lens array on curved substrates is developed for wide field of view image sensor. In the conventional image sensing system, this lens array is usually in the form of solid state. However, in this state, the lens array which is similar to insect-like compound eyes in nature has several limitations such as degradation of image quality and narrow field of view because it cannot adjust focal length of lens. For implementation of the more enhanced system, the curved array of lenses based on electrowetting effect is developed in this paper, which can adjust focal length of lens. The fabrication of curved lens array is conducted upon the several steps, including chamber fabrication, electrode & dielectric layer deposition, liquid injection, and encapsulation. As constituent materials, IZO coated convex glass, UV epoxy (NOA 68), DI water, and dodecane are used. The number of lenses on the fabricated panel is 23 by 23 and each lens has 1mm aperture with 1.6mm pitch between adjacent lenses. When the voltage is applied on the device, it is observed that each lens is changed from concave state to convex state. From the unique optical characteristics of curved array of liquid lenses such as controllable focal length and wide field of view, we can expect that it has potential applications in various fields such as medical diagnostics, surveillance systems, and light field photography.

  3. MISSION-ORIENTED SENSOR ARRAYS AND UAVs – A CASE STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Figueira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA, proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013, aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical. As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  4. Monitoring and evaluation of alcoholic fermentation processes using a chemocapacitor sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-09-02

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument.

  5. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  6. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  7. Polymer microlens array integrated with imaging sensors by UV-molding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jianjun; Zhao, Yue; Ke, Caijun; Yi, Xinjian; Zhang, TianXu

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication of Polymer microlens array based on UV-molding techniques is presented. UV-molding enables for the integration of polymer microlens array on top of arbitrary substrates like glass, silicon other polymeric films. In this technique, photoresist or glass mold is first fabricated by conventional photolithnic method and subsequently served as transparent replication tool. UV curable polymer resin is then coated on patterned or unpatterned substrates and a contact mask aligner is used to align substrates and replication mold tool and then make the mold immersed into the resin. Replication of polymer on substrates is achieved by UV photopolymerisation of the resin. Resin thickness and gap distance between mold and substrate are carefully controlled in order to obtain acceptable thickness of cured polymer base. The UV molding technique was used to molding of a polymer film carring microlens array on the surface of an experimental CCD imaging sensor chip in this paper to enhance its fill factor and sensitivity.

  8. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  9. Micro-drilling of polymer tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 μm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 μm were...... reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals...... were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM....

  10. Micro-drilling of polymer tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Jan; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-05-14

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  11. Pairwise graphical models for structural health monitoring with dense sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ghazi, Reza; Chen, Justin G.; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-09-01

    Through advances in sensor technology and development of camera-based measurement techniques, it has become affordable to obtain high spatial resolution data from structures. Although measured datasets become more informative by increasing the number of sensors, the spatial dependencies between sensor data are increased at the same time. Therefore, appropriate data analysis techniques are needed to handle the inference problem in presence of these dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses graphical models (GM) for considering the spatial dependencies between sensor measurements in dense sensor networks or arrays to improve damage localization accuracy in structural health monitoring (SHM) application. Because there are always unobserved damaged states in this application, the available information is insufficient for learning the GMs. To overcome this challenge, we propose an approximated model that uses the mutual information between sensor measurements to learn the GMs. The study is backed by experimental validation of the method on two test structures. The first is a three-story two-bay steel model structure that is instrumented by MEMS accelerometers. The second experimental setup consists of a plate structure and a video camera to measure the displacement field of the plate. Our results show that considering the spatial dependencies by the proposed algorithm can significantly improve damage localization accuracy.

  12. Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

  13. Design, optimization and evaluation of a "smart" pixel sensor array for low-dose digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Xinghui; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely used to build flat-panel X-ray detectors for digital radiography (DR). As the demand for low-dose X-ray imaging grows, a detector with high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) pixel architecture emerges. "Smart" pixel is intended to use a dual-gate photosensitive TFT for sensing, storage, and switch. It differs from a conventional passive pixel sensor (PPS) and active pixel sensor (APS) in that all these three functions are combined into one device instead of three separate units in a pixel. Thus, it is expected to have high fill factor and high spatial resolution. In addition, it utilizes the amplification effect of the dual-gate photosensitive TFT to form a one-transistor APS that leads to a potentially high SNR. This paper addresses the design, optimization and evaluation of the smart pixel sensor and array for low-dose DR. We will design and optimize the smart pixel from the scintillator to TFT levels and validate it through optical and electrical simulation and experiments of a 4x4 sensor array.

  14. A Triboelectric Sensor Array for Electrostatic Studies on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Calle, C. I.

    2015-01-01

    The moons electrostatic environment requires careful consideration in the development of future lunar landers. Electrostatically charged dust was well documented during the Apollo missions to cause thermal control, mechanical, and visibility issues. The fine dust particles that make up the surface are electrostatically charged as a result of numerous charging mechanisms. The relatively dry conditions on the moon creates a prime tribocharging environment during surface operations. The photoelectric effect is dominant for lunar day static charging, while plasma electrons are the main contributor for lunar night electrostatic effects. Electrostatic charging is also dependent on solar intensity, Earth-moon relative positions, and cosmic ray flux. This leads to a very complex and dynamic electrostatic environment that must be studied for the success of long term lunar missions.In order to better understand the electrostatic environment of planetary bodies, Kennedy Space Center, in previous collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed an electrostatic sensor suite. One of the instruments included in this package is the triboelectric sensor array. It is comprised of strategically selected materials that span the triboelectric series and that also have previous spaceflight history. In this presentation, we discuss detailed testing with the triboelectric sensor array performed at Kennedy Space Center. We will discuss potential benefits and use cases of this low mass, low cost sensor package, both for science and for mission success.

  15. Design and characterization of novel all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array dedicated to physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyłowska-Mamińska, Renata; Kloch, Monika; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Bala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    A novel construction of all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array designed for physiological measurements has been presented. The planar construction and elimination of liquid phase creates broad opportunities for the modifications in the sensing part of the sensor. The designed construction is based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes integrated with the ionic-liquid based reference electrode. Work parameters of the sensor arrays were characterized. It has been shown that presented sensor design indicates high sensitivity (55.2±1mV/dec, 56.3±2mV/dec, 58.4±1mV/dec and 53.5±1mV/pH for sodium-, potassium-, chloride- and pH-selective electrodes, respectively in 10(-5)-10(-1.5)M range of primary ions), low response time (t95 did not exceed 10s), high potential stability (potential drift in 28-h measurement was ca. ±2mV) and potential repeatability ca. ±1mV. The system was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+) and pH in the model physiological solution and for the ion flux studies in human colon epithelium Caco-2 cell line as well.

  16. A Supramolecular Sensor Array Using Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Glyphosate and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Ye, Hebo; You, Lei; Chen, Xueyuan

    2016-01-13

    Lanthanide (Ln(3+))-doped nanoparticles (NPs) are an intensive area of research in chemical and materials sciences. Herein a sensor array of Ln(3+)-doped NPs was developed for the first time toward sensitive molecular sensing based on a novel strategy of the hybridized time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) with the indicator displacement assay (IDA) concept (TR-FRET-IDA). The sensor platform was generated in situ by binding a series of negatively charged indicators on the surface of ligand-free LiYF4:Ce/Tb NPs. The TR-FRET between NPs and dyes resulted in indicator emission and was employed as a means of removing undesired short-lived background luminescence from the indicator effectively. Displacement of indicators from the NP/indicator ensembles by glyphosate, a common herbicide, led to turn-off of the indicator emission. The sensor array was able to successfully discriminate 11 biologically relevant anions with high accuracy and sensitivity in pure aqueous buffer both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, the differentiation of six model proteins in the nM range was achieved with 100% accuracy for the classification, thereby demonstrating the versatility of this simple sensor platform. The study of the mechanism of binding and signal modulation further verified TR-FRET-IDA as a reliable sensing paradigm.

  17. Development of Ultra-Low Power Metal Oxide Sensors and Arrays for Embedded Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent; Wind, Rikard; Kostelecky, Clayton; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Deininger, Debra

    2011-09-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are widely used as individual sensors and in arrays, and a variety of designs for low power microhotplates have been demonstrated.1 Synkera Technologies has developed an embeddable chemical microsensor platform, based on a unique ceramic MEMS technology, for practical implementation in cell phones and other mobile electronic devices. Key features of this microsensor platform are (1) small size, (2) ultra-low power consumption, (3) high chemical sensitivity, (4) accurate response to a wide-range of threats, and (5) low cost. The sensor platform is enabled by a combination of advances in ceramic micromachining, and precision deposition of sensing films inside the high aspect ratio pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO).

  18. Enhanced processing in arrays of optimally tuned nonlinear biomimetic sensors: A coupling-mediated Ringelmann effect and its dynamical mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexander P.; Bulsara, Adi R.; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by recent results on self-tunability in the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, we describe an array of magnetic sensors where each individual sensor can self-tune to an optimal operating regime. The self-tuning gives the array its "biomimetic" features. We show that the overall performance of the array can, as expected, be improved by increasing the number of sensors but, however, coupling between sensors reduces the overall performance even though the individual sensors in the system could see an improvement. We quantify the similarity of this phenomenon to the Ringelmann effect that was formulated 103 years ago to account for productivity losses in human and animal groups. We propose a global feedback scheme that can be used to greatly mitigate the performance degradation that would, normally, stem from the Ringelmann effect.

  19. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2} absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  20. A new sparse design method on phased array-based acoustic emission sensor for partial discharge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng; Li, Yanqing

    2014-03-01

    The acoustic detecting performance of a partial discharge (PD) ultrasonic sensor array can be improved by increasing the number of array elements. However, it will increase the complexity and cost of the PD detection system. Therefore, a sparse sensor with an optimization design can be chosen to ensure good acoustic performance. In this paper, first, a quantitative method is proposed for evaluating the acoustic performance of a square PD ultrasonic array sensor. Second, a method of sparse design is presented to combine the evaluation method with the chaotic monkey algorithm. Third, an optimal sparse structure of a 3 × 3 square PD ultrasonic array sensor is deduced. It is found that, under different sparseness and sparse structure, the main beam width of the directivity function shows a small variation, while the sidelobe amplitude shows a bigger variation. For a specific sparseness, the acoustic performance under the optimal sparse structure is close to that using a full array. Finally, some simulations based on the above method show that, for certain sparseness, the sensor with the optimal sparse structure exhibits superior positioning accuracy compared to that with a stochastic one. The sensor array structure may be chosen according to the actual requirements for an actual engineering application.

  1. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  2. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C.; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  3. A customized metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensor array for onion quality evaluation: system development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C; Li, Changying

    2015-01-12

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  4. Hi-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation based on Tactile Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Wataru; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Kojima, Fumio; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Tadashi; Imamura, Nobuaki; Shirasawa, Hidenori

    Recently, a robotic hand with tactile sensors is developed all over the world. We also have developed a universal robot hand with tactile sensors and other sensors. Tactile sensors are very important for manipulating objects dexterously. However, array-type tactile sensor has many I/O, thus require much processing time. In this paper, we propose a hi-speed tactile sensing based on the genetic algorithm in order to measure the tactile information rapidly. The validity of the proposed method shows through some experiments. Moreover, a multi-object manipulation according to the tactile information is proposed.

  5. Direction of arrival estimates with vector sensors : First results of an atmospheric infrasound array in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, A.T. van; Evers, L.; Vossen, R. van; Ainslie, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute has continuously operated an outdoor atmospheric infrasound array containing 37 pairs of particle velocity sensors (Microflown) and 6 pressure sensors in the north of the Netherlands in the fall of 2008. As initial results, we detected transients caused

  6. Low-cost ultrasonic distance sensor arrays with networked error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjun; Zhao, Shulin; Jia, Zhiping; Chen, Tianzhou

    2013-09-05

    Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC) trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  7. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  8. Development of a Microforce Sensor and Its Array Platform for Robotic Cell Microinjection Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted cell microinjection, which is precise and can enable a high throughput, is attracting interest from researchers. Conventional probe-type cell microforce sensors have some real-time injection force measurement limitations, which prevent their integration in a cell microinjection robot. In this paper, a novel supported-beam based cell micro-force sensor with a piezoelectric polyvinylidine fluoride film used as the sensing element is described, which was designed to solve the real-time force-sensing problem during a robotic microinjection manipulation, and theoretical mechanical and electrical models of the sensor function are derived. Furthermore, an array based cell-holding device with a trapezoidal microstructure is micro-fabricated, which serves to improve the force sensing speed and cell manipulation rates. Tests confirmed that the sensor showed good repeatability and a linearity of 1.82%. Finally, robot-assisted zebrafish embryo microinjection experiments were conducted. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the sensor working with the robotic cell manipulation system. Moreover, the sensing structure, theoretical model, and fabrication method established in this study are not scale dependent. Smaller cells, e.g., mouse oocytes, could also be manipulated with this approach.

  9. Development of a Microforce Sensor and Its Array Platform for Robotic Cell Microinjection Force Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Yunlei; Lin, Yuzi; Wang, Lingyun; Xi, Wenming

    2016-04-06

    Robot-assisted cell microinjection, which is precise and can enable a high throughput, is attracting interest from researchers. Conventional probe-type cell microforce sensors have some real-time injection force measurement limitations, which prevent their integration in a cell microinjection robot. In this paper, a novel supported-beam based cell micro-force sensor with a piezoelectric polyvinylidine fluoride film used as the sensing element is described, which was designed to solve the real-time force-sensing problem during a robotic microinjection manipulation, and theoretical mechanical and electrical models of the sensor function are derived. Furthermore, an array based cell-holding device with a trapezoidal microstructure is micro-fabricated, which serves to improve the force sensing speed and cell manipulation rates. Tests confirmed that the sensor showed good repeatability and a linearity of 1.82%. Finally, robot-assisted zebrafish embryo microinjection experiments were conducted. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the sensor working with the robotic cell manipulation system. Moreover, the sensing structure, theoretical model, and fabrication method established in this study are not scale dependent. Smaller cells, e.g., mouse oocytes, could also be manipulated with this approach.

  10. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz.

  11. Radiation tolerant compact image sensor using CdTe photodiode and field emitter array (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Neo, Yoichiro; Mimura, Hidenori; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nagao, Masayoshi; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takagi, Ikuji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yasuhito

    2016-10-01

    A growing demand on incident detection is recognized since the Great East Japan Earthquake and successive accidents in Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011. Radiation tolerant image sensors are powerful tools to collect crucial information at initial stages of such incidents. However, semiconductor based image sensors such as CMOS and CCD have limited tolerance to radiation exposure. Image sensors used in nuclear facilities are conventional vacuum tubes using thermal cathodes, which have large size and high power consumption. In this study, we propose a compact image sensor composed of a CdTe-based photodiode and a matrix-driven Spindt-type electron beam source called field emitter array (FEA). A basic principle of FEA-based image sensors is similar to conventional Vidicon type camera tubes, but its electron source is replaced from a thermal cathode to FEA. The use of a field emitter as an electron source should enable significant size reduction while maintaining high radiation tolerance. Current researches on radiation tolerant FEAs and development of CdTe based photoconductive films will be presented.

