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  1. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

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    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  2. Imaging of uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, J.

    2000-01-01

    Imaging of uterine cervix carcinoma has evolved during the last decade. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging have expanded the role of MRI in evaluating the pathology of uterine cervix carcinoma. MRI is now the modality of choice for tumor staging, evaluating tumor response to treatment, diagnosing recurrences and for evaluating pregnant patients. MRI images will soon be used to calculate dosimetry for brachytherapy with matching and fusion software. (author)

  3. Imaging of cervical carcinomas

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    Soyer, P.; Michel, G.; Masselot, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal or transvaginal ultrasound (TRUS, TVUS) had an important place in imaging techniques of cervical carcinomas and raise the question of modifying the imaging strategies. For the diagnosis of primitive tumor, those techniques cannot take the place of clinical examination and gross examination. In the assessment of parametrial involvement, TRUS which has better accuracy than clinical examination, and MRI which is considered as the most accurate technique, have an important role to play. In the follow-up and the detection of recurrences, MRI is actually considered as the best imaging technique. The authors, according to recent data in literature and their own experience, present basic concepts of imaging strategies for staging and follow-up of cervical carcinomas [fr

  4. Carcinoma de tireóide em crianças e adolescentes - revisão de seis casos

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    Daniela V. M. Szeliga

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O carcinoma de tireóide é raro em crianças, e existem aspectos controversos sobre seu manejo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar aspectos diagnósticos e de seguimento destes pacientes. Métodos: Foi revisada retrospectivamente a evolução clínica de seis pacientes com carcinoma de tireóide, seguidos em Unidade de Endocrinologia Pediátrica nos últimos 17 anos. Resultados: Foram encontrados seis pacientes com carcinoma de tireóide, todos do sexo feminino, com idade de 4,5 a 12 anos. Nódulo tireoidiano esteve presente na avaliação inicial em todos os casos. A ultra-sonografia e cintilografia com 131I mostraram nódulo sólido e hipocaptante em quatro pacientes. Histologicamente, quatro eram carcinomas papilíferos, e dois foliculares. Todos foram submetidos à tireoidectomia total, sendo que quatro necessitaram também dose terapêutica de 131I devido a metástases e/ou resíduo tireoidiano. Conclusão: Nossos achados confirmaram a impressão clínica de que crianças e adolescentes com carcinoma tireoidiano têm um bom prognóstico, sem haver registro de óbito neste seguimento de até 17 anos. Estes dados estão de acordo com a literatura, que mostra baixa mortalidade nestes casos.

  5. Carcinoma espinocelular em couro cabeludo inicialmente diagnosticado como queratoacantoma

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    Priscila Wolf Nassif

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O queratoacantoma pode com muita facilidade ser confundido com carcinoma espinocelular, tanto clínica quanto histopatologicamente. Só o queratoacantoma, entretanto, pode regredir de maneira espontânea. Relata-se caso de paciente com lesão exofídica, ulcerada e infiltrada em couro cabeludo previamente diagnosticada como queratoacantoma. O exame histopatológico confirmou carcinoma espinocelular, e a tomografia de crânio evidenciou invasão da calota craniana. Procedeu-se à excisão cirúrgica com margens amplas e confecção de retalho de rotação, seguida de tratamento adjuvante com quimioterapia e radioterapia. Há muitos relatos na literatura de carcinomas espinocelulareserroneamente diagnosticados como queratoacantomas demonstrando a dificuldade nessa diferenciação. Enquanto não se estabelecem métodos eficazes para distinguir as duas entidades, o tratamento de escolha deve ser a excisão cirúrgica.

  6. Carcinoma de células renais em bovinos

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    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontrados nove casos de carcinoma de células renais em uma pesquisa de 586 tumores em bovinos provenientes de 6.706 necropsias realizadas nessa espécie num período de 45 anos (1964-2008. Seis bovinos morreram por complicações do tumor e três foram achados incidentais. Os bovinos acometidos por carcinoma de células renais demonstraram os seguintes sinais clínicos: perda de peso (5 casos, massas abdominais palpáveis (4 casos, dificuldade respiratória (4 casos, tosse (4 casos, hiporexia (3 casos, anorexia (2 casos, dor abdominal (2 casos e febre (1 caso. Os sinais clínicos observados estavam relacionados ao comprometimento induzido pelas metástases, que foram observadas nos nove casos. As metástases foram observadas nos linfonodos abdominais, superfícies serosas, fígado e pulmão. Dois bovinos tinham tumor renal bilateral. Microscopicamente, foi observado o padrão tubular, sólido e um misto de sólido e tubular e tubulopapilífero. O tipo celular eosinofílico foi predominante, apenas um tumor sólido era constituído basicamente por células claras. Reação cirrosa variou de discreta à acentuada. Corpora amylaceae foi um achado comum. Todos os tumores marcaram positivamente para citoceratina AE1/AE3 com diferentes graus de intensidade. A imunomarcação para CD10 foi observada em todos os casos testados. CD10 marcou intensamente no CCR de células claras, nos demais a marcação foi observada de forma isolada e menos intensa. Três tumores marcaram de forma isolada e discreta para o anticorpo anti-PAX-2. A avaliação foi negativa para citoceratina 34β12, c-KIT (CD117, S-100, cromogranina A e apoproteína A surfactante. Os resultados obtidos indicam que CCR são incomuns em bovinos no Sul do Brasil com uma média de 1.3 casos para cada mil necropsias realizadas e que o anticorpo anti-CD10 é útil no diagnóstico de CCR em bovinos.

  7. Specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by delayed hepatobiliary imaging

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    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakano, S.; Ibuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    For assessment of the value of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (/sup 99m/Tc-PMT) for specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, 88 patients with various malignant and benign liver diseases (49 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 4 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 10 with metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 with liver cysts, 2 with liver hemangioma, 1 with liver abscess, 2 with intrahepatic lithiasis, 12 with liver cirrhosis, and 6 with chronic hepatitis) were studied. In 20 (41%) of the 49 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, greater uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor than by the surrounding liver tissue was seen in delayed hepatobiliary images, whereas in eight patients (16%), equilibrated uptake was seen. No increased uptake of the radioisotope by hepatic lesions was seen in 21 patients with localized liver diseases other than hepatoma. Moreover, in 18 patients with diffuse liver diseases, no focal accumulation of the radioisotope was seen in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. In addition, of 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom the serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed little or no increase, 12 showed increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor. In assessing delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images, however, it was necessary to consider following complications: accumulation of tracer in obstructed and dilated biliary trees; retention of radioactivity in nonneoplastic liver tissues; difficulties in evaluating /sup 99m/Tc-PMT uptake by small hepatic tumors; overlapping of radioactivity in the gut and gallbladder in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images of tumors. This study indicates that delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images can be useful in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

  8. Feasibility study of CT perfusion imaging for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullu, Nesat; Kantarci, Mecit; Ogul, Hayri; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Karaca, Leyla; Kizrak, Yesim; Adanur, Senol; Koc, Erdem; Polat, Ozkan; Okur, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this feasibility study was to obtain initial data with which to assess the efficiency of perfusion CT imaging (CTpI) and to compare this with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. This prospective study involved 25 patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing MRI and CTpI. All analyses were performed on T2-weighted images (T2WI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and CTp images. We compared the performance of T2WI combined with DWI and CTp alone. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Tumours were present in 87 areas according to the histopathological results. The diagnostic performance of the T2WI+DWI+CTpI combination was significantly better than that of T2WI alone for prostate carcinoma (P < 0.001). The diagnostic value of CTpI was similar to that of T2WI+DWI in combination. There were statistically significant differences in the blood flow and permeability surface values between prostate carcinoma and background prostate on CTp images. CTp may be a valuable tool for detecting prostate carcinoma and may be preferred in cases where MRI is contraindicated. If this technique is combined with T2WI and DWI, its diagnostic value is enhanced. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  10. Chronological alterations of diagnostic imaging of renal cell carcinoma

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    Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Yanagawa, Makoto; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    A review of 156 cases of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed during a 20-year period demonstrated the changes of initial signs/symptoms and imaging modalities for detection and definition. According to the imaging modality used for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma, clinical pictures were chronologically examined over 4 periods: 1973 to 1979 (before CT era), 1980 to 1984 (early CT era), 1985 to 1987 (CT era) and 1988 to 1992 (CT/MRI era). With regards to initial signs or symptoms, the proportion of classical trials has gradually decreased, while that of tumors noted incidentally has increased. As for imaging modalities for detection, the proportion of IVP has gradually decreased and that of CT and US has increased over the periods. With regard to imaging modalities for definition, the proportion of angiography has decreased and that of CT has increased. From chronological changes in clinical pictures and imaging modalities, we suggested a decision tree of imaging modalities for detection and definition of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  11. DERMAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN GERIATRIC ROOSTER (Gallus gallus domesticus CARCINOMA DÉRMICO DE CÉLULAS ESCAMOSAS EM GALO (Gallus gallus domesticus GERIÁTRICO

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    Paulo Fernando Cisneiros da Costa Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The squamous cell carcinoma is more common the malignant epithelial neoplasm of the domestic mammals, even so occurs descriptions in some species of birds. Between the gallinaceous, this tumor is uncommon and the affected animals are in the majority adult and aged. The cutaneous form corresponds most frequent in birds. The squamous cell carcinoma is highly invasive and of changeable malignancy, depending on its localization. The aim of the present study corresponded to the description of a case of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in geriatric rooster. A gallinaceous (Gallus gallus domesticus, male, 10 years of age, was presented with a cutaneous tumor, of gradual growth. The patient was submitted to the physical examination and front to the joined alterations was opted to the surgical debulking of the neoformation. The collected sample was submitted to the histopathological examination. Clinically was evidenced cutaneous tumor, with crusts, inexact limits and tack to adjacent tissues. The same it was located in the distal part of the left hindlimb. The histopathological examination disclosed a compatible morphologic picture with dermal squamous cell carcinoma, moderately differentiated and infiltrate. Three months of after the surgery, signal of return of the neoplasm was observed.

    KEY WORDS: Cutaneous neoplasm, gallinaceous, squamous cell carcinoma.

    O carcinoma de células escamosas é a neoplasia epitelial maligna mais comum dos mamíferos domésticos, embora ocorram descrições em várias espécies de aves. Entre os galináceos, esse tumor é incomum e os animais afetados são na maioria adultos e idosos. A forma cutânea corresponde à mais frequente em aves. O carcinoma de células escamosas é altamente invasivo e de malignidade variável, dependendo da sua localização. Em virtude do reduzido número de relatos de

  12. Carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar em leão-africano (Panthera leo Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in an African Lion (Panthera leo

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    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi diagnosticado em um leão-africano (Panthera leo, hospitalizado com sinais de dispnéia e emagrecimento progressivo. Em todos os lobos pulmonares havia múltiplos nódulos esbranquiçados, macios e homogêneos, de 0,2-0,5cm em diâmetro. Histologicamente, os nódulos eram constituídos por células neoplásicas arranjadas em alvéolos e papilas sustentados por moderado estroma fibrovascular, um padrão que lembrava a estrutura pulmonar pré-existente. Na reação pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS foi observada marcação positiva no citoplasma de numerosas células neoplásicas. Todas as células neoplásicas demonstraram forte e uniforme imunorreatividade citoplasmática para pancitoceratina. A marcação para o fator 1 de transcrição da tireóide (TTF-1 foi observada em focos nos núcleos das células neoplásicas das margens dos nódulos. Nas secções avaliadas para surfactante A, a marcação foi observada em múltiplas áreas focais, tanto no citoplasma como na membrana citoplasmática das células neoplásicas. O diagnóstico de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi feito com base nos achados histológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Essa parece ser a primeira descrição de um neoplasma pulmonar primário maligno em leão-africano.A case of diffuse bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the mixed type was diagnosed in the lung of an adult female African lion (Panthera leo with presenting signs of progressive dyspnea and weight loss. In all pulmonary lobes there were multiple 0.2-0.5cm in diameter soft and homogenous white nodules. Histologically, these nodules consisted of neoplastic cells with an alveolar and papillary disposition, a pattern reminiscent of the preexistent pulmonary structure. The cytoplasms of numerous neoplastic cells were positive in the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain. At immunohistochemistry examination, all neoplastic

  13. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

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    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  14. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

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    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  15. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Bae; Shu, Kwang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  16. Choroid plexus carcinoma in a cow Carcinoma de plexo coróide em um bovino

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    Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A red, firm 3.5x3.0x3.0cm mass was found within the right lateral ventricle, compressing the hippocampus and thalamus of the brain of a 4-year-old cow. The pituitary was enlarged and firm. Histologically, both the brain and pituitary masses consisted of moderately pleomorphic epithelial cells arranged as rosettes or sheets supported by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. Based on anatomical localization, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma with pituitary metastasis was made.Um massa vermelha e firme de 3,5x3,0x3,0cm foi observada no ventrículo lateral, comprimindo o hipocampo e tálamo do cérebro de uma vaca de quatro anos de idade. A pituitária estava aumentada de volume e firme. Histologicamente, tanto a massa do cérebro, quanto da pituitária, consistiam de células epiteliais moderadamente pleomórficas, arranjadas em rosetas ou cordões e apoiadas em um delicado estroma fibrovascular. Com base na localização anatômica e nos achados histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos, foi realizado um diagnóstico de carcinoma de plexo coróide com metástase para a pituitária.

  17. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

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    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  18. MR imaging of colorectal carcinomas using an MR endoscopic coil

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    Murano, Akihiko; Kido, Choichiro; Sasaki, Fumio; Nakamura, Tsuneya; Kobayashi, Semi; Katoh, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Diagnosis of the depth of wall invasion by rectal carcinoma using MR endoscopy was performed in ten resected specimens, including five rectal carcinomas, three colon carcinomas, two normal gastric wall. In addition, the gastric wall of a pig was examined. MR imaging was done with a 1.5-T Signa Advantage (GE Medical System) system, with the surface coil of the MR endoscope acting as the receiver coil. Five layers could be distinguished in the bowel wall: mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria divided into circular muscle, longitudinal muscle and intervening connective tissue. Tumors had almost the same signal intensity as muscle. The MR images of colon carcinomas, rectal carcinomas, and extrinsically metastatic involvement of the sigmoid colon by rectal carcinoma all correlated well with the pathological findings. The normal structure of the gastric wall was similar to that of the colon. 3D-fast Spoiled Grass (SPGR) sequence has a fairly short scanning time. Thus, the possibility of precise clinical diagnosis by this method was suggested. (author)

  19. Evaluation of endometrial carcinoma by multislice dynamic MR imaging with Turbo FLASH

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    Asakawa, Mari [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of multislice dynamic MR imaging with Turbo FLASH in assessing myometrial invasion by endometrial carcinoma. Dynamic MR imaging was performed with bolus injection of Gd-DTPA and with 1.5-T Siemens Magnetom imager using Turbo FLASH. Thirty-six endometrial carcinomas were evaluated with pathologic correlation. Junctional zone showed more rapid contrast enhancement effects than myometrium even after menopause. Contrast to noise ratio between junctional zone and endometrial carcinoma was the highest about fifty seconds after bolus injection. Only at that time could the degree of invasion to junctional zone in post-menopausal women whose junctional zones could not be seen on T{sub 2}-weighted images or contrast-enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted images be evaluated correctly. The accuracy in assessing myometrial invasion with T{sub 2}-weighted images, postcontrast T{sub 1}-weighted images, and dynamic MR imaging was 75%, 81% and 89% respectively. Though there was no statistically significant difference, multislice dynamic imaging with Turbo FLASH technique is considered to be a useful imaging method for the pre-operative assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial carcinoma. (author).

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging following treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with sorafenib

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    Joon-Il Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas are highly vascular tumors, showing progressive hypervascularity by the process of neoangiogenesis. Tumor angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth as well as metastatic spread therefore, imaging and quantification of tumor neo-angiogenesis is essential for monitoring response to targeted therapies and predicting disease progression. Sorafenib is a molecular targeting agent used for treating hypervascular tumors. This drug is now the standard of care in treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative actions, imaging findings following treatment with Sorafenib are quite distinct when compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Liver MRI is a widely adopted imaging modality for assessing treatment response in hepatocellular carcinoma and imaging features may reflect pathophysiological changes within the tumor. In this mini-review, we will discuss MRI findings after Sorafenib treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma and review the feasibility of MRI as an early biomarker in differentiating responders from non-responders after treatment with molecular targeting agents.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaguri, Kohei; Irie, Hiroyuki; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Nakazono, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Uozumi, Jiro; Kudo, Sho

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas. Five patients diagnosed pathologically with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma are included. MRI findings were retrospectively evaluated for the tumor contour, uniformity and hypointensity of the rim of the tumor on T2-weighted images, ''micro-scopic fat'', enhancement degree and pattern on dynamic study, and necrosis in the tumor, among other findings. The tumor size ranged from 4.8 to 13.7 cm (mean 7.9 cm). The tumor contour was well defined in four patients. All but one tumor showed a hypointensity rim, and all tumors had a heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. ''Microscopic fat'' was detected in one case. All tumors demonstrated low enhancement compared to that of the renal cortex. All tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement on postcontrast images. Necrosis was seen in four. Hemorrhage and renal vein thrombosis was seen in one. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas of large size tend to have a heterogeneous appearance on post-contrast and T2-weighted images, a well-defined tumor contour with a hypointensity rim on T2-wighted images, and lower enhancement than that of the renal cortex. Tumor necrosis is easily apparent, and ''microscopic fat'' may be observed. (author)

  2. Imaging and embolization of hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery

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    Wu Hongping; Wang Junjie; Lu Yang; You Kaizhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate radiology and embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery. Methods: The medical records of 3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery from August 2002 to September 2008 were reviewed. The demography, gonadal artery location, modus operandi, imaging features of liver cancer and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anatomic variation of gonadal artery occurred with the gonadal artery arising from the upper abdominal aorta in 1 patient and from the middle suprarenal artery in 2 patients. The blood supply of the hepatocellular carcinoma derived from the gonadal artery in all 3 patients. No complications occurred in the 6-month follow-up after embolization. Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma may be supplied by gonadal artery with anomalous origin. This anatomic variant can be readily demonstrated by imaging to guide embolization. (authors)

  3. Carcinoma epidermóide oral em paciente jovem: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a young patient: case report and literature review

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    Silvio K. Hirota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma epidermóide constitui a neoplasia maligna mais comum da boca, afetando principalmente indivíduos com mais de 50 anos. Sua ocorrência em jovens, com idade inferior a 40 anos, é rara (1 a 6% dos casos. Descreve-se um caso de carcinoma epidermóide acometendo dorso e borda da língua, classificado como T2N1M0 (estádio III, em paciente do sexo feminino, leucoderma, 25 anos, não-fumante e não-etilista. A apresentação inicial do caso era de ulceração profunda com dor intensa. Fatores predisponentes locais e gerais, diagnóstico diferencial e prognóstico são discutidos, bem como a revisão da literatura referente a diversos aspectos do carcinoma epidermóide em jovens.Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity, usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It rarely occurs in patients who are less than 40 years old (1 to 6%. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma, staged T2N1M0 (stage III, involving the lateral border and dorsal surface of the tongue of a 25-year-old white female patient, with no smoking or drinking habits. Initial tumor presentation was of deep ulceration and intense pain. This report focuses on the etiological factors, differential diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. Additionally, a brief literature review regarding squamous cell carcinoma in young patients is also included.

  4. Perfil imuno-histoquímico de carcinomas mamários invasores em homens Immunohistochemical profile of invasive male breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Medeiros Souza de Freitas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama em homens é uma doença incomum. A cada 150 casos de câncer de mama é esperada a ocorrência de apenas um no sexo masculino. Devido à baixa incidência desta neoplasia, grande parte do seu conhecimento é oriunda do carcinoma de mama no sexo feminino, cujos parâmetros diagnósticos, prognósticos e terapêuticos são bem estabelecidos na literatura. Entretanto, a distribuição dos fenótipos moleculares dos carcinomas da mama masculina é pouco conhecida. Pela análise de dados clínicos e imuno-histoquímicos estudamos os diferentes perfis de uma amostra de 20 casos de tumores invasores de mama em homens. Utilizamos um painel de cinco anticorpos composto por receptor de estrogênio, citoqueratinas 5/6, citoqueratinas 8/18, HER-1 e HER-2. Dos 20 casos examinados, 19 eram carcinomas do tipo ductal não-especial (95% e um do tipo lobular (5%. A maioria dos casos foi composta por mastectomias (65%, sendo a média de tamanho das neoplasias de 2,8 cm e o grau histológico mais freqüente o II (60%. Do total, 86,6% dos casos apresentaram metástases linfonodais. O número médio de linfonodos comprometidos foi de 5,2 nas amostras com axila positiva. Foram determinados 14 tumores (70% correspondentes ao fenótipo RE+/luminal, dois (10% do tipo indeterminado, um único tumor (5% do fenótipo Basal, e três de mama (15% correspondendo ao fenótipo HER2-positivo. A imunofenotipagem dos carcinomas de mama no sexo masculino permite traçar paralelos com os tumores de mama feminina, possibilitando a elucidação de fatores intrínsecos à doença em cada um dos sexos.Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease. One out of 150 cases of breast cancer is expected to occur in the male gender. Due to the low incidence of this neoplasia, most information about it derives from female breast carcinoma, whose diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutical parameters are well established in the medical literature. However, the distribution of molecular

  5. Múltiplos carcinomas basocelulares na região pubiana em uma paciente fototipo IV: relato de caso Multiple basal cell carcinomas in the pubic area in a patient with skin type IV: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Banhos Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna cutânea mais comum em humanos, localizando-se, frequentemente, em áreas expostas e em indivíduos de pele clara. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 62 anos, faiodérmica, com múltiplas lesões de bordas discretamente elevadas, eritemato-acastanhadas na região pubiana, cujo diagnóstico clínico foi carcinoma basocelular pigmentado, confirmado através do estudo histopatológico. A imunoistoquímica das lesões foi negativa para a pesquisa de papiloma vírusBasal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous neoplasm in humans, being more frequently located in exposed areas and in fair-skinned individuals. It is reported the case of a 62-yearold female patient, brown-skinned ,with multiple lesions with edges slightly raised, reddish-brown in the pubic region, whose clinical diagnosis was pigmented basal cell carcinoma, confirmed by histopathology. Immunohistochemistry of the lesions was negative for the detection of papilloma virus

  6. Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A incidência de carcinomas espinocelulares anais vem aumentando nos doentes HIV-positivos. O tratamento consiste de radio e/ou quimioterapia, eventualmente seguidos pela ressecção do tumor. O objetivo é avaliar o seguimento desses doentes para verificar as recidivas e a evolução do NIAA para câncer. Apresentação da casuística da Equipe Técnica de Proctologia do Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Acompanhamos 45 doentes HIV-positivos portadores de carcinoma espinocelular anal e seu precursor no período de 1996 a 2006. Eram 30 neoplasias intra-epiteliais anais de alto grau (NIAA, tratadas com ressecção local e 15 carcinomas invasores do canal anal. Nove das 15 lesões invasivas foram submetidas ao esquema de Nigro isolado ou associado à ressecção local, amputação abdominoperineal ou colostomia para derivação. RESULTADOS: No seguimento ambulatorial das NIAA tivemos recidiva em 16,7% e não observamos evolução para carcinoma, num período mínimo de três anos. Entre os nove tumores submetidos ao esquema de Nigro, com ou sem operação complementar, cinco estão livres de tumor. Nenhum tratamento foi feito em cinco doentes. Em três, devido às péssimas condições clínicas, e em dois, pois recusaram tratamento. Outro teve diagnóstico na vigência de oclusão intestinal sendo submetido à colostomia de derivação. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a NIAA pode reincidir após excisão local em doentes HIV-positivos, mas não evolui para carcinoma invasor e que os doentes de câncer anal invasor podem ser tratados da mesma maneira que a população soronegativa para o HIV desde que as condições clínicas o permitam.OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients. Treatment consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sometimes followed by tumor resection. The objective was to evaluate the follow-up of such patients to verify recurrences

  7. Cervical carcinoma vs endometrial carcinoma, involving both corpus and cervix : comparison of growing pattern with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Keuk; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Hong; Suh, Soo Ji; Kim, Jung Sik

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern depicted by MR imaging and used to differentiate between uterine cervical and endometrial carcinoma where the mass involves both the uterine corpus and cervix. The tumor growth pattern observed on MR images obtained between November 1989 and January in 1999 in 37 of 784 cervical carcinomas and 9 of 47 endometrial carcinomas in which the tumor involved both the uterine corpus and cervix was analysed. The histologic type was squamous (n=29), adenocarcinomatous (n=6) or adenosquamous (n=2) in cervical carcinoma, and carcinomatous (n=8) or adenosquamous (n=1) in endometrial carcinoma. A 1.5-T (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) and a 2.0-T unit (Spectro-20000, Goldstar, Korea) were used to obtain T1-and T2-weighted axial, T2-weighted sagittal and Gd-enhanced images. Tumor involvement of the uterine cervix was classified as Cp-n, Cp-x, or Cp-b according to involvement of the endocervix, exocervix or both. Tumors of the uterine corpus were classified as involving the mucosa(U-mu), myometrium(U-my) or serosa(U-se). In 37 cases of cervical carcinoma, all three involving the endocervix(Cp-n) invaded the endometrium(U-mu), three involving both the endo- and exocervix(Cp-b) invaded the endometrium(U-mu, 1 case), myometrium(U-my, 1 case), or serosa(U-se, 1 case), and 31 involving the full-thickness of the uterine cervix(Ct) invaded the endometrium (U-mu, 6 cases) or serosa(U-se, 25 cases). In nine cases of endometrial carcinoma, three involving the endometrium(U-mu) and five involving the myometrium(U-my) invaded the endocervix(Cp-n), and one involving the serosa(U-se) invaded the full-thickness of the uterine cervix(Ct). Cervical carcinoma tended to involve the entire cervix and the full thickness of the uterine corpus, but endometrial carcinoma tended to involve the endometrium or myometrium of the uterine corpus and endocervix

  8. Contributions of imaging to radiation therapy planning for uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.

    2000-01-01

    External irradiation and brachytherapy are curative in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. The aim of radiotherapy is to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to reduce the dose to critical organs. The use of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging added to clinical findings and standard guidelines) are studied in the treatment planning of external irradiation and brachytherapy in carcinoma of the cervix. Imaging allows an individualized and conformal treatment planning. (author)

  9. Granulomatous prostatitis: a pitfall in MR imaging of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevenois, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Stallenberg, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Sintzoff, S.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Salmon, I. [Dept. of Pathology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Regemorter, G. van [Dept. of Urology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Struyven, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium)

    1992-08-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis is an uncommon disease that can mimic prostatic carcinoma on both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate had a histological diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis; three of them had recent urinary tract infections. The other patient had an associated midline prostatic cyst and a focus of malignancy. T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in all cases. Peripheral zone lesions of decreased signal intensity, suggestive of carcinoma, were found in all four patients on T2-weighted images. Granulomatous prostatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low signal intensity areas with prostatic magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  10. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L.; Kuczyk, Markus; Schick, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is rising with the increased number of incidental detection of small tumours. During the past few years, percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation has evolved as a minimally invasive treatment of small unresectable renal tumours offering reduced patient morbidity and overall health care costs. In radiofrequency ablation, thermal energy is deposited into a targeted tumour by means of a radiofrequency applicator. In recent studies, radiofrequency ablation was shown to be an effective and safe modality for local destruction of renal cell carcinoma. Radiofrequency applicator navigation can be performed via ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance guidance; however, ultrasound seems less favourable because of the absence of monitoring capabilities during ablation. On-line monitoring of treatment outcome can only be performed with magnetic resonance imaging giving the possibility of eventual applicator repositioning to ablate visible residual tumour tissue. Long-term follow-up is crucial to assess completeness of tumour ablation. New developments in ablation technology and radiological equipment will further increase the indication field for radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma. Altogether, radiofrequency ablation seems to be a promising new modality for the minimally invasive treatment of renal cell carcinoma, which was demonstrated to exhibit high short-term effectiveness. (orig.)

  11. Expressão imuno-histoquímica de c-erb-B2 e p53 em carcinomas gástricos Imunohistochemical expression of c-erb-B2 and p53 in gastric carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dirlei F. S. Begnami

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em nosso meio, os carcinomas gástricos ainda são neoplasias bastante freqüentes e responsáveis por altas taxas de mortalidade. Recentemente, têm-se demonstrado a expressão de p53 e a amplificação do gene c-erb-B2 nos carcinomas gástricos. A relevância e o significado biológico destas alterações ainda não foram totalmente estabelecidos. OBJETIVO: Estudar as expressões imuno-histoquímicas de p53 e c-erb-B2 em 482 casos de carcinomas gástricos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram construídos três blocos de tissue microarray (TMA utilizando-se duplicatas de 482 casos de carcinomas gástricos. Os cortes foram corados por hematoxilina e eosina (HE, tendo sido feita pesquisa para p53 e c-erb-B2. Foram considerados positivos para p53 os casos com marcação nuclear em mais de 10% das células tumorais. Para o c-erb-B2 foram considerados positivos os casos com marcação de membrana completa em mais de 10% das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A expressão de p53 e c-erb-B2 foi observada em 30% e 12% dos casos, respectivamente. Em relação aos tipos histológicos observou-se correlação entre os carcinomas do tipo intestinal e a expressão de c-erb-B2 (p INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer is one of the commonest cancers in our country being responsible for a high mortality rate. Recently, the expression of p53 and amplification of c-erb-B2 gene have been described in gastric carcinoma. The relevance and biological significance of these findings are not established yet. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated p53, c-erb-B2 immunohistochemical expression in 482 cases of gastric carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissue microarray (TMA blocks were designed using replicate samples of paraffin-embedded tissue from 482 gastric carcinomas. Sections were stained with HE, and antibodies to p53 and c-erb-B2. Cases were considered p53 positive if nuclear staining was detected in > 10% of the tumor cells. Cases were assessed c-erb-B2 positive if the

  12. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

    1992-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm.

  13. Carcinoma triquilemal: relato de caso Trichilemmal carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Roismann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma triquilemal é um tumor raro, que ocorre, geralmente, na pele exposta ao sol, principalmente face, couro cabeludo, pescoço e dorso das mãos, em indivíduos idosos, entre a 4ª e 9ª décadas de vida, sem predilação por sexo. O presente estudo mostra um caso de carcinoma triquilemal, recidivado, de difícil tratamento, em mesma topografia de um carcinoma basocelular tratado previamente com cirurgia e radioterapia.The trichilemmal carcinoma is a rare tumor that usually occurs on sun-exposed skin, especially on the face, scalp, neck and back of hands, mainly in elderly subjects but commonly between the 4th and 9th decades of life. It is not a gender-based illness. This study shows a difficult to treat case of recurrent trichilemmal carcinoma on the same location of a basal-cell carcinoma previously treated with surgery and radiotherapy.

  14. MR imaging of renal carcinoma: A comparison of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyke, P.L.; Frank, J.A.; Dwyer, A.J.; Doppman, J.L.; Sank, V.J.; Robertson, C.J.; Linehan, W.M.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an optimal MR imaging protocol for renal cell carcinomas is complicated by the number of available pulse sequences and imaging planes. The authors evaluated nine different pulse sequences (SE, TR/TE = 200-300/80-120, 500-700/26, and IR 1,500/100/30) in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes in 26 patients with stage IV renal carcinoma at 0.5T. The IR 100 provided the greatest tumor-to-background signal ratio for both primary and secondary lesions in 24 of 24 of the patients. It alone allowed detection of 10% of the lesions. Anatomic and vascular data were provided best by the T1-weighted SE sequences. The least useful were the T2-weighted SE sequences, which had considerable motion artifact and little anatomic detail. Axial planes were best for displaying adenopathy and soft-tissue involvement. Coronal IR images provided a clear overview of the abdomen and lower thorax, paravertebral and vertebral metastases and impending cord compression. Imaging with an IR sequence of 1,500/100/30 in the axial and coronal planes and a T1-weighted SE sequence in the axial and coronal planes is an efficient, sensitive strategy for staging renal carcinoma

  15. Imaging Features of Helical Computed Tomography Suggesting Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma Arising from the Pelvocalyceal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyung Won; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Y ong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor arising from the pelvocalyceal system. Helical computed tomography (CT) is probably the best preoperative-stage modality for the determination of treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: To obtain helical CT imaging features suggesting advanced pelvocalyceal urothelial carcinoma. Material and Methods: Preoperative CT images in 44 patients with pelvocalyceal urothelial carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the pathological examination to determine imaging features suggesting stage III or IV of the disease. Results: Pathological stages revealed stage I in 16, stage II in three, stage III in 17, and stage IV in eight patients. Seven patients had metastatic lymph nodes. CT imaging showed that renal parenchymal invasion, sinus fat invasion, and lymph node metastasis were highly suggestive of advanced urothelial cell carcinoma (P<0.05). Helical CT sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for advanced pelvocalyceal urothelial carcinoma were 76% (19/25), 84% (16/19), and 80% (35/44), respectively. Conclusion: Preoperative helical CT may suggest imaging features of advanced urothelial carcinoma, influencing treatment plan and patient prognosis, even though its accuracy is not so high

  16. Terapia fotodinâmica em carcinoma basocelular periocular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Camargo Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a aplicação de terapia fotodinâmica com cloridrato de aminolevulinato de metila (Metivix® em uma paciente com carcinoma basocelular padrão misto (nodular e infiltrativo em pálpebra inferior de olho direito. Os efeitos colaterais sobre o olho foram avaliados semanalmente. Foi submetida à biòpsia incisional com punch de 2 mm para controle de cura após 12 semanas de tratamento. O anátomopatológico revelou ausência de neoplasia. O tratamento padrão ouro reconhecido mundialmente é a exérese da lesão, porém a terapia fotodinâmica com cloridrato de aminolevulinato de metila (MAL surge como uma opção terapêutica à cirurgia.

  17. MR imaging for staging of cervical carcinoma: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seong Kuk; Kim, Dong Won [Dong A University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Uterine cervical cancer is globally the third most common cancer among women, and shows high mortality with invasive cervical carcinoma. Early detection of the disease, its correct staging, and treatment are therefore of great importance. The staging system updated in 2009 by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), is commonly used for planning the treatment. However, there are significant inaccuracies in the FIGO staging system. Accurate tumor staging is very important to decide the treatment strategy. Although not included in the staging system, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable tool for local staging of the disease, and is useful in assessing the spread of the tumor and metastatic lymph nodes, thereby becoming a more accurate substitute for clinical staging of cervical carcinoma. In addition, it is capable of assessing the disease response to surgery or chemoradiation. This review briefly describes the role of MR imaging and the basic MR scanning protocol in evaluating cervical carcinoma. The MR findings with staging, and MR evaluation of treatment response, are further addressed.

  18. Delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Ma, Z.; Tang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the use of ultrasonography (US), X-CT and MRI has reduced the employment of isotopic explorations in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But sometime the results of US, X-CT or MRI were different and diagnosis was very difficult. This present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of HCC in these patients. Forty-eight patients consisting of 33 males and 15 females were entered into the research protocol. The mean age was 46 yr old (range 12-71 yr old). All of the patients were performed by surgery and verified histologically after nuclear examination. The subject was in a supine position under a gamma camera (Elscint, Apex Ap-6) and 555 MBq of Tc-99m-PMT were injected intravenously. The initial scinphotos obtained within 1 min after injection were used to image the blood pool phase. Subsequently, hepatic scans were obtained at 5 min, 1,2 and 5 hr. Anterior, right lateral and posterior hepatic images were recorded. According to the radioactive uptake by the lesion in delayed phase, the negative (no or minor uptake), positive (equal or greater uptake) or very strong positive (almost equal to the activity, of gallbladder) were judged. The positive were considered as diagnostic of HCC. And the very strong positive, were considered as diagnostic of benign hepatoma, such as adenoma or FNH. Thirty-seven of the forty-eight patients were HCC based on histology. Delayed imaging revealed increased or equilibrated uptake of radioactivity by the tumors in 22 of 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity was 59.5%. One patient final diagnosis based on histology was focal nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and only the diagnosis with delayed hepatobiliary imaging before surgery was correct. Compared with US, X-CT and MRI, delayed hepatobiliary imaging had the highest specificity for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent group, the specificity of Tc-99m-PMT delayed

  19. Pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas: Quantitative analysis at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong Sheng, E-mail: victoryhope@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Department of Radiology, No.4 West China Teaching Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Wei Xia, E-mail: wxchen25@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wang, Xiao Dong, E-mail: tyfs03yz@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Acharya, Riwaz, E-mail: riwaz007@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Jiang, Xing Hua, E-mail: 13881865517@163.com [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyse the pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas with volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP) sequence, and investigate the value of these findings in differentiation and preoperative evaluation. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 71 cases of periampullary carcinomas (34 cases of pancreatic head carcinoma, 16 cases of intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and 21 cases of ampullary carcinoma) confirmed histopathologically were analysed. The maximum diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD), dilated pancreaticobiliary duct angle and the distance from the end of the proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla were measured. Analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test were performed. Results: These findings showed significant differences among the three subtypes: the distance from the end of proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla and pancreaticobiliary duct angle. The distance and the pancreaticobiliary duct angle were least for ampullary carcinoma among the three subtypes. The percentage of dilated CBD was 94.1%, 93.8%, and 100% for pancreatic head carcinoma, intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and ampullary carcinoma, respectively. And that for the dilated MPD was 58.8%, 43.8%, and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system can provide accurate and objective assessment of the pancreaticobiliary duct changes. Although benefit in differential diagnosis is limited, these findings are valuable in preoperative evaluation for both radical resection and palliative surgery.

  20. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylergil, Volkan, E-mail: beylergv@mskcc.org [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  1. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Beylergil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  2. Multi-Resolution Wavelet-Transformed Image Analysis of Histological Sections of Breast Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Gil Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-resolution images of histological sections of breast cancer tissue were analyzed using texture features of Haar- and Daubechies transform wavelets. Tissue samples analyzed were from ductal regions of the breast and included benign ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and invasive ductal carcinoma (CA. To assess the correlation between computerized image analysis and visual analysis by a pathologist, we created a two-step classification system based on feature extraction and classification. In the feature extraction step, we extracted texture features from wavelet-transformed images at 10× magnification. In the classification step, we applied two types of classifiers to the extracted features, namely a statistics-based multivariate (discriminant analysis and a neural network. Using features from second-level Haar transform wavelet images in combination with discriminant analysis, we obtained classification accuracies of 96.67 and 87.78% for the training and testing set (90 images each, respectively. We conclude that the best classifier of carcinomas in histological sections of breast tissue are the texture features from the second-level Haar transform wavelet images used in a discriminant function.

  3. Evaluation of MR diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busard, M.P.H.; Pieters-van den Bos, I.C.; Mijatovic, V.; Van Kuijk, C.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel may be difficult to differentiate from colorectal carcinoma in cases that present with non-specific clinical and imaging features. The aim of this study is to assess the value of MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: In 66 patients, MR DWI was added to the standard imaging protocol in patients visiting our outdoor MR clinic for the analysis of suspected or known deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). In patients diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging, high b-value diffusion-weighted images were qualitatively assessed by two readers in consensus and compared to high b-value diffusion weighted images in 15 patients evaluated for colorectal carcinoma. In addition, ADC values of lesions were calculated, using b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm 2 . Results: A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging. Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel showed low signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients, whereas colorectal carcinoma showed high signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients. Mean ADC value in endometriosis infiltrating the bowel (0.80 ± 0.06 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower compared to mean ADC value in colorectal carcinoma (0.86 ± 0.06 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s), but with considerable overlap between ADC values. Conclusion: Only qualitative assessment of MR DWI may be valuable to facilitate differentiation between endometriosis infiltrating the bowel and colorectal carcinoma.

  4. MR imaging of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    MR imaging is noninvasive and provides direct multiplanar images with good contrast between different soft tissues. It has a potential in distinguishing normal from abnormal tissue and is a valuable technique in examination of the female pelvis. This report reviews the present role of MR imaging in the initial work-up of patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (orig./AJ)

  5. Invasive cervical carcinoma (stage IB-IIB): assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Del Maschio, A.; Belloni, C.; Taccagni, L.

    1990-01-01

    In patients with cervical carcinoma the selection of the optimal therapy depends on the precise preoperative assessment of the extent of disease. Currently, decisions regarding the management of these patients are made on the basis of clinical (FIGO) staging that has 50% mean error rate. To investigate the value of MR imaging in staging patients with invasive cervical cancer, we performed 25 MR examinations on 23 patients with histologic diagnosis of cervical cancer. All patients were clinically considered as having stage IB or IIB disease and underwent radical hysterectomy, providing specimens for pathologic correlation. The overall accuracy of MR imaging in staging cervical carcinoma (stage IB-IIB) was 78.1%. MR imaging seems to be the most reliable preoperative modality for staging invasive cervical cancer

  6. Primary ureteral carcinoma: MRI diagnosis and comparison with other diagnostic imaging facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Ningyu; Jiang Bo; Cai Youquan; Liang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate MRI examination methods and imaging manifestations of primary ureteral carcinoma, and to evaluate its clinical values when comparing with other diagnostic imaging facilities. Methods: Eighty-seven cases of primary ureteral carcinoma who were operated within recent 8 years came into the study, among which, 35 cases had MRI examinations. For MRI examination, coronal heavy T 2 WI (water imaging) was performed to show the dilated ureter, then axial T 2 WI and T 1 WI were scanned at the obstruction level. 11 cases underwent additional Gd-DTPA dynamic contrast enhanced scans. The original pre-operative diagnostic reports of various imaging facilities were analyzed comparing with the results of operation and pathology. Results: MRI showed ureteral dilatation in 33 of 35 cases, no abnormal appearance in 1 case, and only primary kidney atrophy post renal transplantation in 1 case. Among the 33 cases with ureteral obstruction, soft mass at the obstruction level was detected on axial scans in 32 cases. The lesions showed gradual and homogeneous mild to moderate enhancement on contrast MRI. The overall employment rate of imaging facilities was as follows: ultrasound (94.3%), IVU (59.8%), CT (52.9%), MRI (40.2%), and RUP (35.6%). The accurate diagnostic rate was as follows :MRI (91.4%), RUP (80.6%), CT (63.0%), ultrasound (47.6%), and IVU (11.5%). Conclusion: Combination of MR water imaging and conventional sequences can demonstrate most primary ureteral carcinoma lesions and has a highest diagnostic accuracy among the current diagnostic imaging facilities. It should be taken as the first diagnostic imaging method of choice when primary ureteral carcinoma is suspected after ultrasound screening

  7. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: imaging and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Zhang Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and has mild clinical symptoms and a favorable prognosis. Accordingly, nephron-sparing surgery is recommended as a therapeutic strategy. If histologic subtype of MCRCC can be predicted preoperatively with an acceptable level of accuracy, it may be important in predicting prognosis and make clinical management. Most MCRCCs show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings and permit accurate diagnosis before the treatment. Cross -sectional imaging of MCRCC reveals a well -defined multilocular cystic mass with irregularly enhanced thickened septa and without enhanced intracystic solid nodule. It is often classified as Bosniak classification Ⅲ , which is significantly different from that of other renal cystic masses. The clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features of MCRCC were discussed and illustrated in this article. The role of the imaging preoperative evaluation for MCRCC, and management implications were emphasized. (authors)

  8. CT imaging features of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhenshan; You Ruixiong; Cao Dairong; Li Yueming; Zhuang Qian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and evaluate the diagnostic value of CT in this disease. Methods: The CT findings of 10 patients with pathologically proved anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The patients included 7 females and 3 males. Their age ranged from 25.0 to 78 years with median of 61 years. Multi-slices plain and post contrast CT scans were performed in all patients. Results: Unilateral thyroid was involved in 6 patients. Unilateral thyroid and thyroid isthmus were both involved in 2 patients due to big size. Bilateral thyroid were involved in 2 patients. The maximum diameter of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ranged from 2.9-12.8 cm with mean of (4.5 ± 1.4) cm. All lesions demonstrated unclear margins and envelope invasion. The densities of all lesions were heterogeneous and obvious necrosis areas were noted on precontrast images. Seven lesions showed varied calcifications, and coarse granular calcifications were found in 5 lesions among them. All lesions showed remarkable heterogenous enhancement on post-contrast CT. The CT value of solid portion of the tumor increased 40 HU after contrast media administration. The ratios of CT value which comparing of the tumor with contralateral sternocleidomastoid muscle were 0.69-0.82 (0.76 ± 0.18) and 1.25-1.41 (1.33 ± 0.28) on pre and post CT, respectively. Enlarged cervical lymph nodes were found in 6 cases (60.0%). It showed obvious homogeneous enhancement or irregular ring-like enhancement on post-contrast images and dot calcifications were seen in 1 case. Conclusions: Relative larger single thyroid masses with coarse granular calcifications, necrosis,envelope invasion, remarkable heterogeneous enhancing and enlarged lymph nodes on CT are suggestive of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. (authors)

  9. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A neoplasia da glândula supra-renal pode ser oriunda de diversos tipos histológicos. O carcinoma é raro, correspondendo à 0,02% de todas as neoplasias. OBJETIVOS: Revisar os últimos avanços relacionados ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento do carcinoma da glândula supra-renal. MÉTODOS:Foi realizada revisão da literatura no Medline, livros texto de autores consagrados e referências obtidas de artigos considerados de maior relevância. CONCLUSÕES: Aproximadamente 79% dos carcinomas supra-renais são funcionantes. O hormônio mais comumente secretado é o cortisol causando síndrome de Cushing. Portadores de lesões não-funcionantes podem apresentar queixas relacionadas com o crescimento local da lesão. Ele está presente em uma série de síndromes neoplásicas de origem familiar. Ainda não está definido se o carcinoma esporádico tem origem em lesões benignas. De acordo com os sintomas, a investigação diagnóstica inicial envolve dosagens de cortisol urinário e nível sérico de aldosterona e renina. A tomografia abdominal ou a ressonância magnética são os exames de imagem de primeira linha. O PET scan com fluorodeoxiglicose apresenta potencial para diferenciação entre lesão benigna e maligna. A biópsia com agulha fina não está indicada devido à sua alta taxa de complicações. O tratamento de eleição é o cirúrgico com ressecção em bloco de órgãos adjacentes se necessário. Linfadenectomia aórtica e retroperitoneal deve ser realizada. Recorrência local ou metástases ocorrem em 80% dos casos. Procedimentos cirúrgicos citoredutores beneficiam os casos de doença avançada. Na presença de metástases, nos submetidos à cirurgia citoredutora e nos com recorrência local à quimioterapia com mitotano está indicada. Radioterapia é o tratamento de escolha no caso de metástases ósseas e tratamento adjuvante em alguns casos de risco elevado para recorrência. Em adultos a sobrevida média geral em 5 anos

  10. Imaging Findings of Embryonal Cell Carcinoma in Ovary:A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Park, Cheol Min; Choi, Jae Woong; Seol, Hae Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2004-01-01

    Embryonal cell carcinoma is one of the malignant germ cell tumors. This tumor is commonly encountered in the testis, however, it rarely occurs in the ovary. To the best of our knowledge, no imaging findings of ovarian embryonal cell carcinoma have previously been reported. We describe the US and MRI findings of such a case

  11. Fluorescent Nanoprobes Dedicated to <em>in Vivo em>Imaging: From Preclinical Validations to Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Texier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development, in the last ten years, of a large choice of set-ups dedicated to routine <em>in vivoem> measurements in rodents, fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential tools in preclinical studies. Human clinical uses for diagnostic and image-guided surgery are also emerging. In comparison to low-molecular weight organic dyes, the use of fluorescent nanoprobes can improve both the signal sensitivity (better <em>in vivoem> optical properties and the fluorescence biodistribution (passive “nano” uptake in tumours for instance. A wide range of fluorescent nanoprobes have been designed and tested in preclinical studies for the last few years. They will be reviewed and discussed considering the obstacles that need to be overcome for their potential everyday use in clinics. The conjugation of fluorescence imaging with the benefits of nanotechnology should open the way to new medical applications in the near future.