  12. Development and Demonstration of Measurement-Time Efficient Methods for Impedance Spectroscopy of Electrode and Sensor Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Johnson; Matthew Smith; Kevin R. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    The development of impedance-based array devices is hindered by a lack of robust platforms and methods upon which to evaluate and interrogate sensors. One aspect to be addressed is the development of measurement-time efficient techniques for broadband impedance spectroscopy of large electrode arrays. The objective of this work was to substantially increase the low frequency impedance measurement throughput capability of a large channel count array analyzer by developing true parallel measurem...

  13. G3 Assisted Rational Design of Chemical Sensor Array Using Carbonitrile Neutral Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatimah Alias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Combined computational and experimental strategies for the systematic design of chemical sensor arrays using carbonitrile neutral receptors are presented. Binding energies of acetonitrile, n-pentylcarbonitrile and malononitrile with Ca(II, Mg(II, Be(II and H+ have been investigated with the B3LYP, G3, CBS-QB3, G4 and MQZVP methods, showing a general trend H+ > Be(II > Mg(II > Ca(II. Hydrogen bonding, donor-acceptor and cation-lone pair electron simple models were employed in evaluating the performance of computational methods. Mg(II is bound to acetonitrile in water by 12.5 kcal/mol, and in the gas phase the receptor is more strongly bound by 33.3 kcal/mol to Mg(II compared to Ca(II. Interaction of bound cations with carbonitrile reduces the energies of the MOs involved in the proposed σ-p conjugated network. The planar malononitrile-Be(II complex possibly involves a π-network with a cationic methylene carbon. Fabricated potentiometric chemical sensors show distinct signal patterns that can be exploited in sensor array applications.

  14. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  15. Enhanced sensitivity of surface acoustic wave-based rate sensors incorporating metallic dot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liu, Jiuling; He, Shitang

    2014-02-26

    A new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu) dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours) frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s(-1)) and good linearity were observed.

  16. PVDF array sensor for Lamb wave reception: Aircraft structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2016-02-01

    Fracture critical structures need structural health monitoring (SHM) to improve safety and reliability as well as reduce downtime and maintenance costs. Lamb waves provide promising techniques for on-line SHM systems because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Extensive research has focused on using features derived from time signals obtained at sparse locations distributed across the structure. Commonly used features are wave amplitude, energy, and time of arrival. However, the modal content of received Lamb waves contains valuable information about the existence and characteristics of defects, but cannot be determined from these signal features. Wave scattering at a defect often results in mode conversions in both transmitted and reflected waves. Features like change in time of arrival or amplitude reduction can be interpreted as being a result of mode conversion. This work is focused on the design of a 1D array sensor such that received wave signals at equally spaced locations are available for modal analysis in the wavenumber-frequency domain. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) is selected as the active material of the sensor because of its low interference with wave fields in structures. The PVDF array sensor is fabricated to have 16 independent channels and its capability to detect and characterize different types of defects is demonstrated experimentally.

  17. A First Step Towards a Microfabricated Thin-Film Sensor Array on the Basis of Chalcogenide Glass Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Schöning

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A first step towards a microfabricated potentiometric thin-film sensor array for the simultaneous detection of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ has been realized. The sensitive layers used are on the basis of chalcogenide glass materials. These thin-film chalcogenide glass materials that consist of mixtures of Pb-Ag-As-I-S, Cd-Ag-As-I-S or Cu-Ag-As-Se have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. The developed sensor array has been physically characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The electrochemical sensor characterization has been performend by potentiometric measurements.

  18. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Array System Based on Digital Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation and Reference Compensation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun He; Fang Li; Hao Xiao; Yu-Liang Liu

    2008-01-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array system based on digital phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation and reference compensation method is proposed and set up. Experimental results confirm that the digital PGC demodulation can be used for wavelength-division-multiplexed FBG sensor array and the reference compensation method can reduce the environmental interference by approximately 40 dB in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 kHz. The minimum detectable wavelength-shift of the sensor system is 1×10-3 pm/Hz1/2.

  19. A PARALIND Decomposition-Based Coherent Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Acoustic Vector-Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Min; Li, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the acoustic vector-sensor array parameter estimation problem with the parallel profiles with linear dependencies (PARALIND) model, which was originally applied to biology and chemistry. Exploiting the PARALIND decomposition approach, we propose a blind coherent two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation algorithm for arbitrarily spaced acoustic vector-sensor arrays subject to unknown locations. The proposed algorithm works well to achieve automatically paired azimuth and elevation angles for coherent and incoherent angle estimation of acoustic vector-sensor arrays, as well as the paired correlated matrix of the sources. Our algorithm, in contrast with conventional coherent angle estimation algorithms such as the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS) estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, not only has much better angle estimation performance, even for closely-spaced sources, but is also available for arbitrary arrays. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:23604030

  20. Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, K. D.; Niemack, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Cho, H. M.; Doriese, W. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.

    2010-03-01

    Multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers have recently enabled the deployment of kilopixel arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors on a variety of receivers for astrophysics. Existing multiplexing techniques for TES arrays, however, have constraints due to aliasing of SQUID noise, the size of the required filtering elements, or the complexity of the room-temperature electronics that make it difficult to scale to much larger arrays. We have developed a Walsh code-division SQUID multiplexer that has the potential to enable the multiplexing of larger arrays or pixels with faster thermal response times. The multiplexer uses superconducting switches to modulate the polarity of coupling between N individual TES detectors and a single output SQUID channel. The polarities of the detector signals are switched in the pattern of an N × N Walsh matrix, so a frame composed of N orthogonal samples can be used to reconstruct the detector signals without degradation. We present an analysis of the circuit architecture and preliminary results.

  1. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  2. Colorimetric sensor array for detection and identification of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Sihua; Lin, Hengwei

    2015-01-01

    Due to relatively low persistence and high effectiveness for insect and pest eradication, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are the two major classes of pesticides that broadly used in agriculture. Hence, the sensitive and selective detection of OPs and carbamates is highly significant. In this current study, a colorimetric sensor array comprising five inexpensive and commercially available thiocholine and H2O2 sensitive indicators for the simultaneous detection and identification of OPs and carbamates is developed. The sensing mechanism of this array is based on the irreversible inhibition capability of OPs and carbamates to the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), preventing production of thiocholine and H2O2 from S-acetylthiocholine and acetylcholine and thus resulting in decreased or no color reactions to thiocholine and H2O2 sensitive indicators. Through recognition patterns and standard statistical methods (i.e., hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis), the as-developed array demonstrates not only discrimination of OPs and carbamates from other kinds of pesticides but, more interestingly, identification of them exactly from each other. Moreover, this array is experimentally confirmed to have high selectivity and sensitivity, good anti-interference capability, and potential applications in real samples for OPs and carbamates.

  3. A Microcantilever Sensor Array for the Detection and Inventory of Desert Tortoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venedam, R. J.; Dillingham, T. R.

    2008-07-01

    We have designed and tested a portable instrument consisting of a small infrared camera coupled with an array of piezoresistive microcantilever sensors that is used to provide real-time, non-invasive data on desert tortoise den occupancy. The piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) sensors are used to obtain a chemical “signature” of tortoise presence from the air deep within the dens, and provide data in cases where the camera cannot extend deep enough into the den to provide visual evidence of tortoise presence. The infrared camera was used to verify the PMC data during testing, and in many cases, such as shallower dens, may be used to provide exact numbers on den populations.

  4. Development of detector for leakage magnetic flux using hall sensor array and lock-in-amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Chul; Lee, Jin Yi [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    It is important to estimate the distribution of intensity of a magnetic field for application of magnetic method to industrial nondestructive evaluation. Magnetic camera provides the distribution of a quantitative magnetic field with homogeneous lift-off and same spatial resolution. The method for arraying sensors is important on the magnetic camera because of obtaining a high spatial resolution. This work proposes an equation to evaluate the limitation of spatial resolution on the condition of decided size of magnetic sensor package. And the possibility of obtaining the high spatial resolution in spite of above mentioned limitation would be verified. Also a method for high ratio of signal-to-noise was attempted by use of Lock-In-Amplifier.

  5. A unified algorithm for target detection and tracing based on data of array sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong; CHEN Fuhu

    2008-01-01

    A unified method for target detection and tracing based on data from sensors of array is presented in order to improve detection and tracking abilities of the weak targets with low signal-to-noise ratio. Assuming that the multiple targets are uncorrelated each other and the number of the targets is known a priori, the status of the targets can be estimated with the maximum a-posteriori (MAP) method directly through the sensors data. The proposed method is different from the classical method, by which it can detect and track targets simultaneously by adding the target's signal energy information besides its direction of arrival(DOA) information.Simulated and sea trial data results show that the detection and tracing capabilities of weak targets can be improved and wrong tracing and missing tracing problems, which exist in the classical tracing method when it is faced with the crossing targets, can be resolved by the proposed method.

  6. First human trials of a dry electrophysiology sensor using a carbon nanotube array interface

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, G; Fuentemilla, L; Grau, C; Farres, E; Marco-Pallares, J; Watts, P C P; Silva, S R P

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue, sleepiness and disturbed sleep are important factors in health and safety in modern society and there is considerable interest in developing technologies for routine monitoring of associated physiological indicators. Electrophysiology, the measurement of the electrical activity of biological origin, is a key technique for the measurement of physiological parameters in several applications, but it has been traditionally difficult to develop sensors for measurements outside the laboratory or clinic with the required quality and robustness. In this paper we report the results from first human experiments using a new electrophysiology sensor called ENOBIO, using carbon nanotube arrays for penetration of the outer layers of the skin and improved electrical contact. These tests, which have included traditional protocols for the analysis of the electrical activity of the brain--spontaneous EEG and ERP--indicate performance on a par with state of the art research-oriented wet electrodes, suggesting that the ...

  7. Study of heat transfer in the bubble meniscus with an array of temperature micro-sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlik Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental setup has been designed and manufactured to study the evaporation processes in the bubble meniscus. New method for accurate measurements of local heat transfer has been proposed in collaboration with Kyushu University. Two side transparent coatings (thin film uniform heater and an array of temperature micro-sensors are developed on sapphire substrates. Application of such substrate allows one to investigate heat transfer in the vicinity of the contact line. The shadow technique is used to define shape and contact angles of bubble.

  8. Measurement of the magnetic induction vector in superconductors using a double-layer Hall sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulafia, Y.; McElfresh, M.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.; Paltiel, Y.; Majer, D.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.

    1998-06-01

    We describe an experimental technique for simultaneous measurement of both the normal (Bz) and the in-plane (Bx) components of the magnetic induction field near the surface of a superconducting sample. This technique utilizes a novel design of a double-layered Hall sensor array fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure containing two parallel layers of a two-dimensional electron gas. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated in measurements of Bx and Bz and the current distribution at the surface of a thin YBa2Cu3O7 crystal.

  9. A Compact, Low-Power Cantilever-Based Sensor Array for Chemical Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, A; Ratto, T; Wilson, T; Mukerjee, E; Hu, Z; Sulchek, T; Hart, B

    2007-02-22

    A compact and low-power cantilever-based sensor array has been developed and used to detect various vapor analytes. This device employs sorptive polymers that are deposited onto piezoresistive cantilevers. We have successfully detected several organic vapors, representing a breadth of chemical properties and over a range of concentrations. Comparisons of the polymer/vapor partition coefficient to the cantilever deflection responses show that a simple linear relationship does not exist, emphasizing the need to develop an appropriate functional model to describe the chemical-to-mechanical transduction that is unique to this sensing modality.

  10. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  11. Integrated label-free silicon nanowire sensor arrays for (bio)chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arpita; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Carlen, Edwin T; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-06-07

    We present a label-free (bio)chemical analysis platform that uses all-electrical silicon nanowire sensor arrays integrated with a small volume microfluidic flow-cell for real-time (bio)chemical analysis and detection. The integrated sensing platform contains an automated multi-sample injection system that eliminates erroneous sensor responses from sample switching due to flow rate fluctuations and provides precise sample volumes down to 10 nl. Biochemical sensing is demonstrated with real-time 15-mer DNA-PNA (peptide nucleic acid) duplex hybridization measurements from different sample concentrations in a low ionic strength, and the equilibrium dissociation constant KD ≈ 140 nM has been extracted from the experimental data using the first order Langmuir binding model. Chemical sensing is demonstrated with pH measurements from different injected samples in flow that have sensitivities consistent with the gate-oxide materials. A differential sensor measurement configuration results in a 30× reduction in sensor drift. The integrated label-free analysis platform is suitable for a wide range of small volume chemical and biochemical analyses.

  12. The Design of FPGA-based Array CCD Sensor Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtao Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CCD Sensor is the crutial equipment for environment perception which is widely used in various fields such as surveilliance,vision navigation and machine vision. The commercial CCD device has been encapsulated the sensor driver inside which is not opened for secondary development. Even this mode facilitate the usage but it really can not content the customizable need. For solving this challenging but imperative issue, we designed a novel CCD sensor driver system which implement the efficient and effective image acquisition task in customizing approach. The working principle and driving timing sequence about ICX625AQA the interline CCD image sensor used in our system are discussed in detail. For handling with this data intensive task, a high performance Field Programmable GateArray (FPGA controller is used for data allocation and translation, the peripheral circuits including AD9974 and CXD3400 drive interface which process the horizontal signal and vertical signal, respectively. The designed system proposed at the end of this paper.

  13. Color Restoration of RGBN Multispectral Filter Array Sensor Images Based on Spectral Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulhee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-05-18

    A multispectral filter array (MSFA) image sensor with red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) filters is useful for various imaging applications with the advantages that it obtains color information and NIR information simultaneously. Because the MSFA image sensor needs to acquire invisible band information, it is necessary to remove the IR cut-offfilter (IRCF). However, without the IRCF, the color of the image is desaturated by the interference of the additional NIR component of each RGB color channel. To overcome color degradation, a signal processing approach is required to restore natural color by removing the unwanted NIR contribution to the RGB color channels while the additional NIR information remains in the N channel. Thus, in this paper, we propose a color restoration method for an imaging system based on the MSFA image sensor with RGBN filters. To remove the unnecessary NIR component in each RGB color channel, spectral estimation and spectral decomposition are performed based on the spectral characteristics of the MSFA sensor. The proposed color restoration method estimates the spectral intensity in NIR band and recovers hue and color saturation by decomposing the visible band component and the NIR band component in each RGB color channel. The experimental results show that the proposed method effectively restores natural color and minimizes angular errors.

  14. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  15. A microfabricated sun sensor using GaN-on-sapphire ultraviolet photodetector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ruth A.; So, Hongyun; Chiamori, Heather C.; Suria, Ateeq J.; Chapin, Caitlin A.; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-09-01

    A miniature sensor for detecting the orientation of incident ultraviolet light was microfabricated using gallium nitride (GaN)-on-sapphire substrates and semi-transparent interdigitated gold electrodes for sun sensing applications. The individual metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector elements were shown to have a stable and repeatable response with a high sensitivity (photocurrent-to-dark current ratio (PDCR) = 2.4 at -1 V bias) and a high responsivity (3200 A/W at -1 V bias) under ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination. The 3 × 3 GaN-on-sapphire ultraviolet photodetector array was integrated with a gold aperture to realize a miniature sun sensor (1.35 mm × 1.35 mm) capable of determining incident light angles with a ±45° field of view. Using a simple comparative figure of merit algorithm, measurement of incident light angles of 0° and 45° was quantitatively and qualitatively (visually) demonstrated by the sun sensor, supporting the use of GaN-based sun sensors for orientation, navigation, and tracking of the sun within the harsh environment of space.

  16. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Peter; Kirchner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:24743158

  17. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  18. A Pt-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Sensor for Detecting SF6 Decomposition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor’s response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using a single photon avalanche diode array sensor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargocki, Piotr M.; Spence, David J.; Goldys, Ewa M.; Charbon, Edoardo; Bruschini, Claudio E.; Antalović, Ivan Michel; Burri, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    Single photon detectors allows us work with the weakest fluorescence signals. Single photon arrays, combined with ps-controlled gating allow us to create image maps of fluorescence lifetimes, which can be used for in-vivo discrimination of tissue activity. Here we present fluorescence lifetime imaging using the `SwissSPAD' sensor, a 512-by-128-pixel array of gated single photon detectors, fabricated in a standard high-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS process. We present a protocol for spatially resolved lifetime measurements where the lifetime can be retrieved for each pixel. We demonstrate the system by imaging patterns of Fluorescein and Rhodamine B on test slides, as well as measuring mixed samples to retrieve both components of the decay lifetime. The single photon sensitivity of the sensor creates a valuable instrument to perform live cell or live animal (in vivo) measurements of the weak autofluorescent signals, for example distinguishing unlabelled free and bound NADH. Our ultimate goal is to create a real time fluorescence lifetime imaging system, possibly integrated into augmented reality goggles, which could allow immediate discrimination of in vivo tissues.

  20. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  1. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  2. Graphene-based polyaniline arrays for deoxyribonucleic acid electrochemical sensor: effect of nanostructure on sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Meng, Le; Zhao, Jinlong; Wang, Xinxing; Jiao, Kui

    2014-01-01

    DNA detection sensitivity can be improved by carefully controlling the texture of the sensor substrate, which was normally investigated on metal or metal oxide nanostructured platform. Morphology effects on the biofunctionalization of polymer micro/nanoelectrodes have not been investigated in detail. To extend this topic, we used graphene oxide (GNO) as the supporting material to prepare graphene-based polyaniline nanocomposites with different morphologies as a model for comparing their DNA sensing behaviors. Owing to GNO serving as an excellent support or template for nucleation and growth of polyaniline (PANI), PANI nanostructures grown on GNO substrate were successfully obtained. However, if GNO supporting was absent, the obtained PANI nanowires showed a connected network. Furthermore, adjustment of reaction time can be used for dominating the topographies of PANI-GNO nanocomposites, meaning that different reaction times resulted in various formations of PANI-GNO nanocomposites, including small horns (5 and 12 h), vertical arrays (18 h), and nanotips (24 h). The next-step electrochemical data showed that the DNA electrochemical sensors constructed on the different morphologies possessed different ssDNA surface coverage and hybridization efficiency. Compared with other morphologies of PANI-GNO nanocomposite (5, 12, and 24 h), vertical arrays (18 h) exhibited the highest sensitivity (2.08 × 10(-16) M, 2 orders of magnitude lower than others). It is can be concluded that this nanocomposite with higher surface area and more accessible space can provide an optimal balance for DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization detection.

  3. New Navigation System for Automatic Guided Vehicles Using an Ultrasonic Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Katsuhiko; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Iida, Yoshihiro; Iwai, Toshiaki

    We propose a new navigation system for Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) used as a carrier in the factory. The guided marker of the navigation system is composed of ultrasonic transducers instead of the traditional markers such as electromagnetic tape, light reflective tape and so on. The proposed system is available to be used not only indoors but also outdoors and adaptable to a temporary route. The ultrasonic sensor is generically susceptible to noise, so that we make the following propositions. First, a phased array of the ultrasonic sensors is employed in searching a land marker to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Second, the specific ID with 7bits is assigned as the land marker to avoid the system errors ascribable to an ultrasonic interference. In addition, the proposed system is quite compact in virtue of the embedded technology of a microcomputer and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This paper reports the development of the proto-type system of navigation system and confirmation of its fundamental performances.

  4. Wireless Remote Monitoring of Glucose Using a Functionalized ZnO Nanowire Arrays Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype wireless remote glucose monitoring system interfaced with a ZnO nanowire arrays-based glucose sensor, glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized onto ZnO nanowires in conjunction with a Nafion® membrane coating, which can be effectively applied for the monitoring of glucose levels in diabetics. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM services like General Packet Radio Service (GPRS and Short Message Service (SMS have been proven to be logical and cost effective methods for gathering data from remote locations. A communication protocol that facilitates remote data collection using SMS has been utilized for monitoring a patient’s sugar levels. In this study, we demonstrate the remote monitoring of the glucose levels with existing GPRS/GSM network infra-structures using our proposed functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays sensors integrated with standard readily available mobile phones. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purposes. Such applications can reduce health care costs and allow caregivers to monitor and support to their patients remotely, especially those located in rural areas.

  5. Light sensors selection for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: PMT and SiPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayduk, M., E-mail: mshayduk@googlemail.com [DESY Zeuthen, D-15738 (Germany); Mirzoyan, R.; Kurz, M.; Knoetig, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Dickinson, H. [Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University (Sweden); Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Tavernet, J.-P. [LPNHE Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Hose, J.; Teshima, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Vincent, P. [LPNHE Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned as the next generation ground-based instrument (after VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC) for astrophysics by means of very high energy {gamma}-rays. The CTA collaboration includes the MAGIC, the H.E.S.S. and the VERITAS collaborations. Also, a large number of astrophysicists from European institutions, from Japan and USA have joined the CTA. The CTA array will comprise about 100 imaging telescopes of three sizes that shall provide one order of magnitude higher sensitivity than the current generation of telescopes. Every telescope will use an imaging camera based on {approx}2000PMTs. We have set up a PMT development program with Hamamatsu (Japan) and Electron Tube Enterprises (England) aiming to produce 1.5 in. PMTs of optimized parameters for the CTA project. The entire scientific community, including the medicine and biology, as well as many industrial applications, where a low light level sensors are necessary, may profit from it. Together with PMTs also SiPMs are interesting sensor candidates for the CTA telescopes. One expects about two times higher photon detection efficiency for SiPM compared to PMT. A set of parameters like the photon detection efficiency, cross-talk, afterpulsing, dark rate together with other important factors were evaluated. Here we report on the progress of these developments, based on detailed measurements.

  6. The Transition-Edge-Sensor Array for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, Sarah Elizabeth; Chervenak J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2012-01-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket program will fly a 128-element array of transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. To match the angular resolution of the optics while maximizing the field-of-view and retaining a high energy resolution (< 4 eV at 1 keV), we have designed the pixels using 600 x 600 sq. micron Au/Bi absorbers, which overhang 140 x 140 sq. micron Mo/Au sensors. The data-rate capabilities of the rocket telemetry system require the pulse decay to be approximately 2 ms to allow a significant portion of the data to be telemetered during flight. Here we report experimental results from the flight array, including measurements of energy resolution, uniformity, and absorber thermalization. In addition, we present studies of test devices that have a variety of absorber contact geometries, as well as a variety of membrane-perforation schemes designed to slow the pulse decay time to match the telemetry requirements. Finally, we describe the reduction in pixel-to-pixel crosstalk afforded by an angle-evaporated Cu backside heatsinking layer, which provides Cu coverage on the four sidewalls of the silicon wells beneath each pixel.

  7. A novel device based on a fluorescent cross-responsive sensor array for detecting pesticide residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Huo, Danqun; Luo, Xiaogang; Dong, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel, simple, rapid, and low-cost detection device for pesticide residue was constructed. A sensor array based on a cross-responsive mechanism was designed. The data collection and processing system was used to detect fluorescent signal of the sensor arrays, and to extract unique patterns of the tested pesticide residue. Four selected pesticides, carbendazim, diazine, fenvalerate, and pentachloronitrobenzene, were detected by the proposed device. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the methods could 100% discriminate the four pesticide residues. According to the standard regression linear curve of the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of pesticide, the quantitative value of the pesticide was detected, and the device obtained responses at concentrations below 8 ppb, and it has a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-1 ppm. According to the results, the proposed detection device showed excellent selectivity and discrimination ability for the pesticide residues. However, our preliminary study demonstrated that the proposed detection device has excellent potential application for the safety inspection of food.

  8. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  9. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M.; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; Lien, Der-Hsien; Brooks, George A.; Davis, Ronald W.; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.

  10. Sparse model inversion and processing of spatial frequency-domain electromagnetic induction sensor array data for improved landmine discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantum, Stacy L.; Colwell, Kenneth A.; Scott, Waymond R.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.; Morton, Kenneth D.

    2013-06-01

    Frequency-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors have been shown to provide target signatures which enable discrimination of landmines from harmless clutter. In particular, frequency-domain EMI sensors are well-suited for target characterization by inverting a physics-based signal model. In many model-based signal processing paradigms, the target signatures can be decomposed into a weighted sum of parameterized basis functions, where the basis functions are intrinsic to the target under consideration and the associated weights are a function of the target sensor orientation. When sensor array data is available, the spatial diversity of the measured signals may provide more information for estimating the basis function parameters. After model inversion, the basis function parameters can form the foundation of model-based classification of the target as landmine or clutter. In this work, sparse model inversion of spatial frequency-domain EMI sensor array data followed by target classification using a statistical model is investigated. Results for data measured with a prototype frequency-domain EMI sensor at a standardized test site are presented. Preliminary results indicate that extracting physics-based features from spatial frequency-domain EMI sensor array data followed by statistical classification provides an effective approach for classifying targets as landmine or clutter.

  11. Flexible Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor Array for Dynamic Three-Axis Force Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Weiting; Gu, Chunxin; Cheng, Xiaoying; Fu, Xin

    2016-06-03

    A new flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor array based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is proposed for measuring three-axis dynamic contact force distribution. The array consists of six tactile units arranged as a 3 × 2 matrix with spacing 8 mm between neighbor units. In each unit, a PVDF film is sandwiched between four square-shaped upper electrodes and one square-shaped lower electrode, forming four piezoelectric capacitors. A truncated pyramid bump is located above the four piezoelectric capacitors to improve force transmission. A three-axis contact force transmitted from the top of the bump will lead to the four piezoelectric capacitors underneath undergoing different charge changes, from which the normal and shear components of the force can be calculated. A series of dynamic tests have been carried out by exerting sinusoidal forces with amplitudes ranging from 0 to 0.5 N in the x-axis, 0 to 0.5 N in the y-axis, and 0 to 1.5 N in the z-axis, separately. The tactile units show good sensitivities with 14.93, 14.92, and 6.62 pC/N in the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. They can work with good linearity, relatively low coupling effect, high repeatability, and acceptable frequency response in the range of 5-400 Hz to both normal and shear load. In addition, dynamic three-axis force measurement has been conducted for all of the tactile units. The average errors between the applied and calculated forces are 10.68% ± 6.84%. Furthermore, the sensor array can be easily integrated onto a curved surface, such as robotic and prosthetic hands, due to its excellent flexibility.

  12. High spatial resolution Hall sensor array for edge plasma magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhong; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Rivera, Nicholas

    2005-09-01

    A one-dimensional, high-spatial resolution, 20-element Hall sensor array has been developed to directly measure the edge plasma perpendicular magnetic field and its fluctuations as a function of radius with 4-mm resolution. The array employs new small-area, high-sensitivity indium antimonide (InSb) Hall probes in combination with a high-density seven-layer printed circuit board to provide for connections to supply Hall current, record the measured Hall voltage output signals, and mitigate inductive pickup. A combination of bench and in situ measurements is described that provides absolute calibration of the diagnostic array in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field component that is approximately 1000 times greater than the perpendicular fluctuating field needed to be resolved by the diagnostic. The Hall probes calibrated using this method are capable of magnetic field measurements with a sensitivity of 7V/T over the frequency band from 0 to 20 kHz.

  13. Detection of volatile compounds with mass-sensitive sensor arrays in the presence of variable ambient humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert, F L; Hayden, O; Zenkel, M E

    1999-04-01

    Mass-sensitive sensor arrays were established for the detection of isomeric or highly analogue analyte mixtures, which show similar physical and morphological properties. Supramolecular host-guest chemistry and arrays of four mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances have been successfully combined with multivariate calibration techniques in the presence of variable air moisture. This system enabled even the separation of xylene isomers [Formula: see text] a task that might be crucial even by gas chromatography. The data of the sensor arrays were analyzed with partial least squares and artificial neural networks. The xylene isomers could be detected with an accuracy of ∼1% in the range of 0-200 ppm, nearly eliminating the residual water cross-sensitivity of the sensor coatings, which allows effective work place or environmental monitoring of toxic compounds with fast response levels.

  14. Colorimetric sensor array allows fast detection and simultaneous identification of sepsis-causing bacteria in spiked blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H; Mix, Samantha; Xu, Zeyu; Taba, Brian; Budvytiene, Indre; Berliner, Anders N; Queralto, Nuria; Churi, Yair S; Huang, Richard S; Eiden, Michael; Martino, Raymond A; Rhodes, Paul; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-02-01

    Sepsis is a medical emergency demanding early diagnosis and tailored antimicrobial therapy. Every hour of delay in initiating effective therapy measurably increases patient mortality. Blood culture is currently the reference standard for detecting bloodstream infection, a multistep process which may take one to several days. Here, we report a novel paradigm for earlier detection and the simultaneous identification of pathogens in spiked blood cultures by means of a metabolomic "fingerprint" of the volatile mixture outgassed by the organisms. The colorimetric sensor array provided significantly faster detection of positive blood cultures than a conventional blood culture system (12.1 h versus 14.9 h, P detection. The colorimetric sensor array also allowed for discrimination between unrelated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that the metabolomic fingerprint has the potential to track nosocomial transmissions. Altogether, the colorimetric sensor array is a promising tool that offers a new paradigm for diagnosing bloodstream infections.