  12. Carcinoma of the cervix: Staging with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggenspack, G.A.; Amparo, E.G.; Fagan, C.J.; Hannigan, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Forty MR imaging examinations in 38 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were retrospectively evaluated and compared with clinical and surgical findings for staging. There was poor correlation between loss of fat planes and extension of tumor into the rectum or bladder, and it was impossible to differentiate bladder edema from direct invasion. MR imaging underestimated parametrial and pelvic sidewall extension when compared with physical exam under anesthesia. MR imaging was useful in the direct demonstration of a cervical mass and in detecting enlarged pelvic nodes

  13. Performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailean, J.C.; Giger, M.L.; Chen, C.T.; Sullivan, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors evaluate the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as a technique for enhancing radiographic images. Previous studies have qualitatively shown the usefulness of the EM algorithm but have failed to quantify and compare its performance with those of other image processing techniques. Recent studies by Loo et al, Ishida et al, and Giger et al, have explained improvements in image quality quantitatively in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) derived from signal detection theory. In this study, we take a similar approach in quantifying the effect of the EM algorithm on detection of simulated low-contrast square objects superimposed on radiographic mottle. The SNRs of the original and processed images are calculated taking into account both the human visual system response and the screen-film transfer function as well as a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The EM algorithm was also implemented on digital screen-film images of test patterns and clinical mammograms

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of urinary bladder carcinoma: tumor staging and gadolinium contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringer, E.; Joos, H.; Forstner, R.; Schmoller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with urinary bladder carcinomas underwent pre-operative examinations using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The results of the MR examinations were correlated with the clinical-pathological findings following transurethral resection (TUR) and bimanual palpation (n = 47) or radical cystectomy (n = 2). The results of pre-contrast MR tumor staging (T1, T2), viewing stages Tis-T2 collectively, and subsequent to separate assessments of stages T3b-T4b, were correct 76.6% of the time. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) contrast-enhanced examinations (pre-contrast T1 and after Gd-DTPA) showed a staging accuracy rate of 85.7%. T2-weighted images did not indicate any advantage when compared to T1-weighted images following Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity ratios of tumor/fat and tumor/muscle tissue were measured on T1-weighted pre-contrast images and following Gd-DTPA and then evaluated statistically, whereby the increased tumor signal intensity was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.01). Due to the relatively short examination time needed for T1-weighted images and the specific tumor enhancement, the administration of Gd-DTPA proves valuable in the diagnosis of bladder carcinomas. T2-weighted images are not necessary. (orig.)

  15. Clinical and histopathological profile of basal cell carcinoma in a population from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil Perfil clínico e histopatológico do carcinoma basocelular em amostra populacional de Criciúma, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pangendler Peres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a local, invasive epidermal neoplasia, the most common type of which is nodular basal cell carcinoma. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma, characterizing its distribution in accordance with patients' age, gender, the site of the lesion and its histopathological characteristics. Anatomopathology reports of cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed in Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil between June 2005 and June 2007 were analyzed. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. The majority of patients were females over 40 years of age. Most of the tumors were of the nodular type and were situated on the face. There was ulceration in 27.5%, infiltration in 24.5% and invasion of the deep dermis in 61.8%. Local data must be evaluated in order to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis.O carcinoma basocelular é uma neoplasia epidérmica invasiva local, cujo tipo mais frequente é nódulo-ulcerativo. O objetivo foi estudar a ocorrência de CBC, caracterizando sua distribuição segundo idade, sexo, localização e características histopatológicas. Analisaram-se laudos anatomopatológicos de CBC, diagnosticados em Criciúma/SC, entre junho de 2005 e junho de 2007. Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. Predominou após os 40 anos, no sexo feminino, do tipo nodular e localizado na face. Houve ulceração em 27,5%, infiltração em 24,5%, invasão de derme profunda em 61,8%, entre outros. É necessário conhecer dados locais para reforçar a importância do diagnóstico precoce.

  16. Gallium imaging of esophageal carcinoma: Increased sensitivity with lateral views of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostre, S.; Romero, I.; Rivera, J.V.; Baez, L.; Cintron, E.

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 imaging has not been very successful in the detection of esophageal carcinoma. In most reports, sensitivity for the primary tumor ranged from 25-61%, but imaging had been done only in anterior and posterior (A-P) projections. We performed gallium scans in 30 patients with esophageal carcinoma, adding lateral views to the routine A-P projections, to study the effect of lateral views on tumor detection. The A-P views detected only 57% of the tumors while the right lateral visualized 89%, and the left lateral detected 100%. Some lesions may be hidden by the sternum and the spine in the routine A-P views. Previous disappointments with Ga-67 imaging of esophageal carcinoma were probably due to this technical factor. Being gallium-avid, esophageal tumors deserve further studies with this agent to determine the role of Ga-67 imaging in this condition. These studies should be performed with multiple views of the thorax or, better yet, with SPECT imaging of the chest, to circumvent the problem of sternum and spine interference

  17. Clinical utility of imaging for evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Murakami T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Takamichi Murakami,1 Masakatsu Tsurusaki,1 Tomoko Hyodo,1 Yasuharu Imai2 1Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Osaka, Japan Abstract: The hemodynamics of a hepatocellular nodule is the most important imaging parameter used to characterize various hepatocellular nodules in liver cirrhosis, because sequential changes occur in the feeding vessels and hemodynamic status during hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, the imaging criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are also usually based on vascular findings, eg, early arterial uptake followed by washout in the portal venous and equilibrium phases. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dynamic multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT, and dynamic magnetic resonance (MR imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA are useful for detecting hypervascular HCC on the basis of vascular criteria but are not as useful for hypovascular HCC. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA, a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent, is superior to dynamic MDCT and dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA in detecting both hypervascular and hypovascular HCC. Moreover, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging can display each histologically differentiated HCC as hypointense relative to the liver parenchyma. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging might not be suitable for the screening and detection of HCC, given its lower diagnostic performance. However, this technique plays an important role in determining whether HCC has spread beyond the liver. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, evaluation, imaging, clinical utility

  18. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  19. Expressão do colágeno I em carcinomas epidermóides da cavidade oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Gabriela Botelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A matriz extracelular no carcinoma epidermóide da cavidade oral sofre modificações qualitativas e quantitativas durante a sua progressão. Estas alterações parecem possibilitar os processos de invasão e metástase que caracterizam as neoplasias malignas e são mais evidentes na interface tumor-hospedeiro. No nosso estudo, 23 biópsias incisionais de carcinomas epidermóides de diversas localizações da cavidade oral foram classificadas segundo o sistema de graduação histológica preconizado por Anneroth et al.¹ (1987. Foram utilizadas as colorações pela H. E. e a do tipo picrosirius, específica para colágeno. A expressão imuno-histoquímica do colágeno tipo I foi analisada em lesões com diferentes escores histológicos de malignidade. Pôde-se concluir que o colágeno apresenta diferentes padrões morfológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos em lesões com altos e baixos escores de malignidade.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: clinical and imaging findings in five patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kang, Myeong Jin; Cho, Jin Han

    2008-01-01

    To describe the clinical and imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, which is an extremely rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma. We collected five patients who had histopathologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, and described morphologic feature, enhancement pattern of tumors, extrahepatic manifestation and clinical findings. At CT, the tumor size ranged from 8 to 17 cm (mean: 12 cm) in maximum diameter. The tumor margin was well-defined and smooth in four patients and all tumors were heterogeneously hypoattenuating. Four tumor showed rim enhancement on arterial and portal phases. Local invasion to the portal vein, intrahepatic duct and gallbladder were seen. Extrahepatic manifestations included hepatic metastases, lymph node metastasis. At ultrasonography, the tumor showed heterogeneously hyperechoic in all patients and hypoechoic rim was found in four patients. Of four patients who were followed up, one survived for 16 months after initial diagnosis, while the other three died within 3 months after initial diagnosis. As described above, clinical and imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation were not specific. However, this rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma could be considered when hepatic tumor is found in an advanced stage and shows persistent rim enhancement at CT

  1. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  2. Polimorfismos GSTT1 e GSTM1 em indivíduos tabagistas com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism in cigarette smokers with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Matos Biselli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade em genes relacionados aos processos de ativação e detoxificação de carcinógenos pode interferir na suscetibilidade ao câncer. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre os polimorfismos GSTT1 e GSTM1 nulos e o risco para o carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço em indivíduos tabagistas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Este estudo caso-controle foi realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, Brasil. Foram avaliadas as freqüências dos genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 por PCR multiplex em 60 pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço e 60 indivíduos sem a doença. RESULTADOS: A cavidade oral foi o sítio de tumor mais freqüente. O genótipo GSTT1 nulo foi encontrado em 33,3% dos pacientes e em 23,3% dos indivíduos controles (p=0,311. Os grupos caso e controle apresentaram freqüências do genótipo GSTM1 nulo de 35% e 48,3%, respectivamente (p=0,582. Não foram encontradas associações entre o hábito etilista e genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 em ambos os grupos (valores de p>0,05. O gênero masculino e o hábito etilista foram prevalentes em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação entre os genótipos nulos GSTT1 e GSTM1 e o carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço em indivíduos tabagistas.Gene variability related to carcinogen activation and detoxification may interfere with susceptibility to head and neck cancer. AIM: To investigate the relation between GSTT1 and GSTM1 null polymorphisms and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in cigarette smokers. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A case-control study conducted at the Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Brazil. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were evaluated by multiplex PCR in 45 cigarette smokers with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and 45 cigarette smokers without this disease. RESULTS: The oral cavity was the most prevalent tumor site for squamous cell carcinoma

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-07-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  5. HPV detection in oral carcinomas Detecção do HPV em carcinomas orais

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    Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors set out in this study to verify the presence of low- and high-risk DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer by means of the hybrid capture Digene® test (São Paulo-SP, Brazil in smears from exfoliative cytology and also to compare the findings with those of conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin-eosin (HE/Papanicolaou. Forty individuals gave their written informed consent to participate in the study and also had their clinical data analyzed. The 40 exfoliative cytology examinations performed to date produced the following results: 29 (72.5% negative for low- and high-risk HPV-DNA; nine (22.5% positive for low- and high-risk HPV-DNA; one (2.5% positive for low-risk HPV-DNA; and one (2.5% positive for high-risk HPV-DNA. There was agreement among the findings for the presence of DNA-HPV for both exfoliative cytology (smear to hybrid capture Digene® test and the cytological smear readings made by conventional light microscopy. It was therefore concluded that the HPV virus may be a cocarcinogen of the mouth cancer as it is in the cervix cancer.Os autores buscaram verificar, neste estudo, a presença do papilomavírus humano (HPV de baixo e de alto risco em carcinomas orais através do teste de captura híbrida Digene® (São Paulo-SP, Brasil em amostras colhidas pela citologia esfoliativa bucal e, ainda, avaliar comparativamente as referidas leituras com alterações celulares indicativas deste vírus obtidas com a interpretação citológica óptica convencional (hematoxilina-eosina (HE/Papanicolaou. Quarenta indivíduos concordaram, espontaneamente, através de assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido, em participar da pesquisa, e seus dados clínicos foram analisados. Entre as 40 amostras provenientes da citologia esfoliativa 29 (72,5% mostraram-se negativas para presença de HPV-DNA de baixo e de alto risco; nove (22,5% foram positivas para o HPV-DNA de baixo e de alto risco; uma (2,5% foi positiva apenas

  6. Experimental studies of colon carcinoma imaging with 99Tcm labeled neurotension peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaijun; Zhang Yongxue; An Rui; Gao Zairong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prepare neurotension (NT) peptide labeled with 99 Tc m for the early diagnosis of colon carcinoma and to evaluate the advantages of the tracer. Methods: Biodistribution studies were performed at 3 and 12 h, respectively after injection of 99 Tc m -NT, and tissue distribution analysis after receptor-blocking was performed at 3 h in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma. Imaging with 99 Tc m -NT was performed at different time points in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma, and imaging after receptor-blocking was also performed at 3 h. The affinity of 99 Tc m -NT binding to the cell of colon carcinoma was studied in vitro. Results: The affinity constant of 99 Tc m -NT binding to the cells of colon carcinoma was obtained (Kd=0.91 nmol/L). The labeling yield of 99 Tc m -NT was more than 94% and the complex was stable in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution analysis in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma showed that 99 Tc m -NT was excreted chiefly from the kidney, the ratios of tumor to muscle at 3 and 12 h were 3.25 ± 1.02 and 4.15 ± 1.46, respectively. In mice pretreated with unlabeled NT, the uptake of 99 Tc m -NT decreased in the tumor, the ratio of tumor to muscle at 3 h (1.21 ± 0.62) was significantly different from that of the mice without unlabeled NT treatment. Tumor lesion was detected with 99 Tc m -NT earlier (the lesion image showed up at 0.5 h postinjection), the ratio of tumor to contralateral limb at 3 h postinjection was 2.68 ± 0.44 obtained by technique of region of interest (ROI) . The ratio at 3 h was 1.14 ± 0.36 and that was significantly different from the ratio at 3 h postinjection in mice pretreated with unlabeled NT. Conclusion: The results of all studies in vitro and in vivo indicate that this labeling procedure of 99 Tc m -NT is simple and its specific binding to the cells of colon carcinoma is high, and it is a promising method for diagnosis of colon carcinoma

  7. Heterogeneity, histological features and DNA ploidy in oral carcinoma by image-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, N; Sperandio, M; Sherriff, M; Brown, A; Odell, E W

    2005-04-01

    Oral squamous carcinomas appear heterogeneous on DNA ploidy analysis. However, this may be partly a result of sample dilution or the detection limit of techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral squamous carcinomas are heterogeneous for ploidy status using image-based ploidy analysis and to determine whether ploidy status correlates with histological parameters. Multiple samples from 42 oral squamous carcinomas were analysed for DNA ploidy using an image-based system and scored for histological parameters. 22 were uniformly aneuploid, 1 uniformly tetraploid and 3 uniformly diploid. 16 appeared heterogeneous but only 8 appeared to be genuinely heterogeneous when minor ploidy histogram peaks were taken into account. Ploidy was closely related to nuclear pleomorphism but not differentiation. Sample variation, detection limits and diagnostic criteria account for much of the ploidy heterogeneity observed. Confident diagnosis of diploid status in an oral squamous cell carcinoma requires a minimum of 5 samples.

  8. Carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar associado a malformação congénita das vias aéreas pulmonares em adolescente assintomático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Abecasis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A malformação congénita das vias aéreas pulmonares (CPAM é uma entidade rara com potencial de transformação maligna. Relata-se o caso de um rapaz de 14 anos, assintomático, referenciado à consulta após detecção de imagem nodular na base do pulmão direito num radiograma de tórax. A tomografia computorizada (TC mostrou, no pulmão direito, formação redonda de média densidade com centro cavitado. Após um ano de seguimento, mantinha-se assintomático, sendo a imagem radiológica sobreponível. Em conjunto com a equipa de cirurgia cardiotorácica foi decidido proceder a biópsia excisional. O exame histológico revelou um carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar mucinoso associado a CPAM tipo 1. Perante este resultado, o doente foi submetido a lobectomia inferior direita. No exame histológico do restante lobo, não se identificou tumor ou malformação residuais. Mantém-se assintomático e sem complicações passados dois anos. Tanto quanto é do conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro caso desta rara associação em Portugal. Discute-se a abordagem de lesões quísticas em doentes assintomáticos.Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIV (2: 285-290 Abstract: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM is a rare entity with potential for malignant transformation. We describe the case of a fourteen-year-old boy evaluated for the presence of a nodular image on the right lung on the chest x-ray. Computerized Tomography (CT showed a round lesion of medium density with cavitation on the right lung. After one year of follow-up the patient was still asymptomatic and the image was similar. With the agreement of the cardiothoracic surgeons an excisional biopsy was performed. The histological examination revealed a mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma associated with a type 1 CPAM. The patient was then submitted to right inferior lobectomy. After two years follow-up he is asymptomatic and free of complications. To the authors best knowledge this

  9. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyoung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis.

  10. Evaluation of gastric carcinoma with CT three-dimensional imaging compared with conventional barium study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shenghong; Chen Feng; Zheng Kai'er; Sun Jun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging including CT virtual gastroscopy (CTVG), surface-shaded display (SSD), and Raysum Display in the evaluation of gastric carcinoma compared with upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Methods: In 43 histologically proved gastric carcinoma patients (37 advanced gastric carcinomas and 6 early gastric carcinomas), the results of CTVG and 3D CT imaging were compared to that of UGI. Two observers blindly evaluated images with all four techniques in terms of image quality, artifacts, diagnostic confidence, and Borrmann classification. Sensitivities of lesion detection and classification based on Borrmann classification of CTVG and 3D CT were determined by comparing them to surgical and histological findings. Results: The lesion detection sensitivity of CTVG, SSD, Raysum, and UGI by two observers were 98%, 67%, 60% and 84%, and 98%, 70%, 70% and 88%, respectively. The Borrmann's classification sensitivity by two observers were 76%, 49%, 38% and 49%, and 78%, 51%, 35% and 43%, respectively. Overall image quality of CTVG, SSD, and Raysum was considered similar to that of UGI by both observers (P>0.05). There was no statistical significant difference for advanced lesion (with diagnostic confidence of 3 or above) in detection sensitivity between CTVG and UGI (χ 2 = 0.50 and 0.25, P>0.05), but the lesion detection sensitivity of SSD and Raysum display were lower than that of UGI (χ 2 4.17, 7.11 and 5.14, 4.17, P 2 = 4.90 and 4.92, P 2 = 2.25, P > 0.05). Excess fluid remained in the stomach and patient respiratory movement during breath holds were the reasons causing severe artifacts (6.1%) that influenced the diagnostic evaluation. Conclusion: The performance of CTVG was equivalent to UGI in the Borrmann's classification. CTVG has potential in the detection of early gastric carcinoma. The value of SSD and Raysum display was limited in the evaluation of gastric carcinoma when used alone clinically

  11. Assessment of mural invasion depth of gastric carcinoma with high-resolution compound sonographic imaging in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Eun A; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate whether the accuracy of invasion depth assessment in gastric carcinoma in vitro can be improved with high-resolution spatial compound sonographic imaging. In sixteen fresh gastric specimens obtained from patients with preoperatively biopsy proven gastric carcinoma, normal and lesional areas were scanned using conventional and compound imaging technique with a 15-MHz linear transducer. Two radiologists independently compared the sharpness and the contrast of images obtained with two different modes and determined the layers invaded by cancer with consensus. The invasion depths by images were compared with histopathologic results. The sharpness and the contrast in normal and lesional areas were significantly higher in compound imaging (p<0.01) than those in conventional imaging and interobserver agreement was over moderate, with k-value of 0.41 to 0.86. But the accuracy in invasion depth assessment was 68.8% (11/16) on conventional imaging and 75% (12/16) on compound imaging and non different significantly between two modes (p>0305). High-resolution spatial compound sonographic imaging has improved image quality, compared with conventional imaging, but the accuracy of invasion depth assessment in gastric carcinoma was not significantly different.

  12. High-speed computation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1994-01-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution backprojection algorithms. However, two major drawbacks have impeded the routine use of the EM algorithm, namely, the long computational time due to slow convergence and the large memory required for the storage of the image, projection data and the probability matrix. In this study, the authors attempts to solve these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor system. The authors have implemented an extended hypercube (EH) architecture for the high-speed computation of the EM algorithm using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PEs). The authors discuss and compare the performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, CD 4360 mainframe, and on the EH system. The results show that the computational speed performance of an EH using DSP chips as PEs executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 130 times better than that of the CD 4360 mainframe. The EH topology is expandable with more number of PEs

  13. FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krengli, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Milia, Maria E; Turri, Lucia; Mones, Eleonora; Bassi, Maria C; Cannillo, Barbara; Deantonio, Letizia; Sacchetti, Gianmauro; Brambilla, Marco

    2010-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach. We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy. Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled. Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2. Simulation was performed by PET/CT imaging with patient in treatment position. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) and Clinical Target Volume (CTV) were drawn on CT and on PET/CT fused images. PET-GTV and PET-CTV were respectively compared to CT-GTV and CT-CTV by Wilcoxon rank test for paired data. PET/CT fused images led to change the stage in 5/27 cases (18.5%): 3 cases from N0 to N2 and 2 from M0 to M1 leading to change the treatment intent from curative to palliative in a case. Based on PET/CT imaging, GTV and CTV contours changed in 15/27 (55.6%) and in 10/27 cases (37.0%) respectively. PET-GTV and PET-CTV resulted significantly smaller than CT-GTV (p = 1.2 × 10 -4 ) and CT-CTV (p = 2.9 × 10 -4 ). PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV, that were used for clinical purposes, were significantly greater than CT-GTV (p = 6 × 10 -5 ) and CT-CTV (p = 6 × 10 -5 ). FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal. Clinical stage variation occurred in 18.5% of cases with change of treatment intent in 3.7%. The GTV and the CTV changed in shape and in size based on PET/CT imaging

  14. Zinc Phthalocyanine Labelled Polyethylene Glycol: Preparation, Characterization, Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin and Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging <em>in Vivoem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the <em>in vivo em>fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging <em>in vivoem>, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the <em>in vivoem> process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation <em>in vivoem> by a real-time noninvasive method.

  15. How histological features of basal cell carcinomas influence image quality in optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, Birgit M.; Thrane, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to diagnose and measure the depth of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in skin, but some lesions appear blurred in OCT images. The aim of this study is to identify histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) that correlate with good...... quality OCT images of the same lesions. A total of 34 patients with BCC were OCT scanned. The influence of histology parameters (e.g. inflammation, sun damage of skin, carcinoma cell size) on OCT image quality was studied by comparing 15 BCC lesions easily identified compared to 19 BCC lesions...

  16. Resultados do transplante hepático em portadores de hepatocarcinoma Results of orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz PAROLIN

    2001-10-01

    hepatocarcinoma em fase inicial. Com seleção adequada, o transplante hepático oferece excelentes índices de sobrevida livre de recurrência tumoral.Background - Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Liver transplantation has emerged as a good option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma yielding survival rates as good as for recipients without this type of tumor. Objective - To assess the outcome of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver transplantation at the Liver Transplantation Service of the "Hospital de Clínicas", Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Methods - Retrospective study of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation at the mentioned Institution between September 1991 and September 2000. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was established during the pretransplant workup in five patients and the tumor was an incidental finding in the native liver in three. The indication for liver transplantation was restricted to solitary tumor equal to or less than 5 cm or up to 3 nodules, with each nodule measuring less than 3 cm, and no evidence of vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. Patient survival and evidence of tumoral recurrence posttransplant were evaluated. Results - The most common cause for pretransplantation liver disease was hepatitis C virus (50%. On examination of the explanted liver, the majority of patients (6/8, 75% had a single lesion; one patient had two nodules and one had a multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma found incidentally in the native liver. Tumor size ranged from 0,2 to 5,0 cm. All cases had neither vascular invasion nor linfonodal envolvement. All patients remained alive and free of tumor recurrence at the time of the study with a mean follow-up of 18,5 months (range, 5-29 months. Conclusion - Liver transplantation is a good therapeutic option for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma arising in

  17. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-01-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today's single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE's) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE's executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE's. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  19. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  20. Which histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas influence the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, M.; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more ...... clear-cut images of skin cancer lesions using OCT imaging when compared to skin cancer surrounded by skin without sun-damage. ©2009 COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more...

  1. Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhofer, E.; Ubl, P.; Czerny, C.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance

  2. Carcinoma adenóide cístico: relato de caso = Adenoid cystic carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma adenóide cístico é uma neoplasia maligna rara de crescimento lento, caracterizado prognóstico reservado, devido a sua agressividade e grande potencial recidivante. A lesão é mais prevalente em pacientes na faixa etária entre 50 e 70 anos, sendo incomum em jovens. O artigo relata um caso de carcinoma adenóide cístico de glândulas salivares menores localizado no palato duro em pacientes com 26 ano, do sexo masculino que foi encaminhado para tratamento no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço

  3. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  4. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fevereiro de 2006. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos - acometidos e não-acometidos de carcinoma hepatocelular - e analisados em relação à sobrevida em 3 meses e em 1 ano. Também foram comparados em relação ao sexo e à idade do doador e do receptor, a causa da cirrose, a classificação de Child-Pugh e o escore do MELD no momento do transplante, o tempo de isquemia morna e isquemia fria, o número de unidades de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas durante o transplante, o tempo de permanência na UTI e o tempo de internação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 146 casos de transplante hepático: 75 foram excluídos devido a dados incompletos no prontuário e 71 foram incluídos no estudo. A sobrevida geral em 3 meses e 1 ano foi de 77,4% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os acometidos por carcinoma hepatocelular (n = 12 apresentaram sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de 100%, significantemente maior que os não-acometidos (n = 59; 72,8% e 69,49%, respectivamente. O índice médio do MELD, da classificação de Child-Pugh e o número médio de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas foram significantemente maiores nos pacientes não-acometidos. Também foi observada maior percentagem de pacientes classificados como Child-Pugh B e C e de pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose por outras causas nos pacientes não acometidos pela neoplasia. Nos doentes com carcinoma hepatocelular foi observada maior percentagem de indivíduos classificados como Child

  5. Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose em carcinoma basocelular Markers expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília de Pádua Dornelas Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O carcinoma basocelular é o câncer mais comum em humanos. Estudos que utilizam recursos da biologia molecular e genética, associados à histomorfologia, permitem a identificação de fatores de risco no desenvolvimento de lesões mais recorrentes e agressivas. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a expressão dos marcadores de apoptose (p53 e Bcl-2 e proliferação celular (Ki-67 e PCNA com os indicadores histológicos de gravidade do tumor. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se cinco amostras das formas nodular, morfeiforme e superficial, respectivamente, e um grupo-controle com três pacientes livres de lesão. Empregou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney na comparação da expressão desses marcadores com a forma de apresentação do carcinoma basocelular. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a marcação do Bcl-2 foi expressiva nos CBCs ditos agressivos (variantes morfeiforme e nodular. Dos tumores estudados, 66,7% (n = 10 indicaram fortemente o p53. Nossos resultados mostram maior expressão do Ki-67 no carcinoma basocelular nodular e superficial, sem expressão nos controles. O PCNA mostrou forte marcação em todos os tipos de tumores e nos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados nos permitem concluir que o Bcl-2 e o p53 apresentam tendência para diagnosticar gravidade do carcinoma basocelular e o Ki-67, por seu comportamento variável, não pode ser considerado como marcador de gravidade, assim como o PCNA, que não foi um bom marcador de proliferação celular.BACKGROUND: - Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of human cancer. Studies employing molecular and genetic biology techniques, associated with histomorphology, lead to the identification of risk factors in the development of more recurring and aggressive lesions. OBJECTIVE - To correlate markers expression of apoptosis (p53 and bcl-2 and cell proliferation (Ki-67 and PCNA with histological indicators of tumor severity. METHODS - Five samples of the nodular, morpheaform and superficial types of carcinoma

  6. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (κ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  7. Lipid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinying Liang,1–3 Xinxin Zhang,2 Yunqiu Miao,2 Juan Li,1 Yong Gan2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The development of noninvasive imaging techniques for the accurate diagnosis of progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is of great clinical significance and has always been desired. Herein, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeting fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (NP was obtained by conjugating near-infrared fluorescence to the surface of Fe3O4 (NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs, followed by coating the lipids consisting of tumoral hepatocytes-targeting polymer (Gal-P123. This magnetic NP (GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 with superparamagnetic behavior showed high stability and safety in physiological conditions. In addition, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 achieved more specific uptake of human liver cancer cells than free Fe3O4 NPs. Importantly, with superparamagnetic iron oxide and strong NIR absorbance, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs demonstrate prominent tumor-contrasted imaging performance both on fluorescent and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR imaging modalities in a living body. The relative MR signal enhancement of GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs achieved 5.4-fold improvement compared with NIR-Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs may be potentially used as a candidate for dual-modal imaging of tumors with information covalidated and directly compared by combining fluorescence and MR imaging. Keywords: dual-imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatocellular carcinoma, tumor-targeting

  8. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: imaging analysis of seven patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Moreira, Paulo de Tarso Barbosa; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Pacheco Netto, Mario C.; Rapoport, Abrao; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    2003-01-01

    The authors studied seven patients with gingival carcinoma attended at the Head and Neck Surgery and Otorrhinolaryngology Service and the Diagnostic Imaging Service of 'Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 1985 and 1996. Squamous cell type carcinomas were identified in all cases. All patients were male (100%) aged 48-72 years. Computed tomography was performed in six patients (85.6%). Four patients (57.1%) had not received any treatment before imaging examination whereas three patients (42.8%) had already been submitted to surgery or radiotherapy. The authors analyzed the primary site of the tumor and its extension to the mandible (5/7 cases; 71.4%), the floor of the mouth (3/7 cases; 42.8%), the floor of the maxillary sinus (1/7 cases; 14.2%) and the retromolar trigonum (1/7 cases; 14.2%). Metastatic lymph nodes were observed in five patients (71.4%). Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination in all cases. Comparison with surgical findings was possible in five cases (71.4%). (author)

  9. Carcinoma basocelular - Análise de 300 casos observados em Uberlândia - MG Basal cell Carcinoma - Analysis of 300 cases observed in Uberlândia - MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Antunes Oliveira Mantese

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O carcinoma basocelular é o câncer da pele mais comum, compreendendo 75% dos tumores epiteliais malignos. Localiza-se na face e acomete indivíduos brancos, acima de 40 anos de idade, com história de exposição repetitiva à luz solar. OBJETIVO: Descrever o carcinoma basocelular em suas variáveis epidemiológica, clínica e histopatológica. CASUÍSTICA: Realizou-se estudo transversal de 300 pacientes com carcinoma basocelular atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital de Clínicas, no período de 1999 a 2003. Foram preenchidos protocolos com identificação do paciente, história de exposição solar e caracterização do carcinoma basocelular. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 447 lesões de carcinoma basocelular nos 300 pacientes estudados, cuja maioria era do sexo feminino (59,3% e da raça branca (93%, com história de exposição solar (90,3%, apresentando lesão única (74%, predominantemente facial (77% das lesões. O tipo histopatológico mais freqüente foi o nodular (46,3% das lesões, com predomínio do superficial no tronco. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se predomínio do carcinoma basocelular no sexo feminino, demonstrando a tendência atual desse tumor. A presença de vários tumores sucessivos ou simultâneos em um mesmo paciente salienta a importância de exames periódicos nesses doentes. Não se estabeleceu correlação entre os tipos clínicos e histopatológicos. Confirmou-se que o tipo superficial é mais freqüente no tronco.BACKGROUND: Basal cell Carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer and represents 75% of malignant epithelial tumors. It usually occurs on the face of white individuals aged over 40 years, with history of repetitive exposure to sunlight OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological data, clinical presentation and histopathological findings of 300 patients with basal cell carcinoma. CASUISTIC: A cross-sectional study of 300 patients with Basal cell Carcinoma seen at the outpatient

  10. Pesquisa da prevalência do papilomavírus humano em amostras de tecido endometrial normal e com carcinoma pela técnica de PCR Search for human papillomavirus in samples of normal endometrial tissue and tissue with carcinoma by the PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Natal Fedrizzi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a prevalência da presença do DNA do papilomavírus humano (HPV pela técnica de PCR em amostras de tecido endometrial normal e com carcinoma endometrial de mulheres submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico (histerectomia ou carcinoma endometrial e doença benigna. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo caso-controle onde foram avaliadas 100 mulheres (50 com endométrio normal e 50 com carcinoma endometrial quanto a presença do DNA do HPV em amostra tecidual conservada em blocos de parafina, pelo método de PCR. Foram excluídos os casos de carcinoma endometrial cujo sítio primário da lesão era duvidoso ou com história prévia ou atual de lesões pré-neoplásicas ou carcinoma do trato genital inferior. Variáveis como idade, tabagismo, trofismo endometrial, diferenciação escamosa e grau de diferenciação tumoral foram também avaliadas. RESULTADOS: o risco relativo estimado da presença do HPV foi o mesmo nas mulheres com e sem carcinoma endometrial. O HPV foi detectado em 8% dos casos de carcinoma e 10% no endométrio normal. Apesar de o HPV ter sido detectado 3,5 vezes mais em mulheres fumantes no grupo sem carcinoma, não houve diferença estatística. A presença do HPV também não esteve correlacionada com a idade das mulheres, trofismo endometrial, diferenciação escamosa e grau de diferenciação tumoral. Os HPV 16 e 18 (5 dos casos com o tipo 16 e 4 com o tipo 18 foram os vírus mais freqüentemente encontrados, tanto no tecido endometrial normal, quanto no carcinomatoso. Nenhum vírus de baixo risco oncogênico foi detectado nas amostras. CONCLUSÃO: o HPV está presente no tecido endometrial de mulheres com carcinoma endometrial na mesma proporção que nas com tecido endometrial normal, não se demonstrando a possível associação deste vírus no desenvolvimento do carcinoma endometrial.OBJECTIVE: to compare the prevalence of DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV, in samples of normal endometrial

  11. Imaging Features of Patients Undergoing Active Surveillance for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Hwang, E Shelley; Soo, Mary Scott

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging appearance of patients undergoing active surveillance for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We retrospectively identified 29 patients undergoing active surveillance for DCIS from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-two patients (group 1) refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. Seven patients (group 2) enrolled in a trial of letrozole and deferred surgical excision for 6-12 months. Pathology and imaging results at the initial biopsy and follow-up were recorded. In group 1, the median follow-up was 2.7 years (range: 0.6-13.9 years). Fifteen patients (68%) remained stable. Seven patients (32%) underwent additional biopsies with invasive ductal carcinoma diagnosed in two patients after 3.9 and 3.6 years who developed increasing calcifications and new masses. In group 2, one patient (14%) was upstaged to microinvasive ductal carcinoma at surgery. Among the patients in both groups with calcifications (n = 26), there was no progression to invasive disease among those with stable (50%, 13/26) or decreased (19%, 5/26) calcifications. Among a DCIS active surveillance cohort, invasive disease progression presented as increasing calcifications and a new mass following more than 3.5 years of stable imaging. In contrast, there was no progression to invasive disease among cases of DCIS with stable or decreasing calcifications. Close imaging is a key follow-up component in active surveillance. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Análise comparativa da imunoexpressão da proteína p53 (clones DO-7 e PAb-240 em carcinomas de células escamosas intrabucais e labiais Comparative analysis of p53 protein immunostaining (antibodies DO-7 and PAb-240 in oral cavity and lip squamous cell carcinomas

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    José de Assis Silva Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A carcinogênese caracteriza-se como um processo multifatorial, e a inativação da proteína p53 é uma alteração genética comumente observada nos carcinomas de células escamosas de boca (CCEB. OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar a imunoexpressão da proteína p53, por meio dos clones DO-7 e PAb-240, em CCEB com localização intrabucal e em lábio inferior. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 40 casos de CCEB, sendo 20 de localização intrabucal e 20 em lábio inferior. Foi realizado um estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizando os anticorpos anti-p53 clone DO-7 e PAb-240. A imunoquantificação foi realizada por meio de análise digital de imagem, e os resultados, submetidos a tratamentos estatísticos. RESULTADOS: A imunoexpressão da proteína p53 foi verificada com o anticorpo DO-7 em 13 casos (65% de carcinoma intrabucal e em 19 (95% de carcinoma de lábio inferior. Imunorreatividade para o anticorpo PAb-240 foi observada em 9 casos (45% de lesões intrabucais e em 15 (75% localizados em lábio inferior. Não foram observadas, segundo o teste de Mann-Whitney, diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05 na expressão da proteína p53 entre as duas localizações estudadas, independentemente do anticorpo avaliado. Foram identificadas, pelo teste de Wilcoxon, diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre a expressão dos clones DO-7 e PAb-240 em cada um dos grupos analisados (valor p = 0,013 - lábio inferior; valor p = 0,016 - intrabucal. CONCLUSÕES: A expressão da proteína p53 observada nos CCEB, com localizações intrabucais e labiais, sugere a ocorrência de mutações no gene TP53. As diferenças quantitativas obtidas entre os anticorpos estudados, independentemente da localização das lesões, refletem uma especificidade distinta entre os clones DO-7 e PAb-240. O desenvolvimento de mais estudos será fundamental para estabelecer o anticorpo mais adequado para proteína p53 em CCEB

  13. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas: prediction of tumor invasion with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, S.; Takayama, F.; Wang, Q.; Kawakami, S.; Saito, A.; Sone, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess diagnostic accuracy for tumor invasion of surrounding organs by measurement of tumor circumferences on MR images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Material and Methods: Surgical and MR imaging findings in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (43 primary, 7 recurrent lesions) were retrospectively reviewed. The degrees of circumference of tumor encroachment to the organs were measured, and the measurements and morphologic diagnosis of tumor invasion made by a head and neck radiologist were compared with surgical and pathologic findings using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Diagnosis of tumor invasion by the radiologist was superior to the measurements of the carotid artery and cartilage, while the reverse was true for the trachea and esophagus. However, no statistical differences were noted between them for each structure. Optimal thresholds for tumor invasion were 90 deg or more for the cartilage (94% accuracy) and esophagus (86% accuracy), 135 deg or more for the trachea (86% accuracy), and 225 deg or more for the carotid artery (90% accuracy). Conclusion: Tumor invasion was more accurately diagnosed by measurement of tumor circumferences of each organ on MR images

  14. Detection and preoperative staging of carcinoma of the cervix: Comparison between MR imaging and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, B.; Schmidt, H.; Baieri, P.; Scheidel, P.; Meier, W.; Schramm, T.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervix were examined preoperatively by MR imaging and CT. In all patients histopathologic confirmation was available for specimens obtained either by radical hysterectomy or at staging laparotomy. MR imaging was equivalent to contrast CT in the detection and evaluation of tumor extension in the cervix. Tumor extension to the parametria and pelvic wall was difficult to evaluate on both modalities, as neither had a higher accuracy than pelvic examination conducted under anesthesia. Nodal staging was nearly equivalent on MR imaging and CT. In the detection and staging of carcinoma of the cervix, MR imaged proved to be as good as CT with contrast agent enhancement

  15. Diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter study on 290 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, Ludovico; Puzzi Mucelli, Roberto; Sponza, Massimo; De Santis, Mario; Gandini, Giovanni; Matricardi, Luigi; Rossi, Cristina

    1997-01-01

    The authors report of a multicenter study on the diagnosis and interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The first aim -diagnostic - was to evaluate the sensitivity of 4 imaging techniques, namely ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT), digital arteriography (DSA) and Lipiodol CT (LCT), in hepatocellular carcinoma detection. The accuracy of these techniques was also investigated in tumor staging, which is important for treatment planning.The second aim - treatment - consisted in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of intraarterial chemoembolization (CEAT) versus percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in non advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and of intraarterial chemoembolization versus no treatment (NT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment efficacy was evaluated with the following randomized protocols

  16. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system. PMID:25371701

  17. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

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    Tae-Yun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  18. Clinical value of 18F-FDG coincidence imaging for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Yanli; Lou Cen; Huang Zhongke; Shi Guohua; Chen Dongfang; Mu Da

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A total of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (33 males and 12 females, average age (55.56 ± 13.50) years), who underwent 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging before treatment, were studied retrospectively. The images of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging (GE Millennium VG SPECT) and MRI were analyzed. The radioactivity ratio of the accumulated regions to cerebellum (T/NT)was calculated by ROI technique. The volume of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was recorded by MRI. The positive rates of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging and EB virus-related antibody measurements were compared by paired χ 2 test. The correlation between T/NT ratios and tumor volumes were tested by Pearson correlation, and then ROC curves were established. The T/NT ratios and tumor volumes of different groups (different first symptoms, clinical stages, T stages, pathological classification and outcomes, with or without lymph node enlargement) were compared by t-test and rank sum test. Results: The positive rate of 18 F-FDG coincidence imaging was 97.78% (44/45), and the positive rate of EB virus-related antibody measurement was 95.56% (43/45, χ 2 =1.33, P>0.05). The T/NT ratio (2.439 ±1.119) and tumor volume ((7.311 ± 8.280) cm 3 ) of primary lesions had a positive correlation (r=0.463, P<0.05). The cut-off values of T/NT ratio and the tumor volume were 2.396 and 7.348 cm 3 , respectively, by ROC curves. T/NT ratios in groups with or without first symptom of epistaxis (2.847 ± 1.254 vs 2.082 ± 0.863, t=-2.409) and groups with or without facial numbness (2.855 ± 1.261 vs 2.134 ± 0.913, t=-2.225) were both significantly different (both P<0.05). T/NT ratios of differentiated and undifferentiated cancer were 2.266 ± 0.997 and 2.971 ± 1.351, respectively (t=-2.018, P<0.05). There was a significant difference of tumor volumes between groups with or without facial numbness (t=-2.684, P<0

  19. Aumento da incidência de carcinoma basocelular em hospital universitário: 1999 a 2009 Increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma in a university hospital between 1999 and 2009

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    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do carcinoma basocelular vem aumentando em todos os países. Realizou-se estudo ecológico de 5169 laudos de carcinoma basocelular, da FMB-Unesp, entre janeiro/1999 e dezembro/2009. O incremento médio da incidência para o período foi de 90,6%, projetando-se um diagnóstico para cada 15 pacientes encaminhados à dermatologia. Tal tendência se manteve, mesmo quando indexada pelo número de laudos histopatológicos, movimento hospitalar, atendimentos da dermatologia e população de Botucatu.The incidence of basal cell carcinoma is increasing worldwide. An ecological study was conducted using the pathology reports from 5169 cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed at the Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP between January 1999 and December 2009. The mean increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma over this period was 90.6%, suggesting that one case of basal cell carcinoma could be expected for every 15 patients referred to dermatology. This trend was also found when the incidence was indexed according to the absolute number of histopathology exams, the total number of hospital consultations, the total number of dermatological consultations and the population of the town of Botucatu

  20. Estudo quantitativo das células de Langerhans em carcinomas basocelulares com maior e menor potencial de agressividade local Quantitative study of Langerhans cells in basal cell carcinoma with higher or lower potential of local aggressiveness

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    Itamar Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - O carcinoma basocelular localiza-se principalmente em áreas expostas ao sol, apresentando formas clínicas e histológicas diferentes, algumas com grande e outras com pequena agressividade local. Células de Langerhans participam ativamente do sistema imune da pele. OBJETIVO - Avaliar quantitativamente as células de Langerhans sobrepostas aos carcinomas basocelulares de maior e menor potencial de agressividade local, assim como nas respectivas epidermes sãs adjacentes. MÉTODOS - Dois grupos com 14 preparações histológicas cada. No primeiro, carcinoma basocelular de menor potencial de agressividade local e, no segundo, carcinoma basocelular de maior potencial. Empregou-se a imunoistoquímica com proteína S100 para identificação das células de Langerhans. Utilizando microscópio óptico em aumento de 400 vezes e a grade morfométrica de Weibel, foram contadas as células de Langerhans presentes em sete campos, obtendo-se a média em cada lâmina. Foi utilizado teste estatístico de Wilcoxon para análise estatística. RESULTADOS - No grupo de menor potencial de agressividade local, na epiderme sã adjacente houve aumento significativo no número de células de Langerhans comparado ao da epiderme sobreposta ao carcinoma basocelular (p d 0,05. No grupo de maior potencial de agressividade local, não houve diferença com significado estatístico (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO - O maior número de células de Langerhans na epiderme sã vizinha à lesão tumoral de menor potencial de agressividade local poderia representar uma maior resistência imunológica da epiderme, limitando a agressividade da neoplasia.BACKGROUNDS - Basal cell carcinoma affects areas of the body that have been exposed to the sun, and this disorder has different clinical and histopathologic presentations. Some of these forms have a higher potential of local aggressiveness, while others have a lower potential. Langerhans cells actively participate in the skin

  1. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

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    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed.

  2. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak

    2004-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed

  3. Carcinoma de células escamosas em bovinos, ovinos e eqüinos: estudo de 50 casos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Adriano Tony Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE é um tumor maligno dos queratinócitos. O desenvolvimento desse tipo de tumor está associado a muitos fatores, incluindo a exposição prolongada à luz ultravioleta, falta de pigmento na epiderme, perda de pêlos ou cobertura de pêlos muito esparsa nos locais afetados. Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de carcinoma de células escamosas em animais de produção (bovinos, ovinos e eqüinos de 1978 a 2002. O material foi obtido nos arquivos do Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Os 50 tumores do tipo carcinoma de células escamosas estavam distribuídos nas diferentes espécies (bovina: 30; ovina: sete e eqüina: 13. Dados como raça, sexo, idade e localização corpórea, dentro de cada espécie, foram tabulados. Classificaram-se os tumores segundo seu grau de malignidade em bem diferenciados a pobremente diferenciados, através de avaliação histológica. A etiologia multifatorial dos cce em animais de produção requer mais estudos retrospectivos e prospectivos, para determinar o papel de cada fator na patogênese desse neoplasma.

  4. Imaging Findings of Pelvic Tumor Thrombosis Extending from Sacral Bone Metastasis of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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    Kenichiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the imaging findings of a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma who showed pelvic tumor thrombosis extending from sacral bone metastasis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated extensive intraluminal filling defects in the pelvic veins. A lytic lesion in the sacrum was also noted and continuity between the sacral lesion and the filling defect in the branch of pelvic veins was indicated. The filling defects showed increased uptake on positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and single-photon emission computed tomography with 131I-iodomethylnorcholesterol, and fusion images with computed tomography aided the localization of the increased uptake areas. Multimodality imaging may be beneficial for the characterization and localization of lesions in patients suspected of having metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

  5. Comparison of Narrowband Imaging with Autofluorescence Imaging for Endoscopic Visualization of Superficial Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions of the Esophagus

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    Haruhisa Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare narrowband imaging (NBI and autofluorescence imaging (AFI endoscopic visualization for identifying superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Methods. Twenty-four patients with superficial esophageal carcinomas diagnosed at previous hospitals were enrolled in this study. Lesions were initially detected using white-light endoscopy and then observed with both NBI and AFI. Endoscopic images documented each method, and three endoscopists experienced in esophageal imaging retrospectively reviewed respective images of histologically confirmed esophageal SCCs. Images were assessed for quality in identifying superficial SCCs and rated as excellent, fair, or poor by the three reviewers with interobserver agreement calculated using kappa (κ statistics. Results. Thirty-one lesions histologically confirmed as superficial esophageal SCCs were detected in 24 patients. NBI images of 27 lesions (87% were rated as excellent, three as fair, and one as poor compared to AFI images of 19 lesions (61% rated as excellent, 10 as fair and two as poor (P<0.05. Moderate interobserver agreement (κ=0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.60 resulted in NBI while fair agreement (κ=0.35, 95% CI 0.18–0.51 was achieved using AFI. Conclusion. NBI may be more effective than AFI for visualization of esophageal SCC.

  6. A clinical study of thallium-201 SPECT in the diagnostic imaging of oral squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Recently the usefulness of thallium 201 chloride (201Tl) as a tumor imaging agent for various tumors has been reported. However, the application of 201Tl SPECT to oral squamous cell carcinomas has not been established. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of 201Tl SPECT in the assessment of malignancy or in the differential diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas from inflammatory diseases. Thirty-two patients with 33 primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and 4 patients with inflammatory disease were studied. SPECT images were acquired 15 minutes (early image) and 3 hours (delayed image) after the intravenous injection with 74 MBq 201Tl, and then early uptake ratio (ER), delayed uptake ratio (DR), and retention index (RI) were measured. The relations between these parameters and the size, the site, the degree of differentiation and the mode of invasion of the primary tumor were analyzed statistically. 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 32 of the 33 tumors, with 32 patients having oral squamous cell carcinoma, making the positive rate 97%. Significant negative correlation was observed between RI and major or minor axis of tumors; therefore, this study revealed that RI was influenced by the size of a tumor. In comparison with the average value of RI according to histopathological diagnosis, there was statistically significant difference (p=0.011) between carcinomas (0.80±0.16, n=30) and inflammatory diseases (0.58±0.04, n=4); thus, it was supposed that differential diagnosis between them could be possible. About the tumors with the range of minor-axis 20 mm-40 mm for little influence of tumor size to the RI, the tendency to decrease for the RI of well-differentiated group or low-invasive group was seen. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, 201Tl SPECT had a high positive rate. The application was suggested for use in the differential diagnosis between inflammatory disease and carcinomas, where clinical usefulness could be expected. (author)

  7. Carcinoma epidermóide da boca em idosos de São Paulo Squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth in the elderly in São Paulo

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    MÁRIO R. PERUSSI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência das variáveis sexo e localização do tumor primário na sobrevida, em idosos portadores de câncer da boca. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 1440 fichas clínicas de pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide da boca do Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis, São Paulo, de 1978-1997. Foram encontrados 562 idosos (idade mínima de 60 anos - critério da OMS para países em desenvolvimento e 878 nas 1ª e 2ª idades, comparando-se as freqüências das variáveis do estudo (sexo e localização do tumor. Como critério de evolução utilizou-se o tempo de vida, em meses, após o diagnóstico. Foi utilizado como método estatístico o qui-quadrado com nível de significância de 5% ( a = 0,05. RESULTADOS: A freqüência do câncer da boca em idosos permaneceu estável no período estudado (39,5% em 1978-87 vs 38,2% em 1989-1997. A relação masculino:feminino foi de 3:1 em pacientes com mais de 60 anos e 8:1 antes dos 60 anos. Observou-se um predomínio em idosos no câncer da região jugal (56% e palato (47% quando comparados com os tumores de pacientes mais jovens localizados em língua e soalho (67% e língua (62%. Não foram observadas diferenças na percentagem de pacientes falecidos antes do início do tratamento (11,6% vs 10,5% em jovens e nas percentagens de sobrevida em diferentes períodos (seis meses a cinco anos. CONCLUSÕES: Existe uma maior proporção de mulheres com câncer da boca entre os idosos quando comparadas as 1ª e 2ª idades. Compararativamente, os tumores do andar superior da boca (palato foram mais freqüentes nos indivíduos com menos de 60 anos enquanto que a localização na língua e soalho ocorreu com maior freqüência nos pacientes com idade de 60 e mais anos. As diferenças observadas em relação ao sexo e localização não se refletiram em modificação de sobrevida dos pacientes estudados.OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of sex and primary tumor

  8. Carcinoma Basocelular

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    Inês Alencar de Castro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Vemos na região frontal de um paciente masculino, fototipo II de Fitzpatrick, lesão ulcerada com bordas papulosas róseas e peroladas, correspondendo a Carcinoma Basocelular. É lesão maligna originária das células não- queratinizadas da camada basal da epiderme, sendo a forma mais comum de câncer em humanos. Estima-se em torno de 100.000 casos/ano no Brasil. Ocorre predominantemente em pele exposta de indivíduos com pouca capacidade de se bronzear. Pode se tornar invasivo, mas raramente metastatiza.

  9. Contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma and their correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Okkes I. [Department of Radiology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: oikarahan@yahoo.com; Yikilmaz, Ali [Department of Radiology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey); Artis, Tarik [Department of General Surgery, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey); Canoz, Ozlem [Department of Pathology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey); Coskun, Abdulhakim [Department of Radiology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey); Torun, Edip [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastrenterology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, PK: 18 Talas 38280, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlations of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of large (>5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas with tumor size and histopathologic findings. Materials and methods: MR imaging was performed in 30 patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The imaging protocol included non-contrast, hepatic arterial, portal venous and late phases. The signal intensities relative to the liver, enhancement patterns and the morphologic features of the lesions were evaluated in relation to size and degree of differentiation. Results: On histopathologic examination, 12 of 30 (40%) tumors were well-differentiated (grade 1), 6 of 30 (20%) were moderately differentiated (grades 2 and 3) and 12 of 30 (40%) were poorly differentiated (grade 4). Tumor size, tumor boundary, serum alpha-fetoprotein level and portal vein invasion were found to have statistically significant correlations with the degree of differentiation (p < 0.05). Portal vein invasion, capsule formation and tumor surface characteristics showed statistically significant correlations with tumor size (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MR imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinomas larger than 5 cm are partially dependent on tumor size and degree of differentiation.

  10. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. PET-CT imaging fusion in the assessment of head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Denise Takehana dos; Chojniak, Rubens; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors have established a methodological approach to evaluate head and neck squamous cell carcinoma aiming at identifying and distinguishing high metabolic activity inside the lesion, combining in a single examination, functional, metabolic and morphological data simultaneously acquired by means of different non-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) device. Materials and Methods: The study population included 17 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma submitted to a non-dedicated 18 F-FDG-PET imaging at Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. CT and 18 F-FDG-PET images were simultaneously acquired in a non-dedicated device. The original data were transferred to an independent workstation by means of the Entegra 2 NT software to generate PET-CT imaging fusion. Results: The findings were defined as positive in the presence of a well defined focal area of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in regions not related with the normal biodistribution of the tracer. Conclusion: The fusion of simultaneously acquired images in a single examination ( 18 F-FDGPET and CT) has allowed the topographic-metabolic mapping of the lesion as well as the localization of high metabolic activity areas inside the tumor, indicating recidivation or metastasis and widening the array of alternatives for radiotherapy or surgical planning. (author)

  12. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in a Department of Dermatology: a 5 year review Epidemiologia dos carcinomas basocelulares e espinhocelulares em um Serviço de Dermatologia: revisão de 5 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade

    2012-04-01

    doentes portadores de cancro cutâneo não-melanoma identificados por análise histológica de todas as biopsias cutâneas incisionais ou excisionais ao longo de 5 anos (2004-2008 num serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: foram identificados 3075 cancros cutâneos não-melanoma, representando 88% do total de neoplasias malignas diagnosticadas no mesmo período (n=3493. Destes, 68,3% eram carcinomas basocelulares. No seu conjunto, a população de cancro cutâneo nãomelanoma era predominantemente constituída por indivíduos idosos e do sexo feminino, tendo sido observado um aumento consistente da freqüência ao longo do período avaliado (5,25%/ano. A maioria dos cancros cutâneos não-melanoma (n=1443, 81,7% foi identificada nas áreas de pele foto-exposta, representando 95,1% de todas as neoplasias malignas em áreas foto-expostas. O cancro cutâneo não-melanoma foi a neoplasia mais representativa na generalidade das áreas topográficas, à exceção do abdômen e da pélvis, representando, em particular, mais de 95% das neoplasias malignas da face, da região cervical e do couro cabeludo. O carcinoma basocelular foi o cancro cutâneo não-melanoma predominante em todas as localizações, à exceção dos membros inferiores e superiores, lábio inferior e da área genital, onde o carcinoma espinhocelular representou, respectivamente, 77,7%, 77,4%, 94,7% e 95,3% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O cancro cutâneo não-melanoma, como neoplasia maligna cutânea mais freqüente, deverá ser alvo de uma monitorização regular, com vista à determinação da sua dinâmica epidemiológica, da eficácia das medidas preventivas e adequação dos recursos de saúde.

  13. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET imaging in breast carcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike; Lengana, Thabo; Modiselle, Moshe; Vorster, Mariza; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Maes, Alex [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-04-15

    To report on imaging findings using {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET in a series of 19 breast carcinoma patients. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET imaging results obtained were compared to routinely performed staging examinations and analyzed as to lesion location and progesterone receptor status. Out of 81 tumor lesions identified, 84% were identified on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC SUVmean values of distant metastases proved significantly higher (mean, 6.86, SD, 5.68) when compared to those of primary or local recurrences (mean, 2.45, SD, 2.55, p = 0.04) or involved lymph nodes (mean, 3.18, SD, 1.79, p = 0.011). SUVmean values of progesterone receptor-positive lesions proved not significantly different from progesterone receptor-negative lesions. SUV values derived from FDG PET/CT, available in seven patients, and {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT imaging proved weakly correlated (r = 0.407, p = 0.015). {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT imaging in breast carcinoma confirms the reported considerable variation of PSMA expression on human solid tumors using immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Norrenberg, S; Jemec, G B E

    2012-01-01

    With the continued development of noninvasive therapies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) such as photodynamic therapy and immune therapies, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool, wit......, with micrometre resolution in both transversal and axial directions, enabling visualization of individual cells up to a depth of around 570 μm, and filling the imaging gap between conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)....

  15. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  16. Comparative methods for PET image segmentation in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, Habib; Abdoli, Mehrsima; Fuentes, Carolina Llina; El Naqa, Issam M.

    Several methods have been proposed for the segmentation of F-18-FDG uptake in PET. In this study, we assessed the performance of four categories of F-18-FDG PET image segmentation techniques in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using clinical studies where the surgical specimen served as the

  17. Multi-parametric MR imaging for prostate carcinoma; Multiparametrische MR-Bildgebung beim Prostatakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2017-03-15

    Multi-parametric NMR imaging in case of prostate carcinoma can improve diagnostics, allows reliable prognostic estimations and helps to find the optimum individual therapy. The contribution is focused to deliver the needed methodological tools and background knowledge for the daily routine.

  18. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix. High-resolution turbo spin-echo MR imaging with contrast-enhanced dynamic scanning and T2-weighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Namimoto, T.; Takahashi, M.; Katabuchi, H.; Tanaka, N.; Okamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare high-resolution contrast-enhanced (Gd-DTPA) dynamic MR imaging with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the evaluation of uterine cervical carcinoma. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR imaging on a 1.5 T superconductive unit to have the extension of the disease assessed before treatment. A phased-array coil was used in all patients. In 25 patients, surgical confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained after imaging. Radiation therapy was selected for the remaining 7 patients with advanced carcinoma. Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were also performed. Results: The cervical carcinomas showed maximum contrast in the cervical stroma and myometrium in the early dynamic phase. The tumor/cervical-stroma contrast in the early dynamic phase obtained with the T1-weighted TSE technique (contrast-to-noise ratio 22.6) was significantly higher than that obtained in T2-weighted TSE imaging (contrast-to-noise ratio 4.3). In the evaluation of parametrial invasion, the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging was 71.8% and contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging 81.2%. Conclusion: High-resolution contrast-enhanced (Gd-DTPA) dynamic MR imaging in cervical cancer offers improved tumor/cervical-stroma contrast and provides useful information on parametrial invasion. (orig.)

  19. Combining image processing and modeling to generate traces of beta-strands from cryo-EM density images of beta-barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Dong; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM) technique produces 3-dimensional (3D) density images of proteins. When resolution of the images is not high enough to resolve the molecular details, it is challenging for image processing methods to enhance the molecular features. β-barrel is a particular structure feature that is formed by multiple β-strands in a barrel shape. There is no existing method to derive β-strands from the 3D image of a β-barrel at medium resolutions. We propose a new method, StrandRoller, to generate a small set of possible β-traces from the density images at medium resolutions of 5-10Å. StrandRoller has been tested using eleven β-barrel images simulated to 10Å resolution and one image isolated from the experimentally derived cryo-EM density image at 6.7Å resolution. StrandRoller was able to detect 81.84% of the β-strands with an overall 1.5Å 2-way distance between the detected and the observed β-traces, if the best of fifteen detections is considered. Our results suggest that it is possible to derive a small set of possible β-traces from the β-barrel cryo-EM image at medium resolutions even when no separation of the β-strands is visible in the images.

  20. Radiological imagings of small hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Futagawa, Sakae; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Maeda, Tohru [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-08-01

    Forty three cases of small hepatocellular carcinoma (measuring less than 3 cm in diameter on imaging modalities) were detected during a period of four years and two months. There were two cases in which hepatoma measured 1 cm in diameter, twenty four cases between 1 and 2 cm, and seventeen cases between 2 and 3 cm. The relative role of each modality and AFP value in the detection of these tumors was evaluated. The detection rate of small hepatocellular carcinoma by liver scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and angiography was 8%, 74%, 70% and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity of serum AFP value was 67% (either measuring more than 200ng/ml or showing a tendency of steady rising even if below the level of 200ng/ml). Most hepatomas less than 2 cm in size were hypoechoic on US, and those above 2 cm in size were hyperechoic with peripheral sonolucency (halo). Almost all cases were described as low density area on both plain and enhancement CT. Angiography was the best method for detecting small hepatomas. It may be recommended to perform angiography on every patient with liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis of this disease. Periodic examinations by AFP, US and CT should be done if the angiography was negative. Evaluation by US in every three months and by CT in every twelve months may be appropriate.

  1. MR imaging of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yujiro; Kojima, Kaoru; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoshikawa, Wataru; Fuwa, Sokun; Araki, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings are reported for 12 pathologically proven lesions of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary in 11 women (mean age 50 years). T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in all patients, and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were obtained in 9. The mean diameter of the tumors was 13 cm. Seven patients presented with stage-I tumors. All 12 lesions consisted of cystic masses with solid protrusions occurring in 10 and solid masses in 2. The cysts were unilocular in 9 lesions and multilocular in 1. In four lesions, the cysts displayed with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Round solid protrusions were identified in 8 lesions. In 5 lesions, the number of protrusions was only a few. The solid portions of 5 masses had slightly high-intensity regions on T1-weighted images. The number of patients with ascites was three. Magnetic resonance imaging of CCC usually shows a unilocular large cyst with solid protrusions, which are often round and few in number. Such MR imaging findings suggest malignant tumor but are not specific. (orig.)

  2. A quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailean, J.C.; Sullivan, B.J.; Giger, M.L.; Chen, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors quantitatively evaluate the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The perceived signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering

  3. Preparation of 99Tcm-CLP imaging probe of lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Yonggang; Liao Yonghua

    2004-01-01

    The process of preparing an imaging micro-probe 99 Tc m -CLP from bovine nose cartilage is described in detail. Both labeled rate and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -CLP are greater than 90%, and KA is 1.12 x 10 9 L/mol in vitro. After the Balb/c nu/nu mice with lung cancer were intravenously injected by the 99 Tc m -CLP, the radioactivity was found to be well concentrated at the lung-cancer region, which suggests that the 99 Tc m -CLP micro-probe can be used in imaging study of lung carcinoma. (authors)

  4. Subcentimeter hypervascular nodule with typical imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with history of hepatocellular carcinoma: natural course on serial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Lim, Hyo Keun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Insuk [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the natural course of subcentimeter hypervascular nodules at high risk for developing into hepatocellular carcinomas (SHNHR) using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An SHNHR was defined as a subcentimeter hypervascular nodule having typical imaging findings of HCC on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. We included 39 patients with 46 SHNHRs (mean size ± standard deviation, 6.1 ± 1.6 mm; range, 3.2 - 9.0 mm). Overt HCC was defined as pathology proven HCC or a nodule larger than 1 cm with typical imaging findings of HCC. The cumulative rate and the independent predictive factors for progression to overt HCC were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 139 days (range, 64 - 392 days). The cumulative progression rate to overt HCC at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was 13.9 %, 61.7 %, 83.2 %, and 89.9 %. The initial size of SHNHR was a significant predictor of progression to overt HCC, with an optimal cut-off value of 5.5 mm. The progression rate of SHNHR to overt HCC within 12 months was high (89.9 %) in patients with history of HCC. The initial size of SHNHR was an important predictor for progression to overt HCC. (orig.)

  5. Analysis and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) via infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sahagun, J. H.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a structured methodology is proposed and tested through infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges and of basal cell carcinoma patients (a type of skin cancer) previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. A method of conjugated gradients is proposed to compare measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ) between two symmetric regions of the patient's body, that takes into account the skin, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures and doing so, the limitation of the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and nonsubjective. The range of normal temperatures in different regions of the body for seven healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the human skin exhibits a unimodal normal distribution, the normal range for each region was considered to be the mean dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements (Δθ±2σ) in order to represent 95% of the population. Eleven patients with previously diagnosed basal cell carcinoma through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting skin abnormalities in all cases. Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective in the identification of the basal cell carcinoma through infrared imaging even with the use of a low optical resolution camera (160 × 120 pixels) and a thermal resolution of 0.1 °C. The method could also be used to scan a larger area around the lesion in order to detect the presence of other lesions still not perceptible in the clinical exam. However, it is necessary that a temperature differences mesh-like mapping of the healthy human body skin is produced, so that the comparison of the patient Δ θ could be made with the exact region of such mapping in order to possibly make a more effective diagnosis. Finally, the infrared image analyzed through the

  6. The value of spiral CT and image post-processing in the evaluation of laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Wu Ning; Luo Dehong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To access the value of the combination of axial image, MPR, and VE in the evaluation of laryngeal carcinoma involvement. Methods: Twenty patients with laryngeal carcinoma or hypopharyngeal carcinoma were prospectively studied by helical CT, and MPR and VE were subsequently done on the Voxel Q workstation. The axial images finding and the combined image findings of axial image, MPR, and VE were compared with the pathological results by using a predetermined checklist of 17 regions according to the TNM classification of malignant tumors (UICC and AJCC). The results were studied in a blind way. Results: In the evaluation of the neoplastic invasion of ventricular fold, vocal cord, the anterior commissure, subglottic region, thyroid cartilage, and tissue beyond the larynx, the combined image were better than axial image in sensitivity (100% vs 92.4%, P = 0.064), specificity (98.5% vs 89.5%, P = 0.028), and accuracy (99.2% vs 90.8%, P0.003). Neoplastic invasion of the arytenoid cartilage was present in 6 patients. The sensitivity and the specificity was 83.3% and 100% respectively when using the criteria of the arytenoid cartilage sclerosing combined with distortion, erosion or lysis. The specificity was only 57.1% when using the criteria of arytenoid cartilage sclerosing for judging parameter. The result was identical when assessing the arytenoid cartilage, PGS, and PES between the two groups. Conclusion: Axial image combined with subsequent MPR and VE could improve the diagnosis in the evaluation of the neoplastic invasion of ventricular fold, vocal cord, the anterior commissure, subglottic region, thyroid cartilage, and tissue beyond the larynx

  7. Noninvasive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Yu; Chen, Jie; Xia, Chun-Chao; Cao, Li-Kun; Duan, Ting; Song, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes. While based on conclusive enhancement patterns comprising arterial phase hyperenhancement and portal venous and/or delayed phase wash-out, contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the diagnostic tools for HCC without requirements for histopathologic confirmation. Functional MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography, show promise in providing further important information regarding tumor biological behaviors. In addition, evaluation of tumor imaging characteristics, including nodule size, margin, number, vascular invasion, and growth patterns, allows preoperative prediction of tumor microvascular invasion and patient prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the comprehensive noninvasive imaging evaluation of HCC. We also provide the basic key concepts of HCC development and an overview of the current practice guidelines. PMID:29904242

  8. Uterine cervical carcinoma: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MR imaging at 3.0 T for image quality and local-regional staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.R. [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Bupyeong 6-dong, Bupyeong-gu, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Oh, S.N.; Park, M.Y.; Byun, J.Y. [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To compare three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) with multiplanar two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted TSE for the evaluation of invasive cervical carcinoma. Seventy-five patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MRI of the pelvis at 3.0 T, using both 5-mm-thick multiplanar 2D (total acquisition time = 12 min 25 s) and 1-mm-thick coronal 3D T2-weighted TSE sequences (7 min 20 s). Quantitative analysis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and qualitative analysis of image quality were performed. Local-regional staging was performed in 45 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy. The estimated SNR of cervical carcinoma and the relative tumour contrast were significantly higher on 3D imaging (P < 0.0001). Tumour conspicuity was better with the 3D sequence, but the sharpness of tumour margin was better with the 2D sequence. No significant difference in overall image quality was noted between the two sequences (P = 0.38). There were no significant differences in terms of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion, and lymph node metastases. Multiplanar reconstruction 3D T2-weighted imaging is largely equivalent to 2D T2-weighted imaging for overall image quality and staging accuracy of cervical carcinoma with a shorter MR data acquisition, but has limitations with regard to the sharpness of the tumour margin. circle 3D T2-weighted MR sequence is equivalent to 2D for cervical carcinoma staging. (orig.)

  9. Statistical trajectory of an approximate EM algorithm for probabilistic image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Titterington, D M

    2007-01-01

    We calculate analytically a statistical average of trajectories of an approximate expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with generalized belief propagation (GBP) and a Gaussian graphical model for the estimation of hyperparameters from observable data in probabilistic image processing. A statistical average with respect to observed data corresponds to a configuration average for the random-field Ising model in spin glass theory. In the present paper, hyperparameters which correspond to interactions and external fields of spin systems are estimated by an approximate EM algorithm. A practical algorithm is described for gray-level image restoration based on a Gaussian graphical model and GBP. The GBP approach corresponds to the cluster variation method in statistical mechanics. Our main result in the present paper is to obtain the statistical average of the trajectory in the approximate EM algorithm by using loopy belief propagation and GBP with respect to degraded images generated from a probability density function with true values of hyperparameters. The statistical average of the trajectory can be expressed in terms of recursion formulas derived from some analytical calculations

  10. Detectability of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of Gd-DTPA-enhanced and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim In Hwan; Kim, Chong Soo; Han, Hyeun Young; Yoon, Kwon ha; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2000-01-01

    To compare the detectability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted FISP, and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images. In order to assess their hepatic lesions, 25 patients (20 men and 5 women) with HCC were enrolled in an MR study in which both gadolinium and Spiro were used. Since the lesions were most conspicuous during the phase of dynamic arterial dominant phase of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging, this was the phase used for analysis. Images were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, and to compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced imaging with that of SPIO-enhanced imaging for the detection of HCCs, a receiver-operated characteristic curve was obtained. Qualitative analysis revealed a significantly higher percentage of signal loss and a higher liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratio on SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging than on SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE imaging (p less than 0.05). It also showed that the lesions were most clearly visible on SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging (and significantly so), followed by SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE imaging, and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Imaging artifacts were more prominent on SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE than on SPIO-enhanced PISF imaging or dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging (p less than 0.05). According to ROC analysis, SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) or SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging achieved higher accuracy than did dynamic gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging (p less than 0.05). For the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas, SPIO-enhanced MR imaging is better than gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging

  11. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma of the rabbit kidney on Tl weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, J.M.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.V.; Googe, R.E.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Scott, K.N.; Mancuso, A.A.; Hackett, R.L.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    Experimental renal carcinoma was induced by percutaneous injection of VX-2 carcinoma cells into the left kidney in New Zealand white rabbits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.15 T before and after intravenous injection of 0.3 mmol gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) per kg body weight. Gd-DTPA enhanced the tumors by increasing the signal intensity on T1 weighted images. The enhancement was evident immediately after Gd-DTPA injection, increasing during the observation time of 30 minutes. Histologically the areas of enhancement corresponded well to the viable tumor tissue. (orig.)

  12. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  13. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  14. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholzer, Katja; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Junginger, Theodor; Heintz, Achim; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Hötker, Andreas M.; Hansen, Torsten; Düber, Christoph; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgical specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p ≤ 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM ≤ 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p ≤ 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging and K-Means Classification for Histologic Evaluation of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Khouj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that shows the potential to aid pathologists in breast cancer diagnoses cases. In this study, breast cancer tissues from different patients were imaged by a hyperspectral system to detect spectral differences between normal and breast cancer tissues. Tissue samples mounted on slides were identified from 10 different patients. Samples from each patient included both normal and ductal carcinoma tissue, both stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and unstained. Slides were imaged using a snapshot HSI system, and the spectral reflectance differences were evaluated. Analysis of the spectral reflectance values indicated that wavelengths near 550 nm showed the best differentiation between tissue types. This information was used to train image processing algorithms using supervised and unsupervised data. The K-means method was applied to the hyperspectral data cubes, and successfully detected spectral tissue differences with sensitivity of 85.45%, and specificity of 94.64% with true negative rate of 95.8%, and false positive rate of 4.2%. These results were verified by ground-truth marking of the tissue samples by a pathologist. In the hyperspectral image analysis, the image processing algorithm, K-means, shows the greatest potential for building a semi-automated system that could identify and sort between normal and ductal carcinoma in situ tissues.

  16. Hyperspectral Imaging and K-Means Classification for Histologic Evaluation of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouj, Yasser; Dawson, Jeremy; Coad, James; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that shows the potential to aid pathologists in breast cancer diagnoses cases. In this study, breast cancer tissues from different patients were imaged by a hyperspectral system to detect spectral differences between normal and breast cancer tissues. Tissue samples mounted on slides were identified from 10 different patients. Samples from each patient included both normal and ductal carcinoma tissue, both stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and unstained. Slides were imaged using a snapshot HSI system, and the spectral reflectance differences were evaluated. Analysis of the spectral reflectance values indicated that wavelengths near 550 nm showed the best differentiation between tissue types. This information was used to train image processing algorithms using supervised and unsupervised data. The K-means method was applied to the hyperspectral data cubes, and successfully detected spectral tissue differences with sensitivity of 85.45%, and specificity of 94.64% with true negative rate of 95.8%, and false positive rate of 4.2%. These results were verified by ground-truth marking of the tissue samples by a pathologist. In the hyperspectral image analysis, the image processing algorithm, K-means, shows the greatest potential for building a semi-automated system that could identify and sort between normal and ductal carcinoma in situ tissues.

  17. Urachal carcinoma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Vanessa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Urachal carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, which accounts for only 0.5–2% of bladder malignancies, and arises from a remnant of the fetal genitourinary tract. A 46-year-old woman presented with a history of pelvic pain and frequent daytime urination. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a supravesical heterogeneous mass with calcifications. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy with en-bloc resection of the mass and histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of urachal adenocarcinoma. Urachal carcinomas are usually associated with poor prognosis and early diagnosis is fundamental. CT and MR are useful to correctly diagnose and preoperatively staging

  18. Urachal Carcinoma: Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, which accounts for only 0.5–2% of bladder malignancies, and arises from a remnant of the fetal genitourinary tract. A 46-year-old woman presented with a history of pelvic pain and frequent daytime urination. Ultrasound (US, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance (MR demonstrated a supravesical heterogeneous mass with calcifications. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy with en-bloc resection of the mass and histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of urachal adenocarcinoma. Urachal carcinomas are usually associated with poor prognosis and early diagnosis is fundamental. CT and MR are useful to correctly diagnose and preoperatively staging.

  19. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma: associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics ...

  20. Thymic epithelial tumors: Comparison of CT and MR imaging findings of low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas, and thymic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadohara, Junko; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Mueller, Nestor L.; Kato, Seiya; Takamori, Shinzo; Ohkuma, Kazuaki; Terasaki, Hiroshi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of thymic epithelial tumors classified according to the current World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification and to determine useful findings in differentiating the main subtypes. Materials and methods: Sixty patients with thymic epithelial tumor who underwent both CT and MR imaging were reviewed retrospectively. All cases were classified according to the 2004 WHO classification. The following findings were assessed in each case on both CT and MRI: size of tumor, contour, perimeter of capsule; homogeneity, presence of septum, hemorrhage, necrotic or cystic component within tumor; presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and great vessel invasion. These imaging characteristics of 30 low-risk thymomas (4 type A, 12 type AB, and 14 type B1), 18 high-risk thymomas (11 type B2 and seven type B3), and 12 thymic carcinomas on CT and MR imaging were compared using the chi-square test. Comparison between CT and MR findings was performed by using McNemar test. Results: On both CT and MR imaging, thymic carcinomas were more likely to have irregular contours (P < .001), necrotic or cystic component (P < .05), heterogeneous contrast-enhancement (P < .05), lymphadenopathy (P < .0001), and great vessel invasion (P < .001) than low-risk and high-risk thymomas. On MR imaging, the findings of almost complete capsule, septum, and homogenous enhancement were more commonly seen in low-risk thymomas than high-risk thymomas and thymic carcinomas (P < .05). MR imaging was superior to CT in the depiction of capsule, septum, or hemorrhage within tumor (all comparison, P < .05). Conclusion: The presence of irregular contour, necrotic or cystic component, heterogeneous enhancement, lymphadenopathy, and great vessel invasion on CT or MR imaging are strongly suggestive of thymic carcinomas. On MR imaging, the findings of contour, capsule, septum, and homogenous enhancement are helpful in

  1. Carcinoma epidermoide (variante pequenas células vs. carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão: diagnóstico diferencial em material de biópsia Small cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma vs. small cell carcinoma of the lung: differential diagnosis in biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Martins Marinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico diferencial entre a variante pequenas células do carcinoma epidermoide e do carcinoma de pequenas células nem sempre é fácil. Apesar de os descritores alertarem que o primeiro deva manter suas características morfológicas e, muitas vezes, diferenciação escamosa focal, a escassez de material aliada a artefatos de fixação frequentes nessas biópsias podem dificultar a vida do patologista. Entretanto, a definição entre um e outro pode alterar significativamente a escolha da modalidade terapêutica do paciente e, em alguns casos, influenciar seu prognóstico. Procuramos nesta publicação alertar para o problema e facilitar essa diferenciação, sugerindo um painel imuno-histoquímico.The differential diagnosis between small cell variant of squamous carcinoma and small cell carcinoma is not always simple. Despite the fact that studies show the former keeps its morphologic characteristics and focal squamous differentiation, the scarcity of the material as well as frequent fixation artifacts in these biopsies may hinder analysis. However, this differentiation between them may change significantly the choice of therapeutic approach and, in some cases, influence prognosis. In this paper, we draw attention to this problem and suggest a immunohistochemical panel to facilitate this differential diagnosis.

  2. Monitores de diagnóstico em Mamografia : (Os 5MP em Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Timóteo, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    O carcinoma da mama é o mais comum nas mulheres, em Portugal morrem cerca de 1500 mulheres por ano devido a esta patologia. Serviu o presente estudo para investigar se os Hospitais da Região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo estão equipados, com monitores de diagnóstico em mamografia, que correspondam com as guidelines europeias. O serviço de Mamografia, em Portugal rege-se por estas guidelines, em que é referenciado que para um correcto diagnóstico, com toda a sensibilidade e especific...

  3. Hybrid image representation learning model with invariant features for basal cell carcinoma detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, John; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel method for basal-cell carcinoma detection, which combines state-of-the-art methods for unsupervised feature learning (UFL) and bag of features (BOF) representation. BOF, which is a form of representation learning, has shown a good performance in automatic histopathology image classi cation. In BOF, patches are usually represented using descriptors such as SIFT and DCT. We propose to use UFL to learn the patch representation itself. This is accomplished by applying a topographic UFL method (T-RICA), which automatically learns visual invariance properties of color, scale and rotation from an image collection. These learned features also reveals these visual properties associated to cancerous and healthy tissues and improves carcinoma detection results by 7% with respect to traditional autoencoders, and 6% with respect to standard DCT representations obtaining in average 92% in terms of F-score and 93% of balanced accuracy.

  4. Fast T1- and T2-weighted pulmonary MR-imaging in patients with bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, M.; Schultze, J.; Reuter, M.; Bewig, B.; Hubner, R.; Bobis, I.; Noth, R.; Heller, M.; Biederer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic potential and limitations of three fast MRI sequences in patients with bronchial carcinoma based on the comparison with spiral CT. Material and methods: Three fast chest MRI sequences from 20 patients with central or peripheral bronchial carcinoma were evaluated by two observers for relation of tumour to adjacent structures, lymph node enlargement, additional pulmonary lesions and artefacts. The information from MR-imaging was compared with the results from spiral CT. MRI comprised a T1-3D-GRE breath-hold examination ('VIBE', TR/TE 4.5/1.9 ms, flip-angle 12 deg., matrix 502 x 512, 2.5 mm coronal slices), a breath-hold, T2-HASTE sequence (TR/TE 2000/43 ms, matrix 192 x 256, 10 mm coronal slices) and a respiration-triggered T2-TSE sequence (TR/TE 3000-6000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512, 6 mm transverse slices). The FOV was adapted individually (380-480 mm). Results: The presence of the primary bronchial carcinoma and infiltration of thoracic structures by tumour tissue could be demonstrated by all sequences. VIBE sequence was more suitable for detecting small pulmonary nodules than the other MRI examinations, but compared to CT still 20% of these lesions were missed. Contrary to VIBE and T2-weighted TSE scans, HASTE sequence was limited in imaging mediastinal lymph nodes due to missing relevant findings in 2/20 patients. HASTE images significantly provided the lowest rate of artefacts in imaging lung parenchyma (P < 0.001 in peripheral parenchyma), but spatial resolution was limited in this sequence. Concerning the differentiation between tumour and adjacent atelectasis (n = 8), T2-weighted TSE imaging was superior to CT and VIBE in all cases and to HASTE sequence in 4/8 patients. Conclusion: The combination of VIBE and HASTE sequence allows for an adequate imaging of thoracic processes in patients with bronchial carcinoma, limited only in visualizing small pulmonary nodules. To obtain more detail resolution and to

  5. Functional image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy planning for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsegmed, Uranchimeg [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Kimura, Tomoki, E-mail: tkkimura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nakashima, Takeo [Division of Radiation Therapy, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Imano, Nobuki; Doi, Yoshiko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Ozawa, Shuichi; Murakami, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Awai, Kazuo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current planning study is to evaluate the ability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI)–guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning by using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in sparing the functional liver tissues during SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, 20 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. Functional liver tissues were defined according to quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratios ≥ 1.5 on a hepatobiliary phase scan. Functional images were fused with the planning computed tomography (CT) images; the following 2 SBRT plans were designed using a “step-and-shoot” static IMRT technique for each patient: (1) an anatomical SBRT plan optimization based on the total liver; and (2) a functional SBRT plan based on the functional liver. The total prescribed dose was 48 gray (Gy) in 4 fractions. Dosimetric parameters, including dose to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV D{sub 95%}), percentages of total and functional liver volumes, which received doses from 5 to 30 Gy (V5 to V30 and fV5 to fV30), and mean doses to total and functional liver (MLD and fMLD, respectively) of the 2 plans were compared. Compared with anatomical plans, functional image-guided SBRT plans reduced MLD (mean: plan A, 5.5 Gy; and plan F, 5.1 Gy; p < 0.0001) and fMLD (mean: plan A, 5.4 Gy; and plan F, 4.9 Gy; p < 0.0001), as well as V5 to V30 and fV5 to fV30. No differences were noted in PTV coverage and nonhepatic organs at risk (OARs) doses. In conclusion, EOB-MRI–guided SBRT planning using the IMRT technique may preserve functional liver tissues in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update of Key Imaging Techniques, Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart, B; Kindem, S; Chust, M

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma, though rare, is one of the most aggressive tumors a dermatologist faces. More than a third of patients with this diagnosis die from the disease. Numerous researchers have attempted to identify clinical and pathologic predictors to guide prognosis, but their studies have produced inconsistent results. Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma is low and it appears in patients of advanced age, prospective studies have not been done and no clear treatment algorithm has been developed. This review aims to provide an exhaustive, up-to-date account of Merkel cell carcinoma for the dermatologist. We describe prognostic factors and the imaging techniques that are most appropriate for evaluating disease spread. We also discuss current debates on treating Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  8. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A., E-mail: rodrigossviana@gmail.com, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br, E-mail: asantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  9. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  10. Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis: frequency and histopathological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Camboim, Denise Cruz; Figueirôa, Vivina Marta Simões da Motta; Lima, Daisy Nunes de Oliveira; Abreu-e-Lima, Paula; Abreu-e-Lima, Maria do Carmo Carvalho de

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireoide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais frequente de hipotireoidismo em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireoide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos há uma aparente associação entre as duas patologias. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma ...

  11. Carcinoma de células escamosas em bovinos, ovinos e eqüinos: estudo de 50 casos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Tony Ramos; Diego Mollerke Norte; Fabiana Elias; Cristina Gevehr Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    O carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) é um tumor maligno dos queratinócitos. O desenvolvimento desse tipo de tumor está associado a muitos fatores, incluindo a exposição prolongada à luz ultravioleta, falta de pigmento na epiderme, perda de pêlos ou cobertura de pêlos muito esparsa nos locais afetados. Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de carcinoma de células escamosas em animais de produção (bovinos, ovinos e eqüinos) de 1978 a 2002. O material foi obtido nos arquivos do Laborat...

  12. Subsurface imaging by electrical and EM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 3 subjects. 1) Three dimensional inversion of resistivity data with topography : In this study, we developed a 3-D inversion method based on the finite element calculation of model responses, which can effectively accommodate the irregular topography. In solving the inverse problem, the iterative least-squares approach comprising the smoothness-constraints was taken along with the reciprocity approach in the calculation of Jacobian. Furthermore the Active Constraint Balancing, which has been recently developed by ourselves to enhance the resolving power of the inverse problem, was also employed. Since our new algorithm accounts for the topography in the inversion step, topography correction is not necessary as a preliminary processing and we can expect a more accurate image of the earth. 2) Electromagnetic responses due to a source in the borehole : The effects of borehole fluid and casing on the borehole EM responses should thoroughly be analyzed since they may affect the resultant image of the earth. In this study, we developed an accurate algorithm for calculating the EM responses containing the effects of borehole fluid and casing when a current-carrying ring is located on the borehole axis. An analytic expression for primary vertical magnetic field along the borehole axis was first formulated and the fast Fourier transform is to be applied to get the EM fields at any location in whole space. 3) High frequency electromagnetic impedance survey : At high frequencies the EM impedance becomes a function of the angle of incidence or the horizontal wavenumber, so the electrical properties cannot be readily extracted without first eliminating the effect of horizontal wavenumber on the impedance. For this purpose, this paper considers two independent methods for accurately determining the horizontal wavenumber, which in turn is used to correct the impedance data. The 'apparent' electrical properties derived from the corrected impedance

  13. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the prediction of a neoadjuvant therapeutic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Osamu; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Yamashita, Tomomi; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging in predicting the responses to neoadjuvant therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Diffusion-weighted, T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained from 28 patients with untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with histological proof. A blinded radiologist evaluated the quantitative and qualitative signal intensities and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the lesions on each sequence. All patients were treated by neoadjuvant therapies, and the post-therapeutic tumor regression rate was determined. Both the quantitative and qualitative signal intensities on diffusion-weighted images showed positive correlations (r=0.367 and 0.412, p<.05), and the ADCs showed a weak, inversed correlation (r=-0.384, p<.05) with the tumor regression rates. Diffusion-weighted imaging including an assessment by ADCs may be able to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. (orig.)

  14. Double contrast MR imaging with iron colloid and Gd-DTPA in cholangiocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Shimatani, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kato, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kamba, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Ohuchi, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kodama, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kato, T.; Ohta, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    Double contrast MR imaging with combined use of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and Gd-DTPA was attempted in 3 cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). In all cases, nonenhanced spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images, and T1-weighted images after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA were obtained. Within one week, the MR sequences were repeated one hour after i.v. injection of CSIC. Double contrast (CSIC/Gd-DTPA) T1-weighted imaging was evaluated and compared with the other sequences in terms of tumor detectability, tumor spreading and tumor characterization. Double contrast MR imaging was comparable in tumor detectability and superior as to the evaluation of spreading and characterization to the other MR imaging modalities. (orig.).

  15. The Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Combination With Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Improving Tumor Detection for Early Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Fertility-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulei; Wang, Ling; Li, Yong; Song, Peiji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery because of early cervical carcinoma. Fifty-four patients with stage Ia or Ib1 cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed for these patients using conventional MRI (including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical carcinoma were analyzed quantitatively and compared with that of adjacent epithelium. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 2 sets of MRI sequences were calculated on the basis of histologic results, and the diagnostic ability of conventional MRI/DWI combinations was compared with that of conventional MRI. The mean ADC value from cervical carcinoma (mean, 786 × 10 mm/s ± 100) was significantly lower than that from adjacent epithelium (mean, 1352 × 10 mm/s ± 147) (P = 0.01). When the threshold ADC value set as 1010 × 10 mm/s, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating cervical carcinoma from nontumor epithelium were 78.2% and 67.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI for tumor detection were 76.0% and 70.4%, whereas the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI/DWI combinations were 91.7% and 90.7%, respectively. Conventional MRI/DWI combinations revealed a positive predictive value of 97.8% and only 4 false-negative findings. The addition of DWI to conventional MRI considerably improves the sensitivity and accuracy of tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery, which supports the inclusion quantitative analysis of ADC value in routine MRI protocol before fertility-sparing surgery.

  16. Dual energy spectral CT imaging for the evaluation of small hepatocellular carcinoma microvascular invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Bo; Zhang, Shuang; Jia, Yong-Jun; Yu, Yong; Duan, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Xi-Rong; Ma, Guang-Ming; Ren, Chenglong; Yu, Nan

    2017-10-01

    To study the clinical value of dual-energy spectral CT in the quantitative assessment of microvascular invasion of small hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was approved by our ethics committee. 50 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent contrast enhanced spectral CT in arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (VP) were enrolled. Tumour CT value and iodine concentration (IC) were measured from spectral CT images. The slope of spectral curve, normalized iodine concentration (NIC, to abdominal aorta) and ratio of IC difference between AP and VP (RIC AP-VP : [RIC AP-VP =(IC AP -IC VP )/IC AP ]) were calculated. Tumours were identified as either with or without microvascular invasion based on pathological results. Measurements were statistically compared using independent samples t test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of tumours microvascular invasion assessment. The 70keV images were used to simulate the results of conventional CT scans for comparison. 56 small hepatocellular carcinomas were detected with 37 lesions (Group A) with microvascular invasion and 19 (Group B) without. There were significant differences in IC, NIC and slope in AP and RIC AP-VP between Group A (2.48±0.70mg/ml, 0.23±0.05, 3.39±1.01 and 0.28±0.16) and Group B (1.65±0.47mg/ml, 0.15±0.05, 2.22±0.64 and 0.03±0.24) (all phepatocellular carcinoma with and without microvascular invasion. Quantitative iodine concentration measurement in spectral CT may be used to provide a new method to improve the evaluation for small hepatocellular carcinoma microvascular invasion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cervical carcinoma assessment - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacikowska, M.; Grzesiakowska, U.; Tacikowski, T.; Sobiczewski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of diagnostic imaging is not so much the detection of cervical carcinoma, but the evaluation of its stage. In view of this the aim of this study included: 1) comparison of MR results with the results of histological examinations after operations with reference to the dimensions of cervical carcinoma; 2) assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRl in the evaluation of parametrium infiltration; 3) analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the evaluation of infiltration of the vagina and uterus; 4) assessment of the usefulness of this method in the detection of metastases to lymph nodes.The material consisted of pelvic MRI, obtained with 2T Elscint unit in 15 patients with cervical carcinoma, aged 37 to 73 years. All patients underwent surgical treatment within 30 days after MR. During the MR examination the following sequences were performed: SE (spin echo) T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) in axial projection before administration of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA); SE T1 in axial, frontal and sagittal projections after contrast injection and FSE (fast spin echo) T2 (transversal relaxation time) in axial, frontal and sagittal projections.1) in the assessment of cervical carcinoma dimensions MRI results are highly concordant with the results of postoperative histological examination (p = 0. 9389); 2) in the assessment of parametrium infiltration sensitivity and specificity of MRI are 75% and 100%, respectively; 3) in the assessment of the infiltration of the vagina and uterine corpus the sensitivity and specificity of MRI imaging were respectively 100% and 85%; 100% and 100%; 4) in the detection of lymph node metastases MRI sensitivity was 67% and its specificity 100%. In patients with cervical carcinoma MRI is a valuable method for the assessment of tumour dimensions, parametrium infiltration, infiltration of the vagina and uterine corpus.(author)

  18. Quickly Updatable Hologram Images Using Poly(<em>N>-vinyl Carbazole (PVCz Photorefractive Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sakai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quickly updatable hologram images using photorefractive (PR polymer composite based on poly(<em>N>-vinyl carbazole (PVCz is presented. PVCz is one of the pioneer materials of photoconductive polymers. PR polymer composite consists of 44 wt % of PVCz, 35 wt % of 4-azacycloheptylbenzylidene-malonitrile (7-DCST as a nonlinear optical dye, 20 wt % of carbazolylethylpropionate (CzEPA as a photoconductive plasticizer and 1 wt % of 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF as a sensitizer. PR composite gives high diffraction efficiency of 68% at E = 45 V μm−1. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. The key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable holographic images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using a coin object, an object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM and used for the hologram. The reflected object beam from an SLM was interfered with a reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tamaki, Susumu; Kurata, Kyosuke; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx, the eustachian tube and the middle ear was performed in nine patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI revealed the extent of the tumor more clearly than CT (computed tomography) when the tumor was situated in the parapharyngeal space. But when the tumor extended superficially in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, its margin could not be identified clearly by either MRI or CT because of hypervascularity and long T1 and T2 of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Seven of the nine patients had unilateral otitis media with effusion. Their eustachian tube ventilation function was evaluated by an inflation-deflation technique. Failure of active equalization of negative pressure applied to the middle ear was found to be a characteristic disorder of their eustachian tube ventilation function. This dysfunction seemed to be correlated with the lateral dislocation of the eustachian tube cartilage caused by the tumor. (author)

  20. Carcinoma inflamatório mamário canino.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cristiano; Voll, Juliana; Ferreira, Kelly; Ferreira, Rafael Rodrigues; Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira de; Contesini, Emerson Antônio; Oliveira, Rosemari Teresinha de

    2006-01-01

    O carcinoma inflamatório mamário é um carcinoma anaplásico com características clínicas e histopatológicas como crescimento rápido, envolvimento difuso, eritema, calor e dor nas mamas, edema nos membros posteriores, extensa infiltração de células inflamatórias, células epiteliais malignas nos linfonodos regionais apresentando um péssimo prognóstico. O cão é a única espécie animal em que esta neoplasia ocorre espontaneamente, entretanto apresenta uma incidência bastante rara tanto em humanos q...

  1. RGD peptide-targeted polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles for targeted CT imaging of an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benqing; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Feifan; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Chen, Wei R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-targeted polyethylenimine (PEI)-entrapped gold nanoparticles (RGD-Au PENPs) for targeted CT imaging of hepatic carcinomas in situ. In this work, PEI sequentially modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and RGD linked-PEG was used as a nanoplatform to prepare AuNPs, followed by complete acetylation of PEI surface amines. We showed that the designed RGD-Au PENPs were colloidally stable and biocompatible in the given concentration range, and could be specifically taken up by αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing liver cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo CT imaging results revealed that the particles displayed a great contrast enhancement of hepatic carcinomas region, and could target to hepatic carcinomas region in situ. With the proven biodistribution and histological examinations in vivo, the synthesized RGD-Au PENPs show a great formulation to be used as a contrast agent for targeted CT imaging of different αvβ3 integrin receptoroverexpressing tumors.

  2. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clini...

  3. A comparison between the electronic magnification (EM) and true magnification (TM) of breast phantom images using a CDMAM phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahey, Karou; Ryan, Elaine; McLean, Don; Poulos, Ann; Rickard, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a comparison between the image quality of electronically magnified (EM) and geometric, or true, magnification (TM) mammographic images. Materials and methods: One Computed Radiography (CR), one Digital Radiography (DR) and two screen–film (S–F) imaging systems were investigated. A Contrast-Detail Mammography (CDMAM) phantom was used as a test object. Three contact images and three sets of TM images with a magnification factor of 1.8 were taken on all systems. Software was used to zoom the contact images by a factor of 1.8 to produce EM images. Two observers evaluated all of the images. An Image Quality Figure and contrast detail curve were used to analyze the observer data and Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to determine the statistical significance of the results. Results: No significant differences were found between soft copy and hard copy for any imaging modality. No significant difference in contrast detail detectability (CDD) was seen between EM images from the two digital systems and TM images on S–F systems. The results for the DR EM images and S–F TM images also showed no differences. The CDD of DR TM images was significantly better than both EM and S–F TM images. Conclusion: Digitally zoomed images offer the same level of CDD as S–F TM images, and so may be viably used in their place. DR systems offer greater CDD than conventional S–F images, when comparing the TM images. This implies that doses can be greatly reduced for TM views using DR systems, while maintaining acceptable image quality.

  4. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyapatna Vishwaprakash Mahadimane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC, there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  5. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadimane, Periyapatna Vishwaprakash; Vasudev, Venkateshaiah

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC), there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  6. Significado prognóstico do linfonodo metastático N3 em carcinomas epidermóides de cabeça e pescoço

    OpenAIRE

    Amar,Ali; Curioni,Otávio Alberto; Rapoport,Abrão

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento da doença metastática em estádio avançado (N3) e sua relação com o prognóstico do carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço. MÉTODO: Foram revisados as informações de prontuários de 241 pacientes, com carcinoma espinocelular de boca, orofaringe, laringe e hipofaringe com metástases cervicais maiores que 6 cm (N3) submetidos à cirurgia e/ou radioterapia, no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis...