  15. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chun Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin, the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.

  16. An efficient approach for preprocessing data from a large-scale chemical sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Marco; Distante, Cosimo; Bernabei, Mara; Persaud, Krishna

    2014-09-24

    In this paper, an artificial olfactory system (Electronic Nose) that mimics the biological olfactory system is introduced. The device consists of a Large-Scale Chemical Sensor Array (16; 384 sensors, made of 24 different kinds of conducting polymer materials)that supplies data to software modules, which perform advanced data processing. In particular, the paper concentrates on the software components consisting, at first, of a crucial step that normalizes the heterogeneous sensor data and reduces their inherent noise. Cleaned data are then supplied as input to a data reduction procedure that extracts the most informative and discriminant directions in order to get an efficient representation in a lower dimensional space where it is possible to more easily find a robust mapping between the observed outputs and the characteristics of the odors in input to the device. Experimental qualitative proofs of the validity of the procedure are given by analyzing data acquired for two different pure analytes and their binary mixtures. Moreover, a classification task is performed in order to explore the possibility of automatically recognizing pure compounds and to predict binary mixture concentrations.

  17. Characterization of Residual Stresses in Ferrous Components by Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements Using a Hall Effect Sensor Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. C. H.

    2011-06-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In situ measurements were conducted on a annealed steel plate under four-point bending stresses to evaluate the probe performance. The ratio of stray field signals measured along and perpendicular to the stress axis varies linearly with the surface stress, indicating the possibility of characterizing residual stresses in ferrous components using the sensor array probe.

  18. M-ARRAY QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK MODULATOR RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY ANALYZE IN CIVIL SHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammud Ershadul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is the new invention applying for assessment the damage of the historical or high rise civil building structural health. Technical challenges affecting deployment of wireless sensor network including the range of the transmission problem, low data transmission rate of the existing SHM strategies. The most vital factor of SHM wireless sensor systems is the modulator accuracy and reliability that qualify the wireless communication system to assess large building structure health Information. The objective of this article is to provide solution to measure both reliability and accuracy of the wireless sensor network modulator. we computed M-array QAM modulator BER and compare the simulation result with theoretical to find out optimum modulation technique for transmission System with considering maximum data rate, AWGN channel and also measured modulator accuracy based on ZigBee by computing M-array modulator Error Vector Magnitude (EVM to quantify the transmitter quality.

  19. Multi-Sensor Arrays for Online Monitoring of Cell Dynamics in in vitro Studies with Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad García Gómez de las Heras

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensors and multi-sensor arrays are the basis of new technologies for the non-label monitoring of cell activity. In this paper we show that choroid plexus cells can be cultured on silicon chips and that sensors register in real time changes in their activity, constituting an interesting experimental paradigm for cell biology and medical research. To validate the signals recorded (metabolism = peri-cellular acidification, oxygen consumption = respiration; impedance = adhesion, cell shape and motility we performed experiments with compounds that act in a well-known way on cells, influencing these parameters. Our in vitro model demonstrates the advantages of multi-sensor arrays in assessment and experimental characterization of dynamic cellular events—in this case in choroid plexus functions, however with applicability to other cell types as well.

  20. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-05-18

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  1. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  2. Design and prototype of radar sensor with Vivaldi linear array for through-wall radar imaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Betül; Özdemir, Caner

    2016-10-01

    We present a radar sensor that was designed to detect and image moving objects/targets on the other side of a wall. The radar sensor was composed of a linear array of Vivaldi antenna elements, an radio frequency (RF) switch, a microcontroller unit, and an RF transceiver. For the linear array, a total of eight antenna elements were used as sensors in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configuration in the cross-range axis to improve the resolution in this dimension. Design steps of Vivaldi antenna elements and the entire linear array were presented. After the design, the prototyping procedure and the details of the radar sensor were given. Through-the-wall radar (TWR) imaging experiments were performed for stationary and moving targets using the assembled sensor. The resultant TWR images after these experiments were presented. During the image formation, a back-projection type image focusing algorithm was implemented and applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the raw images. The constructed radar images demonstrated that our radar sensor could successfully detect and image both stationary and moving targets on the other side of the wall.

  3. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    , acceleration, and loss of electrons in the radiation belts promise high profile science returns. Integrated, global scale data products also have potential importance and application for real-time monitoring of the space weather threats to electrical power grids from geomagnetically induced currents. Such data exploitation increasingly relies on the collaborations between multiple national magnetometer arrays to generate single data products with common file format and data properties. We review advances in geospace science which can be delivered by networks of ground-based magnetometers - in terms of advances in sensors, data collection, and data integration - including through collaborations within the Ultra-Large Terrestrial International Magnetometer Array (ULTIMA) consortium.

  4. Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays from Conductive 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Liu, Sophie F; Swager, Timothy M; Dincă, Mircea

    2015-11-04

    Applications of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electronic devices are rare, owing in large part to a lack of MOFs that display electrical conductivity. Here, we describe the use of conductive two-dimensional (2D) MOFs as a new class of materials for chemiresistive sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We demonstrate that a family of structurally analogous 2D MOFs can be used to construct a cross-reactive sensor array that allows for clear discrimination between different categories of VOCs. Experimental data show that multiple sensing mechanisms are operative with high degrees of orthogonality, establishing that the 2D MOFs used here are mechanistically unique and offer advantages relative to other known chemiresistor materials.

  5. Classification of Mixtures of Odorants from Livestock Buildings by a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khalaf, Nawaf; Iversen, Jens Jørgen Lønsmann

    2007-01-01

    An electronic tongue comprising different numbers of electrodes was able to classify test mixtures of key odorants characteristic of bioscrubbers of livestock buildings (n-butyrate, iso-valerate, phenolate, p-cresolate, skatole and ammonium). The classification of model solutions indicates that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for characterization of odorants in livestock buildings. Back propagation artificial neural network was used for classification. The average classification rate was above 80% in all cases. A limited, but sufficient number of electrodes were selected by average classification rate and relative entropy. The sufficient number of electrodes decreased standard deviation and relative standard deviation compared to the full electrode array.

  6. Classification of Mixtures of Odorants from Livestock Buildings by a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue comprising different numbers of electrodes was able to classify test mixtures of key odorants characteristic of bioscrubbers of livestock buildings (n-butyrate, iso-valerate, phenolate, p-cresolate, skatole and ammonium. The classification of model solutions indicates that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for characterization of odorants in livestock buildings. Back propagation artificial neural network was used for classification. The average classification rate was above 80% in all cases. A limited, but sufficient number of electrodes were selected by average classification rate and relative entropy. The sufficient number of electrodes decreased standard deviation and relative standard deviation compared to the full electrode array.

  7. Source Localization with Acoustic Sensor Arrays Using Generative Model Based Fitting with Sparse Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Macias-Guarasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for indoor acoustic source localization using sensor arrays. The proposed solution starts by defining a generative model, designed to explain the acoustic power maps obtained by Steered Response Power (SRP strategies. An optimization approach is then proposed to fit the model to real input SRP data and estimate the position of the acoustic source. Adequately fitting the model to real SRP data, where noise and other unmodelled effects distort the ideal signal, is the core contribution of the paper. Two basic strategies in the optimization are proposed. First, sparse constraints in the parameters of the model are included, enforcing the number of simultaneous active sources to be limited. Second, subspace analysis is used to filter out portions of the input signal that cannot be explained by the model. Experimental results on a realistic speech database show statistically significant localization error reductions of up to 30% when compared with the SRP-PHAT strategies.

  8. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Shawn W; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K; Cothard, Nicholas F; Crowley, Kevin T; Duff, Shannon M; Fitzgerald, Colin P; Gallardo, Patricio A; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Koopman, Brian J; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Reintsema, Carl D; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Staggs, Suzanne T; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Ward, Jonathan T

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol...

  9. Study of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique using permanently installed magnetic sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhichao; Dixon, Steve; Cawley, Peter; Jarvis, Rollo; Nagy, Peter B.

    2017-02-01

    The metal magnetic memory (MMM) effect has been reported to be a non-destructive testing technique capable of evaluating stress concentration and detecting defects in steel. This method has been shown to work well in some instances, but has failed in other trials. Its mechanism has been explained widely but the sensitivity to stress concentration has not been satisfactorily investigated. In this paper, both the normal and tangential components of the stress induced MMM signal were measured by two permanently installed magnetic sensor arrays on two types of notched L80 steel specimens. As expected, the results show that an externally applied magnetic field changes the magnetic field perturbation due to the notches linearly. Plastic deformation and residual stress around notches will increase the remnant flux leakage but the effects are small, which suggests that the MMM effect is very small in the material tested and that it will not be useful in practice.

  10. Optimization of Transition Edge Sensor Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations With the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Junjia; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Avva, J.; Ahmed, Z.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Byrum, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Czaplewski, D.; Divan, R.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Gannon, R.; Guyser, R.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hubmayr, J.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O.; Khaire, T.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Shariff, J. A.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thakur, R. B.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the optimization of transition-edge-sensor (TES) detector arrays for the third-generation camera for the South PoleTelescope. The camera, which contains similar to 16 000 detectors, will make high-angular-resolution maps of the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Our key results are scatter in the transition temperature of Ti/Au TESs is reduced by fabricating the TESs on a thin Ti(5 nm)/Au(5 nm) buffer layer and the thermal conductivity of the legs that support our detector islands is dominated by the SiOx dielectric in the microstrip transmission lines that run along the legs.

  11. Simulation of a sensor array for multiparameter measurements at the prosthetic limb interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gabriel I.; Mamishev, Alexander V.

    2004-07-01

    Sensitive skin is a highly desired device for biomechanical devices, wearable computing, human-computer interfaces, exoskeletons, and, most pertinent to this paper, for lower limb prosthetics. The measurement of shear stress is very important because shear effects are key factors in developing surface abrasions and pressure sores in paraplegics and users of prosthetic/orthotic devices. A single element of a sensitive skin is simulated and characterized in this paper. Conventional tactile sensors are designed for measurement of the normal stress only, which is inadequate for comprehensive assessment of surface contact conditions. The sensitive skin discussed here is a flexible array capable of sensing shear and normal forces, as well as humidity and temperature on each element.

  12. High-resolution parallel-detection sensor array using piezo-phototronics effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L.; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-07-28

    A pressure sensor element includes a substrate, a first type of semiconductor material layer and an array of elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures extending upwardly from the first type of semiconductor material layer. A p-n junction is formed between each nanostructure and the first type semiconductor layer. An insulative resilient medium layer is infused around each of the elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures. A transparent planar electrode, disposed on the resilient medium layer, is electrically coupled to the top of each nanostructure. A voltage source is coupled to the first type of semiconductor material layer and the transparent planar electrode and applies a biasing voltage across each of the nanostructures. Each nanostructure emits light in an intensity that is proportional to an amount of compressive strain applied thereto.

  13. A versatile sensor performance evaluation platform with an impactor-inspired sample chamber and virtual pin grid array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Woytowitz, Morgan; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-06-01

    We present the details necessary for building a scalable, flexible, and universal sensor performance evaluation platform with an impactor-inspired sample chamber and a virtual pin grid array for maintaining electrical connections. The system is designed to accommodate a wide range of sensors varying in physical dimensions, electrical connections, and transduction mechanisms. By integrating a switch matrix system with a commercial chip carrier, we have built a platform for rapidly screening sensors for promise in military, homeland security, and commercial applications without requiring custom circuits or packages for each sensor technology. Intuitive, graphical software is written and provided to control and monitor temperature, flow rate, and electrical connections. The system is capable of operating and interfacing with a variety of vapor delivery systems for chemical vapor detection measurements of emerging sensor technologies.

  14. Fiber-optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.;

    2015-01-01

    to interrogate liquid level by measuring the strain induced in each mPOFBG embedded in a silicone rubber (SR) diaphragm, which deforms due to hydrostatic pressure variations. The sensor exhibits a highly linear response over the sensing range, a good repeatability, and a high resolution. The sensitivity......A highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported for the first time. The configuration is based on five mPOFBGs inscribed in the same fiber in the 850 nm spectral region, showing the potential...... of the sensor is found to be 98 pm/cm of water, enhanced by more than a factor of 9 when compared to an equivalent sensor based on a silica fiber around 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity is studied and a multi-sensor arrangement proposed, which has the potential to provide level readings independent...

  15. SnO2/Pt Thin Film Laser Ablated Gas Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Wagiran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm2 space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO2 and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa of O2. A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times.

  16. SnO2/Pt thin film laser ablated gas sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokh Abadi, Mohammad Hadi; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Wagiran, Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm(2) space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO(2) and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa) of O(2). A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times.

  17. Fiber-optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported for the first time. The configuration is based on five mPOFBGs inscribed in the same fiber in the 850 nm spectral region, showing the potential to inte...

  18. Miniaturized platform with on-chip strain sensors for compression testing of arrayed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Luke; Chebotarev, Oleg; Simmons, Craig A; Sun, Yu

    2012-10-21

    We report a microfabricated mechanical testing platform with on-chip strain sensors for in situ mechanical characterization of arrayed materials. The device is based on deformable elastomeric membranes that are actuated by pressure that is delivered through an underlying channel network. The bulging membranes compress material samples that are confined between the membranes and a rigid top-plate. Carbon nanotube-based strain sensors that exhibit strain-dependent electrical resistivity were integrated within the membranes to provide continuous read-out of membrane deflection amplitude. We used this platform to study the cyclic compression of several different silicone samples and thereby measured their elastic moduli. The results obtained using our miniaturized platform were in excellent agreement with those obtained using a commercially available mechanical testing platform and clearly demonstrated the utility of our platform for the mechanical testing of small samples in parallel. The miniaturized platform can significantly increase mechanical testing efficiency, particularly when testing of iterative sample formulations is required.

  19. Rapid Multi-Damage Identification for Health Monitoring of Laminated Composites Using Piezoelectric Wafer Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Si

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of the wave reflection from any damage in a structure, a Hilbert spectral analysis-based rapid multi-damage identification (HSA-RMDI technique with piezoelectric wafer sensor arrays (PWSA is developed to monitor and identify the presence, location and severity of damage in carbon fiber composite structures. The capability of the rapid multi-damage identification technique to extract and estimate hidden significant information from the collected data and to provide a high-resolution energy-time spectrum can be employed to successfully interpret the Lamb waves interactions with single/multiple damage. Nevertheless, to accomplish the precise positioning and effective quantification of multiple damage in a composite structure, two functional metrics from the RMDI technique are proposed and used in damage identification, which are the energy density metric and the energy time-phase shift metric. In the designed damage experimental tests, invisible damage to the naked eyes, especially delaminations, were detected in the leftward propagating waves as well as in the selected sensor responses, where the time-phase shift spectra could locate the multiple damage whereas the energy density spectra were used to quantify the multiple damage. The increasing damage was shown to follow a linear trend calculated by the RMDI technique. All damage cases considered showed completely the developed RMDI technique potential as an effective online damage inspection and assessment tool.