  7. Clinical study of diffusion weighted imaging in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunbin; Mao Yu; Pan Jianji; Hu Chunmiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) and metastatic lymph nodes, and to establish the diagnostic threshold of apparent diffusion coefficients(ADCs). Methods: Conventional MR scans and DWI scans were continuously performed in 56 patients with newly diagnosed NPC and 55 healthy volunteers. All patients received primary tumor biopsy and MR image-guided cervical lymph node fine-needle biopsy. ADC and eADC values of both primary lesions and lymph nodes were calculated and compared. Results: According to the pathological diagnosis, all the 56 patients had non-keratinizing carcinoma and 51 had lymph node metastasis. In the control group, 75 cervical lymph nodes were found. ADC values of both primary NPC and metastatic lymph nodes were significantly lower, while eADC values were higher than those of normal controls. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.809 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity for primary NPC detection were 80.4% and 74.5%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 79.2% and 77.6%, respectively. The accuracy was 78.4%. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.708 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes were 43.1% and 93.3%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 70.7% and 81.5%, respectively. The accuracy was 73.0%. Conclusions: DWI might be a new diagnostic approach in the detection of primary NPC as well as metastatic lymph nodes. (authors)

  8. Clinical-pathologic correlation in early cervical carcinoma: CT-MR imaging comparison for effect on staging and treatment choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubens, D.; Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.; Lerner, R.M.; Angel, C.; Beecham, J.; Stoler, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A group of patients with clinical stage I or II squamous cell cervical carcinoma have been examined using a 1.5-T magnet. Of these, six have had radical hysterectomy (by April 1986), providing specimens for pathologic correlation. In this preliminary group of patients, MR imaging gave a more accurate assessment of primary tumor extent than did clinical staging. In three of six patients, the disease was underestimated clinically at examination under anesthesia. These patients would have been managed with preoperative radiation rather than surgery alone if the investigative MR imaging information had been used in treatment planning. CT examinations of these patients did not contribute useful information for patient management. Preoperative MR imaging has the potential to alter patient treatment in early cervical carcinoma

  9. Gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced MR imaging of cholangiolocellular carcinoma of the liver. Imaging characteristics and histopathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haradome, Hiroki; Toda, Yusuke [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Unno, Toshiyuki [Showa General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koganei (Japan); Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Tomoaki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kwee, Thomas C. [UMC Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Kondo, Hiroshi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Keiji [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Fukuo [Teikyo University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Sugitani, Masahiko [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, Tadatoshi [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Digestive Surgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    To review the gadoxetic acid disodium (EOB)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) of the liver and compare them with those of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). EOB-enhanced MR images of 19 patients with CoCC, 23 with ICC, and 51 with HCC were retrospectively evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the characteristic MR features of CoCC with histopathological-imaging correlation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dot-/band-shaped internal enhancement during the arterial and portal phases (P < 0.001), and larger arterial ring enhancement ratio (CoCC, 0.13 ± 0.04; ICC, 0.074 ± 0.04; P = 0.013) were significantly independently associated with CoCC in contrast to ICC, whereas several MR features including progressive enhancement during the portal and late phases (P < 0.001), target appearance in the hepatocyte phase (P = 0.004), and vessel penetration (P = 0.013) were significantly more frequently associated with CoCC than HCC. The dot-/band-like internal enhancement (78.9% of CoCCs) histopathologically corresponded to the tumour cell nest with vascular proliferations and retained Glisson's sheath structure. EOB-enhanced MR features of CoCC largely differ from those of HCC but are similar to those of ICC. However, the finding of thicker arterial ring enhancement with dot-/band-like internal enhancement could help differentiate CoCC from ICC. (orig.)

  10. Microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ: Clinical presentation, imaging features, pathologic findings, and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cristina C. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Mercado, Cecilia L. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States)], E-mail: Cecilia.mercado@nyumc.org; Cangiarella, Joan F. [Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Moy, Linda; Toth, Hildegard K. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Guth, Amber A. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathologic findings and outcome of microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM). Materials and methods: The records of 21 women diagnosed with microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM) from November 1993 to September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic features, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Results: The 21 lesions all occurred in women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 27-79 years). Clinical findings were present in ten (48%): 10 with palpable masses, four with associated nipple discharge. Mean lesion size was 21 mm (range, 9-65 mm). The lesion size in 62% was 15 mm or smaller. Mammographic findings were calcifications only in nine (43%) and an associated or other finding in nine (43%) [mass (n = 7), asymmetry (n = 1), architectural distortion (n = 1)]. Three lesions were mammographically occult. Sonographic findings available in 11 lesions showed a solid hypoechoic mass in 10 cases (eight irregular in shape, one round, one oval). One lesion was not seen on sonography. On histopathologic examination, all lesions were diagnosed as DCISM, with a focus of invasive carcinoma less than or equal to 1 mm in diameter within an area of DCIS. Sixteen (76%) lesions were high nuclear grade, four (19%) were intermediate and one was low grade (5%). Sixteen (76%) had the presence of necrosis. Positivity for ER and PR was noted in 75% and 38%. Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection. Mean follow-up time for 16 women was 36 months without evidence of local or systemic recurrence. One patient developed a second primary in the contralateral breast 3 years later. Conclusion: The clinical presentation and radiologic appearance of a mass are commonly encountered in DCISM lesions (48% and 57%, respectively), irrespective of lesion size, mimicking findings seen in invasive carcinoma

  11. Microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ: Clinical presentation, imaging features, pathologic findings, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Cristina C.; Mercado, Cecilia L.; Cangiarella, Joan F.; Moy, Linda; Toth, Hildegard K.; Guth, Amber A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathologic findings and outcome of microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM). Materials and methods: The records of 21 women diagnosed with microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM) from November 1993 to September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic features, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Results: The 21 lesions all occurred in women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 27-79 years). Clinical findings were present in ten (48%): 10 with palpable masses, four with associated nipple discharge. Mean lesion size was 21 mm (range, 9-65 mm). The lesion size in 62% was 15 mm or smaller. Mammographic findings were calcifications only in nine (43%) and an associated or other finding in nine (43%) [mass (n = 7), asymmetry (n = 1), architectural distortion (n = 1)]. Three lesions were mammographically occult. Sonographic findings available in 11 lesions showed a solid hypoechoic mass in 10 cases (eight irregular in shape, one round, one oval). One lesion was not seen on sonography. On histopathologic examination, all lesions were diagnosed as DCISM, with a focus of invasive carcinoma less than or equal to 1 mm in diameter within an area of DCIS. Sixteen (76%) lesions were high nuclear grade, four (19%) were intermediate and one was low grade (5%). Sixteen (76%) had the presence of necrosis. Positivity for ER and PR was noted in 75% and 38%. Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection. Mean follow-up time for 16 women was 36 months without evidence of local or systemic recurrence. One patient developed a second primary in the contralateral breast 3 years later. Conclusion: The clinical presentation and radiologic appearance of a mass are commonly encountered in DCISM lesions (48% and 57%, respectively), irrespective of lesion size, mimicking findings seen in invasive carcinoma

  12. Automated image analysis of cyclin D1 protein expression in invasive lobular breast carcinoma provides independent prognostic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicholas P; Lundgren, Katja L; Conway, Catherine; Anagnostaki, Lola; Costello, Sean; Landberg, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of automated image analysis algorithms has aided the enumeration, quantification, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor cells in both whole section and tissue microarray samples. To date, the focus of such algorithms in the breast cancer setting has been on traditional markers in the common invasive ductal carcinoma subtype. Here, we aimed to optimize and validate an automated analysis of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 in a large collection of invasive lobular carcinoma and relate its expression to clinicopathologic data. The image analysis algorithm was trained to optimally match manual scoring of cyclin D1 protein expression in a subset of invasive lobular carcinoma tissue microarray cores. The algorithm was capable of distinguishing cyclin D1-positive cells and illustrated high correlation with traditional manual scoring (κ=0.63). It was then applied to our entire cohort of 483 patients, with subsequent statistical comparisons to clinical data. We found no correlation between cyclin D1 expression and tumor size, grade, and lymph node status. However, overexpression of the protein was associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (P=.029), as was positive nodal status (Pinvasive lobular carcinoma. Finally, high cyclin D1 expression was associated with increased hazard ratio in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.89). In conclusion, we describe an image analysis algorithm capable of reliably analyzing cyclin D1 staining in invasive lobular carcinoma and have linked overexpression of the protein to increased recurrence risk. Our findings support the use of cyclin D1 as a clinically informative biomarker for invasive lobular breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging nasoendoscopy compared to histopathology results in patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, M.; Musa, Z.; Lisnawati; Suryati, I.

    2017-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease which is prevalent in developing countries like Indonesia. There were 164 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) oncology outpatient clinic of the Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in 2014, and 142 cases in 2015. Unfortunately, almost all of these cases presented at an advanced stage. The success of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment is largely determined by the stage when patients are diagnosed; it is critical to diagnose NPC as early as possible. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic instrument with a light system that can improve the visualization of blood vessels of mucosal epithelial malignant tumors. NBI is expected to help clinicians to assess whether a lesion is malignant or not; to do so, it is important to know the value of sensitivity and specificity. This study is a cross-sectional form of a diagnostic test which was performed in the outpatient clinic of the ENT Head and Neck Surgery Department for the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January to June 2016, and involved 56 subjects. Patients with a nasopharyngeal mass discovered by physical examination or imaging, and a suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included as a subject. An NBI examination and biopsy was performed locally. Based on this research, NBI could be used as a screening tool for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high sensitivity (100%), but with a low specificity result (6.7%).

  14. Does incomplete excision of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid mean tumor recurrence? A excisão incompleta de carcinoma basocelular da pálpebra implica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jankovic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of the eyelid. In this region, reconstruction is complex and damage to healthy tissue should be minimal. Objective: To define the relationship between margin clearance at excision and the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted with 111 patients submitted to surgery for basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid between 2001 and 2003 and followed up for a period of five years. The patients were evaluated according to age, tumor site, recurrence rate and margin clearance at excision. RESULTS: No significant association was found between incomplete tumor excision and recurrence except in patients under 56 years of age, female patients and in the case of tumors of the medial canthus. CONCLUSION: A risk of recurrence in incompletely excised basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid was only confirmed in younger patients, females and for tumors of the medial canthus.INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma basocelular é o tumor mais comum entre os tumores das pálpebras. Nesta região, a reconstrução é complexa e recomenda-se que haja perda mínima de tecido saudável. OBJETIVO: Para definir a relação entre margem livre de tumor na excisão e taxa de recidiva do carcinoma basocelular das pálpebras. MÉTODOS: Este estudo prospectivo incluiu 111 pacientes operados para remoção de carcinoma basocelular das pálpebras no período de 2001 a 2003, com acompanhamento subsequente de 5 anos. Os pacientes foram avaliados de acordo com a idade, localização do tumor, taxa de recidiva, e margem livre de tumor na excisão. RESULTADOS: Não se encontrou associação significativa entre a excisão incompleta do tumor e casos de recidiva, exceto em pacientes com idade inferior a 56 anos, pacientes do sexo feminino e em tumores do canto medial. CONCLUSÃO: Um risco maior de recidiva de carcinoma basocelular das pálpebras com excisão incompleta foi confirmado

  15. Experimental comparison of the high-speed imaging performance of an EM-CCD and sCMOS camera in a dynamic live-cell imaging test case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope T Beier

    Full Text Available The study of living cells may require advanced imaging techniques to track weak and rapidly changing signals. Fundamental to this need is the recent advancement in camera technology. Two camera types, specifically sCMOS and EM-CCD, promise both high signal-to-noise and high speed (>100 fps, leaving researchers with a critical decision when determining the best technology for their application. In this article, we compare two cameras using a live-cell imaging test case in which small changes in cellular fluorescence must be rapidly detected with high spatial resolution. The EM-CCD maintained an advantage of being able to acquire discernible images with a lower number of photons due to its EM-enhancement. However, if high-resolution images at speeds approaching or exceeding 1000 fps are desired, the flexibility of the full-frame imaging capabilities of sCMOS is superior.

  16. Significado prognóstico do linfonodo metastático N3 em carcinomas epidermóides de cabeça e pescoço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amar

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento da doença metastática em estádio avançado (N3 e sua relação com o prognóstico do carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço. MÉTODO: Foram revisados as informações de prontuários de 241 pacientes, com carcinoma espinocelular de boca, orofaringe, laringe e hipofaringe com metástases cervicais maiores que 6 cm (N3 submetidos à cirurgia e/ou radioterapia, no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo, de 1988 a 1998. Nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia foi avaliada a radicalidade cirúrgica, macroscopicamente completa ou não, e naqueles tratados pela radioterapia, foi analisada a resposta do sítio primário e do pescoço imediatamente ao término do tratamento. A sobrevida livre de doença foi estimada pelo método de Kapplan Meier no grupo submetido à cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A irressecabilidade da lesão primária e metastática no pescoço justificou a indicação da radioterapia na dose média de 65 Gy, em 69 pacientes ocorrendo resposta completa no sítio primário em 24(36%, no pescoço em 12 (18%, e em ambos os sítios em 11 casos (16%. No grupo sumetido à cirurgia seguido de radioterapia, a dose média foi de 56 Gy. Dos 25 pacientes com ressecção macroscópica radical do pescoço, cinco (20% recidivaram, e dos cinco com ressecção incompleta e radioterapia, dois tiveram sobrevida de sete a 12 meses após o tratamento, quando foram perdidos de seguimento. A sobrevida livre de doença em dois anos neste grupo foi de 58%. CONCLUSÕES: Para pacientes com linfonodo metastático N3, o esvaziamento cervical seguido de radioterapia foi eficiente no controle regional da doença enquanto que nos inoperáveis, a radioterapia é um tratamento paliativo.

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma on MR diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Zuo Changjing; Tian Jianming; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Li; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Eighty one patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis underwent both DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI studies of the liver for HCC detection. MR data of were retrospectively analyzed. Two observers determined in consensus the location and the number of focal lesions. The signal manifestation of the lesions on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Results: DWI and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images detected 122 HCCs and 14 benign lesions. One hundred and sixteen HCCs (95.1%) showed hyperintensity on DWI and 6 HCCs in patients with severe cirrhosis showed isointensity. One hundred and five HCCs (86.1%) revealed hypointensity, 11 HCCs (9.0%) showed isointensity and 6 HCCs (4.9%) exhibited hyperintensity on T 1 weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, 101 HCCs(82.8%) were significantly enhanced on arterial phase and 99 HCCs showed hypointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Twenty HCCs (16.4%), 18 of 20 less than 20 mm in diameter, showed isointensity on arterial phase and hyperintensity on DWI. Eight of 14 benign lesions showed hyperintensity and 6 isointensity on DWI. Five benign lesions with hypointensity on T 1 weighted images without contrast and hyperintensity on DWI showed no enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images; 6 benign lesions with isointensity on both T 1 weighted imaging without contrast and DWI exhibited avid enhancement on arterial phase and isointensty on portal and equilibrium phases; one of the two benign lesions, with isointensity before and after contrast images and hyperintentiy on DWI, was a regenerative nodule; another regenerative nodule with hyperintensity on both T 1 weighted images without contrast and DWI was greatly enhanced on arterial phase and showed isointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Conclusions: Most of the HCCs were greatly enhanced on arterial phase on Gd

  18. Expressão da E-caderina em carcinoma de células escamosas e no tumor de células basais de cães E-cadherin expression in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell tumors in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Franchi João

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As caderinas compreendem uma classe de moléculas de adesão celular expressa na superfície de todas as camadas epidérmicas. A E-caderina é a principal caderina envolvida na adesão celular epitelial. A redução de sua expressão está envolvida na progressão de alguns tipos de câncer, no potencial metastático e ainda na definição do prognóstico, principalmente nos carcinomas. O carcinoma de células escamosas e o tumor de células basais são neoplasias cutâneas malignas que afetam os cães. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão da E-caderina no carcinoma de células escamosas (n=20 e no tumor de células basais (n=15, buscando-se relacionar sua expressão ao comportamento biológico desses tumores. Os carcinomas de células escamosas apresentaram significativa redução da expressão da molécula comparado aos tumores de células basais, quando avaliado pelo teste de Fisher (P=0,0039. Também foi observado que células neoplásicas mais diferenciadas apresentaram coloração mais intensa que as menos diferenciadas. Em conclusão, sugere-se que a expressão reduzida da E-caderina em tumores cutâneos pode indicar maior poder infiltrativo e consequentemente mau prognóstico na espécie canina.The cadherins are a group of cellular adhesion molecules that are expressed on the surface of all epidermic layer. The E-cadherin is the main cadherin involved in epithelial cellular adhesion; the decrease in its expression is related to the progression of some types of cancer, to its metastatic characteristics, and to the prognosis, specially carcinomas. The squamous cell carcinoma and the basal cells tumors are a malignant epithelial neoplasm which affects dogs. The goal of this study was to evaluate E-cadherin's expression in canine tissues that were classified as squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell tumor, and to find a correlation with the biological behavior of the tumors. The squamous cell carcinomas showed significantly

  19. Imaging of primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma with monoclonal antibody 791T/36 and the therapeutic potential of antibody-drug conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Armitage, N.C.; Ballantyne, K.; Baldwin, R.W.; Perkins, A.C.; Durrant, L.G.; Garnett, M.C.; Hardcastle, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 791T/36, prepared against a tumor-associated 72,000 dalton glycoprotein, reacted with cells from primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas. I-131 or In-111-labelled antibody localized in xenografts of colorectal carcinomas established from in vitro clonogenic populations. Clinically, with I-131-labelled antibody, 8/11 colonic tumors imaged positively. Imaging was negative in four patients with benign colon disease. 5/11 rectal tumors were positively imaged, but excreted I-131 in the bladder obscured tumors in several studies. In-111-labelled antibody gave superior images and positively imaged primary and metastatic sites in 13/14 patients. Prospectively in the detection of recurrent disease, I-131 or In-111-antibody detected 29/33 separate sites in 24 patients. Seven negative patients remain disease free. There were 3 false positives; overall sensitivity was 88%, with 70% specificity. Specific localization of radiolabel was confirmed immunochemically and by counting radioactivity in resected specimens. Antibody conjugates with methotrexate, vindesine and daunomycin retained drug activity and antibody function, including xenograft localization and conjugates were therapeutically effective against xenografts. 791T/36 antibody has potential for immunodetection of primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma and for targeting of therapeutic agents

  20. Imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma; Bildgebung des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincke, Therese; Zech, Christoph [Universitaetsspital Basel (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Boll, Daniel

    2016-12-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Besides the improvement in diagnostics and therapy the quantity of new cases and fatalities per year are equal. The main risk factors for HCC developing are liver cirrhosis (causing 90% of HCCs), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis B infection. Therefore, it is recommended to perform an ultrasound screening on patients at risk every 6 month to detect HCC-lesions early. HCC can be definitely diagnosed by imaging techniques using contrast agent such as contrast-enhanced-ultrasound (CEUS), contrast-enhanced-MRI (CE-MRI) and contrast-enhanced-CT (CE-CT). MRI has several advantages compared to the other modalities due to the multi-parametric approach and a higher sensitivity for tumor detection.

  1. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  2. Watermelon stomach, hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell carcinoma of the lung and synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach that was associated with hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell lung carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastases and a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue, the authors made a review of the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological aspects of this type of gastropathy, and its association with other diseases, and of the results of its endoscopic therapy. The causes of hemorrhagic pericarditis are considered, emphasizing the necessity to know if the effusion has a malignant etiology. To the best of our knowledge the association of watermelon stomach to small cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue has not yet been described. Extensive metastases to mediastal lymph nodes are common to small cell lung carcinoma. Resumo: Baseados num caso de gastropatia antral com ectasia vascular (estômago em melancia associado a pericardite hemorrágica e a um carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão com metástases ganglionares ao longo do mediastino e a um carcinoma pavimentocelular síncrono da base da língua, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos clínicos, endoscópicos e histopatológicos deste tipo de gastropatia, da sua associação a outras doenças e das possibilidades terapêuticas actuais por via endoscópica. Referem-se igualmente as causas mais frequentes de pericardite hemorrágica, salientando-se a necessidade de esclarecer se o derrame é ou não de origem neoplásica. Não está referida na literatura a associação deste tipo de gastropatia ao carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão nem ao carcinoma pavimento-celular da base da língua. A invasão extensa dos gânglios mediastínicos pelo carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão é ocorrência frequente. Key-words: Gastric antral vascular ectasia, watermelon stomach, small cell lung carcinoma, oat cell lung carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the base

  3. Carcinoma de pele no segmento craniofacial: Relato de 3 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Lara Pereira Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de pele é a neoplasia mais frequente no Brasil. O tipo histológico mais comum é o carcinoma basocelular (CBC, 70% dos casos, seguido pelo carcinoma espinocelular (CEC e pelo melanoma. Relatamos três carcinomas de pele no segmento crânio facial, evidenciando as abordagens cirúrgicas realizadas. No caso 1, apresenta-se um CBC em hemiface submetido à exérese com retalho V-Y. No caso 2, destaca-se um CEC em couro cabeludo submetido à exérese com retalhos de rotação e da vizinhança. No caso 3, relata-se um CBC na região pré-auricular e no dorso nasal submetido à exérese com retalho de Limberg e de Rieger.

  4. Estômago em melancia, pericardite hemorrágica, tumor de pequenas células do pulmão e carcinoma pavimentocelular síncrono da base da língua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Baseados num caso de gastropatia antral com ectasia vascular (estômago em melancia associado a pericardite hemorrágica e a um carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão com metástases ganglionares ao longo do mediastino e a um carcinoma pavimentocelular síncrono da base da língua, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos clínicos, endoscópicos e histopatológicos deste tipo de gastropatia, da sua associação a outras doenças e das possibilidades terapêuticas actuais por via endoscópica. Referem-se igualmente as causas mais frequentes de pericardite hemorrágica, salientando-se a necessidade de esclarecer se o derrame é ou não de origem neoplásica. Não está referida na literatura a associação deste tipo de gastropatia ao carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão nem ao carcinoma pavimento-celular da base da língua. A invasão extensa dos gânglios mediastínicos pelo carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão é ocorrência frequente.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (4: 659-670 Abstract: Based on a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach that was associated with hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell lung carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastases and a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue, the authors made a review of the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological aspects of this type of gastropathy, and its association with other diseases, and of the results of its endoscopic therapy. The causes of hemorrhagic pericarditis are considered, emphasizing the necessity to know if the effusion has a malignant etiology. To the best of our knowledge the association of watermelon stomach to small cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue has not yet been described. Extensive metastases to mediastal lymph nodes are common to small cell lung carcinoma.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (4: 659-670 Palavras-chave: Gastropatia antral com ectasia vascular, est

  5. MR imaging features and staging of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Huijun; Li, Guozhao; Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Fang; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Ban, Xiaohua [Sun Yat-Sen University, Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center and State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wang, Charles Qian [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou (China); University of New South Wales, JMO, Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    To determine MR imaging features and staging accuracy of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the uterine cervix with pathological correlations. Twenty-six patients with histologically proven NECs, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and 30 patients with adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix were included. The clinical data, pathological findings, and MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively. MRI features of cervical NECs, SCCs, and adenocarcinomas were compared, and MRI staging of cervical NECs was compared with the pathological staging. Cervical NECs showed a higher tendency toward a homogeneous signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging and a homogeneous enhancement pattern, as well as a lower ADC value of tumour and a higher incidence of lymphadenopathy, compared with SCCs and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). An ADC value cutoff of 0.90 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s was robust for differentiation between cervical NECs and other cervical cancers, with a sensitivity of 63.3 % and a specificity of 95 %. In 21 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy, the overall accuracy of tumour staging by MR imaging was 85.7 % with reference to pathology staging. Homogeneous lesion texture and low ADC value are likely suggestive features of cervical NECs and MR imaging is reliable for the staging of cervical NECs. (orig.)

  6. Prostatic carcinoma. Diagnostic and stating: MR imaging. Cancer de la prostate Diagnostic et bilan: role de l'imagerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C; Spittler, G; Jacqmin, D [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (FR); Morel, M [Clinique Saint-Francois, 67 Haguenau (FR)

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second most commun cause of cancer death over 60 years. It is suspected by digital examination and prostatic specific antigen dosage. Transrectal ultrasound shows the tumor as an hypoechoic lesion. Sensitivity is good but specificity is low. Transrectal biopsy of prostate guided by transrectal ultrasound made the diagnosis. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging of prostatic carcinoma.

  7. The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J

    1993-01-01

    A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure for MRFs is resolved by using the mean field theory from statistical mechanics. An orthonormal blur decomposition is used to reduce the chances of undesirable locally optimal estimates. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world images show that this approach provides good blur estimates and restored images. The restored images are comparable to those obtained by a Wiener filter in mean-square error, but are most visually pleasing.

  8. Radiological diagnosis of renal carcinoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignon, F.; Mesurolle, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the new imaging modalities employed in initial imaging management of renal carcinoma which provide accurate answers to practical questions. This article highlights the more suitable diagnostic imaging tools, their strong and weak points, their limitations with emphasis placed on the major role of helical CT in diagnosis and initial staging of renal carcinoma: helical CT allows complete examination in the same time of the lesion and its possible extensions. In recent years with the advent of new imaging modalities, HelicalCT has become the standard diagnostic method for characterizing and staging renal carcinoma which decisively influences the therapeutic approach. CT can diagnose the type of carcinoma, precisely establish local and regional staging such as extension to the adjacent structures (perirenal fat, collecting system), presence of regional lymph node metastases and venous tumor thrombus. In addition helical CT is able to detail anatomical landmarks (venous and arterial) necessary for partial nephrectomy. This article points out the various key points in detection mid work-up of a renal carcinoma required for proper therapeutic decision-making. (authors)

  9. Prevalência de lesões cutâneas actínicas em pacientes com carcinoma basocelular do segmento cefálico: um estudo caso-controle Prevalence of actinic skin lesions in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the head: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Pessoa Chinem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a preval��ncia de lesões cutâneas actínicas em portadores de carcinoma basocelular do segmento cefálico. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido estudo tipo caso-controle. Os casos, constituídos por pacientes com carcinoma basocelular sólido, primário, menor que dois centímetros, no segmento cefálico; e controles, por pacientes com outras dermatoses. Foram analisadas variáveis constitucionais, comportamentais e lesões actínicas. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 120 casos e 360 controles. Mílio facial (OR = 2,3, leucodermia puntacta de membros superiores (OR = 2,9 e cutis romboidalis nuchae (OR = 1,8 associaram-se à neoplasia independentemente das demais variáveis, sugerindo um fenótipo de risco. Houve ainda associação com fenótipos claros, genética familiar e exposição solar cumulativa. Queimadura solar, tabagismo e alcoolismo não foram identificados como fatores de risco. O uso de fotoprotetores não evidenciou proteção; porém, o grupo controle era composto por pacientes dermatológicos, aos quais são indicados fotoprotetores regularmente. CONCLUSÃO: Lesões actínicas foram mais prevalentes em portadores de carcinoma basocelular sólido do segmento cefálico que em controles, especialmente mílio, cutis romboidalis nuchae e leucodermia puntacta, independentemente dos demais fatores de risco conhecidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of actinic skin lesions in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the head. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out. Cases were patients with primary, solid basal cell carcinoma of the head, less than two centimeters in diameter; and as controls, patients with other dermatoses. Constitutional and behavioral variables were analyzed, as well as actinic lesions. RESULTS: One hundred twenty cases and 360 controls were evaluated. Facial milia (OR = 2.3, leukoderma punctata of the upper limbs (OR = 2.9, and cutis rhomboidalis nuchae (OR = 1.8 were associated with neoplasms regardless

  10. A multicenter evaluation of seven commercial ML-EM algorithms for SPECT image reconstruction using simulation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Ohnishi, Hideo; Niida, Hideharu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kida, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    The maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm has become available as an alternative to filtered back projection in SPECT. The actual physical performance may be different depending on the manufacturer and model, because of differences in computational details. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of seven different types of ML-EM algorithms using simple simulation data. Seven ML-EM algorithm programs were used: Genie (GE), esoft (Siemens), HARP-III (Hitachi), GMS-5500UI (Toshiba), Pegasys (ADAC), ODYSSEY-FX (Marconi), and Windows-PC (original software). Projection data of a 2-pixel-wide line source in the center of the field of view were simulated without attenuation or scatter. Images were reconstructed with ML-EM by changing the number of iterations from 1 to 45 for each algorithm. Image quality was evaluated after a reconstruction using full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), and the total counts of the reconstructed images. In the maximum number of iterations, the difference in the FWHM value was up to 1.5 pixels, and that of FWTM, no less than 2.0 pixels. The total counts of the reconstructed images in the initial few iterations were larger or smaller than the converged value depending on the initial values. Our results for the simplest simulation data suggest that each ML-EM algorithm itself provides a simulation image. We should keep in mind which algorithm is being used and its computational details, when physical and clinical usefulness are compared. (author)

  11. Lymph node enhancement at MRI with MnDPDP in primary hepatic carcinoma. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkill, Guy J.C.; Mannion, Ethna M.; Healy, Jeremiah C.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To report two cases of lymph node enhancement in primary hepatic carcinoma following the administration of Mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan[reg ], Nycomed Amersham U.K.), an hepatocyte specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. To review our experience with this contrast agent and the literature to establish if such enhancement occurs in normal lymph nodes or has been previously described in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiological reports of all MnDPDP enhanced abdominal MRI examinations were reviewed for lymph node enlargement. The MR images from examinations with reported nodal enlargement were re-evaluated for evidence of nodal enhancement and the hospital notes and histological reports were reviewed. Nodal enhancement was considered present if lymph node signal intensity was greater than that of the spleen following MnDPDP. Literature searches were performed on Medline and PubMed for previous descriptions of lymph node enhancement following MnDPDP. RESULTS: The reports of 90 MnDPDP abdominal MRI examinations were reviewed. Of 18 cases of lymph node enlargement, two had evidence of lymph node enhancement following MnDPDP. These two cases had hepatocellular carcinoma and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, confirmed on liver biopsy. No reports of lymph node enhancement following MnDPDP were identified in the literature. CONCLUSION: Two cases of lymph node enhancement following MnDPDP have been presented. Although histological confirmation of the lymph nodes was not obtained, the authors propose that the lymph node enhancement was due to functioning hepatocytes in lymph node metastases from the patients' histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinomas. Burkill, G.J.C., Mannion, E.M. and Healy, J.C. (2001)

  12. Imaging in Cushing's syndrome; Imagem em sindrome de Cushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdev, Anju; Evanson, Jane [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging; Reznek, Rodney H. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Institute of Cancer. Cancer Imaging; Grossman, Ashley B. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Endocrinology]. E-mail: anju.sahdev@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk

    2007-11-15

    Once the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) has been established, the main step is to differentiate between ACTH dependent and independent disease. In adults, 80% of CS is due to ACTH-dependent causes and 20% due to adrenal causes. ACTH-secreting neoplasms cause ACTH-dependent CS. These are usually anterior pituitary microadenomas, which result in the classic Cushing's disease. Non-pituitary ectopic sources of ACTH, such as a small-cell lung carcinoma or carcinoid tumours, are the source of the remainder of ACTH-dependent disease. In the majority of patients presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of CS, modern non-invasive imaging can accurately and efficiently provide the cause and the nature of the underlying pathology. Imaging is essential for determining the source of ACTH in ectopic ACTH production, locating the pituitary tumours and distinguishing adrenal adenomas, carcinomas and hyperplasias. In our chapter we review the adrenal appearances in ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent CS. We also include a discussion on the use of MRI and CT for the detection and management of pituitary ACTH secreting adenomas. CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis with intravenous injection of contrast medium is the most sensitive imaging modality for the identification of the ectopic ACTH source and detecting adrenal pathology. MRI is used for characterising adrenal adenomas, problem solving in difficult cases and for detecting ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. (author)

  13. Axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast carcinomas: assessment with nonenhanced versus uspio-enhanced MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Riedl, Christopher C; Kaneider, Andreas; Galid, Arik; Rudas, Margaretha; Matzek, Wolfgang; Helbich, Thomas H

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess the accuracy of nonenhanced versus ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for depiction of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast carcinoma, with histopathologic findings as reference standard. The study was approved by the university ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Twenty-two women (mean age, 60 years; range, 40-79 years) with breast carcinomas underwent nonenhanced and USPIO-enhanced (2.6 mg of iron per kilogram of body weight intravenously administered) transverse T1-weighted and transverse and sagittal T2-weighted and T2*-weighted MR imaging in adducted and elevated arm positions. Two experienced radiologists, blinded to the histopathologic findings, analyzed images of axillary lymph nodes with regard to size, morphologic features, and USPIO uptake. A third independent radiologist served as a tiebreaker if consensus between two readers could not be reached. Visual and quantitative analyses of MR images were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were calculated. To assess the effect of USPIO after administration, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) changes were statistically analyzed with repeated-measurements analysis of variance (mixed model) for MR sequences. At nonenhanced MR imaging, of 133 lymph nodes, six were rated as true-positive, 99 as true-negative, 23 as false-positive, and five as false-negative. At USPIO-enhanced MR imaging, 11 lymph nodes were rated as true-positive, 120 as true-negative, two as false-positive, and none as false-negative. In two metastatic lymph nodes in two patients with more than one metastatic lymph node, a consensus was not reached. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging revealed a node-by-node sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. At USPIO-enhanced MR imaging, no metastatic lymph nodes were missed on a patient-by-patient basis. Significant interactions indicating differences

  14. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  15. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  16. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment.

  17. Carcinoma primário do pâncreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Penna de Azevedo

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo anatomopatológico baseado em uma coleção de 6823 necrópsias, constantes do arquivo da Seção de Anatomia Patológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, realizadas durante os anos de 1919 a 1944, revelou a existência de 28 casos de carcinoma primário do pâncreas. A incidência deste tipo de tumor entre o total das necropsias examinadas atinge a 0,40% e, entre os casos de câncer observados na referida série de necrópsias, a 4,08%. O tumor localizou-se na cabeça do pâncreas em 20 casos (71,4%; na cauda, em um caso (3,5%; difuso, em cinco casos (17,8% e sem localização precisada, em dois casos (7,1%. O tipo histológico predominante foi o adenocarcinoma, reconhecido em 2 casos (78,57%; e em seguida o carcinoma acinoso, em seis casos (21,43%. Geralmente se observa o tipo cirrótico e, em alguns casos, era pronunciada a formação de mucina. A incidência das metástases, em relação aos casos de adenocarcinoma, foi de 95,45% (21 vêzes em 22 casos e, em relação ao carcinoma acinoso, de 100% (6 vêzes em 6 casos. Entre os órgãos atingidos pelas metástases citam-se em ordem decrescente: o fígado e os gânglios linfáticos (70,3% o peritônio (25,9%, o pulmão (22,2%, a suprarrenal (18,5%, a pleura bago e rim (7,4%, os intestinos, tiróide, pericárdio, epiploon, estomago, ovário e seio venoso longitudinal superior (3,7%.Em um só caso, não houve produção de metástase (3,57%. Em relação às metástases no peritônio, é interessante acentuar a sua maior freqüência nos casos de adenocarcinoma (7 vêzes em 22 casos. A distribuição do tumor, segundo o sexo, foi de 19 casos em indivíduos do sexo masculino (67,8% e nove casos, para os do sexo feminino (32,1%, fornecendo a relação de cêrca de 2:1. Segundo a nacionalidade, observaram-se 21 casos (75% em brasileiros e sete casos (25% em estrangeiros. Segundo a côr, em 15 casos (53,5% eram indivíduos de côr branca, em oito casos, (28,5% de c

  18. Positive enhancement integral values in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of breast carcinoma: Ductal carcinoma in situ vs. invasive ductal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadrljanski, Mirjan, E-mail: dr.m.nadrljanski@gmail.com [Clinic for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Maksimović, Ružica [Center for Radiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Clinical Center of Serbia, Pasterova 2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 8, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Plešinac-Karapandžić, Vesna; Nikitović, Marina [Clinic for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 8, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Marković-Vasiljković, Biljana [Center for Radiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Clinical Center of Serbia, Pasterova 2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 8, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Milošević, Zorica [Clinic for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 8, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to contribute to the standardization of the numeric positive enhancement integral (PEI) values in breast parenchyma, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and to evaluate the significance of the difference in PEI values between IDC and parenchyma, DCIS and parenchyma and IDC and DCIS. Materials and Methods: In the prospective trial, we analyzed the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of 60 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed unilateral DCIS (n = 30) and IDC (n = 30) and defined the PEI values (range; mean ± SD) for the lesions and the breast parenchyma. Tumor-to-non-tumor (T/NT) ratios were calculated for DCIS and IDC and compared. PEI color maps (PEICM) were created. The differences in PEI values between IDC and parenchyma and between DCIS and parenchyma were tested according to t-test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the differences between the mean PEI values of parenchyma, DCIS and IDC. Results: IDC showed highly statistically different PEI numeric values compared to breast parenchyma (748.7 ± 32.2 vs. 74.6 ± 17.0; p < 0.0001). The same applied to the differences in the group of patients with DCIS (428.0 ± 25.0 vs. 66.0 ± 10.6; p < 0.0001). The difference between IDC, DCIS and parenchyma were also considered highly statistically significant (p < 0.0001) and so were the T/NT ratios for IDC and DCIS (10.1 ± 2.4 vs. 6.6 ± 1.4; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: PEI numeric values may contribute to differentiation between invasive and in situ breast carcinoma.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  20. Dual-Phase 99MTc-MIBI Parathyroid Imaging Reveals Synchronous Parathyroid Adenoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Chang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a coincidental appearance of hyperparathyroidism and thyroid cancer is not often considered because of its low incidence. Here, we present a case of a 49-year-old woman with a parathyroid adenoma coexisting with two sites of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Dual-phase 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI parathyroid imaging before the operation correctly visualized the site of the parathyroid adenoma. In addition, two papillary thyroid carcinomas showed faint uptake of 99mTc-MIBI on delayed image. Total thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy of a solitary parathyroid adenoma were performed. The patient subsequently underwent radioiodine-131 ablation and was treated with T4 suppression. This case illustrates the need for clinical awareness of concomitant hyperparathyroidism and thyroid cancer. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI parathyroid imaging may be useful for detecting indolent thyroid cancer before it becomes a distinct disease.

  1. Comparative methods for PET image segmentation in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva University, Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Abdoli, Mehrsima [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Fuentes, Carolina Llina [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Naqa, Issam M.El [McGill University, Department of Medical Physics, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    Several methods have been proposed for the segmentation of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET. In this study, we assessed the performance of four categories of {sup 18}F-FDG PET image segmentation techniques in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using clinical studies where the surgical specimen served as the benchmark. Nine PET image segmentation techniques were compared including: five thresholding methods; the level set technique (active contour); the stochastic expectation-maximization approach; fuzzy clustering-based segmentation (FCM); and a variant of FCM, the spatial wavelet-based algorithm (FCM-SW) which incorporates spatial information during the segmentation process, thus allowing the handling of uptake in heterogeneous lesions. These algorithms were evaluated using clinical studies in which the segmentation results were compared to the 3-D biological tumour volume (BTV) defined by histology in PET images of seven patients with T3-T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent a total laryngectomy. The macroscopic tumour specimens were collected ''en bloc'', frozen and cut into 1.7- to 2-mm thick slices, then digitized for use as reference. The clinical results suggested that four of the thresholding methods and expectation-maximization overestimated the average tumour volume, while a contrast-oriented thresholding method, the level set technique and the FCM-SW algorithm underestimated it, with the FCM-SW algorithm providing relatively the highest accuracy in terms of volume determination (-5.9 {+-} 11.9%) and overlap index. The mean overlap index varied between 0.27 and 0.54 for the different image segmentation techniques. The FCM-SW segmentation technique showed the best compromise in terms of 3-D overlap index and statistical analysis results with values of 0.54 (0.26-0.72) for the overlap index. The BTVs delineated using the FCM-SW segmentation technique were seemingly the most accurate and approximated closely the 3-D BTVs

  2. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human normal skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, S. Y.; Yang, J. G.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we use nonlinear spectral imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for analyzing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin tissue. It was found in this work that there existed apparent differences among BCC, SCC and normal skin in terms of their thickness of the keratin and epithelial layers, their size of elastic fibers, as well as their distribution and spectral characteristics of collagen. These differences can potentially be used to distinguish BCC and SCC from normal skin, and to discriminate between BCC and SCC, as well as to evaluate treatment responses.

  3. Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose no carcinoma espinocelular de pele e ceratose actínica Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilho Tadeu Dornelas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O câncer de pele é o mais frequente tipo de câncer humano e mostra aumento de sua incidência. Em muitos casos, antes do surgimento do carcinoma, instala-se uma lesão precursora, ceratose actínica, podendo evoluir para carcinoma espinocelular. Estudos buscam determinar os parâmetros com significado prognóstico na predição daqueles tumores que terão comportamento mais agressivo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão dos marcadores de proliferação celular (PCNA, Ki-67 e apoptose (p53, Bcl-2, em portadores de carcinoma espinocelular e ceratose actínica. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas amostras de 30 pacientes: sendo dez portadores do carcinoma espinocelular; dez de ceratose actínica e dez indivíduos livres de lesões submetidos à blefaroplastia. RESULTADOS: A proteína p53 foi expressa em todos os casos estudados, embora apresentassem padrões quantitativos diferentes. O Bcl-2 foi expresso em baixa intensidade. Em seis casos de ceratose actínica, nas peles de blefaroplastia, e negativo nos casos de carcinoma espinocelular. O PCNA exibiu expressão intensa, em todas as amostras. O Ki-67 apresentou expressão variável, nos casos de carcinoma e de ceratose, e negativo na pele de pálpebra. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão do Ki-67 e a não-expressão de Bcl-2, no grupo CEC, indica intensificação da atividade proliferativa. Ao passo que, a maior expressão de p53 e Bcl-2, no grupo CA, sugere imortalização celular.BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most frequent type of human cancer and has shown an increase in its incidence. In many cases, before the onset of the carcinoma, there might be a precursor lesion - actinic keratosis, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have been carried out in order to etermine the parameters that have prognostic significance in predicting those tumors which have more aggressive behavior. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67 and apoptosis (p53,Bcl-2

  4. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Focus on Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandhaye, Marion; Teixeira, Pedro Gondim; Blum, Alain; Henrot, Philippe; Morel, Olivier; Sirveaux, Francois; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare lymphophilic skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with the potential for rapid progression. Small, localized lesions are diagnosed and treated clinically, but advanced tumors often undergo imaging evaluation. Due to its rarity, radiologists are unaware of evocative imaging features and usually do not consider Merkel cell carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Appropriate staging is important to determine appropriate treatment and has an impact on patient prognosis. Multimodality imaging is usually needed, and there is no consensus on the optimal imaging strategy. The purpose of this article is to review various aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma imaging and look in detail at how optimal multimodality staging should be carried out. (orig.)

  6. Focus on Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandhaye, Marion; Teixeira, Pedro Gondim; Blum, Alain [Imagerie Guilloz CHU de Nancy Hopital Central, Nancy (France); Henrot, Philippe [Service de Radiologie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Morel, Olivier [Medecine Nucleaire CHU Nancy Hopital Brabois, Vancoeuvre les Nancy (France); Sirveaux, Francois [Service de Chirurgie Centre chirurgical Emile Galle, Nancy (France); Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc [Service de Chirurgie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2015-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare lymphophilic skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with the potential for rapid progression. Small, localized lesions are diagnosed and treated clinically, but advanced tumors often undergo imaging evaluation. Due to its rarity, radiologists are unaware of evocative imaging features and usually do not consider Merkel cell carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Appropriate staging is important to determine appropriate treatment and has an impact on patient prognosis. Multimodality imaging is usually needed, and there is no consensus on the optimal imaging strategy. The purpose of this article is to review various aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma imaging and look in detail at how optimal multimodality staging should be carried out. (orig.)

  7. Delayed complications of radiotherapy treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.D.; Ahuja, A.T.; Yeung, D.K.; Wong, J.K.T.; Lee, Y.Y.P.; Lam, W.W.M.; Ho, S.S.M.; Yu, S.C.H.; Leung, S.-F.

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat a wide variety of head and neck tumours that arise in and around the skull base. The delayed effects of radiation damages a range of structures, including the nervous system, bone, major vessels, mucus membranes, pituitary and salivary glands, as well as increasing the risk of radiation-induced neoplasms. In this review the complications resulting from radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a cancer treated with a high dose of radiation to a fairly large region, are illustrated. Many patients with NPC have a long-term survival, so are at risk of developing delayed radiation effects, and hence may demonstrate a wide range of complications on imaging. Other tumours around the skull base treated with radiotherapy include meningiomas, chordomas, chondrosarcomas, pituitary adenomas, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity tumours. In these cases similar complications may be encountered on imaging, although the severity, incidence and location will vary

  8. Diagnostic Imaging of Carcinomas of the Gallbladder and the Bile Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikarinen, H. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Early diagnosis and accurate staging of carcinomas of the gallbladder and the bile ducts are helpful in improving the prognosis. Ultrasonography (US), a useful initial modality when exploring the background of jaundice or non-specific gastrointestinal complaints, sensitively reveals bile duct obstruction in particular. In unclear cases, or if US suggests a resectable biliary malignancy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and/or traditional cholangiography often provide additional information, and imaging-guided fine-needle biopsy or an endoscopic brush sample may verify the malignant nature of the tumor. Complementary modalities are usually needed for accurate staging, and traditional cholangiography is often performed for therapeutic purposes as well. Comparative studies of MRI with MRC and multidetector CT in biliary cancers would be welcome.

  9. Associação entre a expressão das proteínas p53 e Ki-67 e os achados clínico-patológicos em pacientes com carcinoma invasor do colo uterino Association between p53 and Ki-67 expression and clinicopathologic features in patients with carcinoma of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo L. Silva-Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a associação da expressão das proteínas p53 e Ki-67 no tumor com achados clínico-patológicos em pacientes com carcinoma invasor de colo uterino. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas amostras de tumor obtidas de 36 pacientes submetidas a histerectomia radical para tratamento de carcinoma invasor do colo uterino estádio IB (FIGO. Amostras do tumor foram fixadas em formol e incluídas em parafina. O material foi analisado pela histopatologia (hematoxilina e eosina e processado para marcação imuno-histoquímica por anticorpos monoclonais contra as proteínas p53 e Ki-67. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de chi2 para a avaliação das diferenças entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: a idade das pacientes variou de 27 a 73 anos (48,7±10,4 anos. O estadiamento clínico (FIGO foi IB1 em 27 casos (75% e IB2 em 9 casos (25%. A expressão tumoral da proteína p53 foi positiva em metade dos casos. Em relação à expressão do Ki-67, foi evidenciado alto grau de proliferação celular em 73,3% dos casos. Não houve associação da expressão das proteínas p53 e Ki-67 no tumor com idade (p=0,091 e 0,900, estadiamento (p=0,054 e 0,667, tipo histológico (p=0,674 e 0,674, grau de diferenciação (p=0,07 e 0,282, presença de invasão linfovascular (p=0,248 e 0,667, acometimento parametrial (p=0,729 e 0,763 e metástases para os linfonodos pélvicos (p=0,729 e 0,636, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a expressão tumoral das proteínas p53 e Ki-67 não se associou com achados clínico-patológicos em pacientes com carcinoma invasor do colo uterino estádio IB.PURPOSE: to evaluate the association between p53 and Ki-67 expression in the tumor and clinicopathological features in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. METHODS: samples were taken from the tumor of 36 patients with stage IB (FIGO cervical carcinoma submitted to radical hysterectomy. Tissue samples were taken from the tumor, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The specimens were

  10. Radiolabeled cetuximab: dose optimization for epidermal growth factor receptor imaging in a head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, B.A.W.; Molkenboer-Kuenen, J.D.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Peeters, W.J.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Bussink, J.; Boerman, O.C.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma could be of value to select patients for EGFR-targeted therapy. We assessed dose optimization of (111) Indium-DTPA-cetuximab ((111) In-cetuximab) for EGFR imaging in a head-and-neck squamous

  11. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Jesse K.; Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mullen, Elizabeth A. [Children' s Hospital Boston/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Cajaiba, Mariana M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, Ethan A. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Servaes, Sabah [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geller, James I. [University of Cincinnati, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ehrlich, Peter F. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Aurora, CO (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Fernandez, Conrad V. [Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare renal malignancy of childhood. There are no large series describing the imaging appearance of renal medullary carcinoma in children. To characterize the clinical and imaging features of pediatric renal medullary carcinoma at initial presentation. We retrospectively analyzed images of 25 pediatric patients with renal medullary carcinoma enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group renal tumors classification, biology and banking study (AREN03B2) from March 2006 to August 2016. Imaging findings of the primary mass, and patterns of locoregional and distant spread were evaluated in correlation with pathological and surgical findings. Median age at presentation was 13 years (range: 6-21 years), with a male predominance (3.2:1). The overall stage of disease at initial presentation was stage 1 in 1, stage 2 in 2 and stage 4 in 22. Maximum diameter of the primary renal mass ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 cm (mean: 6.6 cm) with a slight right side predilection (1.5:1). Enlarged (>1 cm short axis) retroperitoneal lymph nodes were identified at initial staging in 20/25 (80%) cases, 10 of which were histologically confirmed while the others did not undergo surgical sampling. Enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum (14/25; 56%) and supraclavicular regions (4/25; 16%). Metastatic disease was present in the lungs in 19/25 (76%) and liver in 6/25 (24%). The pattern of lung metastases was pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: 10 cases (9 bilateral, 1 unilateral), pulmonary nodules with indistinct margins: 6 cases, pulmonary nodules with distinct margins: 2 cases, while 1 case had pulmonary nodules with both indistinct and distinct margins. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis was pathologically confirmed in 4/10 cases. All cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis had associated enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults presents at an advanced local and distant stage in the

  12. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Jesse K.; Khanna, Geetika; Mullen, Elizabeth A.; Cajaiba, Mariana M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Ethan A.; Servaes, Sabah; Geller, James I.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Cost, Nicholas G.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare renal malignancy of childhood. There are no large series describing the imaging appearance of renal medullary carcinoma in children. To characterize the clinical and imaging features of pediatric renal medullary carcinoma at initial presentation. We retrospectively analyzed images of 25 pediatric patients with renal medullary carcinoma enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group renal tumors classification, biology and banking study (AREN03B2) from March 2006 to August 2016. Imaging findings of the primary mass, and patterns of locoregional and distant spread were evaluated in correlation with pathological and surgical findings. Median age at presentation was 13 years (range: 6-21 years), with a male predominance (3.2:1). The overall stage of disease at initial presentation was stage 1 in 1, stage 2 in 2 and stage 4 in 22. Maximum diameter of the primary renal mass ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 cm (mean: 6.6 cm) with a slight right side predilection (1.5:1). Enlarged (>1 cm short axis) retroperitoneal lymph nodes were identified at initial staging in 20/25 (80%) cases, 10 of which were histologically confirmed while the others did not undergo surgical sampling. Enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum (14/25; 56%) and supraclavicular regions (4/25; 16%). Metastatic disease was present in the lungs in 19/25 (76%) and liver in 6/25 (24%). The pattern of lung metastases was pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: 10 cases (9 bilateral, 1 unilateral), pulmonary nodules with indistinct margins: 6 cases, pulmonary nodules with distinct margins: 2 cases, while 1 case had pulmonary nodules with both indistinct and distinct margins. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis was pathologically confirmed in 4/10 cases. All cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis had associated enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults presents at an advanced local and distant stage in the

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of confocal microscopy imaging vs. punch biopsy for diagnosing and subtyping basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, D. J.; Leeflang, M. M.; Elshot, Y. S.; Longo, C.; Ulrich, M.; van der Wal, A. C.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Bekkenk, M. W.; de Rie, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundIn vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique that could facilitate early diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) instead of routine punch biopsies. However, the clinical value and utility of RCM vs. a punch biopsy in diagnosing and

  14. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in advanced gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irami Araújo-Filho

    2006-12-01

    higher than that in diffuse carcinomas. In tumor tissues, 34 (60.7% H. pylori-positive in gastric carcinomas were detected by Giemsa method. H. pylori was observed in 30 of 56 cases (53.5% in tissues 4 cm adjacent to tumors. This difference was not significant. Eradication of H. pylori in non-tumor tissue of gastric remnant led to a complete negativity on the 12th postoperative month CONCLUSIONS: The data confirmed the hypothesis of a high prevalence of H. pylori in tumor tissue of gastric advanced carcinomas and in adjacent non-tumor mucosa of operated stomachs. The presence of H. pylori was predominant in the intestinal-type carcinoma.RACIONAL: Existe evidência de que a infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori desempenha papel importante na causa do câncer gástrico e que é raramente encontrada em biopsias de gastrite atrófica e em tecido tumoral de câncer do estômago. Com a evolução para câncer gástrico avançado, a bactéria tende a desaparecer do tecido tumoral OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência do H. pylori em peças operatórias de carcinomas gástricos avançados e no tecido adjacente aos tumores, comparando os tumores tipo intestinal e difuso de acordo com a classificação de Lauren MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo controlado incluiu 56 pacientes operados no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, com câncer gástrico avançado, entre fevereiro de 2000 e março de 2003. Imediatamente após a gastrectomia, a peça operatória foi aberta e foram feitas várias biopsias do tecido neoplásico e da mucosa adjacente a 4 cm da margem tumoral. Os tecidos formam processados e corados pela hematoxilina-eosina. Foi usada a classificação de Lauren para carcinoma gástrico. A infecção pelo H. pylori foi diagnosticada pelo teste da urease, dosagem de IgG por ELISA e histopatologia com coloração Giemsa. Os pacientes infectados pelo H. pylori foram tratados com omeprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina por 7 dias. Após 6 meses

  15. Hypoxia imaging of uterine cervix carcinoma with (18)F-FETNIM PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Laetitia; Groheux, David; Thoury, Anne; Delord, Marc; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Delpech, Yann; Barré, Emmanuelle; Baruch-Hennequin, Valérie; Tylski, Perrine; Homyrda, Laurence; Walker, Francine; Barranger, Emmanuel; Hindié, Elif

    2012-11-01

    Our aims were to assess the feasibility of imaging hypoxia in cervical carcinoma with (18)F-fluoroerythronitroimidazole ((18)F-FETNIM) and to compare (18)F-FETNIM uptake with metabolic uptake of (18)F-FDG. We included 16 patients with cervical carcinoma. After imaging with FDG, (18)F-FETNIM PET/CT was performed and tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratio uptake was assessed. (18)F- FETNIM uptake was correlated to FDG uptake and osteopontin (OPN), a marker of hypoxia, and patients' outcomes. All tumors were detected by (18)F-FDG PET. (18)F-FETNIM T/M ratios ranged from 1.3 to 5.4. There was no significant correlation between (18)F-FETNIM and (18)F-FDG uptake. High (18)F-FETNIM uptake (T/M > 3.2) was associated with reduced progression-free survival (log-rank = 0.002) and overall survival (log-rank = 0.02). Osteopontin ranged from 39 to 662 μg/L (median, 102.5 μg/L). Patients with OPN greater than 144 μg/L had reduced progression-free survival compared with those with OPN less than 144 μg/L (log-rank = 0.03). We found no significant correlation between (18)F-FETNIM uptake and OPN blood levels. Our preliminary results showed that a high uptake of (18)F-FETNIM was associated with a worse progression-free and overall survival.

  16. Detection of hepatic VX2 carcinomas with ferucarbotran-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rabbits: Comparison of nine pulse sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Min Ju; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Jongmee; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, in order to identify the most effective ferucarbotran-enhanced sequence for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas in rabbits. Methods: Fifteen rabbits with experimentally induced 135 VX2 carcinomas in the liver underwent ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: a fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence with two echo times (TE) (proton density- and T2-weighted images), four different T2*-weighted fast multiplanar GRASS (gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state) (FMPGR) with the combination of three TEs (9, 12, 15 ms, respectively) and two flip angles (20 deg., 80 deg., respectively), T2*-weighted fast multiplanar spoiled GRASS (FMPSPGR), T1-weighted FMPSPGR, and dynamic T1-weighted FMPSPGR. All images were reviewed by three radiologists with quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio of the proton density-weighted FSE sequence was significantly higher than those of the others (p o ) images were superior to those of the others and for the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm, the sensitivities of these sequences were less than 30%. Conclusion: Ferucarbotran-enhanced T2- and proton density-weighted FSE and T2*-weighed FMPGR (TE/flip angle, 12/20 o ) images were found to be the most effective pulse sequences for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas but these sequences were limited in the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm in size

  17. CT diagnosis of rare histological variant of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaibo; Feng Zhipeng; Duan Shaoyin; Zhaugn Xiangrong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore and understand the CT findings of 5 rare histological variants of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: CT findings of 31 cases of rare histological variants confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 13 cases were clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma. 3 cases of them showed patchy fat density in plain scans. Enhanced CT showed features of 'fast in fast out' which was similar to the common hepatocellular carcinoma. 4 cases belonged to sclerosis hepatocellular carcinoma. They appeared as heterogeneous, slowly enhancement on arterial phase images, and delay enhancement on portal venous phase and delay phase images. 9 cases belonged to mixed hepatocellular carcinoma. 5 cases of them showed inhomogeneous enhancement and 4 without enhancement during arterial phase, 3 cases showed delay enhancement and 4 without during portal venous and delay phase. 3 cases were fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. All showed obvious and fastly enhancement on arterial phase images, subsided slowly on the portal venous and delay phase images, showing features of 'fast in slow out', no enhancement was seen in the central scar. Shrinkage phenomenon on the surface of liver could be seen on the CT plain scans in sclerosis, mixed and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. 2 cases were the type of dense hepatocellular carcinoma. The surrounding part in the 2 cases were slightly enhanced, while the most part of the center were not enhanced similar to necrosis. Conclusion: The CT findings of rate histological variant of hepatocellular carcinoma are characteristic. Analyzing the CT plain and enhancement finding is helpful to the diagnosis of these types of hepatocellular carcinoma. (authors)

  18. Rastreamento de lesões precursoras do carcinoma espino-celular anal em indivíduos portadores do HIV Tracking precursor lesions of anal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals with HIV

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    Caio Sergio Rizkallah Nahas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma espino-celular do canal anal é doença que atinge os adultos de meia idade e corresponde a 4% dos cânceres do trato gastrointestinal baixo. Na população geral a incidência é de 1 em 100.000 habitantes, e entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens essa incidência atinge 35 por 100.000 habitantes, sendo que os portadores de HIV têm esse risco duplicado (70 por 100.000 habitantes. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura com consulta nos periódicos das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs cruzando os descritores Rastreamento, Lesões pré-cancerosas, Neoplasias do ânus e HIV. Além da revisão bibliográfica, foi adicionada a este trabalho a experiência pessoal dos autores, e a obtida no Departamento de Gastroenterologia - Divisão Cirúrgica, no ICESP - Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo Octávio Frias de Oliveira, no Departamento de Moléstias Infeciosas - Casa da AIDS e no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: HIV+ é um grande fator de risco no desenvolvimento de carcinoma espino-celular anal em indivíduos infectados por HPV. A avaliação desses pacientes não deve se restringir à erradicação de condilomas, mas principalmente incluir o rastreamento de lesões displásicas subclínicas potencialmente neoplásicas. Apesar dos métodos de rastreamento ainda não serem ideais, o grande benefício do rastreamento baseia-se no fato de oferecer acompanhamento rigoroso, tornando possível à prevenção ou detecção cada vez mais precoce do carcinoma espino-celular anal.INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a disease that affects the middle-aged adults and accounts for 4% of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract below. In the general population the incidence is 1 in 100,000, and among men who have sex with men the incidence is 35 per 100,000 inhabitants, those with HIV have doubled this risk (70 per 100

  19. Reclassifying bronchial-pulmonary carcinoma: Differentiating histological type in biopsies by immunohistochemistry Reclassificação do carcinoma broncopulmonar: Diferenciação do tipo histológico em biópsias por imuno-histoquímica

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    Lina Carvalho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current state of molecular knowledge on lung cancer demands a histological classification which goes beyond small-cell and non-small-cell carcinoma to provide support for tailored therapy in aiding in understanding of the drugs currently available. As diagnosis and follow-up in the vast majority of lung cancer cases is based on biopsies and cytology samples, Immunohistochemical Bronchial Pulmonary Carcinoma Classification (IBPCC is necessary to reveal the raft of characteristics available. This provides morphological support for the WHO’s 1999/2004 classification, in addition to an understanding of carcinogenesis. The immunohistochemical panel clarifies the main morphology and cytology characteristics to maintain the leading histological types as squamous cell carcinoma (high weight molecular cytokeratins/HWMC, adenosquamous carcinoma (CK7, TTF1, HWMA, neuroendocrine carcinoma (Chrg, Syn, CD56, TTF1, Ki67, adenocarcinoma (CK7, CK20, TTF1 and bring the polymorphic and pleomorphic carcinomas under a single banner of pleomorphic carcinoma (Ck7, TTF1, HWMC, VMT, Desmin, Actin which shelters large cell carcinomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas. Lung cancer chemotherapy will still be based on platinum and gemcitabine for the near future and the IBPCC is a simple and efficient tool for streamlining the registration of lung cancer histological characteristics in biopsies and other reduced samples to support clinical evidence and trials.Os conhecimentos actuais da patologia molecular do cancro do pulmão requerem outra caracterização histológica, para além de carcinoma de células pequenas e carcinoma não pequenas células para suporte da terapia personalizada e entendimento do valor real dos fármacos actualmente disponíveis. Como o diagnóstico e seguimento clínico da maioria dos casos de cancro do pulmão se baseia em produtos de biópsia e citologia, a classificação imunoistoquímica do carcinoma broncopulmonar (IBPCC é necessária para

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma: diagnostic performance, pitfalls, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandrino, Franco; La Paglia, Ernesto; Musante, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma, and to review the results and pitfalls described in the literature. Thirty women with a histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Unenhanced T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced Ti-weighted sequences were obtained. Hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for the detection of deep myometrial and cervical infiltration. For deep myometrial infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 76%, PPV of 73%, NVP of 87%, and accuracy of 80%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 82%, NPV of 89%, and accuracy of 85%. For cervical infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 88%, PPV of 50%, NPV of 96%, and accuracy of 87%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 95%. Unenhanced and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance allows accurate assessment of myometrial and cervical infiltration. Information provided by magnetic resonance imaging can define prognosis and management.

  1. Myometrial invasion and overall staging of endometrial carcinoma: assessment using fusion of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu Guo,1,2 Ping Wang,2 Penghui Wang,2 Wei Gao,1 Fenge Li,3 Xueling Yang,1 Hongyan Ni,2 Wen Shen,2 Zhi Guo1 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, The First Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 3Department of Gynecology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Background: The age of onset of endometrial carcinoma has been decreasing in recent years. In endometrial carcinoma, it is important to accurately assess invasion depth and preoperative staging. Fusion of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2WI and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI may contribute to the improvement of anatomical localization of lesions.Materials and methods: In our study, a total of 58 endometrial carcinoma cases were included. Based on the revised 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, a fusion of T2WI and DWI was utilized for the evaluation of invasion depth and determination of the overall stage. Postoperative pathologic assessment was considered as the reference standard. The consistency of T2WI image staging and pathologic staging, and the consistency of fused T2WI and DWI and pathologic staging were all analyzed using Kappa statistics.Results: Compared with the T2WI group, a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy was observed for myometrial invasion with fusion of T2WI and DWI (77.6% for T2WI; 94.8% for T2WI-DWI. For the identification of deep invasion, we calculated values for diagnostic sensitivity (69.2% for T2WI; 92.3% for T2WI-DWI, specificity (80% for T2WI; 95.6% for T2WI-DWI, positive predictive value (50% for T2WI; 85.7% for T2WI-DWI, and negative predictive value (90% for

  2. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  3. EVALUATION OF LYMPHATIC SPREAD, VISCERAL METASTASIS AND TUMORAL LOCAL INVASION IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustumi, Francisco; Kimura, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Ribeiro-Junior, Ulysses; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing esophageal tumors behavior in relationship to lymph node involvement, distant metastases and local tumor invasion is of paramount importance for the best esophageal tumors management. To describe lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and local tumor invasion in esophageal carcinoma, according to tumor topography and histology. A total of 444 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 105 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into four groups: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the three esophageal segments: cervical, middle, and distal. They were compared based on their CT scans at the time of the diagnosis. Nodal metastasis showed great relationship with of primary tumor site. Lymph nodes of hepatogastric, perigastric and peripancreatic ligaments were mainly affected in distal tumors. Periaortic, interaortocaval and portocaval nodes were more commonly found in distal squamous carcinoma; subcarinal, paratracheal and subaortic nodes in middle; neck chains were more affected in cervical squamous carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma had a higher frequency of peritoneal involvement (11.8%) and liver (24.5%) than squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the local tumor invasion, the more cranial neoplasia, more common squamous invasion of airways, reaching 64.7% in the incidence of cervical tumors. Middle esophageal tumors invade more often aorta (27.6%) and distal esophageal tumors, the pericardium and the right atrium (10.4%). Esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in different topographies present peculiarities in lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and local tumor invasion. These differences must be taken into account in esophageal cancer patients' care. Conhecer o comportamento das neoplasias esofágicas em relação à disseminação linfonodal, distribuição de metástases e invasão local do tumor, pode auxiliar o manejo dos pacientes. Descrever o envolvimento linfonodal, disseminação metast

  4. A study utility of gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in the preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Harufumi

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of esophageal carcinoma. Gd-MRI was performed in 42 patients with esophageal carcinoma. The intensities of 50 lymph nodes in MR imaging were measured. No differences were observed in intensity between metastatic and non-metastatic nodes. However, intensity values did overlap. Thus, the author devised a new method allowing comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic nodes on Gd-MRI utilizing an enhancement ratio (ER). ER higher than 45% reflected metastatic nodes. (author)

  5. Role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating response after chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zheng; Ye Xiaodan; Dong Sheng; Xu Lichao; Xu Xueyuan; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of hepatocellular carcinoma pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and its ADCs changes after treatment in predicting and early monitoring the response after chemoembolization. Materials and methods: Twenty-five responding and nine nonresponding hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in 24 h before and in 48 h after chemoembolization. Quantitative ADC maps were calculated with images with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm 2 . Results: Nonresponding lesions had a significantly higher pretreatment mean ADC than did responding lesions (1.726 ± 0.323 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s vs.1.294 ± 0.185 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P ≤ 0.001). The results of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for identification of nonresponding lesions showed that threshold ADC value of 1.618 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s had 96.0% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. After transarterial chemoembolization, responding lesions had a significant increase in %ADC values than did nonresponding lesions (32.63% vs. 5.24%, P = 0.025). The results of ROC analysis for identification of responding lesions showed that threshold %ADC value of 16.21% had 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No significant change was observed in normal liver parenchyma (P = 0.862) and spleen (P = 0.052). Conclusion: High pretreatment mean ADC value of hepatocellular carcinoma was predictive of poor response to chemoembolization. A significant increase in %ADC value was observed in lesions that responded to chemoembolization.

  6. Characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma in users or non users of tobacco and alcohol = Características do carcinoma bucal de células escamosas em usuários ou não usuários de tabaco e álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt, Juliana Hintz Germanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tabaco e o álcool são os principais fatores etiológicos extrínsecos associados à gênese do carcinoma bucal de células escamosas (CCE, mas não está claro se estes fatores interferem nas características clínico-patológicas, moleculares ou no prognóstico da doença. No presente estudo, essas características foram revisadas, estabelecendo-se comparações entre as lesões de pacientes usuários ou não de tabaco e álcool. Observou-se que carcinomas bucais de não fumantes e não etilistas ocorrem, preferencialmente, em pacientes do sexo feminino, em faixa etária inferior a 50 ou superior 70 anos. Neste grupo de indivíduos, as lesões tendem a ser menos agressivas e apresentam melhor prognóstico. O tabagismo e o etilismo também parecem influenciar as características moleculares do carcinoma bucal, uma vez que mutações da proteína p53 nas lesões têm sido associadas a esses fatores de risco. A compreensão das diferenças entre os CCE bucais desses dois grupos de pacientes pode contribuir para uma melhor abordagem e avanços no desenvolvimento de medidas terapêuticas mais adequadas frente a esta neoplasia

  7. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of tongue carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, K F; Cornelius, R S; Lucas, F V; Meinzen-Derr, J; Patil, Y J

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread. A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012. Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.

  8. APASL and AASLD Consensus Guidelines on Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Review

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    Cher Heng Tan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus guidelines for radiological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC have been drafted by several large international working groups. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the most recent guidelines proposed by the American Association for Study of Liver Diseases and the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. Current evidence for the various imaging modalities for diagnosis of HCC and their relevance to the consensus guidelines are reviewed.

  9. Solid Lymph Nodes as an Imaging Biomarker for Risk Stratification in Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, T J; Narayanan, S; Hughes, M A; Ferris, R L; Chiosea, S I; Branstetter, B F

    2017-07-01

    Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with cystic lymph nodes on CT and has a favorable prognosis. A subset of patients with aggressive disease experience treatment failure. Our aim was to determine whether the extent of cystic lymph node burden on staging CT can serve as an imaging biomarker to predict treatment failure in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We identified patients with human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and staging neck CTs. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. We retrospectively classified the metastatic lymph node burden on CT as cystic or solid and assessed radiologic extracapsular spread. Biopsy, subsequent imaging, or clinical follow-up was the reference standard for treatment failure. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of clinical, demographic, and anatomic variables for treatment failure were performed. One hundred eighty-three patients were included with a mean follow-up of 38 months. In univariate analysis, the following variables had a statistically significant association with treatment failure: solid-versus-cystic lymph nodes, clinical T-stage, clinical N-stage, and radiologic evidence of extracapsular spread. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model resulted in a model that included solid-versus-cystic lymph nodes, T-stage, and radiologic evidence of extracapsular spread as independent predictors of treatment failure. Patients with cystic nodal metastasis at staging had significantly better disease-free survival than patients with solid lymph nodes. In human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, patients with solid lymph node metastases are at higher risk for treatment failure with worse disease-free survival. Solid lymph nodes may serve as an imaging biomarker to tailor individual treatment regimens. © 2017 by American Journal

  10. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of medical imagings and an integrated statistical approach to diagnosis. With special attention to hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahira, Kosaburo

    1985-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 36 without were clinically studied using angiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and Tc-99m phytate scintigraphy (RI). Diagnoses were confirmed by biopsy, surgery or autopsy, in all 58 patients. The judgement of multi-readers was obtained, independently. For a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, angiography was the most useful. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this modality were 0.67, 0.85 and 0.78, respectively. Specificity and accuracy of US were 0.84 and 0.67, respectively, thereby US was the second best modality. CT was more useful than than RI for a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, in this series. Diagnostic accuracy of the 4 modalities in the diagnosis of liver mass were also discussed. To integrate these 4 images for a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, a multivariate analysis was made. The diagnostic accuracy of the system was considerably higher than that of any single modality.

  12. Differentiating laryngeal carcinomas from precursor lesions by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Sheng Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI has been introduced in head and neck cancers. Due to limitations in the performance of laryngeal DWI, including the complex anatomical structure of the larynx leading to susceptibility effects, the value of DWI in differentiating benign from malignant laryngeal lesions has largely been ignored. We assessed whether a threshold for the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was useful in differentiating preoperative laryngeal carcinomas from precursor lesions by turbo spin-echo (TSE DWI and 3.0-T magnetic resonance. METHODS: We evaluated DWI and the ADC value in 33 pathologically proven laryngeal carcinomas and 17 precancerous lesions. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.8%, 64.7%, 76.0% by laryngostroboscopy, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging were 90.9%, 76.5%, 86.0%, respectively. Qualitative DWI analysis produced sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 100.0, 88.2, and 96.0%, respectively. The ADC values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinoma (mean 1.195±0.32×10(-3 mm(2/s versus those with laryngeal precancerous lesions (mean 1.780±0.32×10(-3 mm(2/s; P<0.001. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.956 and the optimum threshold for the ADC was 1.455×10(-3 mm(2/s, resulting in a sensitivity of 94.1%, a specificity of 90.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, including the small number of laryngeal carcinomas included, DWI may detect changes in tumor size and shape before they are visible by laryngostroboscopy. The ADC values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinoma than for those with laryngeal precancerous lesions. The proposed cutoff for the ADC may help distinguish laryngeal carcinomas from laryngeal precancerous lesions.

  13. Mate (chimarrão é consumido em alta temperatura por população sob risco para o carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago

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    BARROS Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução -- O mate, ou chimarrão, uma infusão popular de uma erva (Ilex paraguayensis bebida em grandes volumes, é um conhecido fator de risco para carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago e há suspeitas de que a água quente utilizada para o consumo possa ser fator importante na carcinogênese. Métodos - Pesquisou-se a temperatura em que a infusão é ingerida por uma amostragem da população sob risco para carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago. Realizaram-se entrevistas com indivíduos consumidores de mate na área urbana de Taquara, RS, com relação aos hábitos de ingestão de mate, e a temperatura do mate foi medida através de termômetros de precisão. A percepção da temperatura, estimada pelos usuários, foi também registrada. Resultados - Em 36 residências, 107 pessoas estavam ingerindo mate. A maioria bebia a infusão diariamente (97,2% e o consumo médio diário foi de 1.265 mL por usuário (desvio padrão de 1.132 mL, variando de 250 a 6.000 mL. A temperatura medida era igual ou superior a 60 º C em 72% das residências, com média de 63,4 º C (51-78 º C e mediana de 64,4 º C. Conclusão - Neste estudo foi possível evidenciar que o mate é consumido em grandes volumes e alta temperatura e que os usuários não foram capazes de estimar corretamente a temperatura do mate consumido. A temperatura elevada do mate consumido nessa população pode estar contribuindo à carcinogênese esofágica.

  14. Expressão imuno-histoquímica dos marcadores pcna, KI67 e p53 em carcinomas epidermóides do trato aerodigestivo superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Esposito

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os carcinomas epidermóides do trato aerodigestivo superior são tumores de comportamento biológico heterogêneo. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar se a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos marcadores Ki67, PCNA e P53 apresenta correlações com parâmetros prognósticos clínico-patológicos. MÉTODOS: Determinação da expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos Ki67, PCNA e P53 em espécimes tumorais fixados e embebidos em parafina de 53 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide em diferentes sítios primários do trato aerodigestivo superior. RESULTADOS: Os marcadores tiveram altos índices de expressão imuno-histoquímica, sendo 46,5% para o Ki67, 66,5% para o PCNA e 36,5% para o P53. Não houve correlação da expressão do Ki67 e do PCNA com o estadiamento TNM (AJCC, nem com o grau de malignidade. A expressão do Ki67 apresentou correlação positiva com a expressão do PCNA (p = 0,037. O mesmo aconteceu para o PCNA e o número de mitoses por campo (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com estes resultados, concluiu-se que a determinação da imunorreatividade dos marcadores Ki67 e PCNA é um método objetivo e quantificável para avaliar proliferação celular que pode subsidiar as informações prognósticas.

  15. Advances in the staging of renal cell carcinoma with high-resolution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallscheidt, P.; Noeldge, G.; Schawo, S.; Kauffmann, G.; Palmowski, M.; Bartling, S.; Pfitzenmaier, J.

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow high-resolution imaging of the abdomen. Modern scanners made high temporal as well as high spatial resolution available. Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of renal cell carcinoma have been improved over the recent years. Besides conventional and open laparoscopic tumor nephrectomy and nephron sparing, surgical approaches such as local tumor cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation (RF) are ablative modalities and are used increasingly. Improved anesthesiological methods and new surgical approaches also allow curative treatment in extended tumors. Prerequisites for preoperative imaging modalities include visualization of the kidney tumor as well as its staging. Tumor-related infiltration of the renal pelvis or invasion of the perinephric fat and the renal hilus has to be excluded prior to nephron sparing surgery. In cases with extended tumors with infiltration of the inferior vena cava, it is necessary to visualize the exact extension of the tumor growth towards the right atrium in the vena cava. The radiologist should be informed about the diagnostic possibilities and limitations of the imaging modalities of CT and MRI in order to support the urologist in the planning and performance of surgical therapeutical approaches. (orig.)

  16. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.; Rane, P.; Deshmukh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest malignancy in the oral cavity. The oral cavity has several subsites. Knowledge of the patterns of disease spread at each subsite with the impact on treatment and prognosis provides a deeper understanding of the role of imaging. Information from imaging helps accurate staging, assess resectability, and plan multimodality treatment. Mandibular erosion, posterior soft tissue extent, and perineural spread influence treatment and prognosis in gingival, buccal, and retromolar trigone (RMT) cancers. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations and bone and soft tissue algorithms provides the highest specificity for bone erosion. Hard palate SCC is optimally imaged with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect perineural spread. In oral tongue and floor of the mouth (FOM) SCC, extrinsic muscle invasion, extension across the midline, extent of posterior and inferior spread, and proximity to the hyoid are issues that impact therapeutic options. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the optimal imaging method for staging the primary due to its superior soft tissue resolution. In oral tongue SCCs with tumour thickness ≤4 mm, elective neck dissection can be avoided. For nodal staging (N-staging), all imaging methods are comparable, but fall short of surgical staging. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has a promising role in N-staging. Positron emission tomography (PET)/integrated PET/CT has no role in evaluating the clinically negative neck. PET/CT has a role in pretreatment evaluation of advanced oral cavity SCC for depicting distant metastases and for mapping nodal extent in the clinically positive neck. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and CT perfusion have a potential role as baseline pretreatment studies for response assessment to chemoradiation in advanced oral cavity SCC. - Highlights: • Brief outline of treatment principles in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC

  17. Anal carcinomas: the role of endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in staging, response evaluation and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Jyoti; Shaw, Aidan; Griffin, Nyree [Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Grant, Lee A. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Schizas, Alexis M.P.; Datta, Vivek; Williams, Andrew B. [Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of General Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Anal carcinoma is an important but rare condition, managed in specialist centres. Both endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in the locoregional staging and follow-up of patients with anal cancer, and both may assist in treatment planning and prognosis. Recent guidelines published by the European Society for Medical Oncology have recommended MRI as the technique of choice for assessment of locoregional disease. This paper describes the techniques for both endoanal ultrasound and MRI, and compares the relative merits and disadvantages of each in the local assessment of anal carcinoma. (orig.)

  18. Basal cell carcinoma appearing in a facial nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn: dermoscopic features Carcinoma basocelular aparecendo em um nevo sebáceo de Jadassohn: características dermatoscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Enei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn usually affects the face or scalp. It tends to evolve in three stages, and the final stage is characterized by the appearance of tumours. We present the case of a facial nevus sebaceous of Jadasshon in which a basal cell carcinoma developed. We also explore the diagnosis of this disease, which was established through dermoscopy, and propose using this technique in the clinical follow-up of this type of hamartoma, thereby allowing the early detection of cancer development.O nevo sebáceo de Jadassohn geralmente afeta a face ou o couro cabeludo. A sua tendência natural é evoluir em três estágios, sendo que o estágio final é caracterizado pelo aparecimento de tumores. Apresentamos o caso de um nevo sebáceo de Jadassohn na face a partir do qual um carcinoma basocelular se desenvolveu. Também abordamos o diagnóstico dessa doença, estabelecido por meio da dermatoscopia. Sugerimos a utilização dessa técnica no acompanhamento clínico desse hamartoma, permitindo assim a detecção precoce de um câncer.

  19. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement of confocal microscopy imaging in diagnosing and subtyping basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, D. J.; van Haersma de With, A.; Elshot, Y. S.; Peppelman, M.; Bekkenk, M. W.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Eekhout, I.; Prinsen, C. A. C.; de Rie, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging can be used to diagnose and subtype basal cell carcinoma (BCC) but relies on individual morphologic pattern recognition that might vary among users. We assessed the inter-rater and intra-rater agreement of RCM in correctly diagnosing and subtyping BCC.

  20. Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth <em>in Vitro em>and <em>in Vivoem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Feng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC cell line HCT-116 <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem>. A viability assay showed that DA could inhibit tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that DA blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DA correlated with the induction of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and Bid, and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Furthermore, treatment of HCT-116 bearing nude mice with DA significantly retarded the growth of xenografts. Consistent with the results <em>in vitroem>, the DA-mediated suppression of HCT-116 xenografts correlated with Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that DA could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of CRC.

  1. Radiological imaging of the neck for initial decision-making in oral squamous cell carcinomas-A questionnaire survey in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Grau, Cai; Nielsen, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    by palpation and diagnostic imaging of the neck. We investigated the current practice of the initial radiological work-up of patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in the Nordic countries. Methods. A questionnaire regarding the availability and use of guidelines and imaging modalities...

  2. Mean field theory of EM algorithm for Bayesian grey scale image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The EM algorithm for the Bayesian grey scale image restoration is investigated in the framework of the mean field theory. Our model system is identical to the infinite range random field Q-Ising model. The maximum marginal likelihood method is applied to the determination of hyper-parameters. We calculate both the data-averaged mean square error between the original image and its maximizer of posterior marginal estimate, and the data-averaged marginal likelihood function exactly. After evaluating the hyper-parameter dependence of the data-averaged marginal likelihood function, we derive the EM algorithm which updates the hyper-parameters to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate analytically. The time evolutions of the hyper-parameters and so-called Q function are obtained. The relation between the speed of convergence of the hyper-parameters and the shape of the Q function is explained from the viewpoint of dynamics

  3. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  4. In vivo imaging of cellular proliferation in renal cell carcinoma using 18F-fluorothymidine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Peter K.; Lee, Sze Ting; Murone, Carmel; Eng, John; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Berlangieri, Salvatore University; Pathmaraj, Kunthi; O’Keefe, Graeme J.; Sachinidis, John; Byrne, Amanda J.; Bolton, Damien M.; Davis, Ian D.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure cellular proliferation non-invasively in renal cell carcinoma may allow prediction of tumour aggressiveness and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and to compare this to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and to an immunohistochemical measure of cellular proliferation (Ki-67). Twenty seven patients (16 male, 11 females; age 42-77) with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma suitable for resection were prospectively enrolled. All patients had preoperative FLT and FDG PET scans. Visual identification of tumour using FLT PET compared to normal kidney was facilitated by the use of a pre-operative contrast enhanced CT scan. After surgery tumour was taken for histologic analysis and immunohistochemical staining by Ki-67. The SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) mean±SD for FLT in tumour was 2.59±1.27, compared to normal kidney (2.47±0.34). The mean SUVmax for FDG in tumour was similar to FLT (2.60±1.08). There was a significant correlation between FLT uptake and the immunohistochemical marker Ki-67 (r=0.72, P<0.0001) in RCC. Ki-67 proliferative index was mean ± SD of 13.3%±9.2 (range 2.2% - 36.3%). There is detectable uptake of FLT in primary renal cell carcinoma, which correlates with cellular proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 labelling index. This finding has relevance to the use of FLT PET in molecular imaging studies of renal cell carcinoma biology

  5. Diagnostic imaging of lobular carcinoma of the breast. Mammographic, US and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzocchi, M.; Facecchia, I.; Zuiani, C.; Smania, S.; Puglisi, F.; Di Loreto, C.

    2000-01-01

    . Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is often very difficult to diagnose. Thus, it is suggested the use of integrated diagnostic imaging with mammography, US and, in some cases, MRI for earlier diagnosis and to identify further tumor localizations [it

  6. Radionuclide and Fluorescence Imaging of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Using Dual Labeled Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX Antibody G250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Rijpkema, Mark; Bos, Desirée L; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-08-01

    Tumor targeted optical imaging using antibodies labeled with near infrared fluorophores is a sensitive imaging modality that might be used during surgery to assure complete removal of malignant tissue. We evaluated the feasibility of dual modality imaging and image guided surgery with the dual labeled anti-carbonic anhydrase IX antibody preparation (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in mice with intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma. BALB/c nu/nu mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 lesions received 10 μg DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW labeled with 15 MBq (111)In or 10 μg of the dual labeled irrelevant control antibody NUH-82 (20 mice each). To evaluate when tumors could be detected, 4 mice per group were imaged weekly during 5 weeks with single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and the fluorescence imaging followed by ex vivo biodistribution studies. As early as 1 week after tumor cell inoculation single photon emission computerized tomography and fluorescence images showed clear delineation of intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma with good concordance between single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and fluorescence images. The high and specific accumulation of the dual labeled antibody conjugate in tumors was confirmed in the biodistribution studies. Maximum tumor uptake was observed 1 week after inoculation (mean ± SD 58.5% ± 18.7% vs 5.6% ± 2.3% injected dose per gm for DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW vs NUH-82, respectively). High tumor uptake was also observed at other time points. This study demonstrates the feasibility of dual modality imaging with dual labeled antibody (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in a clear cell renal cell carcinoma model. Results indicate that preoperative and intraoperative detection of carbonic anhydrase IX expressing tumors, positive resection margins and metastasis might be feasible with this approach. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  7. Carcinoma papilífero da tireoide associado à tireoidite de Hashimoto: frequência e aspectos histopatológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Camboim,Denise Cruz; Figueirôa,Vivina Marta Simões da Motta; Lima,Daisy Nunes de Oliveira; Abreu-e-Lima,Paula; Abreu-e-Lima,Maria do Carmo Carvalho de

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireoide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais frequente de hipotireoidismo em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireoide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos há uma aparente associação entre as duas patologias. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma ...

  8. Metastases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Misdiagnosed as Isolated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Assunta; De Masi, Roberto; Orlando, Stefania; Metrangolo, Antonio; Zecca, Vittorio; Morciano, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Piccinni, Giancarlo

    At present, cardiac metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is rarely mentioned in the literature. We report a hepatocellular carcinoma patient with cardiac metastasis misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 2011. Two years later, on presentation of syncope, an abnormal ventricular septal size was recorded by ultrasound scan, and was subsequently shown by magnetic resonance imaging to be a tumour lesion. A myocardial biopsy confirmed infiltration of hepatocellular carcinoma. This observation underlines the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma cardiac metastasis, manifested in its infiltrative form as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, we suggest that the ultrasound appearance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients should be seen as a "red flag" and recommend the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging assessment of transplant candidates.

  9. SERUM LEPTIN LEVENS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Luiza Vitelo; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported. O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos

  10. Role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating response after chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Zheng, E-mail: yuanzheng0404@163.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Ye Xiaodan [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Department of Radiology, Affiliated Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 241 West Huai Hai Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong Sheng, E-mail: dongsheng2828@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xu Lichao; Xu Xueyuan; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To investigate the value of hepatocellular carcinoma pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and its ADCs changes after treatment in predicting and early monitoring the response after chemoembolization. Materials and methods: Twenty-five responding and nine nonresponding hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in 24 h before and in 48 h after chemoembolization. Quantitative ADC maps were calculated with images with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}. Results: Nonresponding lesions had a significantly higher pretreatment mean ADC than did responding lesions (1.726 {+-} 0.323 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s vs.1.294 {+-} 0.185 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P {<=} 0.001). The results of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for identification of nonresponding lesions showed that threshold ADC value of 1.618 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s had 96.0% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. After transarterial chemoembolization, responding lesions had a significant increase in %ADC values than did nonresponding lesions (32.63% vs. 5.24%, P = 0.025). The results of ROC analysis for identification of responding lesions showed that threshold %ADC value of 16.21% had 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No significant change was observed in normal liver parenchyma (P = 0.862) and spleen (P = 0.052). Conclusion: High pretreatment mean ADC value of hepatocellular carcinoma was predictive of poor response to chemoembolization. A significant increase in %ADC value was observed in lesions that responded to chemoembolization.

  11. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Reproducibility of Histogram Analysis on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yi; Su, Zi-hua; Xu, Xiao; Sun, Zhi-peng; Duan, Fei-xue; Song, Yuan-yuan; Li, Lu; Wang, Ying-wei; Ma, Xin; Guo, Ai-tao; Ma, Lin; Ye, Hui-yi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been increasingly used to evaluate the permeability of tumor vessel. Histogram metrics are a recognized promising method of quantitative MR imaging that has been recently introduced in analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters in oncology due to tumor heterogeneity. In this study, 21 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) underwent paired DCE-MRI studies on a 3.0 T MR system. Extended Tofts model and population-based arterial input function were used to calculate kinetic parameters of RCC tumors. Mean value and histogram metrics (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) of each pharmacokinetic parameter were generated automatically using ImageJ software. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and scan–rescan reproducibility were evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Our results demonstrated that the histogram method (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) was not superior to the conventional Mean value method in reproducibility evaluation on DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans & Ve) in renal cell carcinoma, especially for Skewness and Kurtosis which showed lower intra-, inter-observer and scan-rescan reproducibility than Mean value. Our findings suggest that additional studies are necessary before wide incorporation of histogram metrics in quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:27380733

  12. Hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas: detection with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and multiphasic multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Hiromitsu; Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Nakaya, Yasuhiro; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Yasuharu [Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Nagano, Hiroaki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kumano, Seishi; Okada, Masahiro; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Takamura, Manabu [Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Wakasa, Kenichi [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    To retrospectively compare the accuracy of detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by multiphasic multidetector CT and by gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. After ethical approval, we analysed a total of 73 hypervascular HCC lesions from 31 patients suspected of having HCC, who underwent both gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and multiphasic multidetector CT. Five blinded observers independently reviewed CT images, as well as dynamic MR images alone and combined with hepatobiliary phase MR images. Diagnostic accuracy (Az values), sensitivities and positive predictive values were compared by using the Scheffe post hoc test. The mean Az value for dynamic and hepatobiliary phase MR combined (0.81) or dynamic MR images alone (0.78) was significantly higher than that for CT images (0.67, P < 0.001, 0.005, respectively). The mean sensitivity of the combined MR images (0.67) was significantly higher than that of dynamic MR alone (0.52, P < 0.05) or CT images (0.44, P < 0.05). The mean positive predictive values were 0.96, 0.95 and 0.94, for CT, dynamic MR alone and combined MR images, respectively. Compared with multiphasic multidetector CT, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging combining dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images results in significantly improved sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for detection of hypervascular HCC. (orig.)

  13. Direct imaging electron microscopy (EM) methods in modern structural biology: overview and comparison with X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction in the studies of large macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Determining the structure of macromolecules is important for understanding their function. The fine structure of large macromolecules is currently studied primarily by X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction. Before the development of these techniques, macromolecular structure was often examined by negative-staining, rotary-shadowing and freeze-etching EM, which are categorised here as 'direct imaging EM methods'. In this review, the results are summarised by each of the above techniques and compared with respect to four macromolecules: the ryanodine receptor, cadherin, rhodopsin and the ribosome-translocon complex (RTC). The results of structural analysis of the ryanodine receptor and cadherin are consistent between each technique. The results obtained for rhodopsin vary to some extent within each technique and between the different techniques. Finally, the results for RTC are inconsistent between direct imaging EM and other analytical techniques, especially with respect to the space within RTC, the reasons for which are discussed. Then, the role of direct imaging EM methods in modern structural biology is discussed. Direct imaging methods should support and verify the results obtained by other analytical methods capable of solving three-dimensional molecular architecture, and they should still be used as a primary tool for studying macromolecule structure in vivo. © 2014 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Concomitância da tireoidite de Hashimoto e o carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roberti

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação da tireoidite auto-imune e o carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide na Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Goiânia-Goiás. MÉTODO: De 1395 tireoidectomias realizadas de 1994 a 2003, foram selecionadas 120 carcinomas diferenciados (27 foliculares e 93 papilíferos. Foram avaliadas as variáveis clínicas (idade e sexo com apresentação de freqüências e de sumários de medidas-resumo na descrição estatística. Para aferir a associação de tireoidite auto-imune e carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide em função dos achados histopatológicos, utilizou-se tabelas de contingência e análise pelo teste não paramétrico do quiquadrado de Pearson. Em todos os testes estatísticos foi adotado um nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: 11,1% dos carcinomas foliculares e 18,3% dos carcinomas papilíferos estão associados à tireoidite auto-imune. Existe uma relação de freqüências quatro vezes maior da tireoidite auto-imune com o carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide em comparação com outras doenças tireoideanas (16,7% X 3,6%. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados permitem inferir que a associação entre a tireoidite auto-imune e o carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide é mais que casual, exigindo uma observação clínico-laboratorial cuidadosa nos portadores da doença auto-imune.

  15. Change of ovary before and after radiotherapy in reproductive women with cervix carcinoma in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Min; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Woong; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To investigate changes in the ovary revealed by MR imaging before and after radiotherapy in premenopausal patients with cervical carcinoma. Thirty-three premenopausal patients with cervical carcinoma underwent radiation therapy at an average dosage of 11,279 (external: 5,352; internal: 5,927) cGy. Before and after this therapy, all underwent pelvic MR imaging using a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.). The average interval of follow-up MR imaging was 7.2 months, and axial T1-weighted and axial and sagittal T2-weighted MR images were obtained. The presence, size number of follicles, and differentiation of the zonal anatomy of the ovary were determined by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. After radiation therapy, all patients ceased menstruation. For ovaries, the detection rates before and after radiation therapy were 94% (62/66) and 39% (26/66) ({rho}<0.05), respectively, and average ovary size was 2.6 X 1.9 X 2.2 cm before and 1.7 X 1.3 X 1.4 cm after therapy ({rho}<0.05). The average number of ovarian follicles before and after therapy was 5.1 and 3.1, respectively ({rho}<0.05). T2-weighted imaging, demonstrated differentiation of zonal anatomy in 74% of cases (46/62) before radiotheraphy, and 15% (4/26) after ({rho}<0.05). Our study has shown that after radiation therapy in premenopausal patients with cervical cancer, detection rates, average size, and the number of ovaries decreased, findings which are similar to those for normal postmenopausal ovary. MR imaging can reveal structural change in ovaries.