  20. A thermo-acoustic gas sensor array for photochemically critical species in the martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.; Madou, Marc

    1998-02-01

    We describe the development of a thermoacoustic oxidant sensor (TAOS) array to quantify gases that play critical roles in the chemical evolution of the martian surface and atmosphere. The sensor combines a chemiresistor with an acoustic wave-plate device, micro-fabricated on thermally isolated hot-plates; their measurement modes are respectively: conductivity changes of chemically sensitive films, and mass changes of the same coatings. Metal Phthalocyanines (MePcs) and other organic semiconductors such as 1,4-polybutadiene are used as chemical coatings because of their chemical stability and the fact that these compounds have been shown to exhibit selectivity to oxidizing gases. The specific target gases of this experiment are H 2O 2, H 2O, O 3 and CO. Identification and quantification of these gases at the martian surface would contribute to both atmospheric and soil chemistry studies. The species H 2O 2 and/or O 3, may be responsible for the unique reactive properties of the martian regolith, as discovered in the Viking biology experiments. In addition, each of the target gases are believed to play a role in the photochemical recycling of CO 2.

  1. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  2. Cable Crosstalk Suppression with Two-Wire Voltage Feedback Method for Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; He, Shangshang; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Using a long, flexible test cable connected with a one-wire voltage feedback circuit, a resistive tactile sensor in a shared row-column fashion exhibited flexibility in robotic operations but suffered from crosstalk caused by the connected cable due to its wire resistances and its contacted resistances. Firstly, we designed a new non-scanned driving-electrode (VF-NSDE) circuit using two wires for every row line and every column line to reduce the crosstalk caused by the connected cables in the circuit. Then, an equivalent resistance expression of the element being tested (EBT) for the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit was analytically derived. Following this, the one-wire VF-NSDE circuit and the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit were evaluated by simulation experiments. Finally, positive features of the proposed method were verified with the experiments of a two-wire VF-NSDE prototype circuit. The experiment results show that the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit can greatly reduce the crosstalk error caused by the cables in the 2-D networked resistive sensor array.

  3. MLAOS: a multi-point linear array of optical sensors for coniferous foliage clumping index measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yonghua; Fu, Lizhe; Han, Wenchao; Zhu, Yeqing; Wang, Jindi

    2014-05-23

    The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI) by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS), which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8-10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  4. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  5. Biologically inspired large scale chemical sensor arrays and embedded data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A.; Lansner, A.; Martinez, D.; Rospars, J. P.; Beccherelli, R.; Perera, A.; Pearce, T.; Vershure, P.; Persaud, K.

    2013-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer, and abstracted biomimetic algorithms have been implemented in an embedded system that interfaces the chemical sensors. The embedded system integrates computational models of the main anatomic building blocks in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex in vertebrates (alternatively, antennal lobe and mushroom bodies in the insect). For implementation in the embedded processor an abstraction phase has been carried out in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. Finally, the algorithmic models are tested with an odour robot with navigation capabilities in mixed chemical plumes

  6. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  7. Piezoelectric-paint-based two-dimensional phased sensor arrays for structural health monitoring of thin panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B.; Purekar, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Pines, D. J.

    2010-07-01

    A damage detection method based on an innovative 2D phased sensor array made of piezoelectric paint is proposed for in situ damage detection of a thin isotropic panel using guided Lamb waves. A design analysis of candidate 2D arrays based on spiral, cruciform and circular element layouts is performed. In this study, a 2D phased sensor array with a spiral configuration is fabricated using a piezoelectric composite (piezopaint) patch and used for detecting damages in an aluminum panel. Steered array responses are generated from the raw sensor signals using a directional filtering algorithm based on phased array signal processing. The fundamental flexural (or transverse), A0 mode, of the guided Lamb waves is used though the sensing and analysis technique is not limited to the mode used in this work. To enhance the proposed analysis technique, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) are applied. A new damage detection algorithm including threshold setting and damage index (DI) calculation is developed and implemented for detecting damages in the form of holes and a simulated crack. The characteristic damage indices consistently increase as damage size grows.

  8. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-02-21

    A flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H2S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H2S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H2S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors.

  9. Stretchable Multichannel Electromyography Sensor Array Covering Large Area for Controlling Home Electronics with Distinguishable Signals from Multiple Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namyun; Lim, Taehoon; Song, Kwangsun; Yang, Sung; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-17

    Physiological signals provide important information for biomedical applications and, more recently, in the form of wearable electronics for active interactions between bodies and external environments. Multiple physiological sensors are often required to map distinct signals from multiple points over large areas for more diverse applications. In this paper, we present a reusable, multichannel, surface electromyography (EMG) sensor array that covers multiple muscles over relatively large areas, with compliant designs that provide different levels of stiffness for repetitive uses, without backing layers. Mechanical and electrical characteristics along with distinct measurements from different muscles demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The results should be useful to actively control devices in the environment with one array of wearable sensors, as demonstrated with home electronics.

  10. Filter-free integrated sensor array based on luminescence and absorbance measurements using ring-shaped organic photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Tobias; Sagmeister, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernhard; Kraker, Elke; Köstler, Stefan; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten

    2012-12-01

    An optical waveguiding sensor array featuring monolithically integrated organic photodiodes as integrated photo-detector, which simplifies the readout system by minimizing the required parts, is presented. The necessity of any optical filters becomes redundant due to the proposed platform geometry, which discriminates between excitation light and sensing signal. The sensor array is capable of measuring luminescence or absorption, and both sensing geometries are based on the identical substrate. It is demonstrated that background light is virtually non-existent. All sensing and waveguide layers, as well as in- and out-coupling elements are assembled by conventional screen-printing techniques. Organic photodiodes are integrated by layer-by-layer vacuum deposition onto glass or common polymer foils. The universal and simple applicability of this sensor chip is demonstrated by sensing schemes for four different analytes. Relative humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are measured in gas phase using luminescence-based sensor schemes; the latter two analytes are also measured by absorbance-based sensor schemes. Furthermore, oxygen and pH in aqueous media were enabled. The consistency of calibration characteristics extending over different sensor chips is verified.

  11. Electrospun Aligned Fibrous Arrays and Twisted Ropes: Fabrication, Mechanical and Electrical Properties, and Application in Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yan, Xu; Li, Meng-Meng; Yu, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Pisula, Wojciech; He, Xiao-Xiao; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Electrospinning (e-spinning) is a versatile technique to fabricate ultrathin fibers from a rich variety of functional materials. In this paper, a modified e-spinning setup with two-frame collector is proposed for the fabrication of highly aligned arrays of polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers, as well as PVDF/carbon nanotube (PVDF/CNT) composite fibers. Especially, it is capable of producing fibrous arrays with excellent orientation over a large area (more than 14 cm × 12 cm). The as-spun fibers are suspended and can be easily transferred to other rigid or flexible substrates. Based on the aligned fibrous arrays, twisted long ropes are also prepared. Compared with the aligned arrays, twisted PVDF/CNT fiber ropes show enhanced mechanical and electrical properties and have potential application in microscale strain sensors.

  12. GFZ wireless seismic array (GFZ-WISE), a wireless mesh network of seismic sensors: new perspectives for seismic noise array investigations and site monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Milkereit, Claus; Parolai, Stefano; Jaeckel, Karl-Heinz; Veit, Ingo; Fischer, Joachim; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the analysis of seismic noise recorded by two dimensional arrays has been confirmed to be capable of deriving the subsoil shear-wave velocity structure down to several hundred meters depth. In fact, using just a few minutes of seismic noise recordings and combining this with the well known horizontal-to-vertical method, it has also been shown that it is possible to investigate the average one dimensional velocity structure below an array of stations in urban areas with a sufficient resolution to depths that would be prohibitive with active source array surveys, while in addition reducing the number of boreholes required to be drilled for site-effect analysis. However, the high cost of standard seismological instrumentation limits the number of sensors generally available for two-dimensional array measurements (i.e., of the order of 10), limiting the resolution in the estimated shear-wave velocity profiles. Therefore, new themes in site-effect estimation research by two-dimensional arrays involve the development and application of low-cost instrumentation, which potentially allows the performance of dense-array measurements, and the development of dedicated signal-analysis procedures for rapid and robust estimation of shear-wave velocity profiles. In this work, we present novel low-cost wireless instrumentation for dense two-dimensional ambient seismic noise array measurements that allows the real-time analysis of the surface-wavefield and the rapid estimation of the local shear-wave velocity structure for site response studies. We first introduce the general philosophy of the new system, as well as the hardware and software that forms the novel instrument, which we have tested in laboratory and field studies.

  13. Detection of coffee flavour ageing by solid-phase microextraction/surface acoustic wave sensor array technique (SPME/SAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barié, Nicole; Bücking, Mark; Stahl, Ullrich; Rapp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The use of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays is a very promising technique for highly sensitive and selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We present new developments to achieve a low cost sensor setup with a sampling method enabling the highly reproducible detection of volatiles even in the ppb range. Since the VOCs of coffee are well known by gas chromatography (GC) research studies, the new sensor array was tested for an easy assessable objective: coffee ageing during storage. As reference method these changes were traced with a standard GC/FID set-up, accompanied by sensory panellists. The evaluation of GC data showed a non-linear characteristic for single compound concentrations as well as for total peak area values, disabling prediction of the coffee age. In contrast, the new SAW sensor array demonstrates a linear dependency, i.e. being capable to show a dependency between volatile concentration and storage time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Portable Amperometric Perchlorate Selective Sensors with Microhole Array-water/organic Gel Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Girault, Hubert H.; Lee, Hye Jin [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungi [Gyeongbuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Girault, Hubert H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    A novel stick-shaped portable sensing device featuring a microhole array interface between the polyvinylchloride-2-nitrophenyloctylether (PVC-NPOE) gel and water phase was developed for in-situ sensing of perchlorate ions in real water samples. Perchlorate sensitive sensing responses were obtained based on measuring the current changes with respect to the assisted transfer reaction of perchlorate ions by a perchlorate selective ligand namely, bis(dibenzoylmethanato)Ni(II) (Ni(DBM){sub 2}) across the polarized microhole array interface. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the assisted transfer reaction of perchlorate ions by the Ni(DBM){sub 2} ligand when using the portable sensing device. The current response for the transfer of perchlorate anions by Ni(DBM){sub 2} across the micro-water/gel interface linearly increased as a function of the perchlorate ion concentration. The technique of differential pulse stripping voltammetry was also utilized to improve the sensitivity of the perchlorate anion detection down to 10 ppb. This was acquired by preconcentrating perchlorate anions in the gel layer by means of holding the ion transfer potential at 0 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 30 s followed by stripping the complexed perchlorate ion with the ligand. The effect of various potential interfering anions on the perchlorate sensor was also investigated and showed an excellent selectivity over Br{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, CH{sub 3}COO{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. As a final demonstration, some regional water samples from the Sincheon river in Daegu city were analyzed and the data was verified with that of ion chromatography (IC) analysis from one of the Korean-certified water quality evaluation centers.

  15. Nano-cone optical fiber array sensors for MiRNA profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunshan; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Stoddart, Paul; Howard, Scott; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-09-01

    Up/down regulation of microRNA panels has been correlated to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Frequent miRNA profiling at home can hence allow early cancer diagnosis and home-use chronic disease monitoring, thus reducing both mortality rate and healthcare cost. However, lifetime of miRNAs is less than 1 hour without preservation and their concentrations range from pM to mM. Despite rapid progress in the last decade, modern nucleic acid analysis methods still do not allow personalized miRNA profiling---Real-time PCR and DNA micro-array both require elaborate miRNA preservation steps and expensive equipment and nano pore sensors cannot selectively quantify a large panel with a large dynamic range. We report a novel and low-cost optical fiber sensing platform, which has the potential to profile a panel of miRNA with simple LED light sources and detectors. The individual tips of an optical imaging fiber bundle (mm in diameter with 7000 fiber cores) were etched into cones with 10 nm radius of curvature and coated with Au. FRET (Forster Resonant Energy Transfer) hairpin oligo probes, with the loop complementary to a specific miRNA that can release the hairpin, were functionalized onto the conic tips. Exciting light in the optical fiber waveguide is optimally coupled to surface plasmonics on the gold surface, which then converges to the conic tips with two orders of magnitude enhancement in intensity. Unlike nanoparticle plasmonics, tip plasmonics can be excited over a large band width and hence the plasmonic enhanced fluorescence signal of the FRET reporter is also focused towards the tip--- and is further enhanced with the periodic resonant grid of the fiber array which gives rise to pronounced standing wave interference patterns. Multiplexing is realized by functionalizing different probes onto one fiber bundle using a photoactivation process.

  16. Sensor Emplacement Techniques and Seismic Noise Analysis for USArray Transportable Array Seismic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Woodward, R.; Sauter, A.

    2013-12-01

    In preparation for the upcoming deployment of EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has supported exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement, and communication concepts appropriate for this challenging high-latitude environment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and in the lower-48 of the U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the weight of the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where there are few roads, cellular communications are scarce, most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the state. We will review the methods used for directly emplacing broadband seismometers in comparison to the current methods used for the lower-48 TA. These new methods primarily focus on using a portable drill to make a bored hole three to five meters, beneath the active layer of the permafrost, or by coring 1-2 meters deep into surface bedrock. Both methods are logistically effective in preliminary trials. Subsequent station performance has been assessed quantitatively using probability density functions summed from power spectral density estimates. These are calculated for the continuous time series of seismic data recorded for each channel of the seismometer. There are five test stations currently operating in Alaska. One was deployed in August 2011 and the remaining four in October 2012. Our results show that the performance of seismometers in Alaska with auger-hole or core-hole installations can sometimes exceed that of the quietest TA stations in the lower-48, particularly horizontal components at long periods. A

  17. Selective recognition and discrimination of water-soluble azo dyes by a seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zerong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Mingliang; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-01

    A seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and nitrogen physisorption studies. The results revealed that the imprinted polymers have distinct-binding affinities from those of structurally similar azo dyes. Analysis of the UV-Vis spectral response patterns of the seven dye analytes against the imprinted polymer array suggested that the different selectivity patterns of the array were closely connected to the imprinting process. To evaluate the effectiveness of the array format, the binding of a series of analytes was individually measured for each of the seven polymers, made with different templates (including one control polymer synthesized without the use of a template). The response patterns of the array to the selected azo dyes were processed by canonical discriminant analysis. The results showed that the molecularly imprinted array was able to discriminate each analyte with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the azo dyes in two real samples, spiked chrysoidin in smoked bean curd extract and Fanta lime soda (containing tartrazine), were successfully classified by the array.

  18. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT. However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  19. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders.