  16. 18F-FLT uptake kinetics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A PET imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dan; Fenwick, John D.; Chalkidou, Anastasia; Landau, David B.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the kinetics of 3 ′ -deoxy-3 ′ -[F-18]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) uptake by head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and involved nodes imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Two- and three-tissue compartment models were fitted to 12 tumor time-activity-curves (TACs) obtained for 6 structures (tumors or involved nodes) imaged in ten dynamic PET studies of 1 h duration, carried out for five patients. The ability of the models to describe the data was assessed using a runs test, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and leave-one-out cross-validation. To generate parametric maps the models were also fitted to TACs of individual voxels. Correlations between maps of different parameters were characterized using Pearson'sr coefficient; in particular the phosphorylation rate-constants k 3-2tiss and k 5 of the two- and three-tissue models were studied alongside the flux parameters K FLT-2tiss and K FLT of these models, and standardized uptake values (SUV). A methodology based on expectation-maximization clustering and the Bayesian information criterion (“EM-BIC clustering”) was used to distil the information from noisy parametric images. Results: Fits of two-tissue models 2C3K and 2C4K and three-tissue models 3C5K and 3C6K comprising three, four, five, and six rate-constants, respectively, pass the runs test for 4, 8, 10, and 11 of 12 tumor TACs. The three-tissue models have lower AIC and cross-validation scores for nine of the 12 tumors. Overall the 3C6K model has the lowest AIC and cross-validation scores and its fitted parameter values are of the same orders of magnitude as literature estimates. Maps ofK FLT and K FLT-2tiss are strongly correlated (r = 0.85) and also correlate closely with SUV maps (r = 0.72 for K FLT-2tiss , 0.64 for K FLT ). Phosphorylation rate-constant maps are moderately correlated with flux maps (r = 0.48 for k 3-2tiss vs K FLT-2tiss and r = 0.68 for k 5 vs K FLT ); however, neither phosphorylation

  17. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast: iconographic essay with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nunes Medina Coeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is aimed at describing the most characteristic imaging findings of mucinous carcinoma of the breast, with emphasis on the patterns related to better prognosis. The authors selected cases of mucinous carcinoma of the breast whose images were available, highlighting the imaging findings suggestive of this subtype of breast cancer, either at mammography, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Estudo de p27, p21, p16 em epitélio escamoso normal, papiloma escamoso e carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemistry expression of p27, p21WAF/Cip1, and p16INK4a in oral normal epithelium, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Piazza Queiroz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O tipo de câncer oral mais frequente é o carcinoma de células escamosas, que corresponde a 95% dos casos(9. O papiloma escamoso oral é uma neoplasia benigna normalmente associada à infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV(21. A análise da literatura mostra alterações nos genes reguladores do ciclo celular p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16INK4a, porém sem uma definição de seus papéis na carcinogênese oral. O objetivo foi caracterizar imuno-histoquimicamente p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em epitélio escamoso normal, papilomas escamosos e carcinomas de células escamosas da cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Imuno-histoquímica para p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em 32 casos de epitélio escamoso normal, 30 casos de papiloma escamoso e 34 de carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral. RESULTADOS: p27: 97,06% dos casos de carcinoma de células escamosas apresentaram imunopositividade focal. O grupo papiloma escamoso apresentou 33,33% e o grupo controle, 18,75%. p21WAF/Cip1: 100% de imunopositividade focal tanto no grupo controle como no grupo carcinoma de células escamosas, e 90% no grupo papiloma escamoso. p16INK4a: 100% de imunopositividade focal para os grupos controle e papiloma escamoso, e 94% para o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. CONCLUSÃO: Imuno-histoquimicamente demonstrou-se diferença significativa para p27 quando feita comparação dos grupos controle e papiloma escamoso com o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O p21WAF/Cip1 não demonstrou poder de diferenciar os grupos analisados. O p16INK4a apresentou imunopositividade difusa em uma minoria dos casos do grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O grupo papiloma escamoso se comportou de maneira similar ao grupo controle em relação aos três marcadores.INTRODUCTION: The most frequent type of oral cancer is the squamous cell carcinoma, which corresponds to 95% of the cases(9.The oral squamous papilloma is a benign neoplasia, commonly associated with

  19. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  20. Correlation of β-catenin expresssion and metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma Correlação da expressão da β-catenina e presença de metástases em carcinoma de células escamosas de língua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseana de Almeida Freitas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has been reported that the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in tongue shows a more infiltrative profile, aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis, which may be related to a higher metastatic potencial. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of β-catenin in OSCC of the tongue and its correlation with tumor metastasis. METHODS: Twenty four cases were selected and divided in two groups: metastatic group (n=12 and non-metastatic group (n=12. A semi-quantitative analysis of the β-catenin expression was performed in the invasive tumor front and cases were graded as follows: negative (score 0, positive (score +, and strongly positive (score ++. RESULTS: It was detected that 33%, 50% and 17% of the cases in metastatic group were scored 0, + and ++, respectively, and the non-metastatic group showed that 42% were scored "0", 33% scored + and 25% scored ++. Statistical analysis showed no diference between the studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, it can be concluded that the immunoexpression of β-catenin does not represent a valuable tool to predict metastatic potencial of OSCC in tongue.OBJETIVO: O carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE quando presente em língua exibe aspecto mais infiltrativo, curso clínico agressivo e prognóstico desfavorável. Tais características podem associar-se com maior potencial metastático. O presente trabalho teve como meta investigar a expressão de β-catenina em CCE de língua e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de metástases. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 24 casos de CCE em língua e divididos em dois grupos: grupo metastático (n=12 e grupo sem metástase (n=12. Realizou-se uma análise semi-quantitativa da imunoexpressão da β-catenina no fronte invasivo tumoral e sendo considerada como negativa, positiva e fortemente positiva, atribuindo-se os escores, "0", "+" e "++", respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A expressão de β-catenina apresentou, no grupo metast

  1. Prostate carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  2. Invasive cervical carcinoma (Stages IB-IIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Zanello, A.; Rodighiero, M.G.; Vanzulli, A.; Del Maschio, A.; Taccagni, G.L.; Belloni, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, the accurate assessment of parametrial invasion greatly affects the therapeutic choice between surgery and radiation therapy. As a matter of fact, surgery is usually performed only in the patients with carcinoma confined to the cervix, whereas those with parametrial involvement, or more advanced stages, are treated with radiation therapy. This prospective study was aimed at investigating the comparative adequecy of CT and MR imaging in assessing parametrial status in the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients, with histologic diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, were investigated. All of them were clinically considered as having invasive cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IIB) and subsequently underwent surgery. In all cases, detailed histology of the parametrium was obtained. Pathological data were compared with CT and MR findings in all cases. As for assessing parametrial involvement by cancer, CT had 62% accuracy, 63% sensitivity, and 60% specificity, versus MR imaging 81% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 80% specificify. Therefore, MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in assessing the parametrial status of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma; the method yields valuable information for treatment planning

  3. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  4. Reconstruction of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on the expectation maximum (EM) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) calculates the internal conductivity distribution within a body using electrical contact measurements. The image reconstruction for EIT is an inverse problem, which is both non-linear and ill-posed. The traditional regularization method cannot avoid introducing negative values in the solution. The negativity of the solution produces artifacts in reconstructed images in presence of noise. A statistical method, namely, the expectation maximization (EM) method, is used to solve the inverse problem for EIT in this paper. The mathematical model of EIT is transformed to the non-negatively constrained likelihood minimization problem. The solution is obtained by the gradient projection-reduced Newton (GPRN) iteration method. This paper also discusses the strategies of choosing parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the reconstructed images with higher quality can be obtained by the EM method, compared with the traditional Tikhonov and conjugate gradient (CG) methods, even with non-negative processing. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Choi, Mi

    2002-01-01

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  6. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  7. Diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma by two photon excited fluorescence combined with lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shunping; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Liu, Shaoxiong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Junle

    2014-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of human skin cancer. The traditional diagnostic procedure of BCC is histological examination with haematoxylin and eosin staining of the tissue biopsy. In order to reduce complexity of the diagnosis procedure, a number of noninvasive optical methods have been applied in skin examination, for example, multiphoton tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In this study, we explored two-photon optical tomography of human skin specimens using two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging and FLIM. There are a number of naturally endogenous fluorophores in skin sample, such as keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin, flavin and porphyrin. Confocal microscopy was used to obtain structures of the sample. Properties of epidermic and cancer cells were characterized by fluorescence emission spectra, as well as fluorescence lifetime imaging. Our results show that two-photon autofluorescence lifetime imaging can provide accurate optical biopsies with subcellular resolution and is potentially a quantitative optical diagnostic method in skin cancer diagnosis.

  8. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  9. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  10. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound imaging in ablation therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2009-12-31

    The success rate of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on correct targeting via an imaging technique. However, RF electrode insertion is not completely accurate for residual HCC nodules because B-mode ultrasound (US), color Doppler, and power Doppler US findings cannot adequately differentiate between treated and viable residual tumor tissue. Electrode insertion is also difficult when we must identify the true HCC nodule among many large regenerated nodules in cirrhotic liver. Two breakthroughs in the field of US technology, harmonic imaging and the development of second-generation contrast agents, have recently been described and have demonstrated the potential to dramatically broaden the scope of US diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging with an intravenous contrast agent can evaluate small hypervascular HCC even when B-mode US cannot adequately characterize tumor. Therefore, contrast-enhanced harmonic US can facilitate RF ablation electrode placement in hypervascular HCC, which is poorly depicted by B-mode US. The use of contrast-enhanced harmonic US in ablation therapy for liver cancer is an efficient approach.

  11. Análise de sobrevida global em pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca no INCA no ano de 1999 Overall survival analysis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Honorato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas de boca compreende cerca de 90 a 95% de todas as neoplasias malignas da boca e é um dos tipos de câncer mais frequentes no Brasil. O índice de sobrevida em 5 anos é baixo e permaneceu estável nas últimas décadas, apesar dos avanços nas terapias. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o perfil e a sobrevida global dos pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca no ano de 1999 no Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Dos 320 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 79,4% eram homens. A idade média foi de 56,7 anos, e 82,2% deles fumavam e/ou bebiam. A língua, seguida do assoalho de boca foram os locais mais acometidos. A maioria (68,9% dos pacientes foi diagnosticada em estádios tardios e submetida à radioterapia exclusiva (53,6%. A sobrevida média no período do estudo foi de 29,4 meses. Os pacientes dos estádios iniciais apresentaram maior sobrevida, assim como aqueles submetidos apenas à cirurgia como forma de tratamento e os que não apresentaram linfonodos acometidos ao diagnóstico. Tumores localizados em palato duro e mucosa jugal apresentaram pior prognóstico. Foram fatores preditivos independentes de melhor sobrevida os tumores T1 ou T2 (p=0,001, sem acometimento de linfonodos (p=0,012 e não localizados em mucosa jugal (p=0,021. O diagnóstico do câncer oral ainda se faz em estádios tardios, o que influencia negativamente a sobrevida global dos pacientes. Maior ênfase deve ser dada à capacitação dos profissionais para o reconhecimento precoce do câncer e à conscientização da população de risco.Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 90 to 95% of all malignant neoplasms of the mouth and it is one of most common cancers in Brazil. Five-year survival rates remain low and have not improved over the past decades, despite advances in therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the features and overall survival of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma in

  12. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha BenTaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists′ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists′ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier′s confusion (confusion matrix between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician′s confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician′s diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion.

  14. Contemporary Diagnostic Imaging of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma – A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałasz, Paulina; Adamski, Łukasz; Górska-Chrząstek, Magdalena; Starzyńska, Anna; Studniarek, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Summary Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer of the oral cavity and constitutes 95% of all cancers of this area. Men are affected twice as commonly as women, primarily if they are over 50 years of age. Forty percent of the lesions are localized in the tongue and 30% in the floor of the oral cavity. OSCC often affects upper and lower gingiva, buccal mucous membrane, the retromolar triangle and the palate. The prognosis is poor and the five-year survival rate ranges from 20% (OSCC in the floor of the mouth) to 60% (OSCC in the alveolar part of the mandible). Treatment is difficult, because of the localization and the invasiveness of the available methods. The diagnosis is made based on a histopathological examination of a biopsy sample. The low detection rate of early oral SCC is a considerable clinical issue. Although the oral cavity can be easily examined, in the majority of cases oral SCC is diagnosed in its late stages. It is difficult to diagnose metastases in local lymph nodes and distant organs, which is important for planning the scope of resection and further treatment, graft implantation, and differentiation between reactive and metastatic lymph nodes as well as between disease recurrence and scars or adverse reactions after surgery or radiation therapy. Imaging studies are performed as part of the routine work-up in oral SCC. However, it is difficult to interpret the results at the early stages of the disease. The following imaging methods are used – dental radiographs, panoramic radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted and dynamic sequences, perfusion computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, hybrid methods (PET/CT, PET/MRI, SPECT/CT) and ultrasound. Some important clinical problems can be resolved with the use of novel modalities such as MRI with ADC sequences and PET. The aim of this article is to describe oral squamous cell carcinoma as it appears in

  15. In-vivo imaging of cellular proliferation in renal cell carcinoma using 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.; Lee, S. T.; Eng, J.; Berlangieri, S. U.; Pathmaraj, K.; O'Keefe, G. J.; Lawrentschuk, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Background: The ability to measure cellular proliferation non-invasively in renal cell carcinoma may allow prediction of tumour aggressiveness and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) in renal cell carcinoma, and to compare this to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and to an immunohistochemical measure of cellular proliferation (Ki-67). Methods: Twenty seven patients (16 men, 11 women; age 42-77) with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma suitable for resection were prospectively enrolled. All patients had preoperative FLT and FDG PET scans. After surgery tumour was taken for histologic analysis and immunohistochemical staining by Ki-67. Results: The mean SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) ± SD for FLT in tumour was 2.53 ± 1.26, compared to normal kidney (2.47 ± 0.34). The mean SUVmax for FDG in tumour was similar to FLT (2.60 ± 1.08). Visual identification of tumour using FLT PET compared to normal kidney was facilitated by the use of a pre-operative contrast enhanced CT scan. There was a significant correlation between FLT uptake and the immunohistochemical marker Ki-67 (r=0.624, p=0.0008) in RCC. Ki-67 labelling index was mean ± SD of 13.3% ± 9.2 (range 2.2% to 36.3%). Conclusion: There is detectable uptake of FLT in primary renal cell carcinoma, which correlates with cellular proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 labelling index. This finding has relevance to the use of FLT PET in molecular imaging studies of renal cell carcinoma biology.

  16. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kodama, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kamba, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Ohta, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.).

  17. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Y.; Kodama, F.; Kamba, M.; Ohta, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.)

  18. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Ja [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  19. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Ja

    2004-01-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  20. Efficacy of 67 gallium ECT imaging in lymphoma, infection, and lung carcinoma: A comparison with planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, S.J.; Anderson, M.W.; Klein, R.C.; Friedman, B.I.; Carroll, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Emission computed tomography (ECT) studies were performed on a GE 400 A/T camera and ADAC computers (system 3 and system 3300). Thirty-three sets of ECT and planar images were obtained in 20 patients over a six month period. Imaging was performed 48 hours after the intravenous administration of 5 mc of Gallium 67 citrate. No bowel preparation was employed. Comparison is made of the initial nuclear medicine report derived from planar and ECT imaging aided by clinical knowledge versus the consensus opinion of two nuclear medicine physicians reading the planar images along with minimal clinical information. The lymphoma series consists of 18 scans in 10 patients. There were 5 scans in which a false negative planar interpretation was changed to a true positive ECT interpretation. Sensitivity of planar imaging for lymphoma was 58% which rose to 100% with addition of ECT information. There were no false positives by either technique. There were 5 sets of scans in 5 lung carcinoma patients. Sensitivity of the planar images was 60% because of 2 false negative results. Sensitivity of the ECT technique was 100%. There were no false positives. The infection series consists of 10 scans in 5 patients. Sensitivity of ECT was 100%, sensitivity of planar was 66%. There was 1 false positive planar. For the total series the accuracy of planar imaging was 69% and the predictive value of a negative planar interpretation was 44%. Corresponding values for ECT imaging were 100%. The authors' experience demonstrates significant increase in sensitivity without loss of specificity resulting from the use of Emission Computed Tomography in both chest and abdomen in patients with lymphoma, infection, and lung cancer

  1. The role of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and ultrastructural cytochemistry in the diagnosis of mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A R; Payne, C M; Nagle, R B; Angel, E

    1987-02-01

    We studied four mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine neoplasms from gastrointestinal tract and pancreas by routine light microscopy (LM), immunohistochemistry (IH), electron microscopy (EM), and ultrastructural cytochemistry (UC). By LM, the individual tumors showed fairly pure neuroendocrine (carcinoid) or epithelial (papillary) patterns, mixed neuroendocrine-carcinoma features and poorly-differentiated tumor in sheets and nests which did not lend itself to morphologic characterization. IH demonstrated mixed expression, within different areas of the same neoplasm, of epithelial antigens (keratins and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) and neuroendocrine markers (neuron-specific enolase [NSE], bombesin and neurohormonal peptides). By EM, each tumor showed ultrastructural features of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation which varied substantially in terms of number of cells involved and their distribution; two of the neoplasms showed biphasic differentiation within single cells. The nature of the neurosecretory granules was verified with the uranaffin reaction (UR). This study illustrates the value of combining LM, IH, EM and UC for the identification of mixed carcinoma-neuroendocrine lesions.

  2. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki

    1996-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma

  3. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  4. The positive impact of radiologic imaging on high-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Karia, Pritesh S; Morgan, Frederick C; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2017-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the utility of radiologic imaging for prognostic staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Review utilization of radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCCs to evaluate whether imaging impacted management and outcomes. Tumors classified as Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) tumor (T) stage T2B or T3 over a 13-year period were reviewed to identify whether imaging was performed and whether results affected treatment. Disease-related outcomes (DRO: local recurrence, nodal metastasis, death from disease) were compared between patients by type of imaging used. 108 high-stage CSCCs in 98 patients were included. Imaging (mostly computed tomography, 79%) was utilized in 45 (46%) patients and management was altered in 16 (33%) patients who underwent imaging. Patients that received no imaging were at higher risk of developing nodal metastases (nonimaging, 30%; imaging, 13%; P = .041) and any DRO (nonimaging, 42%; imaging, 20%; P = .028) compared to the imaging group. Imaging was associated with a lower risk for DRO (subhazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9; P = .046) adjusted for BWH T stage, sex, and location. Single institution retrospective design and changes in technology overtime. Radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCC may influence management and appears to positively impact outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to establish which patients benefit from imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical application of PET/CT imaging in search of the primary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To explore the clinical value of PET/CT scanning in search of the primary carcinoma, we selected 4 patients who were subjected to PET/CT examination during Oct. 2002 to Dec. 2002. The primary lesion in all these patients was not detected. One of them had metastasis to liver, one had metastases in both lungs and the other two were having metastases to the bones. 18F-FDG in doses of 5.55MBq / kg body weight was injected to a fasting patient (at least 6 hours). PET/CT whole body examination was done using Discovery LS-PET/CT (GE Medical System, U.S.A.) 40-60 minutes later. In the first patient with metastasis to liver, primary lesion was localized in the transverse colon near the liver. The PET/CT showed multiple high radioactive uptake lesions of different sizes in the liver. No obvious change in position of the colon uptake was seen on the delayed images. After PET/CT, barium examination showed thinned cavity of the colon near the liver with coarse ankylosis of colon wall just like saw tooth. The mucous membrane was destroyed. Of the two patients with metastases in the bone, first - a 31 years old, was diagnosed to have primary lung cancer with multiple metastases to the liver and the bones. PET/CT showed high radioactive uptake in the inferior left lobe near the hilum with irregular shaped uneven distribution. A round high radioactive uptake area of 1.82 x 1.84 x 1.46cm size was also seen in the right lobe of the liver having clear edge and uneven distribution. The destroyed bones (L-10, L-11, L-12, T-1 and ala ossis i lii) showed high radioactive uptake. Second patient, 57-year male was diagnosed to have malignant lymphoma. PET/CT fusion showed high radioactive uptake in the marrow of whole body. Few destroyed parts of bones were also seen on CT images. Several cervical and the thoracic vertebrae as well as the ninth rib showed irregular radioactive accumulation with clear edges and well-distributed tracer raising the possibility of multiple myeloma or

  6. MR staging of endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenti, P.; Agostini, S.; Erroi, C.; Ambrogetti, D.; Cellerini, A.; Nori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy is the technique of choice for the definitive diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Since lymphatic tumor spread has been demonstrated to depend on the degree of myometrial involvement, the definition of the latter with imaging techniques may significantly affect both pfognosis and therapy. We investigated, by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T, 14 patients with endometrial carcinoma, to assess both tumor stage and myometrial involvement. FIGO staging system was employed, and M parameter evaluated (M0= no myometrial involvement; M1involvement confined to the inner third; M2= Involvement confined to the middle third; M3= involvement of the whole myometrium). Another parameter was the characteristic high signal of the tumor on PD and T2W images. The patients were then operated and MR information was correlated with surgical findings. Overall diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging was 85.7% in tumor staging, and 92.2% in defining M parameter. Tumor spread into adnexa and into cervical canal was poorly demonstrated by MR imaging

  7. Imunoterapia tópica no tratamento do carcinoma basocelular periocular Topical immunotherapy for the treatment of periocular basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Marcet Santiago de Macedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um paciente com carcinoma basocelular nodular em canto medial tratado com imiquimode creme 5%. A avaliação patológica de uma biópsia incisional realizada 12 semanas após o tratamento revelou a total resolução da lesão. Embora a cirurgia permaneça como tratamento de primeira escolha, a imunoterapia com imiquimode creme 5% surge como uma opção terapêutica válida para o tratamento ambulatorial do carcinoma basocelular periocular.The authors describe a patient with a medial canthal nodular basal cell carcinoma treated with Imiquimod 5% cream. Pathologic evaluation of an incisional biopsy performed 12 weeks after treatment revealed complete resolution of local disease. Although the treatment of choice continues to be surgery, topical immunotherapy with imiquimod 5% cream is an emerging therapeutic option suitable for the outpatient treatment of periocular basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Carcinomas epidermóides do pulmão na doença vibroacústica Respiratory squamous cell carcinomas in vibroacoustic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reis Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Enquadramento: Em 1987, observou-se durante a autópsia de um doente com doença vibroacústica (VAD dois tumores: Um carcinoma de células renais e um glioma maligno cerebral. Desde 1987, tem-se vigiado o aparecimento de tumores em doentes com a VAD. Até à data, num universo de 945 indivíduos, há 46 casos de tumores malignos, dos quais 11 são múltiplos. Dos 11 casos de tumores do aparelho respiratório, todos eram carcinomas epidermóides (CE. O presente estudo aborda as características morfológicas destes tumores. Métodos: Foram recolhidos fragmentos destes tumores (biópsia endoscópica ou cirúrgica de 11 doentes do sexo masculino (idade média: 58±9 anos, 3 não fumadores: 2 na glote e 9 no pulmão. Dos 3 não fumadores, 2 tinham tumores do pulmão e 1 tinha tumor da glote. Todos eram trabalhadores ou reformados da indústria aeronáutica, pilotos militares ou de linhas comerciais. Foram fixados fragmentos para microscopia óptica e electrónica. Para os estudos imuno-histoquímicos usou-se coloração com cromagranina e sinaptofisina. Resultados: Todos os tumores pulmonares se localizaram no brônquio do lobo superior direito, e a sua histologia era de tumores epidermóides pouco diferenciados. A pesquisa com marcadores neuroendócrinos foi negativa. Nove doentes faleceram. Os 2 sobreviventes são grandes fumadores (> 2 maços/dia. A média de idade de aparecimento do tumor em pilotos de helicóptero estava abaixo dos 50 anos, enquanto para os outros dois grupos profissionais era superior a 50. Os hábitos tabágicos não tiveram influência na progressão e desfecho dos casos. Conclusões: O CE constitui aproximadamente 40% dos tumores pulmonares na população em geral. Face aos actuais resultados, torna-se muito importante especificar o tipo histológico exacto do tumor em todos os estudos estatísticos. Não surpreende a idade mais jovem de início dos tumores em pilotos de helicóptero, atendendo aos resultados dos estudos

  9. Spectral CT imaging in the differential diagnosis of necrotic hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.; Guo, L.; Hu, C.; Chen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the value of CT spectral imaging in the differential diagnosis of necrotic hepatocellular carcinoma (nHCC) and hepatic abscess (HA) during the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP). Materials and methods: Sixty patients with 36 nHCCs and 24 HAs underwent spectral CT during AP and PP. Iodine or water concentration were measured and the normalized iodine concentration (NIC) and lesion-normal parenchyma iodine concentration ratio (LNR) were calculated. The two-sample t-test was used to compare quantitative parameters. Two readers qualitatively assessed lesion types according to imaging features. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. Results: NIC and LNR in the AP for the wall of nHCC (0.14 ± 0.04 mg/ml; 2.77 ± 0.74) were higher than those of HA (0.13 ± 0.02 mg/ml; 1.4 ± 0.9). NIC and LNR in the PP for the wall of HA (0.66 ± 0.05 mg/ml; 1.2 ± 0.2) were higher than those of nHCC (0.5 ± 0.11 mg/ml; 0.94 ± 0.12). The differences in NIC in the AP were not significant but the differences in LNR in AP, and NIC and LNR in the PP were significant. The best quantitative parameter was LNR in AP, and a threshold of 1.52 would yield a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91.7%, respectively, for differentiating nHCC from HA. Conclusion: CT spectral imaging with quantitative iodine concentration analysis may help to increase the accuracy of differentiating nHCC from HA. - Highlights: • We preliminarily investigate the usefulness of CT spectral imaging in differentiating nHCC from HA. • CT spectral imaging may help differentiate necrotic hepatocellular carcinoma from hepatic abscess. • CT spectral imaging can evaluate the blood supply and necrotic degree of lesions. • Quantitative analysis of iodine concentration provides greater diagnostic confidence

  10. Biopsy Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma by the Combination of Morphological and Spectral Methods Based on Embedded Relay Lens Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    Cytopathological examination through biopsy is very important for carcinoma detection. The embedded relay lens microscopic hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-MHIS) provides a morphological image of a biopsy sample and the spectrum of each pixel in the image simultaneously. Based on the ERL-MHIS, this work develops morphological and spectral methods to diagnose oral carcinoma biopsy. In morphological discrimination, the fractal dimension method is applied to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues. In spectral identification, normal and cancerous cells are distinguished using five methods. However, the spectra of normal and cancerous cells vary with patient. The diagnostic performances of the five methods are thus not ideal. Hence, the proposed cocktail approach is used to determine the effectiveness of the spectral methods in correlating with the sampling conditions. And then we use a combination of effective spectral methods according to the sample conditions for diagnosing a sample. A total of 68 biopsies from 34 patients are analyzed using the ERL-MHIS. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of 90 ± 4.53 % and a specificity of 87.8 ± 5.21 %. Furthermore, in our survey, this system is the first time utilized to study oral carcinoma biopsies.

  11. In vivo image of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU in HSV-TK gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, T. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, C. W. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The extent of gene delivery and expression in gene therapy with suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is assessed with measurement of selective localization of radioiodinated HSV-tk substrates in HSV-tk expressing tumor. We compared n vitro uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU, IVFRU and in vivo image of HSV-tk gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma model. Using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(hydrogen peroxide), IVDU and IVFRU was radiolabeled as carrier free form. The uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU IVFRU was determined with increasing incubation periods in MCA-tk and MCA cell line (1X10{sup 6}cell/flask). The cell harvested and counted after incubation of 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 minutes. For estimating accumulation of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing tumor, MCA-tk cells (1 X 10{sup 6}/100 {mu}l) injected intramuscularly into right thigh of buffalo rats. To determine selective localization of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats, MCA-tk cells (1X 10{sup 7} cell/100 {mu}l) were injected subcutaneously into both shoulders of buffalo rats. Established tumor mass implanted into liver of buffalo rats using intra-hepatic tumor injection. Two weeks later, {sup 123}I labelled IVDU, IVFRU(7.4 X 10{sup 7}Bq/200 {mu}l) injected intravenously into tail veins of each buffalo rats. Gamma camera used as revealing localization of {sup 123}I-IVDU, IVFRU in MCA-tk cells grafts rats and in vivo image was taken 2 hrs, 24 hrs after injection. radioiodinated IVDU, IVFRU were radiolabeled with {sup 123}I as labeling yield 70%, {sup 125}I as 84%. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA cell line, but in MCA-tk cell line, increased uptake was observed. The ratio of MCA-tk to MCA was up to 116-fold in {sup 125}I-IVDU, up to 37-fold in {sup 125}I-IVFRU at 480 min. The uptake of IVDU was 4 times higher than IVFRU in MCA-tk cells. Gamma camera images of HSV-tk gene tranduced MCA tumor showed accumulation of {sup 123}I

  12. Assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of contrast-enhanced US and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Taira, Junichi; Imai, Yasuharu; Shiraishi, Junji; Saito, Kazuhiro; Saguchi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    To compare contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodule (DN), with CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) as the reference standard. This study included 54 consecutively diagnosed patients, with 57 histologically confirmed HCCs and 3 DNs (high-grade). All patients underwent CE ultrasound, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and CTHA. Two trained diagnostic radiologists interpreted the CTHA images and rated the degree of intratumoral arterial vascularity by consensus using a five-point confidence scale as the reference standard. In the observer study, the degrees of vascularity on CE ultrasound and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR images were qualitatively analysed by four independent readers using a five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracies of the average area under the ROC curve (AUC) were significantly greater with CE ultrasound (average AUC: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.00) than with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging (average AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, P = 0.0014). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound yields a significantly higher AUC value than gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of HCC and DN. Key Points circle Arterial hypervascularity is an important feature determining treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma. circle It can be assessed by contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. circle CE ultrasound was more accurate than Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI in assessing intratumoral vascularity. circle Hypovascular hepatic nodules should be further investigated using CE ultrasound. (orig.)

  13. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed.

  14. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison between gadolinium and ironoxide enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Fauda, V.; Scaramuzza, D.; Vergnaghi, D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to compare prospectively dynamic gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HCC and liver cirrhosis (28% of them in B or C Child class) underwent dynamic Gd-enhanced MRI and, a few days later, (mean interval: three days) SPIO-enhanced MRI. Only patients with availability of clinical and imaging follow-up for at least seven months were enrolled in this prospective study. MR images were reviewed by two independent radiologists. The readers scored each lesion for the presence of HCC and assigned confidence levels based on a five-grade scale: 1, definitely or almost definitely absent; 2, possibly present; 3, probably present; 4, definitely present; 5, definitely present with optimal liver/lesion contrast or good liver/lesion contrast and morphological signs (intact capsule, intranodular septa, extracapsular infiltration), useful for locoregional treatment planning. A positive diagnostic value was assessed for scores of 3 or higher. Gd-enhanced and SPIO-enhanced MRI found 44 lesions. Eight of twelve lesions visible with a single contrast agent measured less than 1 cm in diameter. HCC detectability was 75% with Gd-enhanced MRI and 97.7% with SPIO-enhanced MRI. SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE images showed significantly higher diagnostic value than SPIO-enhanced T1-T2*GRE images only in three cases, while nodule morphological characteristics (capsule, septa, different cell differentiation components) were better depicted by TSE images. In thi study the combined use of SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE and T1-T2*-weighted GRE sequences showed higher sensitivity than gadolinium-enhanced GRE dynamic imaging (97.7% versus 75%). These results are at least partly related to our study conditions, that is: 1)MRI was performed with a 1T system, 2) both axial and sagittal SPIO-enhanced imaging were performed with respiratory

  16. Carcinoma mucinoso invasor da mama e seus diagnósticos diferenciais em biópsia por agulha grossa: revisão da literatura Mucinous invasive carcinoma of the breast and its differential diagnosis by core biopsy: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Zanetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A biópsia por agulha grossa (BAG, ou core biopsy, é uma técnica utilizada para retirar pequenos cilindros de tecido mamário. Além de lesões palpáveis, o desenvolvimento de técnicas radiológicas acuradas de localização de lesões mamárias difundiu o uso da BAG como primeira abordagem histológica de lesões não palpáveis. O diagnóstico diferencial do carcinoma mucinoso com lesões mucinosas benignas por BAG pode ser desafiador, principalmente se a lesão apresentar extravasamento de mucina. A acurácia do diagnóstico nesses casos é de extrema relevância para determinar o tipo de procedimento a ser realizado e o tratamento a ser seguido. Este estudo traz revisão e atualização da literatura sobre carcinoma mucinoso invasor da mama e seus diagnósticos diferenciais, com ênfase nos desafios para diagnóstico por intermédio da BAG. Entre os diagnósticos diferenciais estão alterações fibrocísticas com mucina luminal, lesões mucinosas papilares e mucocele-símile (que variam desde as benignas até aquelas associadas a hiperplasia ductal atípica e carcinoma ductal in situ. Alterações mucinosas também podem ser encontradas em uma variedade de lesões, como fibroadenoma e tumor phyllodes, adenoma pleomórfico e mucinose nodular. Conclui-se que a BAG é uma técnica confiável para diagnóstico de carcinoma mucinoso da mama e seus diagnósticos diferenciais, porém, em casos de dúvida ou de escassez de material, é prudente realizar biópsia excisional para melhor esclarecimento do diagnóstico.The needle core biopsy is a technique applied to remove small cylinders of breast tissue. The development of accurate radiological techniques for location of breast lesions has spread the use of core biopsy as the first histological approach to non-palpable lesions. The differential diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma and benign mucinous lesions by core biopsy may be challenging, mainly when the lesion shows mucin extravasation. The

  17. Carcinoma of the cervix. Value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing early stromal invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yumi; Aoki, Yoichi; Kase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Shoji; Tanaka, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dynamic MR imaging) in the evaluation of preinvasive and early invasive cancer of the cervix. Twenty-nine women with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with either no stromal invasion or early stromal invasion underwent pretreatment MR imaging and dynamic MR imaging within 4 weeks of surgical evaluation. The images were evaluated for tumor detection and compared with results of histologic examination of the surgical specimens. The lesions in 17 cases with histologically proven stromal invasion of 4 mm or greater were detected with dynamic MR imaging, whereas lesions in only 8 of these cases were detected with T2 imaging. In 9 cases with stromal invasion between 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm, lesions were represented as early phase focal enhancement on dynamic MR images, but not detected on T2-weighted images. In the 12 cases with less than 4 mm stromal invasion, no lesions were visualized on either T2-weighted images or dynamic MR images, except in 1 case of glandular involvement without stromal invasion that appeared as enhancement on early-phase dynamic MR imaging. Dynamic MR imaging detected more lesions of early stromal invasion in pretreatment imaging for cervical cancer than nonenhanced MR imaging. (author)

  18. Renal cell carcinoma metastases to the pancreas - Value of arterial phase imaging at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, Michael T.; Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P.; Wilson, Machelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pancreas is an increasingly recognized site of renal cell carcinoma metastases. It is important to determine the optimal MDCT protocol to best detect RCC metastases to the pancreas. Purpose: To compare the rate of detection of renal cell carcinoma metastases to the pancreas between arterial and portal venous phase MDCT. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of CTs of the abdomen yielded six patients with metastatic RCC to the pancreas. Five of six patients had pathologically proven clear cell RCC. Two blinded reviewers independently reported the number of pancreatic lesions seen in arterial and venous phases. Each lesion was graded as definite or possible. The number of lesions was determined by consensus review of both phases. Attenuation values were obtained for metastatic lesions and adjacent normal pancreas in both phases. Results: There were a total of 24 metastatic lesions to the pancreas. Reviewer 1 identified 20/24 (83.3%) lesions on the arterial phase images and 13/24 (54.2%) lesions on the venous phase. Seventeen of 20 (85.0%) arterial lesions were deemed definite and 9/13 (69.2%) venous lesions were definite. Reviewer 2 identified 19/24 (79.2%) lesions on the arterial phase and 14/24 (58.3%) on the venous phase. Seventeen of 19 (89.5%) arterial lesions were definite and 7/14 (50%) venous lesions were definite. Mean attenuation differential between lesion and pancreas was 114 HU and 39 HU for arterial and venous phases, respectively (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Detection of RCC metastases to the pancreas at MDCT is improved using arterial phase imaging compared to portal venous phase imaging

  19. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of colorectal, lung and ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, N.; Lu, B.; Lu, X.; Sha, X.; Yue, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic value of radioimmnoimaging (RII) with 99 Tc labeled monoclonal antibody C50, raised originally against carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) in various tumors. 152 pathologically confirmed patients with a tumor were imaged prior to surgery with an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody labeled with 99 Tc. There were 115 patients with ovarian carcinoma, 26 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 11 patients with lung carcinoma. Images were acquired at 3-6 h post injection and were analyzed by the double blind method. Images of patients with ovarian cancer were compared with B-ultrasound images. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on all cases of colorectal cancer. All RII images demonstrated excellent contrast, clear lesions, and no serious toxic or other side reactions occurred. Transient chills and fever were observed in 3 cases. This study showed a sensitivity=88.2%, specificity=83.2%, and an accuracy=4.0%. The smallest lesion size detected was 2 x 2 cm. The total combined lesion detection rate for primary, metastatic, and recurrence lesions was 84.4%. We conclude that 99 Tc labeled anti-CEA MoAb C50 can be used in the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and lung carcinoma

  20. Local control and image diagnosis of cases of esophageal carcinoma treated by external and intracavitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Discussions are made on local control of 31 cases of esophageal carcinoma which were treated by external and intracavitary irradiation between May 1980 and March 1983. X-ray and endoscopic findings have been used for the image diagnosis. Before the begining of radiotherapy, types of esophageal carcinoma were determined from X-ray findings according to Borrmann's classification. There were 10 cases of types 1 and 2, and 21 cases of types 3 and 4. After completion of external and intracvitary irradiation, all 10 cases of types 1 and 2 were locally controlled. Of the 21 cases of types 3 and 4, 8 cases which developed stenosis or deep ulcer after external irradiation all failed in local control. The remaining 13 cases of types 3 and 4 were locally controlled except 2 by radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Management of hilar bile duct carcinoma with high-dose radiotherapy and expandable metallic stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroya; Takamura, Akio

    2000-01-01

    This article describes our experience with high-dose radiotherapy in combination with the placement of expandable metallic stents (EMS) in the management of hilar bile duct carcinoma. Between 1988 and 1999, 107 consecutive patients with hilar bile duct carcinoma were treated with EMS placement either alone or in combination with high-dose radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was indicated in 101 patients, and in 86 this was combined with intraluminal 192 Ir irradiation (ILRT, 59-98 Gy) EMS were placed after the completion of radiotherapy. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates for the radiotherapy group were 66.4%, 23.4%, 15.6%, 7.8%, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year actuarial survival rates for the nonradiotherapy group were 66.4% and 0%, respectively. The placement of EMS was useful for the early establishment of an internal bile passage in radically irradiated patients and the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial patency rates for the radiotherapy group were 56.3%, 45.3%, 35.2%, and 23.4%, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year actuarial patency rates for the non radiotherapy group were 50.0% and 0% respectively. High-dose radiotherapy, consisting of ILRT and EBRT, appears to be feasible in the management of hilar bile duct carcinoma, and it offers a survival advantage for patients no suited for surgical resection. The placement of EMS assists the internal bile flow and lengthens survival after high-dose radiotherapy. (author)

  2. The destruction complex of beta-catenin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourroul, Guilherme Muniz; Fragoso, Hélio José; Gomes, José Walter Feitosa; Bourroul, Vivian Sati Oba; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Gomes, Thiago Simão; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Palma, Rogério Tadeu; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the destruction complex of beta-catenin by the expression of the proteins beta-catetenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3β, axin and ubiquitin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma. Tissue samples from 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 53 patients with colonic adenoma were analyzed. Tissue microarray blocks and slides were prepared and subjected to immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies in carcinoma, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and adenoma tissues. The immunoreactivity was evaluated by the percentage of positive stained cells and by the intensity assessed through of the stained grade of proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. In the statistical analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient, Student's t, χ2, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests, and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. In colorectal carcinoma, the expressions of beta-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins were significantly higher than in colonic adenomas (pcitoplasma e no núcleo das células. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, os testes t de Student, χ2, Mann-Whitney e de McNemar, e a análise de regressão logística univariada. No carcinoma colorretal, as expressões da betacatenina e da adenomatous polyposis coli foram significativamente maiores do que em adenomas do colo (p<0,001 e p<0,0001, respectivamente). A imunorreatividade das proteínas GSK3β, axina 1 e ubiquitina foi significativamente maior (p=0,03, p=0,039 e p=0,03, respectivamente) no carcinoma colorretal do que no adenoma e na mucosa não neoplásica adjacente. A coloração imuno-histoquímica dessas proteínas não apresentou diferenças significantes em relação às características clinicopatológicas do câncer colorretal e do adenoma. Em adenomas, as menores expressões de betacatenina, axina 1 e GSK3β indicaram que o complexo de destruição da betacatenina estava conservado, enquanto que, no carcinoma

  3. Staging of cervical endometrial carcinoma using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela, A. C.; Oleaga, L.; Cura del, J. L.; Grande, J.; Grande, D.

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate the benefits of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the staging of endometrial carcinoma and to compare the results of the spin echo (SE) sequence in T2 with the results of the pos gadolinium intravenous study. We have studied 51 women diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma by means of a D and C and confirmed surgically using T1 equipment. All of them have had SE T1 axial sequences, SE in protonic density (PD) and T'' on an axial and sagittal plane carried out on them and 32 cases were studied after the administration of gadolinium intravenously (i. V.). We have valued the depth of the myometrial infiltration and the cervical invasion. The positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (VPV) of the MRI to value the deep infiltration of the endometrium were 87.9% and 77.8% respectively. In the 32 cases where we administered gadolinium we obtained a PPV of 90% and a NPV of 83.8%, in both the SE T2 study and the contrast study. In the diagnosis of the cervical invasion we have obtained PPV and NPV values of 75% and 88.1% respectively. In the group of the 32 cases that had the contrast agent administered, we have obtained the same results in both the series: PPV of 80% and NPV of 85.2%. We have found a high correlation index between the staging using MRI and pathological anatomy, especially in stages I and II of the IFGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstretics) classification. The use of gadolinium has not varied the results obtained with the SE T2 series. (Author) 18 refs

  4. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, Christine; Egeland, Tormod A.M.; Gulliksrud, Kristine M.Sc.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cervical cancer and highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival rates. The potential usefulness of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing tumor hypoxia noninvasively was investigated in the present preclinical study. Methods and Materials: CK-160 and TS-415 human cervical carcinoma xenografts transplanted intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in BALB/c nu/nu mice were subjected to DCE-MRI and measurement of fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K trans (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v e (the extracellular volume fraction of the imaged tissue) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data. Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells was measured by using the paired survival curve method. Results: Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells differed significantly among the four tumor groups. The mean values ± SE were determined to be 44% ± 7% (i.m. CK-160), 77% ± 10% (s.c. CK-160), 23% ± 5% (i.m. TS-415), and 52% ± 6% (s.c. TS-415). The four tumor groups differed significantly also in K trans , and there was an unambiguous inverse relationship between K trans and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. On the other hand, significant differences among the groups in v e could not be detected. Conclusions: The study supports the clinical development of DCE-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in carcinoma of the cervix

  7. Optimal data replication: A new approach to optimizing parallel EM algorithms on a mesh-connected multiprocessor for 3D PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.M.; Lee, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    The EM algorithm promises an estimated image with the maximal likelihood for 3D PET image reconstruction. However, due to its long computation time, the EM algorithm has not been widely used in practice. While several parallel implementations of the EM algorithm have been developed to make the EM algorithm feasible, they do not guarantee an optimal parallelization efficiency. In this paper, the authors propose a new parallel EM algorithm which maximizes the performance by optimizing data replication on a mesh-connected message-passing multiprocessor. To optimize data replication, the authors have formally derived the optimal allocation of shared data, group sizes, integration and broadcasting of replicated data as well as the scheduling of shared data accesses. The proposed parallel EM algorithm has been implemented on an iPSC/860 with 16 PEs. The experimental and theoretical results, which are consistent with each other, have shown that the proposed parallel EM algorithm could improve performance substantially over those using unoptimized data replication

  8. Molecular Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Affibody Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a highly aggressive and lethal cancer. It is typically asymptomatic at the early stage, with only 10%–20% of HCC patients being diagnosed early enough for appropriate surgical treatment. The delayed diagnosis of HCC is associated with limited treatment options and much lower survival rates. Therefore, the early and accurate detection of HCC is crucial to improve its currently dismal prognosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been reported to be involved in HCC tumorigenesis and to represent an attractive target for HCC imaging and therapy. In this study, an affibody molecule, Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907, targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR, was used for the first time to assess its potential to detect HCC xenografts. By evaluating radio- or fluorescent-labeled Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 as a probe for positron emission tomography (PET or optical imaging of HCC, subcutaneous EGFR-positive HCC xenografts were found to be successfully imaged by the PET probe. Thus, affibody-based PET imaging of EGFR provides a promising approach for detecting HCC in vivo.

  9. MR imaging of the liver before and after transcatheter hepatic chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Shindou, H.; Ono, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Mabuchi, N.; Arita, S.; Fujii, K.; Hamada, T.; Ishida, O.; Miyakoshi, K.; Uto, T.; Kinki Univ., Osaka

    1990-01-01

    Transcatheter chemo-embolization (TCE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed in 38 patients. The patients were examined by MR imaging before TCE as well as one week and 4 to 5 weeks after TCE. The tumor signal intensity in T2 weighted images increased in 13 cases and decreased in 19 cases after TCE. Increased intensity seemed to reflect intra-tumoral hemorrhage or liquefaction accompanying tumor necrosis. Decreased intensity seemed to reflect coagulation necrosis. In 9 of 18 cases followed over a 2-month period the signal intensity had decreased in both T1 and T2 weighted images. In these patients the tumor showed no recurrence at angiography and the decreased signal seemed to reflect the completion of coagulation necrosis. A hyper- and/or hypointense rim around the tumor appeared in 22 cases. These changes were thought to be perifocal edema or granulation tissue around the tumor. MR imaging was useful in evaluating the necrotic process of the tumor after TCE. (orig.)

  10. A Case of Patella Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kang, Chang Suk

    2009-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of progressive left knee pain for two months. He had a history of total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection due to papillary thyroid carcinoma three months ago. MRI images revealed a solid mass in the left patella. A solid mass demonstrated low signal on T1 weighed image, and high signal on T2 weighed image. And whole body bone scan showed focal photon defect in same lesion of left patella. The histologic result of left knee lesion was adenocarcinoma, consistent with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although patellar metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, when knee pain and radiologic abnormality are noted, differential diagnosis of metastasis is necessary

  11. Use of imaging in assessing lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Staging of bronchogenic carcinoma, invasive primary tumors, tracheal or carinal involvement, chest wall invasion, mediastinal invasion, malignant pleural effusion, lymph node metastases, mediastinal nodes, hilar masses briefly discussed (47 refs.).

  12. Use of imaging in assessing lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Staging of bronchogenic carcinoma, invasive primary tumors, tracheal or carinal involvement, chest wall invasion, mediastinal invasion, malignant pleural effusion, lymph node metastases, mediastinal nodes, hilar masses briefly discussed (47 refs.)

  13. MR imaging in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with no palpable lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, T.; Sennaroglu, L.; Kaya, S.; Saatci, I.; Cekirge, S.; Aydingoz, U.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of MR imaging in the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with no palpable lymph nodes ('N 0 neck') who have squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. Material and Methods: MR neck imagings in 18 patients who underwent neck dissection (bilaterally in 2) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region were examined preoperatively for the purpose of detecting lymph node metastases. The imaging features taken into consideration were: size (cutoff point 10 mm), grouping, presence of central necrosis, and appearance of extracapsular spread. The MR examinations comprised spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The MR findings were compared with those of surgery and histopathological examination. Results: MR suggested metastatic lymph node involvement in 5 necks. In 2 of these, central necrosis was seen in the enlarged lymph nodes. In a third, a grouping of the lymph nodes was noted. Extracapsular spread was not present. Histopathological examination revealed metastatic lymph nodes in 7 of 20 necks, the rate of clinically occult disease being 35%, and 4 of then had been accurately graded by MR. There was one false-positive MR examination. The MR sensitivity was 57.1% and specificity 92.3%. Conclusion: MR may reveal metastatic lymph nodes in patients with no clinical evidence of metastasis. However, conventional MR techniques are not always sufficient for decision-making on surgery in cases of 'N 0 neck'. (orig.)

  14. Interest of the SPECT-CT to D.M.S.A.-V images merging in the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas; Interets de la fusion d'image TEMP-TDM au DMSA-V dans la prise en charge des carcinomes medullaires de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemani, A.; Mebarki, M.; Slama, A.; Khellil, N.; Meghelli, S.; Lachachi, B.; Krim, M.; Merad, S.; Berber, N. [CHU Tlemcen, Service de medecine nucleaire (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: hybrid imaging associating SPECT and CT, integers functional and anatomical data. The aim of this communication is to present the contribution of the SPECT coupled to CT with D.M.S.A. V. in our daily practice of the medullary thyroid carcinomas management. Conclusions: the SPECT/CT got by a system of images merging allows a better anatomical location and improves the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas. (N.C.)

  15. Principais processos neoplásicos encontrados em psitacídeos mantidos em cativeiro Main neoplasic processes in psittacines birds kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Neri Godoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo anatomopatológico envolvendo 130 psitacídeos oriundos de centros de triagens, zoológicos e criadouros, visando a determinação da causa de morte destes animais, revelou a presença de neoplasias em sete animais, totalizando 5,4% dos casos. Os processos neoplasicos foram caracterizados como colangiocarcinoma, colangioma, linfoma, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma renal primário, sendo o colangiocarcinoma o mais freqüentemente encontrado, presente em três animais. Este trabalho descreve estas neoplasias, levando em consideração os aspectos macro e microscópicos, meios de diagnósticos e espécies acometidas.An anatomopathologic study of 130 captivy psittacines from zoos, breeders and rehabilitation centers showed the presence of neoplastic disease in seven birds, totalizing 5.4% of the cases. The neoplasms were identified like cholangiocarcinoma, cholangioma, lymphoma, haemangiosarcoma and renal cell carcinoma. The cholangiocarcinoma was the tumor most commonly observed. it was present in birds. This study describes the macro and microscopic findings of these tumors; also reports diagnostic methods employed to identify these neoplasms.

  16. Expressão antigênica em carcinomas do plexo coróide humano: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Almeida

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias provenientes do epitélio de revestimento do plexo coróide são inco-muns, tendo sido descritos 6 padrões morfológicos. O padrão anaplásico, também denominado carcinoma do plexo coróide, é o de menor freqüência e pode dar metastases fora do SNC. A distinção histológica desses tumores, particularmente da variedade anaplásica, com outras neoplasias primárias e metastáticas no SNC pode ser difícil. O uso de técnicas imunocitoquimicas em parafina tem-se mostrado útil no esclarecimento das linhagens tumorais. Os papilomas do plexo coróide têm, no entanto, sido objeto de controvérsia, por sua complexa expressão antigênica. Usando a técnica de imunoperoxidase (sistema avidina-biotina-peroxidase pesquisaram-se, em dois casos da variedade anaplásica, os seguintes marcadores: proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP com anticorpo monoclonal e policlonal; ceratinas de 40-50kDa, ceratinas de 60-70kDa (callus ceratina, enolase neuronal específica (NSE e proteína S-100, com anticorpos monoclonais. Os dois tumores mostraram positividade para NSE, proteína S-100 e ceratina de 40-50kDa; uma das duas neoplasias mostrou diferenciação glial, revelando positividade para GFAP tanto com anticorpo monoclonal quanto policlonal.

  17. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico de escolha no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide sempre foi controverso. OBJETIVO: Analisar o acometimento tumoral do lobo contralateral da tireóide no carcinoma diferenciado, correlacionando risco e benefício com as complicações decorrentes da segunda intervenção. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de 1998 a 2006, com 27 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia menos que total, sendo 21 lobectomias, cinco tireoidectomias subtotais e uma istmectomia. Foram analisados: gênero, idade, tipo de cirurgia, complicações, histopatológico do espécime cirúrgico e invasão do lobo contralateral. As idades variaram de 17 a 89 anos; o tipo histopatológico mais freqüente foi o carcinoma papilífero clássico (18 casos, seguido do carcinoma folicular (seis casos, do carcinoma papilífero variante folicular (dois casos e do carcinoma de células Hürthle (um caso. Vinte e um pacientes foram submetidos à totalização da tireoidectomia, 15 a 30 dias depois. RESULTADOS: A análise do lobo contralateral foi negativa para carcinoma em 16 (76,5% e positiva nos cinco restantes (23,8%. As complicações observadas foram: disfonia temporária (três casos e hipoparatireoidismo (dois casos, sendo um permanente. CONCLUSÃO: A totalização da tireoidectomia é um procedimento importante no tratamento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide pelo elevado acometimento contralateral (23,8%. A incidência de complicações é pequena.The treatment of choice for the well differentiated thyroid carcinoma has always been controversial. AIM: to analyze tumor invasion of the thyroid gland's contralateral lobe in cases of differentiated carcinoma, correlating risk/benefit with the complications of a second surgical approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study, from 1998 to 2006, of 27 patients undergoing less than total thyroidectomy: lobectomy (21, subtotal thyroidectomy (5 or isthmusectomy (1. Gender, age, type of surgery

  18. Carcinoma epidermoide como complicação letal de lesões crônicas de cromoblastomicose Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cromoblastomicose é uma micose subcutânea, ocasionada por fungos dermatófitos, dos gêneros: Fonsecaea, Phialophora e Cladophialophora. As complicações habituais são: infecções secundárias, linfedema e elefantíase. Em lesões crônicas, tem-se documentado malignização. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 72 anos de idade, com cromoblastomicose de 30 anos de evolução, em região glútea, com desenvolvimento de carcinoma epidermoide.Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Usefulness of dynamic MR imaging for the evaluation of transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyomasu, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Masafumi; Kawakami, Mutsumi; Mashima, Yasuoki; Ichinose, Akira; Endou, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied with dynamic MR imaging in addition to conventional T 1 - and T 2 -weighted and enhanced T 1 -weighted images before and after the treatment of HCC by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Dynamic MR imaging was performed using GRASS (gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state) sequences. The imaging was started at 10 seconds after rapid injection of Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) with 6s breath hold. Thereafter about 12 images were obtained during 6s breath-holding with 20 seconds intervals. On T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images, signal intensity at the tumor tended to increase during the early period after TAE and to decrease later. Intensities of the HCC, however, were heterogeneous. Differentiation among embolic area, necrosis, viable cells and recurrent area, was often difficult only by conventional images. Dynamic GRASS images could clearly demonstrate an embolic area as a region without contrast enhancement. While recurrent tumor could be diagnosed as an area with early enhancement at the arterial phase. Development of the collateral circulation and dominancy of tumor feeding vessels after TAE could also be deduced on dynamic MR images together with enhanced T 1 -weighted images. The dynamic MR imaging was concluded to be a potentially useful procedure for the clinical evaluation of HCC after TAE. (author)

  20. Carcinoma papilífero da tireóide associado à tireoidite de Hashimoto: freqüência e aspectos histopatológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Camboim, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireóide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais freqüente de hipotireoidismo, em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireóide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos, há uma aparente associação entre as duas doenças. Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma p...

  1. Carcinoma de células renais com metástase cutânea: relato de caso Renal cell carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Alves de Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O adenocarcinoma do rim, ou hipernefroma, é a terceira neoplasia mais comum do trato geniturinário, sendo o de células claras o tipo principal, representando 60% dos casos, com pico de incidência entre 50 e 70 anos. A presença de metástase ao diagnóstico acomete em torno de 30% dos pacientes, tendo como principais sítios pulmões, ossos, pele, fígado e cérebro. Relatamos o caso de um paciente portador de carcinoma de células renais com metástase ao diagnóstico que, apesar de inserido na faixa etária predominante, tipo histológico mais frequente e quadro clínico característico, apresentava metástase a distância em local pouco observado na prática clínica. O paciente evoluiu para o óbito sem tempo hábil para o tratamento.Renal cell carcinoma or hypernephroma is the third most common neoplasia of the genitourinary tract. Its most common type, representing 60% of the cases, is the clear cell carcinoma, with an incidence peak between 50 and 70 years. Metastases are present at the time of diagnosis in approximately 30% of the patients, the major sites being lungs, bones, skin, liver, and brain. We report the case of a male patient with renal cell carcinoma, whose age, clinical findings, and tumor histological type matched with the most common ones for that pathology. Nevertheless, he already had distant metastasis in an uncommon site at the time of diagnosis. The patient died without undergoing specific treatment for renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Novel Tc-99m labeled ELR-containing 6-mer peptides for tumor imaging in epidermoid carcinoma xenografts model. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo-Hyoung; Kim, Myoung-Hyoun; Kim, Chang-Guhn

    2013-01-01

    ELR-containing peptides targeting CXCR2 could be the excellent candidate for targeting ligand of molecular tumor imaging. In this study, we had developed two ELR-containing 6-mer peptides and evaluated the diagnostic performance of Tc-99m labeled 6-mer peptides as a molecular imaging agent in murine models bearing KB epidermoid carcinoma. Peptides were synthesized using Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling efficiency with Tc-99m was evaluated using instant thin-layer chromatography. In KB epidermoid cancer-bearing mice, gamma images had acquired and tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio was calculated. Competition and biodistribution studies had performed. Two 6-mer peptides, ELR-ECG and ECG-ELR were successfully synthesized. After radiolabeling procedures with Tc-99m, the complex Tc-99m ELR-ECG and Tc-99m ECG-ELR were prepared in high yield. In the gamma camera imaging of murine model, Tc-99m ELR-ECG was substantially accumulated in the subcutaneously engrafted tumor and tumor uptake had been suppressed by the free ELR co-injection. However, Tc-99m ECG-ELR was minimally accumulated in the tumor. Two ELR-containing 6-mer peptides, ELR-ECG and ECG-ELR, were developed as a molecular imaging agent to target CXCR2 of epidermoid carcinoma. Tc-99m ELR-ECG had showed significant uptake in tumor and it was good candidate for a tumor imaging. (author)

  3. Imaging modalities for staging esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, S.; Pezzi, A.; Brusori, S.; Brusori, G.; Di Simone, M.P.; Gozzetti, G.; Gigli, F.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-four patients affected with thoracic esophageal carcinoma underwent preoperative CT to evaluate the value of this method in both staging and assessing the resectability of esophageal tumors. The authors compared the CTfindings with intraoperative macroscopei ones, pathologic, and bronchoscopic results in mid-high neoplasms. CT staging criteria were drawn from a careful review of literature and from personal experience. thirty-nine patients were submitted to surgery, and esophagectomy was possible in 34 of them. CT diagnostic accuracy was higher in proximal esophageal tumors than in sub-bronchial ones; as for the surgical choice, CT provided fundamental guidelines,especially if the choice was a blunt esophagectomy where it is important to exclude tumoral involvement of the airways (accuracy: 82.6%) or of the aorta (accuracy: 89.7%). CT staging accuracy was limited by the low sensitivity of the method in detecting lymphatic ( local: 66.6%, distant: 64.2%) and hepatic metastates. Combined thoraco-abdominal CT, tracheo-bronchoscopy and liver US, besides MR imgaging and endoscopic US, allow a better preoperative evaluation of esophageal carcinomas

  4. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of experimental soft tissue carcinoma and hemorrhage in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.; Googe, R.E.; Mancuso, A.A.; Scott, K.N.; Hackett, R.H.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    An experimental series in the rabbit was performed to test gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma and hemorrhages induced in the soft tissues. The recognition of both malignant and benign lesions was greatly facilitated on T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of 0.3 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weigth because of reduced T1 relaxation times. Gd-DTPA enhancement reached its maximum after 10-15 minutes and was most apparent in tumor tissue, connective tissue surrounding the tumor and in the area of fresh hemorrhage. (orig.)

  5. Scintimammography: The new role of Technetium-99 m Sestamibi imaging for the diagnosis of breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalkhali, I.; Diggles, L. E.; Cutrone, J. A.; Mishkin, F. S. [Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Iraniha, S. [Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (United States). Surgery

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99-Sestamibi scintimammography has emerged as a new procedure for the imaging of breast tumors, Currently, a large clinical experience has been developed and the results published. At the present time, the major drawback of this procedure appears to be its low sensitivity for the detection of breast carcinomas smaller than 1 cm in diameter. There are other biologic and technical issues that remain to be overcome to optimally image the breasts. Some of these include: development of a dedicated breast imager using nuclear medicine techniques, development of stereotactic needle localization of the abnormalities that demonstrate focal increase uptake in women with normal mammogram and breast physical examination, manufacturing of a breast compression device so that they can immobilize the breast in place for more adequate imaging, overcoming the issue of unilateral or bilateral diffuse breast uptake that is noted in 7 - 10 percent of the cases and finally determination of optimal dose and imaging factors. This review includes their experience at Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center with the use of this agent for breast imaging since 1992.

  6. Scintimammography: The new role of Technetium-99 m Sestamibi imaging for the diagnosis of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalkhali, I.; Diggles, L. E.; Cutrone, J. A.; Mishkin, F. S.; Iraniha, S.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99-Sestamibi scintimammography has emerged as a new procedure for the imaging of breast tumors, Currently, a large clinical experience has been developed and the results published. At the present time, the major drawback of this procedure appears to be its low sensitivity for the detection of breast carcinomas smaller than 1 cm in diameter. There are other biologic and technical issues that remain to be overcome to optimally image the breasts. Some of these include: development of a dedicated breast imager using nuclear medicine techniques, development of stereotactic needle localization of the abnormalities that demonstrate focal increase uptake in women with normal mammogram and breast physical examination, manufacturing of a breast compression device so that they can immobilize the breast in place for more adequate imaging, overcoming the issue of unilateral or bilateral diffuse breast uptake that is noted in 7 - 10 percent of the cases and finally determination of optimal dose and imaging factors. This review includes their experience at Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center with the use of this agent for breast imaging since 1992

  7. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouli, Bachir [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Hoshida, Yujin; Chen, Xintong; Sun, Xiaochen; Kojima, Kensuke; Toffanin, Sara; Hirschfield, Hadassa [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kakite, Suguru [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City (Japan); Tan, Poh Seng [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); National University Health System, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medicine Cluster, Singapore (Singapore); Kihira, Shingo [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fiel, M.I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Wagner, Mathilde [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Llovet, Josep M. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Universitat de Barcelona, HCC Translational Research Laboratory, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer Group Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    In this preliminary study, we examined whether imaging-based phenotypes are associated with reported predictive gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight patients (M/F 30/8, mean age 61 years) who underwent pre-operative CT or MR imaging before surgery as well as transcriptome profiling were included in this IRB-approved single-centre retrospective study. Eleven qualitative and four quantitative imaging traits (size, enhancement ratios, wash-out ratio, tumour-to-liver contrast ratios) were assessed by three observers and were correlated with 13 previously reported HCC gene signatures using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-nine HCC tumours (mean size 5.7 ± 3.2 cm) were assessed. Significant positive associations were observed between certain imaging traits and gene signatures of aggressive HCC phenotype (G3-Boyault, Proliferation-Chiang profiles, CK19-Villanueva, S1/S2-Hoshida) with odds ratios ranging from 4.44-12.73 (P <0.045). Infiltrative pattern at imaging was significantly associated with signatures of microvascular invasion and aggressive phenotype. Significant but weak associations were also observed between each enhancement ratio and tumour-to-liver contrast ratios and certain gene expression profiles. This preliminary study demonstrates a correlation between phenotypic imaging traits with gene signatures of aggressive HCC, which warrants further prospective validation to establish imaging-based surrogate markers of molecular phenotypes in HCC. (orig.)

  8. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taouli, Bachir; Hoshida, Yujin; Chen, Xintong; Sun, Xiaochen; Kojima, Kensuke; Toffanin, Sara; Hirschfield, Hadassa; Kakite, Suguru; Tan, Poh Seng; Kihira, Shingo; Fiel, M.I.; Wagner, Mathilde; Llovet, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined whether imaging-based phenotypes are associated with reported predictive gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight patients (M/F 30/8, mean age 61 years) who underwent pre-operative CT or MR imaging before surgery as well as transcriptome profiling were included in this IRB-approved single-centre retrospective study. Eleven qualitative and four quantitative imaging traits (size, enhancement ratios, wash-out ratio, tumour-to-liver contrast ratios) were assessed by three observers and were correlated with 13 previously reported HCC gene signatures using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-nine HCC tumours (mean size 5.7 ± 3.2 cm) were assessed. Significant positive associations were observed between certain imaging traits and gene signatures of aggressive HCC phenotype (G3-Boyault, Proliferation-Chiang profiles, CK19-Villanueva, S1/S2-Hoshida) with odds ratios ranging from 4.44-12.73 (P <0.045). Infiltrative pattern at imaging was significantly associated with signatures of microvascular invasion and aggressive phenotype. Significant but weak associations were also observed between each enhancement ratio and tumour-to-liver contrast ratios and certain gene expression profiles. This preliminary study demonstrates a correlation between phenotypic imaging traits with gene signatures of aggressive HCC, which warrants further prospective validation to establish imaging-based surrogate markers of molecular phenotypes in HCC. (orig.)

  9. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 10(th)most common malignancy and the 4(th)largest cancer killer in adults. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries. This is a retrospective research study done during the period of 2011-2015. This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, examined in the period of 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The imaging diagnostics are performed with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens, MSCT Emotion 6 Siemens, and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens, biopsy guide with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK; while the histopathology diagnostics has been performed in Clinic of Pathology at UCCK and prevalence is taken from the number of cases Reported at the Institute of Oncology Institute of Statistics and NIPH (National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo). Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer, results is female 39.5% (n=143) and male 61.5% (n=219), report M: F (1: 1.6), 286 cases resulted in head and neck 79 % (n=286), 76 cases resulted in body and tail cancers (21%), distant metastases in first imaging modality were found in(n=155) patients 43 %, local infiltration was found in patients: gastric infiltration 15 % (n=54), duodenal and papilla infiltration 26% (n=94), local infiltration spleen 16% (n=57), local infiltration mesentery 43 % (n= 155), dilated biliary tree 34 % (n=123), regional lymph node infiltration 83 % (n= 300). Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer

  10. SD118-Xanthocillin X (1, a Novel Marine Agent Extracted from <em>Penicillium> communeem>, Induces Autophagy through the Inhibition of the MEK/ERK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiguo Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound named SD118-xanthocillin X (1 (C18H12N2O2, isolated from <em>Penicillium> <em>commune> in a deep-sea sediment sample, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines <em>in vitroem>. In the present study, we employed a growth inhibition assay and apoptotic analysis to identify the biological effect and detailed mechanism of SD118-xanthocillin X (1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells. SD118-xanthocillin X (1 demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells and caused slight cellular apoptosis and significantly induced autophagy. Autophagy was detected as early as 12 h by the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I to LC3-II, following cleavage and lipid addition to LC3-I. The pharmacological autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely attenuates the growth inhibition and autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1 in HepG2 cells. Our data also indicated that the autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1 occurs via the down-regulation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the up-regulated class III PI3K/Beclin 1 signaling pathway.

  11. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P. [National University of Athens, Dept. of Pathology, Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade.

  12. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade

  13. Dermatologia comparativa: paquidermatoglifia adquirida associada a carcinoma gástrico avançado Comparative Dermatology: acquired pachydermatoglyphia associated with advanced gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ribas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Demonstra-se um caso de paquidermatoglifia adquirida em paciente do sexo masculino, de 67 anos, associada a carcinoma gástrico avançado. Trata-se de síndrome paraneoplásica com manifestações cutâneas que podem ser comparadas à superfície rugosa do estômago bovino.We report the case of a 67-year-old man suffering from acquired pachydermatoglyphia associated with advanced gastric carcinoma. This is a paraneoplasic syndrome with skin manifestations that may be compared to the wrinkled surface of the bovine stomach.

  14. Correlation between podoplanin expression and extracapsular spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity using subjective immunoreactivity scores and semiquantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The correlation between podoplanin expression and extracapsular spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of podoplanin expression for this parameter. Subjective immunoreactivity scores and semiquantitative image analysis of podoplanin expression were performed in 67 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and in their corresponding lymph nodes. Neck classification showed 34 cases (51%) of pN0 and 33 cases (49%) of pN+. Correlation between the levels of podoplanin expression and the histopathological data was established. In lymph nodes, a high level of podoplanin expression correlated with the presence of extracapsular spread by multivariate analysis (p = .03). A strong correlation between subjective and semiquantitative image analysis was observed (r = 0.77; p < .001). A high level of podoplanin expression in lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma is independently associated with extracapsular spread. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Head Neck 39: 98-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparação entre dois métodos de detecção de DNA de papilomavírus humano em carcinoma epidermoide de lábio Comparison between two methods for human papilomavírus DNA detection in lip squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Demathe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Recentemente o papilomavírus humano (HPV tem sido associado à carcinogênese oral. A metodologia empregada na detecção do vírus é uma das maiores causas observadas da grande variabilidade nas taxas de detecção do HPV. Objetivo: Este estudo comparou a sensibilidade de detecção do DNA do HPV em casos de carcinoma epidermoide de lábio utilizando a amplificação do DNA viral por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR ou nPCR. Material e método: Foram utilizadas 33 amostras provenientes de casos de carcinoma epidermoide de lábio. Para as extrações do DNA utilizou-se o sistema QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Como controle interno utilizou-se o gene da b-globina. Das 33 amostras iniciais, 30 foram positivas para o gene b-globina, sendo utilizadas para detectar o DNA viral. Comparou-se a amplificação do DNA viral pelos métodos da PCR com os oligonucleotídeos MY09/MY11 e nPCR, empregando-se os pares de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MY09/MY11 e, na segunda etapa, o par GP5+/GP6+. O controle positivo para a presença do DNA do HPV utilizado foi a linhagem de células HeLa e, como controle negativo, a mistura de amplificação sem DNA. A análise dos produtos de PCR e nPCR para HPV foi realizada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida a 8%. Resultados: Utilizando-se o método da PCR, a amplificação do DNA do HPV foi constatada em dois casos. Com a nPCR foi verificada presença de DNA viral em 13 das 30 amostras. Conclusão: Com a utilização da nPCR, a detecção do HPV nos casos estudados aumentou mais de seis vezes.Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV has been currently associated with oral carcinogesis. The methodology applied in virus detection is one of the main reasons for the great variability observed in HPV detection. Objectives: This study compared HPV DNA detection efficiency in lip squamous cell carcinoma samples (SCC using viral DNA amplification by PCR or nPCR. Methods: Thirty three samples of lip squamous cell

  16. Synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots and their application in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jianniao; Liu Rongjun; Zhao Yanchun; Peng Yan; Hong Xue; Zhao Shulin [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Xu Qing, E-mail: tianjn58@yahoo.com.cn [Pharmacology Department of Guilin Medical College, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2010-07-30

    We report the imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs. Stable and high PLQY (20%-48%) CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs were synthesized by a stepwise process. Bioconjugation of the core-shell-shell QDs with streptavidin (SA) was successfully applied in immunofluorescent imaging of the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2.2.15. Furthermore, the thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs fluorescence lifetime is longer than fluorescein, so it was first engaged to conjugate with antigen for the determination of protein (AFP) by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  17. Synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots and their application in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jianniao; Liu Rongjun; Zhao Yanchun; Peng Yan; Hong Xue; Zhao Shulin; Xu Qing

    2010-01-01

    We report the imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs. Stable and high PLQY (20%-48%) CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs were synthesized by a stepwise process. Bioconjugation of the core-shell-shell QDs with streptavidin (SA) was successfully applied in immunofluorescent imaging of the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2.2.15. Furthermore, the thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs fluorescence lifetime is longer than fluorescein, so it was first engaged to conjugate with antigen for the determination of protein (AFP) by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  18. Stating of cervical carcinoma using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleaga, L.; Vela, M. C.; Grande, J.; Cura del, J. L.; Grande, D.

    1999-01-01

    The infiltration of the parametrium represents one of the most important factors that determine the prediction and treatment of cervical carcinoma. Our objective is to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging of cervical carcinomas, to establish the reliability of this technique and to carry out a comparative study of the sequences used to demonstrate the parametrial invasion. We have carried out a retrospective study on 44 patients diagnosed with cervix neoplasia, using clinical exploration and performing a biopsy. the MRI studies have been carried out using a 1 Tesla magnet and the sequences used have been SE T1, Se proton density (PD) and T2 and dynamic GRE after administering gadolinium intravenously in the axial and sagital projections. The stages determined by MRI have been compared to the anatomo-pathological stages of the surgical specimens in cases where surgery was carried out and with the clinical stage in cases where no radical surgery was carried out. A diagnosis value of MRI has been determined to demonstrate the parametrial invasion, comparing the SE T2 sequence with the dynamic GE sequence with gadolinium. We calculate the volume of the tumour in the MRI studies to evaluate the difference of the volume between patients with tumoral stages that are clinically surgical and not surgical. MRI determines the invasion of the parametrium with a sensitivity of 88.8%, a specificity of 80% a positive value of 76.1%, a negative predictive value of 90.9% and a reliability of 83.7%. For the SE T2 sequences the sensitivity was 86.6%, the specifity 80%, the posistive predictive value 81.25%, the negative predictive value 85.7% and the reliability 83.3%. For the dynamic GE sequence with intravenous gadolinium the sensitivity was 86.6%, the specificity 86.6%, the positive predictive value 86.6%, the negative predictive value 86.6% and the reliability 86.6%. The use of the dynamic GE sequence after the intravenous administration of

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Ovary: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Song Yi

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of liver. Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in various organs, but metastasis to the ovary is extremely rare. We report MRI finding of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the ovary in a 37-year-old woman who was treated hepatocellular carcinoma transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation a year ago. Pelvic MRI revealed a mass in pelvic cavity with heterogeneous signal intensity and centripetal enhancement. Surgical excision and pathologic examination confirmed metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the ovary.

  20. Frequência do carcinoma basocelular na população menor de 50 anos: estudo do serviço e revisão de literatura Frequency of basal cell carcinoma in a population younger than 50 years of age: clinical study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conde Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna cutânea mais comum em humanos, que pode ser prevenida e diagnosticada precocemente. O propósito deste estudo é apresentar os achados clínicos e microscópicos do carcinoma basocelular na população menor de 50 anos. Realizaram-se exames microscópicos em múltiplos cortes de lesão de pele e fez-se revisão da literatura pertinente.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous neoplasm in humans, and it can be prevented and diagnosed early. The purpose of this study is to present clinical and microscopic findings of basal cell carcinoma in a population younger than 50 years of age. Microscopic examinations of multiple sections of skin lesion have been done, as well as a review of relevant literature.

  1. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen levels in peripheral and draining venous blood in patients with colorectal carcinoma Determinação dos níveis do antígeno carcinoembriônico no sangue periférico e no efluente venoso em doentes com carcinoma colorretal

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    Jaques Waisberg

    2004-06-01

    greater than 5 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: The CEA-p and CEA-d levels in the colorectal carcinoma patients were not shown to be different. The results from this study suggest that, in colorectal neoplasm without venous invasion, there may not be notable CEA drainage from the tumor by the portal vein effluent blood.RACIONAL: O problema da relação entre os níveis de CEA no sangue e o conteúdo de CEA tissular no carcinoma colorretal e os mecanismos de liberação do CEA das células neoplásicas nos tecidos vizinhos à neoplasia e sua conseqüente entrada dentro do sangue periférico são importantes para o entendimento da biologia do carcinoma colorretal. Ainda não foi convenientemente elucidado se o CEA no sangue é drenado principalmente pelo sangue do sistema portal ou pelos linfáticos para o ducto torácico ou, ainda, por ambos os sistemas. OBJETIVO: Estudar o comportamento dos níveis do CEA no sangue periférico (CEA-p e no sangue do efluente venoso (CEA-d de doentes com tumores colorretais operados curativamente. MÉTODO: foram estudados 28 doentes, sendo 12 (42,9% homens e 16 (57,1% mulheres. A média de idade foi de 66,1 anos (43 a 84 anos. Imediatamente após a laparotomia, o sangue venoso periférico foi extraído por punção venosa antecubital e o sangue do efluente venoso coletado da veia principal de drenagem das lesões. Os valores de CEA-p, CEA-d e do gradiente entre o CEA-d e CEA-p abaixo de 5,0 ng/mL foram considerados normais. RESULTADOS: Oito (28,6% doentes foram classificados no estádio A de Dukes, 9 (32,1% no estádio B e 11 (39,3% no estádio C. A neoplasia estava localizada no reto em 14 (50,0%, no cólon transverso em 5 (17,9%, no cólon sigmóide em 4 (14,3%, no ceco e/ou cólon ascendente em 3 (10,7%, e no cólon descendente em 2 (7,1% enfermos. O exame histopatológico revelou adenocarcinoma bem diferenciado em todos os enfermos. Em apenas um (3,6% doente a neoplasia, estadiada como Dukes C, exibia invasão venosa. O gradiente entre os níveis de

  2. Imaging manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingyu; Chen Jianyu; Liang Biling; Hu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging features of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombi. Methods: Thirteen patients with bile duct tumor thrombi proved pathologically underwent imaging examination. MR and CT were performed in 3 cases, and 2 cases had CT only and 8 cases had MRI only. Ultrasonography(US) was performed in all 13 patients. The accuracy of bile duct tumor thrombi detection was compared between US, CT and MRI with Fisher test. Results: Liver tumors and bile duct tumor thrombi were demonstrated in all patients on CT or MRI. Presence of intraluminal soft tissue mass was found in four of five cases on CT, and mild enhancement of the intraluminal mass in the arterial phase was noted, dilated bile duct distal to tumor thrombi was detected in all five patients. Eleven Tumor thrombi showed slight low signal intensity on T 1 WI, slight high signal intensity on T 2 WI, and mild to moderate contrast enhancement on the contrast-enhanced MR images. The MRCP findings of tumor thrombi were as follows: interruption, stricture of the bile ducts or irregular filling defect in the bile ducts with dilated intrahepatic ducts, bile duet was abruptly interrupted or showed a 'rat-tail' stricture (n=5); the common bile duct was filled with tumor thrombi, intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and missing common bile duct was noted on MRCP (n=2). Bile duct tumor thrombi were correctly diagnosed in 7 cases on US, and 12 cases on CT or MRI. Six cases were misdiagnosed or miss-diagnosed on US, and 4 cases were misdiagnosed on CT or MRI. There was no significant difference between US and CT/MRI in diagnosis of bile duct tumor thrombi (P=0.270). Conclusion: CT or MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of HCC with biliary tumor thrombi and for evaluating the extension of thrombi. (authors)

  3. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid-enhanced MR imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison with CT during arterial portography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamba, Masayuki [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Kato, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) was used as an MR contrast agent for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The findings of 25 surgically confirmed HCCs in 19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. T1-, T2- and proton density-weighted spin echo MR images were obtained before and after i.v. injection of 23.6 {mu}M Fe/kg of CSIC. Unenhanced and CSIC-enhanced MR images and images obtained by CT during arterial protography (CT-AP) were correlated with surgical pathology findings. The sensitivities of CSIC-enhanced and unenhanced MR imaging, and CT-AP were 92%, 80%, and 88%, respectively. No significant differences were noted. Portal flow abnormalities demonstrated by CT-AP did not affect the detection of HCC by CSIC-enhanced MR imaging. CSIC-enhancement at MR imaging was a disadvantage in the detection of lesions less than 1 cm in diameter. CSIC-enhanced MR imaging is a supplemental method for the detection of HCC. (orig.).

  4. Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozmen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common urothelial neoplasm to involve the upper urinary tract and bladder. Prognosis significantly worsens with deeper invasion. The role of imaging is to detect the tiniest urothelial neoplasms while still potentially resectable and curable. In case of advance disease, imaging should identify the extent of disease. Intravenous or retrograde urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging have been used for diagnosis of TCC. The diagnostic performances of these imaging modalities differ from each other. A recent review regarding imaging of TCC by Razavi et al states that the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for the detection of TCC of upper urinary tract for CT urography (CTU), MR urography, excretory urography, and retrograde urography were 96%/99%, 69%/97%, 80%/81%, and 96%/96%, respectively. For detecting bladder cancer, the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for CT cystography, MR cystography, and ultrasonography were 94%/98%, 91%/95%, and 78%/96%, respectively. They conclude that CT urography is the best imaging technique for confirming or excluding malignancy in the upper urinary tract, whereas CT cystography has the best diagnostic performance for diagnosing bladder cancer. While cystoscopy is still considered by most to be the gold-standard for evaluation of the urinary bladder, CTU is playing an increasing role in the detection of urinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As with the upper urinary tract, bladder urothelial neoplasms typically present as a filling defect, a focal mass, or an area of abnormal focal wall thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior for evaluation of the depth of tumour invasion into the bladder wall, but this knowledge may not ultimately affect treatment as feasibility for radical cystectomy depends on staging by a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings. Radical cystectomy may include resection of adjacent organs

  5. Evaluation of carcinoma cervix using magnetic resonance imaging: correlation with clinical FIGO staging and impact on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhoot, Nilu Malpani; Bhuyan, Utpal; Kumar, Vinay; Shinagare, Atul; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Barmon, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate carcinoma of the cervix using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), correlate with clinical approach of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system and to study the impact of MRI findings on patient management. Pathologically confirmed, 75 cases of carcinoma cervix referred to our institute from April 2007 to March 2008 were prospectively studied. Clinical FIGO stage was assigned to each patient by gynaecologists blinded to MRI findings. MRI stage (based on FIGO and TNM) was allotted by radiologists blinded to clinicopathological details. For patients who were operated, histopathological stage was taken as gold standard. For patients who were not operated, gynaecologists decided on a gold standard stage based on all available clinical and imaging data. MR staging was correlated with FIGO staging, with focus on significant alterations in treatment strategy caused due to MRI findings. MRI staging had an accuracy of 89.3% (67/75), while clinical FIGO staging had 61.3% (46/75) accuracy. MRI staging and FIGO staging concurred in 65.6% of the patients and differed in 34.4% of the patients. In about 30.6% (23/75) of the patients, there were relevant additional MRI findings not suspected clinically. The common significant MRI findings were detection of pelvic lymphadenopathy and clinically unsuspected bowel/bladder invasion. The management protocol was significantly altered in 86.9% (20/23) of the patients with additional MRI findings constituting 26.6% (20/75) of the total population. MRI is highly accurate in evaluating carcinoma of the cervix. MRI findings significantly altered therapeutic decisions in 26.6% of the patients. MRI should be considered prior to treatment planning in every patient.

  6. Digital contrast enhancement of 18Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Sharma, Punit; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The role of 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is limited for detection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to low contrast to the tumor, and normal hepatocytes (background). The aim of the present study was to improve the contrast between the tumor and background by standardizing the input parameters of a digital contrast enhancement technique. A transverse slice of PET image was adjusted for the best possible contrast, and saved in JPEG 2000 format. We processed this image with a contrast enhancement technique using 847 possible combinations of input parameters (threshold “m” and slope “e”). The input parameters which resulted in an image having a high value of 2 nd order entropy, and edge content, and low value of absolute mean brightness error, and saturation evaluation metrics, were considered as standardized input parameters. The same process was repeated for total nine PET-computed tomography studies, thus analyzing 7623 images. The selected digital contrast enhancement technique increased the contrast between the HCC tumor and background. In seven out of nine images, the standardized input parameters “m” had values between 150 and 160, and for other two images values were 138 and 175, respectively. The value of slope “e” was 4 in 4 images, 3 in 3 images and 1 in 2 images. It was found that it is important to optimize the input parameters for the best possible contrast for each image; a particular value was not sufficient for all the HCC images. The use of above digital contrast enhancement technique improves the tumor to background ratio in PET images of HCC and appears to be useful. Further clinical validation of this finding is warranted

  7. A Rare Case of Primary Infiltrating Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawawi, Ouzreiah; Ying Goh, Keat; Rahmat, Kartini

    2012-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a very rare malignant tumor. There are not many cases reported in the English literature since it was first documented in 1983. Reports on the imaging features, in particular the ultrasonographic features of this rare tumor are scarce. Herein, we report a case of aggressive primary infiltrating neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, masquerading as an inflammatory breast condition in a 22-year-old young lady, perhaps the youngest case ever reported in the English literature. We discuss the imaging features and highlight the Doppler ultrasonographic findings of this rare breast carcinoma. This is the first documentation on Doppler ultrasonographic findings of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast in the literature

  8. Nova modalidade no tratamento do carcinoma basocelular periocular: imiquimode New aproach to periocular basal cell carcinoma treatment: imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Marcet Santiago de Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia mais comum da região periocular, sendo responsável por 90% dos tumores palpebrais. Sua incidência vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos. Embora de crescimento lento e raramente resultando em metástases, sua extensão e localização oferecem grandes dificuldades terapêuticas, quando envolve a região periocular. O tratamento cirúrgico é o de escolha para a região periocular, entretanto, novas modalidades de terapia têm sido propostas. As técnicas cirúrgicas reparadoras podem comprometer tanto a função palpebral (proteção ocular como a estética da região. Atualmente, se destaca uma nova forma de abordagem clínica, os imunomoduladores tópicos. O Imiquimode creme 5% é o principal representante dessa nova classe de medicamentos, tendo sido amplamente estudado recentemente e tendo apresentado alto índice de eficácia no tratamento do carcinoma basocelular. A presente revisão tem, portanto a finalidade de realizar uma análise sistemática da literatura relevante em busca de artigos e trabalhos que comprovem a eficácia da utilização do imiquimode 5% creme no tratamento do carcinoma basocelular periocular.The basal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasia of the periocular region, being responsible for 90% of the eyelid malignancies. There has been a significant rate of increase of the neoplasia during the last few years. Although of slow growth and rarely enticing metastases, its extension and location offer great therapeutic difficulties when it involves the periocular region.The surgical treatment is the one currently used for the periocular region, however, new therapeutic methods have been proposed. The reparative surgical techniques might jeopardize so much the eyelid function (ocular protection as well as the region aesthetic balance. Recently a new approach involving a clinical treatment using topics immune response modifier has been tried. Imiquimod cream 5% is

  9. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose triple-head coincidence imaging as an adjunct to 131I scanning for follow-up of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Irene T Gaw; Itti, Emmanuel; Mlikotic, Anton; Pham, Le H; Cesar, Romeo B; Meignan, Michel; Mishkin, Fred S

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) triple-head coincidence imaging as a potential cost-effective alternative to positron emission tomography in the setting of suspected recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. We retrospectively studied 10 patients with suspected recurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, who underwent (18)FDG coincidence imaging,(131)I scanning, and a reference anatomic scan (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both) within 1 year in most cases. The (131)I scan detected the recurrence in five patients (62.5%) and failed to reveal recurrent cancer in three patients (37.5%); in contrast,(18)FDG imaging detected the recurrence in eight patients (100%) and was true negative in two patients in whom the scans were performed more than 1 year after effective therapy for the recurrence. The sensitivity of detection was unrelated to lesion size. The (18)FDG imaging results led to additional radiotherapy in all (131)I-negative patients, two of whom had high thyroglobulin levels and one of whom had a low thyroglobulin concentration but the presence of antithy-roglobulin antibodies. We conclude that (18)FDG triple-head coincidence imaging is useful for routine management of patients with thyroid cancer who have no abnormalities detected on (131)I scans but have high serum thyroglobulin levels. This technique, however, may not be as sensitive as a dedicated positron emission tomographic device, particularly for the assessment of small tumors.

  10. Development of Raman microspectroscopy for automated detection and imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraona-Puy, Marta; Ghita, Adrian; Zoladek, Alina; Perkins, William; Varma, Sandeep; Leach, Iain H.; Koloydenko, Alexey A.; Williams, Hywel; Notingher, Ioan

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the potential of Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) for automated evaluation of excised skin tissue during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The main aim is to develop an automated method for imaging and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) regions. Selected Raman bands responsible for the largest spectral differences between BCC and normal skin regions and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are used to build a multivariate supervised classification model. The model is based on 329 Raman spectra measured on skin tissue obtained from 20 patients. BCC is discriminated from healthy tissue with 90+/-9% sensitivity and 85+/-9% specificity in a 70% to 30% split cross-validation algorithm. This multivariate model is then applied on tissue sections from new patients to image tumor regions. The RMS images show excellent correlation with the gold standard of histopathology sections, BCC being detected in all positive sections. We demonstrate the potential of RMS as an automated objective method for tumor evaluation during MMS. The replacement of current histopathology during MMS by a ``generalization'' of the proposed technique may improve the feasibility and efficacy of MMS, leading to a wider use according to clinical need.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in colorectal carcinoma: relation with clinicopathological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Andrade Azevedo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of tissue immunostaining of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR may contribute with the understanding of its role in the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Objective: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma tissues and transitional tumor-mucosa and mucosa adjacent to neoplasia, and its relation with cancer. Method: The study was conducted with 40 patients with colorectal carcinoma who had surgery with curative intent in order to analyze the immunoexpression of EGFR with anti-EGFR. We used parametric and nonparametric tests. Results: The immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in tumor samples showed a significant difference as to the level of immunostaining in tissue specimens of transitional tumor-mucosa (p=0.01 and the level of immunoreactivity in tissues of the adjacent mucosa (p=0, 04. The immunoexpression of EGFR showed no significant relation with the size of the tumor, angiolymphatic invasion, neural invasion, cellular differentiation, level of carcinoma infiltration in the intestinal wall, lymph node metastases and liver metastases. Conclusions: The EGFR showed a more intense expression in the mucosa of colorectal carcinoma than in the transitional epithelium and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa. The immunoexpression of EGFR did not correlate with pathological parameters of colorectal carcinoma and liver metastases.Introdução: O estudo da imunoexpressão tecidual do receptor do fator de crescimento epitelial (EGFR pode contribuir para o entendimento de seu papel no prognóstico do carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Analisar a expressão imuno-histoquímica do EGFR no carcinoma colorretal e nos tecidos da transição tumor-mucosa e da mucosa adjacente à neoplasia, e avaliar a relação com os aspectos anatomopatológicos da neoplasia. Método: Em 40 doentes com carcinoma colorretal operados com intenção curativa, estudou-se a imunoexpressão do EGFR com anticorpo anti

  12. Thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhzari, F.

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive

  13. Image-guided biopsy in patients with suspected ovarian carcinoma: a safe and effective technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee A.; Freeman, Susan J.; Berman, Laurence H.; Sala, Evis; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Earl, Helena; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Crawford, Robin; Brenton, James

    2009-01-01

    In patients with suspected advanced ovarian carcinoma, a precise histological diagnosis is required before commencing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy and complication rate of percutaneous biopsies performed under ultrasound or computed tomography guidance. Between 2002 to 2007, 60 consecutive image-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed in patients with suspected ovarian cancer. The following variables were recorded: tissue biopsied, imaging technique, experience of operator, biopsy needle gauge, number of passes, complications, and final histology. Forty-seven patients had omental biopsies, 12 pelvic mass biopsies, and 1 para-aortic lymph node biopsy. Thirty-five biopsies were performed under ultrasound, 25 under computed tomography guidance. Biopsy needle gauges ranged from 14-20 swg with two to five passes for each patient. There were no complications. Histology was obtained in 52 (87%) patients. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of peritoneal disease or pelvic mass is safe with high diagnostic accuracy. The large-gauge biopsy needle is as safe as the small gauge needle, but has the added value of obtaining tissue samples for immunohistochemistry and genomic studies. (orig.)

  14. X-ray Scatter Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Mouse Model Using Nanoparticle Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Derdak, Zoltan; Carlson, Rolf; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide and is almost uniformly fatal. Current methods of detection include ultrasound examination and imaging by CT scan or MRI; however, these techniques are problematic in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and the detection of early tumors (<1 cm diameter) has proven elusive. Better, more specific, and more sensitive detection methods are therefore urgently needed. Here we discuss the application of a newly developed x-ray imaging technique called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) for the early detection of HCC. SFHI uses x-rays scattered by an object to form an image and is more sensitive than conventional absorption-based x-radiography. We show that tissues labeled in vivo with gold nanoparticle contrast agents can be detected using SFHI. We also demonstrate that directed targeting and SFHI of HCC tumors in a mouse model is possible through the use of HCC-specific antibodies. The enhanced sensitivity of SFHI relative to currently available techniques enables the x-ray imaging of tumors that are just a few millimeters in diameter and substantially reduces the amount of nanoparticle contrast agent required for intravenous injection relative to absorption-based x-ray imaging.

  15. Carcinoma de mama: novos conceitos na classificação Breast cancer: new concepts in classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Serafin Couto Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de mama é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em mulheres. Estudos moleculares do carcinoma de mama, baseados na identificação do perfil de expressão gênica por meio do cDNA microarray, permitiram definir pelo menos cinco sub-grupos distintos: luminal A, luminal B, superexpressão do HER2, basal e normal breast-like. A técnica de tissue microarray (TMA, descrita pela primeira vez em 1998, permitiu estudar, em várias amostras de carcinoma, os perfis de expressão protéica de diferentes neoplasias. No carcinoma de mama, os TMAs têm sido utilizados para validar os achados dos estudos preliminares, identificando, desta forma, os novos subtipos fenotípicos do carcinoma de mama. Dentre os subtipos classicamente descritos, o grupo basal constitui um dos mais intrigantes subtipos tumorais e é freqüentemente associado com pior prognóstico e ausência de alvos terapêuticos definidos. A classificação histopatológica do carcinoma de mama tem pobre valor preditivo. Portanto, a associação entre o diagnóstico histológico com técnicas moleculares nos laboratórios de anatomia patológica, por meio do estudo imunoistoquímico, pode determinar o perfil molecular do carcinoma de mama, buscando melhorar a resposta terapêutica. Este estudo visou resumir os mais recentes conhecimentos em que se baseiam os novos conceitos da classificação do carcinoma de mama.Breast cancer is the principal cause of death from cancer in women. Molecular studies of breast cancer, based in the identification of the molecular profiling techniques through cDNA microarray, had allowed defining at least five distinct sub-group: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2-overexpression, basal and " normal" type breast-like. The technique of tissue microarrays (TMA, described for the first time in 1998, allows to study, in some samples of breast cancer, distinguished by differences in their gene expression patterns, which provide a distinctive molecular portrait for each tumor

  16. Preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma within fibroadenoma on screening mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borecky, N.; Rickard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Three cases of fibroadenoma associated with carcinoma are reported. These cases were diagnosed within a screening programme as a result of suspicious mammographic findings, and the diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed preoperatively by core biopsy in all cases. The mammographic findings suggestive of carcinoma within fibroadenoma were irregularity of margins in one case and associated new suspicious pleomorphic and linear calcifications in the two other cases. The preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma within fibroadenoma was provided by ultrasound-guided core biopsy in two cases and core biopsy under stereotactic guidance in one case. Whereas asymptomatic fibroadenoma with benign imaging appearances usually does not require further investigation, fibroadenoma with atypical imaging features requires a triple test investigation.

  17. Confocal fluorescence microscopy to evaluate changes in adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment associated with invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica L; Shin, Dongsuk; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that provides endocrine, inflammatory and angiogenic factors, which can assist breast carcinoma cells with invasion and metastasis. Previous studies have shown that adipocytes adjacent to carcinoma, known as cancer-associated adipocytes, undergo extensive changes that correspond to an "activated phenotype," such as reduced size relative to adipocytes in non-neoplastic breast tissue. Optical imaging provides a tool that can be used to characterize adipocyte morphology and other features of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy to acquire images of freshly excised breast tissue stained topically with proflavine. We developed a computerized algorithm to identify and quantitatively measure phenotypic properties of adipocytes located adjacent to and far from normal collagen, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma. Adipocytes were measured in confocal fluorescence images of fresh breast tissue collected from 22 patients. Results show that adipocytes adjacent to neoplastic tissue margins have significantly smaller area compared to adipocytes far from the margins of neoplastic lesions and compared to adipocytes adjacent to non-neoplastic collagenous stroma. These findings suggest that confocal microscopic images can be utilized to evaluate phenotypic properties of adipocytes in breast stroma which may be useful in defining alterations in microenvironment that may aid in the development and progression of neoplastic lesions. © 2016 UICC.

  18. Primary Signet-Ring Carcinoma in the Bladder Presenting as a Hypervascular Luminal Polypoid Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Sun; Choi, Seung A; Jung, Yoon Young; Cho, Young Kwon; Lee, Won Mi; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-01-01

    Primary signet-ring carcinoma is a very aggressive and rare variant of a primary urinary bladder cancer, accounting for less than 1% of cases. We reported on a 76-year-old patient with primary signet-ring carcinoma who occurred metastatic lymphadenopathy with extranodal invasion causing intraluminal tumor thrombi in the adjacent vein, and pulmonary metastasis over the course of three months. We demonstrated the computed tomography findings of primary signet-ring carcinoma of the bladder and correlated the imaging findings with the pathologic features. We reviewed the distinguishing imaging findings of the primary signet-ring carcinoma compared with urothelial cell carcinoma, the most common subtype of the bladder cancer.