  20. A Novel Partial Discharge Localization Method in Substation Based on a Wireless UHF Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Luo, Lingen; Zhou, Nan; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2017-08-18

    Effective Partial Discharge (PD) localization can detect the insulation problems of the power equipment in a substation and improve the reliability of power systems. Typical Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) PD localization methods are mainly based on time difference information, which need a high sampling rate system. This paper proposes a novel PD localization method based on a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprint to quickly locate the power equipment with potential insulation defects. The proposed method consists of two stages. In the offline stage, the RSSI fingerprint data of the detection area is measured by a wireless UHF sensor array and processed by a clustering algorithm to reduce the PD interference and abnormal RSSI values. In the online stage, when PD happens, the RSSI fingerprint of PD is measured via the input of pattern recognition for PD localization. To achieve an accurate localization, the pattern recognition process is divided into two steps: a preliminary localization is implemented by cluster recognition to reduce the localization region, and the compressed sensing algorithm is used for accurate PD localization. A field test in a substation indicates that the mean localization error of the proposed method is 1.25 m, and 89.6% localization errors are less than 3 m.

  1. Pupil and Glint Detection Using Wearable Camera Sensor and Near-Infrared LED Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Guangyue; Shi, Jiadong

    2015-12-02

    This paper proposes a novel pupil and glint detection method for gaze tracking system using a wearable camera sensor and near-infrared LED array. A novel circular ring rays location (CRRL) method is proposed for pupil boundary points detection. Firstly, improved Otsu optimal threshold binarization, opening-and-closing operation and projection of 3D gray-level histogram are utilized to estimate rough pupil center and radius. Secondly, a circular ring area including pupil edge inside is determined according to rough pupil center and radius. Thirdly, a series of rays are shot from inner to outer ring to collect pupil boundary points. Interference points are eliminated by calculating gradient amplitude. At last, an improved total least squares is proposed to fit collected pupil boundary points. In addition, the improved total least squares developed is utilized for the solution of Gaussian function deformation to calculate glint center. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust and accurate than conventional detection methods. When interference factors such as glints and natural light reflection are located on pupil contour, pupil boundary points and center can be detected accurately. The proposed method contributes to enhance stability, accuracy and real-time quality of gaze tracking system.

  2. Data-driven and calibration-free Lamb wave source localization with sparse sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F

    2015-08-01

    Most Lamb wave localization techniques require that we know the wave's velocity characteristics; yet, in many practical scenarios, velocity estimates can be challenging to acquire, are unavailable, or are unreliable because of the complexity of Lamb waves. As a result, there is a significant need for new methods that can reduce a system's reliance on a priori velocity information. This paper addresses this challenge through two novel source localization methods designed for sparse sensor arrays in isotropic media. Both methods exploit the fundamental sparse structure of a Lamb wave's frequency-wavenumber representation. The first method uses sparse recovery techniques to extract velocities from calibration data. The second method uses kurtosis and the support earth mover's distance to measure the sparseness of a Lamb wave's approximate frequency-wavenumber representation. These measures are then used to locate acoustic sources with no prior calibration data. We experimentally study each method with a collection of acoustic emission data measured from a 1.22 m by 1.22 m isotropic aluminum plate. We show that both methods can achieve less than 1 cm localization error and have less systematic error than traditional time-of-arrival localization methods.

  3. Guided wave phased array sensor tuning for improved defect detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philtron, Jason H.; Rose, Joseph L.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are finding increased use in a variety of Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring applications due to their efficiency in defect detection using a sensor at a single location to inspect a large area of a structure and an ability to inspect hidden and coated areas for example. With a thorough understanding of guided wave mechanics, researchers can predict which guided wave modes will have a high probability of success in a particular nondestructive evaluation application. For example, in a sample problem presented here to access bond integrity, researchers may choose to use a guided wave mode which has high in-plane displacement, stress, or other feature at the interface. However, since material properties used for modeling work may not be precise for the development of dispersion curves, in many cases guided wave mode and frequency selection should be adjusted for increased inspection efficiency in the field. In this work, a phased array comb transducer is used to sweep over phase velocity - frequency space to tune mode excitation for improved defect characterization performance. A thin polycarbonate layer bonded to a thick metal plate is considered with a contaminated surface prior to bonding. Physicallybased features are used to correlate wave signals with defect detection. Features assessed include arrival time and the frequency of maximum amplitude. A pseudo C-scan plot is presented which can be used to simplify data analysis. Excellent results are obtained.

  4. Multiplexed cancer biomarker detection using chip-integrated silicon photonic sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Adam L; Shia, Winnie W; Lenkeit, Kimberly A; Lee, So-Hyun; Bailey, Ryan C

    2016-09-21

    The analysis of disease-specific biomarker panels holds promise for the early detection of a range of diseases, including cancer. Blood-based biomarkers, in particular, are attractive targets for minimally-invasive disease diagnosis. Specifically, a panel of organ-specific biomarkers could find utility as a general disease surveillance tool enabling earlier detection or prognostic monitoring. Using arrays of chip-integrated silicon photonic sensors, we describe the simultaneous detection of eight cancer biomarkers in serum in a relatively rapid (1 hour) and fully automated antibody-based sandwich assay. Biomarkers were chosen for their applicability to a range of organ-specific cancers, including disease of the pancreas, liver, ovary, breast, lung, colorectum, and prostate. Importantly, we demonstrate that selected patient samples reveal biomarker "fingerprints" that may be useful for a personalized cancer diagnosis. More generally, we show that the silicon photonic technology is capable of measuring multiplexed panels of protein biomarkers that may have broad utility in clinical diagnostics.

  5. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-05-19

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  6. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  7. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  8. Pupil and Glint Detection Using Wearable Camera Sensor and Near-Infrared LED Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel pupil and glint detection method for gaze tracking system using a wearable camera sensor and near-infrared LED array. A novel circular ring rays location (CRRL method is proposed for pupil boundary points detection. Firstly, improved Otsu optimal threshold binarization, opening-and-closing operation and projection of 3D gray-level histogram are utilized to estimate rough pupil center and radius. Secondly, a circular ring area including pupil edge inside is determined according to rough pupil center and radius. Thirdly, a series of rays are shot from inner to outer ring to collect pupil boundary points. Interference points are eliminated by calculating gradient amplitude. At last, an improved total least squares is proposed to fit collected pupil boundary points. In addition, the improved total least squares developed is utilized for the solution of Gaussian function deformation to calculate glint center. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust and accurate than conventional detection methods. When interference factors such as glints and natural light reflection are located on pupil contour, pupil boundary points and center can be detected accurately. The proposed method contributes to enhance stability, accuracy and real-time quality of gaze tracking system.

  9. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence the nu......-of-the-art machine learning methods and the Bayesian learning paradigm....

  10. Data–driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence the nu......-of-the-art machine learning methods and the Bayesian learning paradigm....

  11. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence...

  12. A Robust and Low-Complexity Gas Recognition Technique for On-Chip Tin-Oxide Gas Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Flitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas recognition is a new emerging research area with many civil, military, and industrial applications. The success of any gas recognition system depends on its computational complexity and its robustness. In this work, we propose a new low-complexity recognition method which is tested and successfully validated for tin-oxide gas sensor array chip. The recognition system is based on a vector angle similarity measure between the query gas and the representatives of the different gas classes. The latter are obtained using a clustering algorithm based on the same measure within the training data set. Experimented results on our in-house gas sensors array show more than 98% of correct recognition. The robustness of the proposed method is tested by recognizing gas measurements with simulated drift. Less than 1% of performance degradation is noted at the worst case scenario which represents a significant improvement when compared to the current state-of-the-art.

  13. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    CERN Document Server

    Noroozian, Omid; Bennett, Douglas A; Brevik, Justus A; Fowler, Joseph W; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C; Horansky, Robert D; Irwin, Kent D; Kang, Zhao; Schmidt, Daniel R; Vale, Leila R; Ullom, Joel N

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a $^{153}$Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/$\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$ at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices (SQUID) and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than $10^3$ elements and spectral resolving powers $R=\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda > 10^3$.

  14. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwang Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  15. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  16. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and ...

  17. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanjun; Wyszynski, Bartosz; Yatabe, Rui; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG) materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL); nonanal (NAL) and bezaldehyde (BAL). The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT). Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT); diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP) and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP) were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA); nonanoic acid (NA) and benzoic acid (BA) were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA); multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP) effect and the matrix

  18. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  19. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-02-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m-2. Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa-1. The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production.

  20. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-02-24

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m(-2). Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa(-1). The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production.

  1. Nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Sweccha

    2017-01-01

    The testing and further development of a prototype nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor, with a focus on surface modification and detailed characterization of the biosensor chip and in-field and at-line applicability in the food industry is described. Furthermore, a simp

  2. Nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Sweccha

    2017-01-01

    The testing and further development of a prototype nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor, with a focus on surface modification and detailed characterization of the biosensor chip and in-field and at-line applicability in the food industry is described. Furthermore, a

  3. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  4. Core-shell diode array for high performance particle detectors and imaging sensors: status of the development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G.; Hübner, U.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Stolz, R.; Plentz, J.; Andrä, G.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel high performance radiation detector and imaging sensor by a ground-breaking core-shell diode array design. This novel core-shell diode array are expected to have superior performance respect to ultrahigh radiation hardness, high sensitivity, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution simultaneously. These properties are highly desired in fundamental research such as high energy physics (HEP) at CERN, astronomy and future x-ray based protein crystallography at x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) etc.. This kind of detectors will provide solutions for these fundamental research fields currently limited by instrumentations. In this work, we report our progress on the development of core-shell diode array for the applications as high performance imaging sensors and particle detectors. We mainly present our results in the preparation of high aspect ratio regular silicon rods by metal assisted wet chemical etching technique. Nearly 200 μm deep and 2 μm width channels with high aspect ratio have been etched into silicon. This result will open many applications not only for the core-shell diode array, but also for a high density integration of 3D microelectronics devices.

  5. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  6. A Gas Sensor Array For Environmental Air Monitoring: A Study Case Of Application Of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, Michele; Suriano, Domenico; Cassano, Gennaro; Rossi, Riccardo; Alvisi, Marco; Pfister, Valerio; Trizio, Livia; Brattoli, Magda; De Gennaro, Gianluigi

    2011-09-01

    An array of commercial gas sensors and nanotechnology sensors has been integrated to quantify gas concentration of air-pollutants. A variety of chemoresistive gas sensors, commercial (Figaro and Fis) and developed at ENEA laboratories (metal-modified carbon nanotubes) were tested to implement a database useful for applied artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANN algorithm used is the common perceptron multi-layer feed-forward network based on error back-propagation. Electronic Noses based on various sensor arrays related to mammalian olfactory systems have been largely reported [1,2]. Here, we reported on the perceptron-based ANNs applied to a large database of 3875 datapoints for environmental air monitoring. The ANNs performance has been individually assessed for any targeted gas. The response of the classifier has been measured for NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, and H2S gas. The NO2 characteristics exhibit that real concentrations and predicted concentrations are very close with a normalized mean square error (NMSE) in the test set as low as 6%.

  7. Study of Halitosis-Substance Sensing at Low Concentration Using an Electrochemical Sensor Array Combined with a Preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaya, Yosuke; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    A method for quantitative detection and discrimination of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) using an electrochemical sensor array combined with a preconcentrator was proposed. Halitosis is due to VSCs produced by bacterial metabolism inside the oral cavity. An organoleptic test is typically performed by a dental clinician for the assessment of halitosis, although it is a subjective test. Thus, an objective evaluation of halitosis is required. In this study, it was possible to discriminate among the VSCs such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S) over the range of 200ppb to 1000ppb. Moreover, mixture of two VSC vapors (H2S and CH3SH) at various mixing ratios were measured. The results indicated that the sensor responses to mixed samples satisfied the linear superposition. The mixture compositions of VSCs were almost correctly obtained from the sensor responses using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis.

  8. Inverse least-squares modeling of vapor descriptors using polymer-coated surface acoustic wave sensor array responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grate, J W; Patrash, S J; Kaganovet, S N; Abraham, M H; Wise, B M; Gallagher, N B

    2001-11-01

    In previous work, it was shown that, in principle, vapor descriptors could be derived from the responses of an array of polymer-coated acoustic wave devices. This new chemometric classification approach was based on polymer/vapor interactions following the well-established linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) and the surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers being mass sensitive. Mathematical derivations were included and were supported by simulations. In this work, an experimental data set of polymer-coated SAW vapor sensors is investigated. The data set includes 20 diverse polymers tested against 18 diverse organic vapors. It is shown that interfacial adsorption can influence the response behavior of sensors with nonpolar polymers in response to hydrogen-bonding vapors; however, in general, most sensor responses are related to vapor interactions with the polymers. It is also shown that polymer-coated SAW sensor responses can be empirically modeled with LSERs, deriving an LSER for each individual sensor based on its responses to the 18 vapors. Inverse least-squares methods are used to develop models that correlate and predict vapor descriptors from sensor array responses. Successful correlations can be developed by multiple linear regression (MLR), principal components regression (PCR), and partial least-squares (PLS) regression. MLR yields the best fits to the training data, however cross-validation shows that prediction of vapor descriptors for vapors not in the training set is significantly more successful using PCR or PLS. In addition, the optimal dimension of the PCR and PLS models supports the dimensionality of the LSER formulation and SAW response models.

  9. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application.

  10. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens.

  11. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  12. Nanowire-organic thin film transistor integration and scale up towards developing sensor array for biomedical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Hankins, Phillip T.; Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    Exploratory research works have demonstrated the capability of conducting nanowire arrays in enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity of bio-electrodes in sensing applications. With the help of different surface manipulation techniques, a wide range of biomolecules have been successfully immobilized on these nanowires. Flexible organic electronics, thin film transistor (TFT) fabricated on flexible substrate, was a breakthrough that enabled development of logic circuits on flexible substrate. In many health monitoring scenarios, a series of biomarkers, physical properties and vital signals need to be observed. Since the nano-bio-electrodes are capable of measuring all or most of them, it has been aptly suggested that a series of electrode (array) on single substrate shall be an excellent point of care tool. This requires an efficient control system for signal acquisition and telemetry. An array of flexible TFTs has been designed that acts as active matrix for controlled switching of or scanning by the sensor array. This array is a scale up of the flexible organic TFT that has been fabricated and rigorously tested in previous studies. The integration of nanowire electrodes to the organic electronics was approached by growing nanowires on the same substrate as TFTs and fl ip chip packaging, where the nanowires and TFTs are made on separate substrates. As a proof of concept, its application has been explored in various multi-focal biomedical sensing applications, such as neural probes for monitoring neurite growth, dopamine, and neuron activity; myocardial ischemia for spatial monitoring of myocardium.

  13. A Sensor Array Using Multi-functional Field-effect Transistors with Ultrahigh Sensitivity and Precision for Bio-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Il; Quang Trung, Tran; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Jin-Su; Jeon, Sanghun; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jong-Jin; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-07-01

    Mechanically adaptive electronic skins (e-skins) emulate tactition and thermoception by cutaneous mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors in human skin, respectively. When exposed to multiple stimuli including mechanical and thermal stimuli, discerning and quantifying precise sensing signals from sensors embedded in e-skins are critical. In addition, different detection modes for mechanical stimuli, rapidly adapting (RA) and slowly adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors in human skin are simultaneously required. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of a highly sensitive, pressure-responsive organic field-effect transistor (OFET) array enabling both RA- and SA- mode detection by adopting easily deformable, mechano-electrically coupled, microstructured ferroelectric gate dielectrics and an organic semiconductor channel. We also demonstrate that the OFET array can separate out thermal stimuli for thermoreception during quantification of SA-type static pressure, by decoupling the input signals of pressure and temperature. Specifically, we adopt piezoelectric-pyroelectric coupling of highly crystalline, microstructured poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) gate dielectric in OFETs with stimuli to allow monitoring of RA- and SA-mode responses to dynamic and static forcing conditions, respectively. This approach enables us to apply the sensor array to e-skins for bio-monitoring of humans and robotics.

  14. A Compressed Sensing Based Method for Reducing the Sampling Time of A High Resolution Pressure Sensor Array System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenglu; Li, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-10

    For extracting the pressure distribution image and respiratory waveform unobtrusively and comfortably, we proposed a smart mat which utilized a flexible pressure sensor array, printed electrodes and novel soft seven-layer structure to monitor those physiological information. However, in order to obtain high-resolution pressure distribution and more accurate respiratory waveform, it needs more time to acquire the pressure signal of all the pressure sensors embedded in the smart mat. In order to reduce the sampling time while keeping the same resolution and accuracy, a novel method based on compressed sensing (CS) theory was proposed. By utilizing the CS based method, 40% of the sampling time can be decreased by means of acquiring nearly one-third of original sampling points. Then several experiments were carried out to validate the performance of the CS based method. While less than one-third of original sampling points were measured, the correlation degree coefficient between reconstructed respiratory waveform and original waveform can achieve 0.9078, and the accuracy of the respiratory rate (RR) extracted from the reconstructed respiratory waveform can reach 95.54%. The experimental results demonstrated that the novel method can fit the high resolution smart mat system and be a viable option for reducing the sampling time of the pressure sensor array.

  15. Real-time assessment of a linear pyroelectric sensor array for object classication

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William E., III; Brown, Jeremy B.; Chari, Srikant; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2010-10-01

    Pyroelectric linear arrays can be used to generate profiles of targets. Simulations have shown that generated profiles can be used to classify human and animal targets. A pyroelectric array system was used to collect data and classify targets as either human or non-human in real time. The pyroelectric array system consists of a 128-element Dias 128LTI pyroelectric linear array, an F/0.86 germanium lens, and an 18F4550 pic microcontroller for A/D conversion and communication. The classifier used for object recognition was trained using data collected in petting zoos and tested using data collected at the US-Mexico border in Arizona.

  16. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  17. A platform for analysis of nanoscale liquids with an integrated sensor array based on 2-d material

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, M; Neumann, R F; Giro, R; Feger, C; Avouris, P; Steiner, M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of nanoscale liquids, including wetting and flow phenomena, is a scientific challenge with far reaching implications for industrial technologies. We report the conception, development, and application of an integrated platform for the experimental characterization of liquids at the nanometer scale. The platform combines the sensing functionalities of an integrated, two-dimensional electronic device array with in situ application of highly sensitive optical micro-spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate the performance capabilities of the platform with an embodiment based on an array of integrated, optically transparent graphene sensors. The application of electronic and optical sensing in the platform allows for differentiating between liquids electronically, for determining a liquid's molecular fingerprint, and for monitoring surface wetting dynamics in real time. In order to explore the platform's sensitivity limits, we record topographies and optical spectra of individual, spatiall...

  18. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Self-assembled Monolayer Coated Sensor Array with Concentration-independent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have modeled and analyzed affinities and kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption (and desorption) on various surface chemical groups using multiple self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) array. The high-frequency and micro-scale resonator provides improved sensitivity in the detections of VOCs at trace levels. With the study of affinities and kinetics, three concentration-independent intrinsic parameters (monolayer adsorption capacity, adsorption energy constant and desorption rate) of gas-surface interactions are obtained to contribute to a multi-parameter fingerprint library of VOC analytes. Effects of functional group’s properties on gas-surface interactions are also discussed. The proposed sensor array with concentration-independent fingerprint library shows potential as a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for VOCs discrimination and gas-sensitive materials selections.

  19. Thermal chip fabrication with arrays of sensors and heaters for micro-scale impingement cooling heat transfer analysis and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C H; Gau, C

    2004-07-30

    The design and fabrication for a thermal chip with an array of temperature sensors and heaters for study of micro-jet impingement cooling heat transfer process are presented. This thermal chip can minimize the heat loss from the system to the ambient and provide a uniform heat flux along the wall, thus local heat transfer processes along the wall can be measured and obtained. The fabrication procedure presented can reach a chip yield of 100%, and every one of the sensors and heaters on the chip is in good condition. In addition, micro-jet impingement cooling experiments are performed to obtain the micro-scale local heat transfer Nusselt number along the wall. Flow visualization for the micro-impinging jet is also made. The experimental results indicate that both the micro-scale impinging jet flow structure and the heat transfer process along the wall is significantly different from the case of large-scale jet impingement cooling process.

  20. Influence of the measurement object's reflective properties on the accuracy of array projection-based 3D sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Stefan; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2017-05-01

    In order to increase the measurement speed of pattern projection-based three-dimensional (3-D) sensors, in 2014, we introduced the so-called array projector which allows pattern projection at several 1,000 fps. As the patterns are switched by switching on and off the light sources of multiple slide projectors, each pattern originates from a different projection center. This may lead to a 3-D point deviation when measuring glossy objects. In this contribution, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the dependence of this deviation on the measurement object's reflective properties. Furthermore, we propose a procedure for compensating for this deviation.

  1. Needle-type environmental microsensors: design, construction and uses of microelectrodes and multi-analyte MEMS sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyoung; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Hosni, Ahmed A.; Papautsky, Ian; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-04-01

    The development of environmental microsensor techniques is a revolutionary advance in the measurement of both absolute levels and changes in chemical species in the field of environmental engineered and natural systems. The tiny tip (5-15 µm diameter) of microsensors makes them very attractive experimental tools for direct measurements of the chemical species of interest inside biological samples (e.g., biofilm, flocs). Microelectrodes fabricated from pulled micropipettes (e.g., dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, ion-selective microelectrode) have contributed to greater understanding of biological mechanisms for decades using microscopic monitoring, and currently microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microfabrication technologies are being successfully applied to fabricate multi-analyte sensor systems for in situ monitoring. This review focuses on needle-type environmental microsensor technology, including microelectrodes and multi-analyte MEMS sensor arrays. Design, construction and applications to biofilm research of these sensors are described. Practical methods for biofilm microprofile measurements are presented and several in situ applications for a biofilm study are highlighted. Ultimately, the developed needle-type microsensors combined with molecular biotechnology (such as microscopic observation with fluorescent probes) show the tremendous promise of micro-environmental sensor technology.

  2. Cross-Selectivity Enhancement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene-Based Sensor Arrays for Detecting Acetone and Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daneshkhah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for cross-selectivity enhancement of porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP/carbon black (CB composite-based resistive sensors are provided. The sensors are tested with acetone and ethanol in the presence of humid air. Cross-selectivity is enhanced using two different methods to modify the basic response of the PVDF-HFP/CB sensing platform. In method I, the adsorption properties of PVDF-HFP/CB are altered by adding a polyethylene oxide (PEO layer or by treating with infrared (IR. In method II, the effects of the interaction of acetone and ethanol are enhanced by adding diethylene carbonate (DEC or PEO dispersed in DEC (PEO/DEC to the film. The results suggest the approaches used in method I alter the composite ability to adsorb acetone and ethanol, while in method II, they alter the transduction characteristics of the composite. Using these approaches, sensor relative response to acetone was increased by 89% compared with the PVDF-HFP/CB untreated film, whereas sensor relative response to ethanol could be decreased by 57% or increased by 197%. Not only do these results demonstrate facile methods for increasing sensitivity of PVDF-HFP/CB film, used in parallel they demonstrate a roadmap for enhancing system cross-selectivity that can be applied to separate units on an array. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  3. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  4. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  5. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    . The technology is based on an array of chemoselective compounds immobilized on a solid support. Upon exposure to the analyte in suspicion the colorimetric array changes color. Each chosen compound reacts chemo-selectively with analytes of interest. A change in a color signature indicates the presence of unknown...... explosives and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We are working towards the selection of compounds that undergo color changes in the presence of explosives and VOCs, as well as the development of an immobilization method for the molecules. Digital imaging of the colorimetric array before and after exposure...

  6. Bio-inspired tactile sensor with arrayed structures based on electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sato, Hiroshi; Taya, Minoru

    2009-03-01

    We reported some work on flexible tactile sensors based on Flemion ionic polymer metal composites previously. In this work, we compared the signals in both voltage and current with the signals obtained from a giant nerve fiber reported previously by other researchers. We found some similarities between the artificial tactile sensor and the nerve fiber, in both of which ionic movement play a very important role. This bio-inspired Flemion based ionic polymer metal composites would be a good candidate for bio-related sensors especially for prosthetic limb socket interface applications.

  7. Reliability of measured data for pH sensor arrays with fault diagnosis and data fusion based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-12-13

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  8. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis (FD and data fusion (DF technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2 sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  9. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khalaf, Nawaf; Iversen, Jens Jørgen Lønsmann

    2007-01-01

    This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  10. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  11. An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2014-10-01

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  12. Combined Use of FSR Sensor Array and SVM Classifier for Finger Motion Recognition Based on Pressure Distribution Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Li; Li Jiang; Hong Liu; Hegao Cai; Dapeng Yang

    2012-01-01

    For controlling dexterous prosthetic hand with a high number of active Degrees of Freedom (DOF),it is necessary to reliably extract control volitions of finger motions from the human body.In this study,a large variety of finger motions are discriminated based on the diversities of the pressure distribution produced by the mechanical actions of muscles on the forearm.The pressure distribution patterns corresponding to the motions were measured by sensor array which is composed of 32 Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) sensors.In order to map the pressure patterns with different finger motions,a multiclass classifier was designed based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm.The multi-subject experiments show that it is possible to identify as many as seventeen different finger motions,including individual finger motions and multi-finger grasping motions,with the accuracy above 99% in the in-session validation.Further,the cross-session validation demonstrates that the performance of the proposed method is robust for use if the FSR array is not reset.The results suggest that the proposed method has great application prospects for the control of multi-DOF dexterous hand prosthesis.

  13. An Automated Sensing System for Steel Bridge Inspection Using GMR Sensor Array and Magnetic Wheels of Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes of deterioration of steel bridges. It may cause metal loss and fatigue cracks in the steel components, which would lead to the collapse of steel bridges. This paper presents an automated sensing system to detect corrosion, crack, and other kinds of defects using a GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance sensor array. Defects will change the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of the material. As a result, magnetic field density generated by ferromagnetic material and the magnetic wheels will be changed. The defects are able to be detected by using GMR sensor array to measure the changes of magnetic flux density. In this study, magnetic wheels are used not only as the adhesion device of the robot, but also as an excitation source to provide the exciting magnetic field for the sensing system. Furthermore, compared to the eddy current method and the MFL (magnetic flux leakage method, this sensing system suppresses the noise from lift-off value fluctuation by measuring the vertical component of induced magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface of the specimen in the corrosion inspection. Simulations and experimental results validated the feasibility of the system for the automated defect inspection.

  14. Development of a Microforce Sensor and Its Array Platform for Robotic Cell Microinjection Force Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Xie; Yunlei Zhou; Yuzi Lin; Lingyun Wang,; Wenming Xi

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted cell microinjection, which is precise and can enable a high throughput, is attracting interest from researchers. Conventional probe-type cell microforce sensors have some real-time injection force measurement limitations, which prevent their integration in a cell microinjection robot. In this paper, a novel supported-beam based cell micro-force sensor with a piezoelectric polyvinylidine fluoride film used as the sensing element is described, which was designed to solve the real...

  15. A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Murillo, Duber M.; Souza, Alessandra A.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces. In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

  16. Ultrasensitive nanostructure sensor arrays on flexible substrates for multiplexed and simultaneous electrochemical detection of a panel of cardiac biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Chaudhry, Shajee; Anguiano, Jonathan; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-03-15

    Multiplexed detection of protein biomarkers offers new opportunities for early diagnosis and efficient treatment of complex diseases. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has the highest mortality risk in USA and Europe with 15-20 million cases being reported annually. Cardiac Troponins (T and I) are well established protein biomarkers associated with heart muscle damage and point-of-care monitoring of both these two biomarkers has significant benefits on patient care. A flexible disposable electrochemical biosensor device comprising of vertically oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures was developed for rapid and simultaneous screening of cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI) and cardiac-Troponin-T (cTnT) in a point-of-care sensor format. The biosensors were designed by selective hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures onto the working electrodes of polyimide printed circuit board platforms, resulting in the generation of high density nanostructure ZnO arrays based electrodes. The size, density and surface terminations of the nanostructures were leveraged towards achieving surface confinement of the target cTnT and cTnI molecules on to the electrode surface. Multiplexing and simultaneous detection was achieved through sensor platform design comprising of arrays of Troponin functionalized ZnO nanostructure electrodes. The sensitivity and specificity of the biosensor was characterized using two types of electrochemical techniques; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky analysis on the same sensor platform to demonstrate multi-configurable modes. Limit of detection of 1pg/mL in human serum was achieved for both cTnI and cTnT. Cross reactivity analysis showed the selectivity of detecting cTnT and cTnI in human serum with wide dynamic range.

  17. Investigation of polarization-selective InGaAs sensor with elliptical two-dimensional holes array structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Fu, Dong; Hu, Xiaobin; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths have attracted more and more attention for broad applications in meteorological observations, medicine, remote sensing and many other fields. Metal metamaterial structures are used in nanophotonics in order to localize and enhance the incident electromagnetic field. Here we develop an elliptical gold Two-Dimensional Holes Array (2DHA) in which photons can be manipulated by surface plasmon resonance, and the ellipse introduce the asymmetry to realize a polarization selective function. Strong polarization dependence is observed in the simulated transmission spectra. To further understand the coupling mechanism between gold holes array and InP, the different parameters of the 2DHA are analyzed. It is shown that the polarization axis is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, and the degree of polarization is determined by the aspect ratio of the ellipse. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of the 2DHA shows a linear dependence on the array period, the bandwidth of transmission spectra closely related to duty cycle of the ellipse in each period. This result will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarization selective infrared sensor.

  18. Single-molecule detection of protein efflux from microorganisms using fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Markita Patricia; Ando, Hiroki; Chen, Allen Y.; Cao, Jicong; Kottadiel, Vishal Isaac; Chio, Linda; Yang, Darwin; Dong, Juyao; Lu, Timothy K.; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-05-01

    A distinct advantage of nanosensor arrays is their ability to achieve ultralow detection limits in solution by proximity placement to an analyte. Here, we demonstrate label-free detection of individual proteins from Escherichia coli (bacteria) and Pichia pastoris (yeast) immobilized in a microfluidic chamber, measuring protein efflux from single organisms in real time. The array is fabricated using non-covalent conjugation of an aptamer-anchor polynucleotide sequence to near-infrared emissive single-walled carbon nanotubes, using a variable chemical spacer shown to optimize sensor response. Unlabelled RAP1 GTPase and HIV integrase proteins were selectively detected from various cell lines, via large near-infrared fluorescent turn-on responses. We show that the process of E. coli induction, protein synthesis and protein export is highly stochastic, yielding variability in protein secretion, with E. coli cells undergoing division under starved conditions producing 66% fewer secreted protein products than their non-dividing counterparts. We further demonstrate the detection of a unique protein product resulting from T7 bacteriophage infection of E. coli, illustrating that nanosensor arrays can enable real-time, single-cell analysis of a broad range of protein products from various cell types.

  19. Amine basicity (pKb) controls the analyte binding energy on single walled carbon nanotube electronic sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S

    2008-02-06

    A wide range of analytes adsorb irreversibly to the surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube electronic networks typically used as sensors or thin-film transistors, although to date, the mechanism is not understood. Using thionyl chloride as a model electron-withdrawing adsorbate, we show that reversible adsorption sites can be created on the nanotube array via noncovalent functionalization with amine-terminated molecules of pKa nanotube network comprising single, largely unbundled nanotubes, near the electronic percolation threshold is required for the effective conversion to a reversibly binding array. By examining 11 types of amine-containing molecules, we show that analyte adsorption is largely affected by the basicity (pKb) of surface groups. The binding energy of the analyte is apparently reduced by its adsorption on the surface chemical groups instead of directly on the SWNT array itself. This mediated adsorption mechanism is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular potential calculations. Reversible detection with no active regeneration at the parts-per-trillion level is demonstrated for the first time by creating a higher adsorption site density with a polymer amine, such as polyethyleneimine (PEI). Last, we demonstrate that this transition to reversibility upon surface functionalization is a general phenomenon.

  20. Characterization of an array of Love-wave gas sensors developed using electrospinning technique to deposit nanofibers as sensitive layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, D; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J; Sayago, I; Gràcia, I; Cané, C; Horrillo, M C; Santos, J P

    2014-03-01

    The electrospinning technique has allowed that very different materials are deposited as sensitive layers on Love-wave devices forming a low cost and successful sensor array. Their excellent sensitivity, good linearity and short response time are reported in this paper. Several materials have been used to produce the nanofibers: polymers as Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Polystirene (PS); composites with polymers as PVA+SnCl4; combined polymers as PS+Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PS+PSMA) and metal oxides (SnO2). In order to test the array, well-known chemical warfare agent simulants (CWAs) have been chosen among the volatile organic compounds due to their importance in the security field. Very low concentrations of these compounds have been detected by the array, such as 0.2 ppm of DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 1 ppm of DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard. Additionally, the CWA simulants used in the experiment have been discriminated and classified using pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

  1. A reusable laser wrapped graphene-Ag array based SERS sensor for trace detection of genomic DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lei; Hu, Yaowu; Zhu, Lihua; Cheng, Gary J; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2017-06-15

    Methylation is an important epigenetic DNA modification that governs gene expression. The genomic level of methylated DNA and its derivatives may serve as important indicators for the initiation and progression of cancers among other diseases. In this effort we propose a new laser wrapped graphene-Ag array as a highly sensitive Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for the detection of methylated DNA (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) and its oxidation derivatives namely 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Excellent sensitivity and reproducibility were achieved with the laser wrapped graphene-Ag array as a substrate, with the graphene layer acting as an enhancer of the SERS signal due to the effective coupling of the electromagnetic field. In summary, fast (less than 60min) and sensitive (at a limit of detection 0.2pgμL(-1), ie. 1.8pmolL(-1)) detection of methylated DNA and its derivatives was realized with the ability to distinguish methylation levels from a mixture at 0.1%. The sensitive and accurate detection in DNA extracted from cells was also accomplished. Furthermore our graphene wrapped approach circumvents the direct interaction between Ag array and the analytes, thus improving the reusability of the SERS substrate even after five cycles of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  3. SIA system employing the transient response from a potentiometric sensor array--Correction of a saline matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimendia, A; Gutiérrez, J M; Opalski, L J; Ciosek, P; Wróblewski, W; del Valle, M

    2010-08-15

    A Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) system and an 8-potentiometric all-solid-state sensor array were coupled in a simple and automated electronic tongue device. The potentiometric sensors used were planar microfabricated structures with standard PVC membranes deposited onto a gold contact. The SIA system permitted the automated operation and generation of the calibration data, needed to build an Artificial Neural Network model, thanks to the precise dosing and mixing of volumes of stock solutions. The resolution of a four-ion mixture, i.e. ammonium, sodium, nitrate and chloride was the study case used for characterization of the system. Two different variants for signal acquisition, steady-state and transient recording, were arranged and compared. The dynamic treatment is shown to offer improved performance thanks to the benefits of the kinetic resolution. For this, it first extracts meaningful data from a FFT transform of each sensor's transient, which is then fed to an ANN model for estimation of each concentration in the four-ion mixture. While in a standard laboratory situation there was no difference between the two approaches, the dynamic treatment allowed the correction of a matrix effect in the case study, where an uncontrolled saline effect could be counterbalanced.

  4. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  5. A 3×3 wear debris sensor array for real time lubricant oil conditioning monitoring using synchronized sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    A high throughput wear debris sensor consisting of 3×3 sensing channels is presented for real time online lubricant oil conditioning monitoring. Time division multiplexing was applied to the sensing channels for measuring responses of multiple channels using one set of measurement electronics. Crosstalk among the 3×3 sensing channels was eliminated by diodes that are connected in series with each channel. Parallel L-C-R resonance was also applied to each sensing coil to increase the sensitivity. Furthermore, a unique synchronized sampling method was used to reduce the date size 50 times. Finally, we demonstrated that the sensor is capable of real time detection of wear debris as small as 50 μm in SAE 0W-5 at a flow rate of 460 ml/min; the measured debris concentration is in good agreement with the estimated actual concentration. The design can be extended to a N×N sensor array for an extremely high throughput without sacrificing the sensitivity, and can potentially be used for real time wear debris monitoring for health condition of rotating or reciprocating machineries.

  6. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  7. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  8. Use of sequential injection analysis to construct an electronic-tongue: application to multidetermination employing the transient response of a potentiometric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Daniel; Durán, Alejandro; Del Valle, Manel

    2007-09-26

    An electronic tongue based on the transient response of an array of non-specific-response potentiometric sensors was developed. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system was used in order to automate its training and operation. The use of the transient recording entails the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, which can be of high information content, of primary ions and also of interfering ions; these may better discriminated if the kinetic resolution is added. This work presents the extraction of significant information contained in the transient response of a sensor array formed by five all-solid-state potentiometric sensors. The tool employed was the Fourier transform, from which a number of coefficients were fed into an artificial neural network (ANN) model, used to perform a quantitative multidetermination. The studied case was the analysis of mixtures of calcium, sodium and potassium. Obtained performance is compared with the more traditional automated electronic tongue using final steady-state potentials.

  9. The MAIN Shirt: A Textile-Integrated Magnetic Induction Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teichmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system is presented for long-term monitoring of respiration and pulse. It comprises four non-contact sensors based on magnetic eddy current induction that are textile-integrated into a shirt. The sensors are technically characterized by laboratory experiments that investigate the sensitivity and measuring depth, as well as the mutual interaction between adjacent pairs of sensors. The ability of the device to monitor respiration and pulse is demonstrated by measurements in healthy volunteers. The proposed system (called the MAIN (magnetic induction Shirt does not need electrodes or any other skin contact. It is wearable, unobtrusive and can easily be integrated into an individual’s daily routine. Therefore, the system appears to be a suitable option for long-term monitoring in a domestic environment or any other unsupervised telemonitoring scenario.

  10. Array of nanofibrous polyaniline-based sensors with different chemo-structural assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnano, A.; Zampetti, E.; Pantalei, S.; Italia, M.; Spinella, C.; Bearzotti, A.

    2009-05-01

    Among various attempts of mimicking olfactory system the present work focuses on the sensorial surface of mammalian olfactory cells. The aim of this research is to develop, in a single step, synthetic fibres mimicking the long, no motile cilia of the olfactory cells. Electrospun conductive nanofibrous layers of doped polyaniline, suitably blended to a group of polymers capable to carry the jet, have been easily assembled on chemoresistors (interdigital microelectrodes, IDEs). Such highly sensitive sensors have been able to detect gases in traces of relevant medical significance, mainly because of high density of sorption sites of the sensor. Changing the carriers, the range of sensitivity to gases could be tuned. The key role of the selected carrier polymers (polyethylenoxide of different molecular weights, PEO, polyvinilpyrrolidone, PVP, and polystyrene, PS) to the final sensor features has been highlighted by morphology analysis (texture analysis) and electrical measurements before and after gas interaction.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Characterization of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Structures with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensor-Actuator Arrays for Ultrasonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudiusz Holeczek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary numerical and experimental studies of active textile-reinforced thermoplastic composites with embedded sensor-actuator arrays. The goal of the investigations was the assessment of directional sound wave generation capability using embedded sensor-actuator arrays and developed a wave excitation procedure for ultrasound measurement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed approach was initially confirmed in numerical investigations assuming idealized mechanical and geometrical conditions. The findings were validated in real-life conditions on specimens of elementary geometry. Herein, the technological aspects of unique automated assembly of thermoplastic films containing adapted thermoplastic-compatible piezoceramic modules and conducting paths were described.

  12. Range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of transmitted beam and scanless receiver using high-aspect avalanche photodiode array for eye-safe wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Imaki, Masaharu; Kotake, Nobuki; Hirai, Akihito; Nakaji, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of a transmitted beam and a scanless receiver using a high-aspect avalanche photodiode (APD) array for the eye-safe wavelength. The system achieves a high frame rate and long-range imaging with a relatively simple sensor configuration. We developed a high-aspect APD array for the wavelength of 1.5 μm, a receiver integrated circuit, and a range and intensity detector. By combining these devices, we realized 160×120 pixels range imaging with a frame rate of 8 Hz at a distance of about 50 m.

  13. Improved DOA Estimation Algorithm with Sensor Array Perturbations for CDMA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维; 程时昕

    2003-01-01

    An improved direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm with sensor gain and phase uncertainties for synchronous code division multiple access(CDMA) system with decorrelator is presented. Through decorrelating processing DOAs of the desired users can be estimated independently and all other resolved signal interferences are eliminated. Emphasis is directed to applications in which sensor gain and phase are perturbed that often happen actually. It is shown that improved DOA estimation can be achieved for decoupled signals by gain and phase pre-estimation procedures.

  14. MOF Thin Film-Coated Metal Oxide Nanowire Array: Significantly Improved Chemiresistor Sensor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming-Shui; Tang, Wen-Xiang; Wang, Guan-E; Nath, Bhaskar; Xu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for combining metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks is proposed to design new materials for sensing volatile organic compounds, for the first time. The prepared ZnO@ZIF-CoZn core-sheath nanowire arrays show greatly enhanced performance not only on its selectivity but also on its response, recovery behavior, and working temperature.

  15. Fourier Array Processing for Buried Victims Detection using Ultra Wide Band Radar with Uncalibrated Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new way to detect victims buried in or under layers of rubble or debris in case of disasters such as earthquakes, fires or terrorist attacks. The method is based on Fourier Processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It utilizes a moving array of

  16. Alkali ion sensor based on Prussian blue-covered interdigitated array electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, M.; Grabner, E.W.; Bergveld, P.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) were electrochemically deposited on interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes yielding systems which can be considered as chemi-resistors in sensing alkali ion concentrations in an adjacent electrolyte. From the dependence of the steady-state current on

  17. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-02-14

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.

  18. A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryan, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Albertani, Roberto [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering; Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2016-07-15

    Wind energy production in the U.S. is projected to increase to 35% of our nation’s energy by 2050. This substantial increase in the U.S. is only a portion of the global wind industry growth, as many countries strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A major environmental concern and potential market barrier for expansion of wind energy is bird and bat mortality from impacts with turbine blades, towers, and nacelles. Carcass surveys are the standard protocol for quantifying mortality at onshore sites. This method is imperfect, however, due to survey frequency at remote sites, removal of carcasses by scavengers between surveys, searcher efficiency, and other biases as well as delays of days to weeks or more in obtaining information on collision events. Furthermore, carcass surveys are not feasible at offshore wind energy sites. Near-real-time detection and quantification of interaction rates is possible at both onshore and offshore wind facilities using an onboard, integrated sensor package with data transmitted to central processing centers. We developed and experimentally tested an array of sensors that continuously monitors for interactions (including impacts) of birds and bats with wind turbines. The synchronized array includes three sensor nodes: (1) vibration (accelerometers and contact microphones), (2) optical (visual and infrared spectrum cameras), and (3) bioacoustics (acoustic and ultrasonic microphones). Accelerometers and contact acoustic microphones are placed at the root of each blade to detect impact vibrations and sound waves propagating through the structure. On-board data processing algorithms using wavelet analysis detect impact signals exceeding background vibration. Stereo-visual and infrared cameras were placed on the nacelle to allow target tracking, distance, and size calculations. On-board image processing and target detection algorithms identify moving targets within the camera field of view. Bioacoustic recorders monitor vocalizations

  19. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haidar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a 90° angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  20. An optic fiber sensor for multiple gases based on fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy and microring resonator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jian, Jia-wen; Zheng, Yan-gong; Jin, Han; Zou, Jie

    2016-07-01

    A high-sensitivity sensor for multiple gases based on microring array filter and fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy system is proposed and demonstrated. The parameters of the resonators are designed so that the filtered signal from a broadband light source can be tuned with an absorption spectral line of gas. Therefore, through adding microring resonators horizontally and vertically, the number of target gases and filter range are increased. In this research, in the broad spectral range of about 0.9 μm, only the absorption spectral lines of target gases are filtered. The simulation results show that three target gases, CH4, CO2 and HF, can be simultaneously detected by the sensing system. Owing to the fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy, the whole system is optimized in mini-size and sensitivity, and we can choose different sensing methods to enhance the measurement accuracy for high and low concentration conditions.