  19. Virtual endoscopy using spiral CT in patients with carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sang Gook; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Tae Woong; Kim, Hyeong Kil; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Jae Sik

    2000-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of virtual endoscopy using spiral CT with that of laryngoscopy in the detection and evaluation of laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas. Twenty-four patients with pathologically proven laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas underwent laryngoscopy and virtual endoscopy using spiral CT. Eleven of the carcinomas were supraglottic, five were glottic, and eight were hypopharyngeal. Source images obtained by spiral CT were transmitted to an independent workstation and virtual endoscopic images were obtained using Navigator software. These were graded according to their quality (good, fair, bad), and were interpreted by two radiologists who were blinded to the conventional endoscopic findings. These latter were subsequently compared with the virtual endoscopic findings in terms of similarity to laryngoscopic examination and detectability of lesions. The overall image quality of virtual endoscopy was good in 16 cases (67%), fair in eight (33%), and bad in no case. Among the 11 supraglottic carcinomas, image quality was good in seven cases (64%), and fair in four (36%). In four of the five glottic carcinomas (80%) quality was good, and in one case (20%) it was fair, while among the eight hypopharyngeal carcinomas, quality was good in five cases (63%), and fair in three (37%). Overall, detection of the lesion was possible in 23 cases (96%). Due to the small size of the lesion, the one case of glottic carcinoma was not detected. Virtual endoscopy using spiral CT is a safe and noninvasive method, and also successfully detects laryngeal and pharyngeal lesions, with good image quality. For the evaluation of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma, its use ma complement that of axial CT. (author)

  20. Colloid Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tract with Metastatic Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Cystic Neoplasm: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Jeong Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    The patient is a previously healthy 52-year-old woman who presented with dyspepsia for two months. Multiple imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bile duct dilatation with an obstructive lesion of the distal extrahepatic biliary duct (EHD) as well as two masses in the peripancreatic area. The peripancreatic masses appeared cystic with posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound, low density on CT imaging, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. The lesion in the distal EHD exhibited similar characteristics on CT and MRI. A Whipple procedure was performed and histological specimens showed malignant cells with large mucin pools that was consistent with a diagnosis of colloid carcinoma of the EHD with metastatic lymphadenopathies. Colloid carcinoma, also called mucinous carcinoma, is classified as a histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Because the colloid carcinoma of the biliary tree is exceedingly rare, the imaging characteristics and the clinical features of colloid carcinoma remain relatively unknown. We report a case of colloid carcinoma of the common bile duct and its accompanied metastatic lymphadenopathies with characteristic imaging findings reflecting abundant intratumoral mucin pools

  1. Breast carcinomas: why are they missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, M; Pojchamarnwiputh, S; Chaiwun, B

    2006-10-01

    Mammography has proven to be an effective modality for the detection of early breast carcinoma. However, 4-34 percent of breast cancers may be missed at mammography. Delayed diagnosis of breast carcinoma results in an unfavourable prognosis. The objective of this study was to determine the causes and characteristics of breast carcinomas missed by mammography at our institution, with the aim of reducing the rate of missed carcinoma. We reviewed the reports of 13,191 mammograms performed over a five-year period. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) were used for the mammographical assessment, and reports were cross-referenced with the histological diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Causes of missed carcinomas were classified. Of 344 patients who had breast carcinoma and had mammograms done prior to surgery, 18 (5.2 percent) failed to be diagnosed by mammography. Of these, five were caused by dense breast parenchyma obscuring the lesions, 11 were due to perception and interpretation errors, and one each from unusual lesion characteristics and poor positioning. Several factors, including dense breast parenchyma obscuring a lesion, perception error, interpretation error, unusual lesion characteristics, and poor technique or positioning, are possible causes of missed breast cancers.

  2. Estudo retrospectivo de 761 tumores cutâneos em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Tatiana Mello de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os arquivos de biópsias de cães realizadas no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria entre 1964 e 2003 foram revisados à procura de tumores cutâneos. Dos 703 registros encontrados, em 570 (81,0% estava descrito que o cão apresentava apenas um tumor na pele e, em 133 (19,0%, que o cão apresentava mais de um tumor. Seiscentos e cinqüenta e quatro (93,1% cães apresentavam apenas um tipo histológico de tumor e 41 (5,8% apresentavam dois tumores histologicamente distintos. Em sete (1,0% cães, havia três tumores diferentes e em um (0,1% cão foram diagnosticados quatro tumores não relacionados, finalizando um total de 761 tumores. Dos 761 tumores cutâneos encontrados, 673 (88,4% eram neoplásicos e 88 (11,6% eram não-neoplásicos. Os 15 tumores mais prevalentes em ordem decrescente de freqüência foram: mastocitoma, carcinoma de células escamosas, adenoma perianal, lipoma, tricoblastoma, carcinoma perianal, papiloma, cistos foliculares, hemangioma, hemangiossarcoma, melanoma, adenoma sebáceo, histiocitoma, hiperplasia sebácea nodular e fibroma.

  3. Evaluation of the patient doses form megavoltage cone-beam CT imaging in the image-guided radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Mingxuan; Zou Huawei; Ji Tianlong; Zhang Xu; Han Chengbo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and estimate the patient doses from megavoltage cone-beam CT imaging system in the image-guided radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: 8 MU protocol of the MV CBCT system was selected for the head-and -neck region. The absorbed doses at the different positions in the phantom were measured using a 0.65 cm 3 ion chamber and the cylindrical acrylic phantom. The absorbed doses at the measurement positions of the phantom were calculated and the patient doses to the tumor and critical organs were derived from dose-volume histogram by the TPS mimicking the MV CBCT scanning with 8 MU protocol. Results: The error between the measured dose and the calculated dose was less than 3.5%. The average doses to the tumor target, brain stem, spinal cord and chiasm were 6.43, 6.36, 6.83 and 6.90 cGy, respectively, while those to left and right of both optic nerve and parotid were 7.70 and 7.53 cGy, 7.70 and 7.53 cGy, respectively. Conclusions: The patient doses estimated using the TPS mimicking the MV CBCT image acquiring procedure are accurate and reliable. The patient doses from the MV CBCT imaging must be considered when treatment plan of the patient is designed. (authors)

  4. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries. This is a retrospective research study done during the period of 2011-2015. Materials and Methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, examined in the period of 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The imaging diagnostics are performed with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens, MSCT Emotion 6 Siemens, and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens, biopsy guide with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK; while the histopathology diagnostics has been performed in Clinic of Pathology at UCCK and prevalence is taken from the number of cases Reported at the Institute of Oncology Institute of Statistics and NIPH (National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo). Results: Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer, results is female 39.5% (n=143) and male 61.5% (n=219), report M: F (1: 1.6), 286 cases resulted in head and neck 79 % (n=286), 76 cases resulted in body and tail cancers (21%), distant metastases in first imaging modality were found in(n=155) patients 43 %, local infiltration was found in patients: gastric infiltration 15 % (n=54), duodenal and papilla infiltration 26% (n=94), local infiltration spleen 16% (n=57), local infiltration mesentery 43 % (n= 155), dilated biliary tree 34 % (n=123), regional lymph node infiltration 83 % (n= 300). Out of a total

  5. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: an unusual presentation of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Garcia-Gutierrez, J. A.; Fernandez, A.; Santalla, F.

    2001-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is an uncommon malignant tumor with characteristic clinical, radiological and histopathological features that is usually associated with a more favorable natural course and greater survival than more common variants of hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe an atypical case of a fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas sowing aggressive behaviour in a 20-year-old woman. The lesion presented with massive ascites, and imaging studies revealed extensive peritoneal metastatic spread. (Author) 8 refs

  6. Manifestações oftalmológicas de carcinoma neuroendócrino: relato de caso Ophthalmic manifestations of neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Paula Miranda Aguiar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatar o caso de um paciente de 43 anos com metástase de carcinoma neuroendócrino intracraniana e intra-orbitária, cujas primeiras manifestações foram oftalmológicas. Relato de caso. Remissão temporária do quadro clínico após um ciclo de quimioterapia. A análise histopatológica e a imuno-histoquímica foram sugestivas de carcinoma neuroendócrino. A regressão das manifestações clínicas após quimioterapia e o óbito posterior aos ciclos de quimioterapia nos faz pensar na necessidade da criação de protocolos de tratamento para essa forma de neoplasia, levando em consideração, fatores locais e/ou sistêmicos.Ophthalmic manifestations of neuroendocrine carcinoma. This case report describes the clinical apresentation, diagnosis and treatment of a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 43-year-old man presented with ocular manifestation due to orbital and brain metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. The histopatologic and imunohistochemical analysis suggested the diagnosis. Partial and temporary remission of the symptoms occurred after the first chemotherapy cycle. We discuss the importance of creating treatment guidelines for this type of neoplasm, that can be very agressive and fatal.

  7. Computer-aided detection of basal cell carcinoma through blood content analysis in dermoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Pegah; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Wang, Z. Jane; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer, which is highly damaging to the skin at its advanced stages and causes huge costs on the healthcare system. However, most types of BCC are easily curable if detected at early stage. Due to limited access to dermatologists and expert physicians, non-invasive computer-aided diagnosis is a viable option for skin cancer screening. A clinical biomarker of cancerous tumors is increased vascularization and excess blood flow. In this paper, we present a computer-aided technique to differentiate cancerous skin tumors from benign lesions based on vascular characteristics of the lesions. Dermoscopy image of the lesion is first decomposed using independent component analysis of the RGB channels to derive melanin and hemoglobin maps. A novel set of clinically inspired features and ratiometric measurements are then extracted from each map to characterize the vascular properties and blood content of the lesion. The feature set is then fed into a random forest classifier. Over a dataset of 664 skin lesions, the proposed method achieved an area under ROC curve of 0.832 in a 10-fold cross validation for differentiating basal cell carcinomas from benign lesions.

  8. Imaging lobular breast carcinoma: comparison of synchrotron radiation DEI-CT technique with clinical CT, mammography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S.; Bravin, A.; Keyriläinen, J.; Fernández, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.; Tenhunen, M.; Virkkunen, P.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities for imaging cancer-bearing breast tissue samples are described and compared. The images include clinical mammograms and computed tomography (CT) images, CT images with partly coherent synchrotron radiation (SR), and CT and radiography images taken with SR using the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The images are evaluated by a radiologist and compared with histopathological examination of the samples. Two cases of lobular carcinoma are studied in detail. The indications of cancer are very weak or invisible in the conventional images, but the morphological changes due to invasion of cancer become pronounced in the images taken by the DEI method. The strands penetrating adipose tissue are seen clearly in the DEI-CT images, and the histopathology confirms that some strands contain the so-called 'Indian file' formations of cancer cells. The radiation dose is carefully measured for each of the imaging modalities. The mean glandular dose (MGD) for 50% glandular breast tissue is about 1 mGy in conventional mammography and less than 0.25 mGy in projection DEI, while in the clinical CT imaging the MGD is very high, about 45 mGy. The entrance dose of 95 mGy in DEI-CT imaging gives rise to an MGD of 40 mGy, but the dose may be reduced by an order of magnitude, because the contrast is very large in most images.

  9. MAMMARY SOLID CARCINOMA WITH SPINAL CORD METASTASIS CARCINOMA SÓLIDO DE GLÂNDULA MAMÁRIA COM METÁSTASE EM MEDULA ESPINHAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Caroline Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mammary neoplasias are common in canine females and carcinomas, among malignant types, occur frequently, especially solid form. At gross view, it can be small and incipient, but it’s invasive and show little differentiation, being able to produce metastasis that can compromise animal survive. This describes a bitch, Fila Brasileiro, six year old with tetraplegy and cervical spinal cord metastasis of mammary solid carcinoma.

    KEYWORDS: Central nervous system, dog, mammary neoplasia.

    Neoplasias mamárias são comuns entre as fêmeas caninas e os carcinomas, dentre as formas malignas, ocorrem com maior frequência, particularmente o tipo sólido. Estes podem apresentar-se pequenos e incipientes à macroscopia, contudo são invasivos e pouco diferenciados, com possibilidade de produzir metástases que comprometem a sobrevida do animal. Assim, descreve-se o caso de uma cadela, da raça Fila Brasileiro, de seis anos, que apresentou tetraplegia consequente à metástase medular cervical de carcinoma sólido mamário.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cão, neoplasia mamária, sistema nervoso central.

  10. Expressão da proteína ligadora de cálcio S100 A7 (psoriasina no carcinoma laríngeo Expression of calcium binding protein S100 A7 (psoriasin in laryngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Costa Tiveron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitos estudos relatam o aumento da expressão de S100 A7 (psoriasina em lesões neoplásicas. Destacam-se trabalhos em carcinoma da mama, espinocelular da bexiga, pele e cavidade oral. Não foi demonstrada expressão da S100 A7 em câncer de laringe. OBJETIVO: Identificar a expressão da proteína ligadora de cálcio S100 A7 e sua correlação com carcinomas espinocelular da laringe. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Amostras de tecido neoplásico de 63 pacientes foram submetidos à imunohis toquímica com o anticorpo S110 A7. Os resultados foram classificados e comparados. RESULTADOS: O grupo bem diferenciado teve a maior pontuação de falha no tratamento. O grupo moderadamente diferenciado apresentou escores mais elevados do que o grupo pouco diferenciado. Pontuações mais altas predominaram nos estágios I e II no grupo moderadamente diferenciado, enquanto a distribuição do escore foi mais homogênea em estados avançados (III e IV. Em relação às falhas no tratamento, o grupo pontuação zero (04/03 complicações: 75% diferiu significativamente da pontuação restante (13/59: 22%. CONCLUSÕES: A S100 A7 foi expressa em 93,7% dos casos de câncer de laringe, com maior positividade nos tumores mais diferenciados e taxa significativamente menor de falha no tratamento. A pontuação obtida não teve impacto sobre a sobrevivência.Many studies have reported increased expression of S100 A7 (psoriasin in neoplastic lesions. Among them are studies on breast carcinoma, bladder squamous cell carcinoma, skin tumors and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of S100 A7 has not been described for laryngeal cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the expression of the calcium-binding protein S100 A7 and its correlation with squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 63 patients were submitted to immunohistochemistry testing with antibody S100 A7. Results were classified and compared. RESULTS: The group with

  11. Carcinoma papilífero da tireoide associado à tireoidite de Hashimoto: frequência e aspectos histopatológicos Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis: frequency and histopathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cruz Camboim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireoide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais frequente de hipotireoidismo em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireoide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos há uma aparente associação entre as duas patologias. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma papilífero de tireoide, avaliando os aspectos histomorfológicos, quando concomitantes ou apresentando-se de forma isolada. MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo a partir dos dados do arquivo do Serviço de Patologia do Hospital Barão de Lucena, afiliado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS (Recife-PE, incluindo 95 casos, entre 472 cirurgias de tireoide realizadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2005. RESULTADOS: Houve 35 casos (7,4% de tireoidite de Hashimoto, 48 (10,2% de carcinoma papilífero e 12 (2,5% de associação significativa (p INTRODUCTION: Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas where iodine levels are adequate. Several investigators have detected an increased incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In histopathological diagnosis routine, there is an apparent association between these two pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma, evaluating the histopathological aspects, when concomitantly present or isolated. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with data from the archives of the Pathology Service at hospital Barão de Lucena, SUS (Recife-PE, Brazil, which included 95 cases amongst 472 thyroid surgeries performed from January 1995 through January 2005. RESULTS: There were 35 cases

  12. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor imaging in human breast carcinoma versus immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wiele, Christophe Van; Phonteyne, Philippe; Pauwels, Patrick; Goethals, Ingeborg; Van den Broecke, Rudi; Cocquyt, Veronique; Dierckx, Rudi Andre

    This study reports on the uptake of (99m)Tc-RP527 by human breast carcinoma and its relationship to gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRIP-R) expression as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods: Nine patients referred because of a clinical diagnosis suggestive of breast carcinoma and 5

  13. Intracystic papillary carcinoma of mamma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Ortega, Dr. José María; Díaz Valdéz, Lic. Marilín; González Díaz, Est. Ailin; Fleites Acosta, Est. Arnolys; Roque Lorenzo, Dr. Jorge Luis; Dueñas González, MSc. Dianelys María

    2016-01-01

    The intracystic papillary carcinoma is a rare form of mamma cancer, with an incidence of 0.5-1 % of all mamma cancers. It is a tumor predominantly affecting women in advanced age. Although it was believed that this rare entity was a variant of ductal carcinoma in situ, some lesions might be tumors of low risk invasiveness. The tumor has an excellent prognosis despite being in situ or invasive one. Therefore, the precise diagnosis plays an important role in the management of patients with this entity. We report the case of an intracystic papillary carcinoma in a woman aged 75 years. Among other pathological findings, the tumor was 2 cm and was located in the low external quadrant of the right mamma. In the carried out ultrasonography, it was informed an echo lucid image, of well defined edges, and the mammography showed the presence of a nodular image with irregular edges. The histopathologic diagnosis was non-invasive papillary carcinoma, inside a 1 cm cystic lesion, with an 0,5 cm solid nodule inside of low nuclear grade. A wide tumorectomy was carried out. Currently it is controlled. For the elaboration of the current paper we consulted 17 materials of journals and Surgery textbooks. The aim was reporting an intracystic papillary carcinoma case, showing how rare this pathology is for the specialists on the theme. (author)

  14. Clinical study of 18F-FDG PET/CT whole-body imaging in disseminated carcinoma of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohui; Liang Peiyan; Cai Yanjun; Zhang Weiguang; Xie Chuanmiao; Wu Peihong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is not uncommon in usual clinical settings. They are, by definition, those cases with clinically suspected primary malignancy but not revealed by conventional investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of whole-body 18 F-fluoro- deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in detecting a primary neoplasm for these patients. Methods: A totle of 150 patients with retrievable records from 169 CUP patients were selected within a group of consecutive 2589 patients from Jan. 2006 to Jun. 2007. All cases underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT scan. The final diagnoses were confirmed by pathologic results, other imaging modalities or clinical follow-up. Results: Among 150 patients, primary tumor sites were successfully detected by whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan in 70 cases (46.7%), of which 52 were pathologically confirmed and 18 by clinical follow-up. And 38 cases (54.3%) were lung cancer, 8 (11.4%) were nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 13 (18.6%) in digestive sys- tem, and 11 (15.7%) in other systems. Three clinically suspected CUP cases with negative 18 F-FDG PET/ CT were subsequently confirmed of benign processes by clinical follow-up. Six patients were wrongly diagnosed by 18 F-FDG PET/CT, and 15 patients did not have a confirmed diagnosis by the end of research. The primary cause of malignancy after 18 F-FDG PET/CT remained obscure in 56 patients, only 3 of whom be- came known during the course of clinical follow-up (nasopharyngeal bladder and esophageal carcinoma). Conclusion: 18 F-FDG PET/CT whole-body imaging plays an important role in patients with metastatic CUP. (authors)

  15. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in liver transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mimi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University of Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Wook; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Man [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sinn, Dong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of hepatology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Ji; Jung, Sin-ho [Samsung Medical Center, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on magnetic resonance (MR) images were compared in patients who did or did not undergo liver transplantation (LT), and we evaluated the relationship of these findings with overall survival (OS) and time-to-tumour recurrence (TTR) after transplantation. The enhancement pattern of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images of 25 patients with recurrent HCCs (LT group) and 25 surgically confirmed HCC patients in the non-transplanted (control) group were compared. Typical enhancement was defined as 1) arterial enhancement and delayed wash-out and 2) absence of typical features of cholangiocarcinoma consisting of arterial rim enhancement and target appearance on hepatobiliary phase images. OS and TTR were analyzed in the LT group according to these patterns using the log-rank test. HCCs in the LT group significantly more often had an atypical enhancement pattern (16/25, 64.0%) than those in the control group (5/25, 20.0%; p = 0.004). However, OS and TTR did not differ significantly according to these enhancement patterns of recurrent HCC (p > 0.05). Although enhancement patterns of recurrent HCC in transplanted liver did not affect OS and TTR, these HCCs that arise after LT frequently revealed atypical enhancement on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

  16. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in liver transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Man; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min-Ji; Jung, Sin-ho

    2017-01-01

    Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on magnetic resonance (MR) images were compared in patients who did or did not undergo liver transplantation (LT), and we evaluated the relationship of these findings with overall survival (OS) and time-to-tumour recurrence (TTR) after transplantation. The enhancement pattern of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images of 25 patients with recurrent HCCs (LT group) and 25 surgically confirmed HCC patients in the non-transplanted (control) group were compared. Typical enhancement was defined as 1) arterial enhancement and delayed wash-out and 2) absence of typical features of cholangiocarcinoma consisting of arterial rim enhancement and target appearance on hepatobiliary phase images. OS and TTR were analyzed in the LT group according to these patterns using the log-rank test. HCCs in the LT group significantly more often had an atypical enhancement pattern (16/25, 64.0%) than those in the control group (5/25, 20.0%; p = 0.004). However, OS and TTR did not differ significantly according to these enhancement patterns of recurrent HCC (p > 0.05). Although enhancement patterns of recurrent HCC in transplanted liver did not affect OS and TTR, these HCCs that arise after LT frequently revealed atypical enhancement on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. Imaging molecular interactions in cells by dynamic and static fluorescence anisotropy (rFLIM and emFRET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidke, D.S.; Nagy, P.; Barisas, B.G.; Heintzmann, R.; Post, Janine Nicole; Lidke, K.A.; Clayton, A.H.A.; Arndt-jovin, D.J.; Jovin, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    We report the implementation and exploitation of fluorescence polarization measurements, in the form of anisotropy fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (rFLIM) and energy migration Förster resonance energy transfer (emFRET) modalities, for wide-field, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow

  18. Dynamic MR imaging of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Gohbara, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic MRI was performed on 21 patients with pancreatic duct cell carcinoma. Turbo-FLASH or FLASH3D was performed immediately following rapid bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine, and these FLASH images and conventional spin echo images were evaluated about detectability of the lesion. All images were classified into three groups of detectability of the lesion ; good, fair, and poor. On T 1 weighted image, 23% of cases were 'good' and 48% were evaluated as 'fair'. On the other hand, on dynamic MRI, 62% of cases were 'good' and 33% of cases were evaluated as 'fair'. Both T 2 weighted image and enhanced T 1 weighted image were not useful for depiction of the lesion. Direct comparison between T 1 weighted image and dynamic MRI was also done. In 55% of cases, dynamic MRI was superior to T 1 weighted image and in 40% of cases, dynamic MRI was equal to T 1 weighted image. Thus, dynamic MRI was superior to conventional spin echo images for detection of duct cell carcinoma. In 17 patients of duct cell carcinoma who underwent FLASH3D, contrast/noise ratio (CNR) was calculated before and after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The absolute value of CNR became significantly larger by injection of contrast material. In nine resectable pancreatic carcinomas, two cases of INF α and two cases of medullary type were well depicted. It was concluded that dynamic MRI was useful for evaluation of pancreatic carcinoma. (author)

  19. FDG-PET in the initial staging of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, I.; Schreckenberger, M.; Bartenstein, P.; Hansen, T.; Brochhausen, C.; Kneist, W.; Junginger, T.; Oberholzer, K.

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma is the most common carcinoma of the oesophagus worldwide. The tumour stage as most important prognostic factor determines the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of FDG-PET 1. in imaging the primary tumour and 2. in N- and M-staging of squamous cell oesophogeal carcinoma. Patients, methods: in 20 patients with histological proven squamous cell carcinoma of the upper and middle oesophagus, FDG-PET was performed in standard technique prior to therapy. FDG uptake in the primary was determined by calculation of the SUVmax. NM-staging due to PET findings was performed as designated by the AJCC/UICC group classification and was compared with pathological and clinically based staging. Sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were calculated. Results: in 19 of 20 patients, primary squamous cell oesopohageal carcinoma was detected by FDG-PET findings with a maximum SUV of 12.5 (mean) ± 5.1 (median 11.5; range 4.8-23.8). One carcinoma in situ was missed. The sensitivity of FDG-PET in imaging the primary tumour was 96%. The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were 20%, 100%, 58% for N-staging, and 60%, 86% and 93% for M-staging. PET findings caused changes of therapy in 5% (1 patient). Conclusions: FDG-PET was excellent in imaging the primary of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma in stage T1-T4 and was efficient in M-staging. The low sensitivity in N-staging is of inferior clinical importance. The efficacy of FDG-PET seems to be not significantly be influenced by the histological subtype of oesophageal carcinoma. (orig.)

  20. Valor da ressonância magnética no planejamento radioterápico dos tumores de colo de útero: resultados preliminares Value of magnetic resonance imaging in the radiotherapy planning of tumours of the uterine cervix: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras Baskara Justino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o índice de erros geográficos no planejamento radioterápico convencional de pacientes com carcinoma de colo uterino por meio da ressonância magnética. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trinta e duas pacientes com diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma espinocelular de colo uterino, com indicação de radioterapia, foram analisadas. Foi realizada ressonância magnética da pelve, sendo essas imagens comparadas aos campos clássicos de radioterapia, técnica de quatro campos em "tijolo". Considerou-se erro geográfico quando o volume alvo não foi englobado pelos campos, com margens mínimas de 1 cm. RESULTADOS: Em 24 pacientes (75% foi detectada possibilidade de erro geográfico se fossem utilizados os campos convencionais. Em todos os casos o erro foi à custa dos limites anterior (46% ou posterior (40% dos campos laterais. CONCLUSÃO: A ressonância magnética evidenciou chance elevada de erro geográfico no planejamento radioterápico convencional na população analisada, tanto nas pacientes com doença em estádios iniciais quanto avançados.OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of geographic miss on conventional radiotherapy planning of patients with cervical cancer, using magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were studied. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis was performed after clinical staging. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were compared with the classic fields described for the "box" technique. Target volume within less than 1 cm margins of the fields' limits was considered as geographic miss. RESULTS: Classical radiation field limits were inadequate in 24 cases (75%, all in the anterior (46% or posterior (40% border of the lateral fields. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance detected a high probability of geographic miss on conventional radiotherapy planning in this population, both in initial and advanced stages of the disease.

  1. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast Tomosynthesis

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    Filipa Vilaverde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case.

  2. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana; Reis, Alcinda

    2016-01-01

    Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case. PMID:28116205

  3. Theoretical analysis about early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by medical imaging procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Hinata, Hiroshi; Hara, Keiji; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-04-01

    It is well-known that patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are frequently accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma). They are called high risk group for hepatoma. In order to detect a small hepatoma, it is reasonable for us to perform screening examinations on these high risk group patients. Optimal screening interval, however, has not been established. In this report, a theoretical analysis was made to estimate optimal screening interval by imaging procedure such as ultrasonography, x-ray computed tomography and scintigraphy. By the analysis of eight cases, mean doubling time of hepatoma was estimated about four months (73 - 143 days). If we want to detect a hepatoma not greater than 3.0cm in diameter, medical screening procedure combining ultrasonography and scintigraphy should be performed once per about nine months.

  4. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  5. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  6. Molecular Imaging to Predict Response to Targeted Therapies in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Ingrid Leguerney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular magnetic resonance imaging targeted to an endothelial integrin involved in neoangiogenesis was compared to DCE-US and immunochemistry to assess the early response of three different therapeutic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Human A498 renal cells carcinoma was subcutaneously inoculated into 24 nude mice. Mice received either phosphate-buffered saline solution, sunitinib, everolimus, or bevacizumab during 4 days. DCE-US and molecular MRI targeting αvβ3 were performed at baseline and 4 days after treatment initiation. PI, AUC, relaxation rate variations ΔR2⁎, and percentage of vessels area quantified on CD31-stained microvessels were compared. Significant decreases were observed for PI and AUC parameters measured by DCE-US for bevacizumab group as early as 4 days, whereas molecular αvβ3-targeted MRI was able to detect significant changes in both bevacizumab and everolimus groups. Percentage of CD31-stained microvessels was significantly correlated with DCE-US parameters, PI (R=0.87, p=0.0003 and AUC (R=0.81, p=0.0013. The percentage of vessel tissue area was significantly reduced (p<0.01 in both sunitinib and bevacizumab groups. We report an early detection of neoangiogenesis modification after induction of targeted therapies, using DCE-US or αvβ3-targeted MRI. We consider these outcomes should encourage clinical trial developments to further evaluate the potential of this molecular MRI technique.

  7. Somatostatin receptor expression in Merkel cell carcinoma as target for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buder, Kristina; Becker, Jürgen C; Lapa, Constantin; Kreissl, Michael C; Schirbel, Andreas; Herrmann, Ken; Schnack, Alexander; Bröcker, Eva-Bettina; Goebeler, Matthias; Buck, Andreas K

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm with increasing incidence, aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in MCC and represent a potential target for both imaging and treatment. To non-invasively assess SSTR expression in MCC using PET and the radiotracers [ 68 Ga]DOTA-D-Phe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide (DOTATOC) or -octreotate (DOTATATE) as surrogate for tumor burden. In 24 patients with histologically proven MCC SSTR-PET was performed and compared to results of computed tomography (CT). SSTR-PET detected primary and metastatic MCC lesions. On a patient-based analysis, sensitivity of SSTR-PET was 73% for nodal metastases, 100% for bone, and 67% for soft-tissue metastases, respectively. Notably, brain metastases were initially detected by SSTR-PET in 2 patients, whereas liver and lung metastases were diagnosed exclusively by CT. SSTR-PET showed concordance to CT results in 20 out of 24 patients. Four patients (17%) were up-staged due to SSTR-PET and patient management was changed in 3 patients (13%). SSTR-PET showed high sensitivity for imaging bone, soft tissue and brain metastases, and particularly in combination with CT had a significant impact on clinical stage and patient management

  8. High-resolution imaging of basal cell carcinoma: a comparison between multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Marco; Arginelli, Federica; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul; Talbot, Clifford; König, Karsten; Pellacani, Giovanni; Ponti, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare morphological aspects of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as assessed by two different imaging methods: in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging implementation (MPT-FLIM). The study comprised 16 BCCs for which a complete set of RCM and MPT-FLIM images were available. The presence of seven MPT-FLIM descriptors was evaluated. The presence of seven RCM equivalent parameters was scored in accordance to their extension. Chi-squared test with Fisher's exact test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were determined between MPT-FLIM scores and adjusted-RCM scores. MPT-FLIM and RCM descriptors of BCC were coupled to match the descriptors that define the same pathological structures. The comparison included: Streaming and Aligned elongated cells, Streaming with multiple directions and Double alignment, Palisading (RCM) and Palisading (MPT-FLIM), Typical tumor islands, and Cell islands surrounded by fibers, Dark silhouettes and Phantom islands, Plump bright cells and Melanophages, Vessels (RCM), and Vessels (MPT-FLIM). The parameters that were significantly correlated were Melanophages/Plump Bright Cells, Aligned elongated cells/Streaming, Double alignment/Streaming with multiple directions, and Palisading (MPT-FLIM)/Palisading (RCM). According to our data, both methods are suitable to image BCC's features. The concordance between MPT-FLIM and RCM is high, with some limitations due to the technical differences between the two devices. The hardest difficulty when comparing the images generated by the two imaging modalities is represented by their different field of view. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Comparação das contagens das células de Langerhans de tecidos contendo carcinoma anal em doentes com e sem infecção pelo HIV Comparison of Langerhans cells counts from tissues containing anal carcinoma of patients with and without HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As células de Langerhans (LC são derivadas da medula óssea e constituem-se nas principais apresentadoras de antígeno da pele.conferindo desta forma, a resposta imune cutânea. Seu número está reduzido nos imunodeprimidos, incluindo na infecção pelo HIV, e a presença do tumor inibe sua migração, impedindo que os linfócitos T promovam regressão das células neoplásicas. OBJETIVO: Conhecer as diferenças entre as contagens de LC no tecido tumoral de doentes de carcinomas anais com e sem AIDS. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 24 doentes, sendo 14 com HIV e 10 outros sem HIV . O tratamento para o carcinoma foi semelhante nos dois grupos. Cortes retirados de blocos parafinados submetidos ao teste imunoistoquímico com anticorpo anti-CD68. Contamos as LC com método da histometria e os comparamos aos números obtidos com amostras previamente conhecidas de doentes sem doença infecciosa anorretal ou infecção pelo HIV. Revisamos também a evolução e as contagens séricas de linfócitos T CD4+ de doentes HIV-positivos. RESULTADOS: Observamos que o carcinoma anal foi mais freqüente em mulheres HIV-negativas e em homens HIV-positivos e que esses ultimos eram mais jovens. As LC foram menos numerosas nos doentes HIV-positivos e as maiores contagens estavam associadas com pior evolução. Os doentes HIV-positivos com os níveis mais baixos de linfócitos T CD4+ também tiveram as piores evoluções. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que as LC estavam diminuídas nos doentes HIV-positivos, portadores de carcinoma anal, quando comparados aos soronegativos.Langerhans cells (LC are bone marrow derived dendritic cells that represent the major antigen-presenting cells (APC in the skin, thus representing an integral part of the cutaneous immune response. Immunossupression decreases their number, including HIV infection, and skin tumors products are sufficient to immobilize LC within the tumor, preventing their migration to lymph nodes. This reduces the

  10. Carcinoma de Células Renais com Envolvimento Venoso Renal Cell Carcinoma with Venous Involvement

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    Sérgio Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Carcinoma de Células Renais (CCR representa 3% das neoplasias em adultos. É uma das neoplasias urológicas mais letais, com uma mortalidade específica de 40%. A invasão parietal ou a presença de trombo tumoral na veia cava inferior acontece em 4% a 10% dos doentes (= T3b com sobrevida estimada aos cinco anos entre 40% e 60%. A única estratégia curativa é a exérese em bloco do trombo tumoral e do rim. Material e Métodos: Avaliámos retrospectivamente os processos clínicos, incluindo dados imagiológicos e histopatol��gicos, de todos os doentes com CCR submetidos a nefrectomia radical entre 2008 e 2009 na nossa instituição. Resultados: Foi identificado o envolvimento venoso em 10,1% dos doentes (sete em 69, com idade média de 58 anos (32-72. Seis (85,7% apresentavam invasão da veia renal, quatro (57,1% trombo tumoral na veia renal e 3 (42,9% trombo tumoral na veia cava (dois no nível II e um no nível I. A três destes doentes foi realizada cavotomia com excisão do trombo, sem complicações. Um doente abandonou o seguimento médico; dois doentes faleceram no pós-operatório imediato ou precoce (três a sete dias; um doente faleceu por progressão da doença sistémica; os restantes três apresentam progressão da doença. Conclusões: O CCR acompanhado por trombo tumoral na veia cava apresenta uma história natural pouco favorável, mas que pode ser drasticamente alterada se a atitude cirúrgica for agressiva e completa. A constituição de equipas multidisciplinares é fundamental.Introduction: Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC accounts for 3% of adult carcinomas. It is one of the most deadly urological cancers with disease specific mortality of 40%. Venous wall invasion or tumor thrombus is seen in 4% to 10% of patients (= T3b, with 5 years survival from 40% to 60%. The only curative treatment is tumor thrombus and kidney en bloc removal. Materials and Methods: All the clinical, radiological and pathological data

  11. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  12. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T

    2002-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  13. Verrucous carcinoma of the hand: a rare presentation evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Jailson Rodrigues; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Lourenco, Rafael Burgomeister; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HC/USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia

    2011-07-15

    Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma seen in mucous membranes and skin, and rarely found in the hand. The present report describes a case of two lesions on the dorsum of the hand, with no contact to each other, which underwent en-block resection and were confirmed as verrucous carcinoma. (author)

  14. Verrucous carcinoma of the hand: a rare presentation evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Jailson Rodrigues; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Lourenco, Rafael Burgomeister; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo

    2011-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma seen in mucous membranes and skin, and rarely found in the hand. The present report describes a case of two lesions on the dorsum of the hand, with no contact to each other, which underwent en-block resection and were confirmed as verrucous carcinoma. (author)

  15. The radiologist's role in the management of papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M Á; Encinas de la Iglesia, J; Martín López, M R; Fernández Pérez, G C; Águeda Del Bas, D S

    Papillary carcinoma is the second most common renal cell carcinoma. It has a better prognosis than the more frequent clear cell carcinoma, although this does not hold true for advanced cases, because no specific treatment exists. It presents as a circumscribed peripheral tumor (small and homogeneously solid or larger and cystic/hemorrhagic) or as an infiltrating lesion that invades the veins, which has a worse prognosis. Due to their low vascular density, papillary renal cell carcinomas enhance less than other renal tumors, and this facilitates their characterization. On computed tomography, they might not enhance conclusively, and in these cases they are impossible to distinguish from hyperattenuating cysts. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive for detecting vascularization. Other characteristics include a specific vascular pattern, hypointensity on T2-weighted images, restricted water diffusion, and increased signal intensity in opposed phase images. We discuss the genetic, histologic, clinical, and radiological aspects of these tumors in which radiologists play a fundamental role in management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-Dimensional Image Fusion of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography for Computer-Assisted Planning of Maxillectomy of Recurrent Maxillary Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Defect Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Chuan-Bin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Peng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe new technology assisted by 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for computer planning of a maxillectomy of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and defect reconstruction. Treatment of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma usually includes tumor resection and free flap reconstruction. FDG-PET/CT provided images of regions of abnormal glucose uptake and thus showed metabolic tumor volume to guide tumor resection. CECT data were used to create 3D reconstructed images of vessels to show the vascular diameters and locations, so that the most suitable vein and artery could be selected during anastomosis of the free flap. The data from preoperative maxillofacial CECT scans and FDG-PET/CT imaging were imported into the navigation system (iPlan 3.0; Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany). Three-dimensional image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was accomplished using Brainlab software according to the position of the 2 skulls simulated in the CECT image and PET/CT image, respectively. After verification of the image fusion accuracy, the 3D reconstruction images of the metabolic tumor, vessels, and other critical structures could be visualized within the same coordinate system. These sagittal, coronal, axial, and 3D reconstruction images were used to determine the virtual osteotomy sites and reconstruction plan, which was provided to the surgeon and used for surgical navigation. The average shift of the 3D image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was less than 1 mm. This technique, by clearly showing the metabolic tumor volume and the most suitable vessels for anastomosis, facilitated resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. We used 3D image fusion of FDG-PET/CT and CECT to successfully accomplish resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To probe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC.This study retrospectively collected MRI data for 21 pathology-confirmed OCCCs from 19 female patients. The MRI findings were analyzed to determine the tumor size, shape/edge, shape and number of protrusions within the cyst, cystic or necrotic components, signal intensity (SI and enhancement features.The age of the 19 patients ranged from 28 to 63 years (mean age: 53 years. Unilateral tumors were found in 17 patients (17/19, 89%; the average size of all tumors was 10.8 cm. The tumors on MRI were classified into two categories: (a "cystic adnexal mass with solid protrusions" in 12 (57% and (b "solid adnexal mass with cystic areas or necrosis" in 9 (43%. For group a, high to very high SI was observed for most tumors (10/12, 83% on T1-weighted images (T1WIs, and very high SI was observed on T2-weighted images (T2WIs for all 12 tumors. Most solid protrusions were irregular and few in number and exhibited heterogeneous intermediate SI on T1WIs and T2WIs and prolonged enhanced SI in the contrast study. All 9 OCCCs in group b were predominantly solid masses with unequally sized necrotic or cystic areas in which some cysts were located at the periphery of the tumor (4/9, 44%. The solid components in all 9 tumors showed iso- or slightly high SI on T1WIs, heterogeneous iso-high SI on T2WIs and heterogeneous prolonged enhancement. According to FIGO classification, 14 tumors (14/19, 74% were stages I-II, and 5 (5/19, 26% were stages III-IV.On MRI, OCCCs present as large unilateral multilocular or unilocular cystic masses with irregular intermediate SI solid protrusions or predominantly solid masses with cysts or necrosis at an early FIGO stage.

  18. Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas: study of 10 cases Tratamento tópico do carcinoma basocelular superficial e nodular pelo imiquimod creme a 5%: observação de 10 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Festa Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with 5% imiquimod cream has been demonstrated to be effective in patients with basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, efficacy and tolerability of this treatment was analyzed in 10 patients with 13 different types of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. METHODS: Imiquimod cream was applied daily for a mean period of 23 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All patients responded favorably to the drug with healing of the lesions. No recurrence was observed during two to three months of follow up.FUNDAMENTOS: O uso tópico do imiquimod 5% em creme para o tratamento de carcinomas basocelulares tem-se mostrado eficaz. OBJETIVOS: Com base nesse fato o autor analisa a efetividade e tolerabilidade desse método em 10 doentes com 13 carcinomas basocelulares dos tipos superficial e nodular. MÉTODOS: As aplicações foram diárias, e o número médio de dias de tratamento foi 23. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Todos os doentes responderam à medicação com desaparecimento das lesões e são seguidos a cada dois ou três meses, até o momento sem recidiva do quadro.

  19. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast: mammographic features with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunyan; Zhang Ling; Wu Yaopan; Li Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the mammographic findings of mucinous carcinoma with histologic features. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the mammographic and pathologic findings of 37 patients with mucinous carcinomas of the breasts was performed. Results: Mammograms of ten (52.6%) women with mucinous carcinomas showed masses with well-defined, lobu-lated margins correlating well with the pure histologic type. Thirteen (81.3%) mixed type of mucinous carcinomas demonstrated poorly defined or spiculated margins (P<0.05). Most of the pure type carcinomas were hyperdense similar to most of mixed type carcinomas (P<0.05). Of 34 mucinous carcinomas tested, there were 25 ER-positive, 29 PR-positive, 24 C-erbB-2 negative expressions with pure type carcinomas accounting for 78.9%, 89.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The mammographic features of pure type are different from those of mixed type of mucinous breast carcinomas. The most common mammographic appearance of pure mucinous carcinoma is a well-defined mass without calcification whereas the mixed type carcinomas have more aggressive imaging characteristics. (authors)

  20. Quantitative 3D Imaging by Cryo-EM (Shapes, membranes, and mapping of subcellular structures in whole bacteria)

    OpenAIRE

    Comolli, Luis R.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Fero, Michael J.; McAdams, Harley

    2006-01-01

    The shape of the bacteria cell wall during division and the deformation at the division plane are a function of the material properties of the cell wall, the growth rate, and the force due to the FtsZ ring. We have obtained 23 cryo-EM tomographic reconstructions through a time course following the cell division process in Caulobacter crescentus. We have also acquired over 300 images of the process by high resolution cryo-EM. The cell membranes have been segmented by an in-house developed util...

  1. Recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus after curative surgery: rates and patterns on imaging studies correlated with tumour location and pathological stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Lee, K.S.; Yim, Y.J.; Kim, T.S.; Shim, Y.M.; Kim, K.

    2005-01-01

    Many factors have been related to recurrence after resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. These include age, gender, location and local stage of tumours, cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and vascular involvement. The recurrence rates of squamous cell carcinoma after curative surgery are high (34-79%). Tumour recurrence is categorized as locoregional or distant. Lymph node recurrence and haematogenous metastasis to solid organs (commonly to the lung) are the usual patterns of recurrence. Awareness of recurrence patterns, particularly on imaging studies, is essential for the diagnosis of recurrent tumours on follow-up examinations

  2. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Damshety O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.Results: Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years, All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.Conclusion: Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.Keywords: mammography, ultrasound, cancer, breast

  3. A Study on GPU-based Iterative ML-EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Woo Seok; Kim, Soo Mee; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) is the statistical reconstruction algorithm derived from probabilistic model of the emission and detection processes. Although the ML-EM has many advantages in accuracy and utility, the use of the ML-EM is limited due to the computational burden of iterating processing on a CPU (central processing unit). In this study, we developed a parallel computing technique on GPU (graphic processing unit) for ML-EM algorithm. Using Geforce 9800 GTX+ graphic card and CUDA (compute unified device architecture) the projection and backprojection in ML-EM algorithm were parallelized by NVIDIA's technology. The time delay on computations for projection, errors between measured and estimated data and backprojection in an iteration were measured. Total time included the latency in data transmission between RAM and GPU memory. The total computation time of the CPU- and GPU-based ML-EM with 32 iterations were 3.83 and 0.26 sec, respectively. In this case, the computing speed was improved about 15 times on GPU. When the number of iterations increased into 1024, the CPU- and GPU-based computing took totally 18 min and 8 sec, respectively. The improvement was about 135 times and was caused by delay on CPU-based computing after certain iterations. On the other hand, the GPU-based computation provided very small variation on time delay per iteration due to use of shared memory. The GPU-based parallel computation for ML-EM improved significantly the computing speed and stability. The developed GPU-based ML-EM algorithm could be easily modified for some other imaging geometries

  4. A Study on GPU-based Iterative ML-EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Woo Seok; Kim, Soo Mee; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2009-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) is the statistical reconstruction algorithm derived from probabilistic model of the emission and detection processes. Although the ML-EM has many advantages in accuracy and utility, the use of the ML-EM is limited due to the computational burden of iterating processing on a CPU (central processing unit). In this study, we developed a parallel computing technique on GPU (graphic processing unit) for ML-EM algorithm. Using Geforce 9800 GTX+ graphic card and CUDA (compute unified device architecture) the projection and backprojection in ML-EM algorithm were parallelized by NVIDIA's technology. The time delay on computations for projection, errors between measured and estimated data and backprojection in an iteration were measured. Total time included the latency in data transmission between RAM and GPU memory. The total computation time of the CPU- and GPU-based ML-EM with 32 iterations were 3.83 and 0.26 sec, respectively. In this case, the computing speed was improved about 15 times on GPU. When the number of iterations increased into 1024, the CPU- and GPU-based computing took totally 18 min and 8 sec, respectively. The improvement was about 135 times and was caused by delay on CPU-based computing after certain iterations. On the other hand, the GPU-based computation provided very small variation on time delay per iteration due to use of shared memory. The GPU-based parallel computation for ML-EM improved significantly the computing speed and stability. The developed GPU-based ML-EM algorithm could be easily modified for some other imaging geometries

  5. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid-enhanced MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma; Correlation between histologic grade and detectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamba, Masayuki; Suto, Yuji; Kodama, Fumiko; Kato, Terumi; Ohta, Yoshio; Horie, Yasushi; Hamazoe, Ryuichi; Kawasaki, Hironaka (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    We applied chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) as an MR contrast agent to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The MR and pathologic findings of 25 HCCs in 21 patients were analyzed. MR imaging was performed with a superconducting system operating at 1.5 T. Proton density-weighted (PDW), T[sub 2]-weighted (T[sub 2]W) and T[sub 1]-weighted (T[sub 1]W) images were obtained before and after an intravenous injection of 23.6 [mu]mol Fe/kg of CSIC. In moderately to poorly differentiated and moderately differentiated HCCs (n=15), all the lesions except a 5-mm satellite nodule were detectable with unenhanced T[sub 2]W images as well as CSIC-enhanced PDW, T[sub 2]W and T[sub 1]W images. In well to moderately differentiated HCCs (n=6), two to four lesions were detectable with unenhanced images. All the lesions except a 3-mm satellite nodule were detectable with CSIC-enhanced PDW, T[sub 2]W and T[sub 1]W images. In well differentiated HCCs (n=4), one or two lesions were detectable with unenhanced images. All the lesions were detectable with CSIC-enhanced T[sub 1]W images, while only two lesions were detectable with CSIC-enhanced PDW or T[sub 2]W images. CSIC administration improves detection rates, and is especially useful in detecting small foci of well to moderately or well differentiated HCC. (author).

  6. Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy for Evaluation of Head and Neck Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesli, Rebecca C; Orringer, Daniel A; McHugh, Jonathan B; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-09-01

    Objective We aim to describe a novel, label-free, real-time imaging technique, coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, for histopathological evaluation of head and neck cancer. We evaluated the ability of CRS microscopy to delineate between tumor and nonneoplastic tissue in tissue samples from patients with head and neck cancer. Study Design Prospective case series. Setting Tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Patients eligible were surgical candidates with biopsy-proven, previously untreated head and neck carcinoma and were consented preoperatively for participation in this study. Tissue was collected from 50 patients, and after confirmation of tumor and normal specimens by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), there were 42 tumor samples and 42 normal adjacent controls. Results There were 42 confirmed carcinoma specimens on H&E, and CRS microscopy identified 37 as carcinoma. Of the 42 normal specimens, CRS microscopy identified 40 as normal. This resulted in a sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 95.2% in distinguishing between neoplastic and nonneoplastic images. Conclusion CRS microscopy is a unique label-free imaging technique that can provide rapid, high-resolution images and can accurately determine the presence of head and neck carcinoma. This holds potential for implementation into standard practice, allowing frozen margin evaluation even at institutions without a histopathology laboratory.

  7. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  8. Differentiation of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rihyeon; Shin, Cheong-Il; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Joo, Ijin; Kim, Seong Ho; Hwang, Inpyeong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine the different imaging features of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with histologically confirmed IMCCs (n = 46) or HCCs (n = 58) were included. Imaging features of IMCCs and HCCs on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including T2- and T1-weighted, diffusion weighted images, dynamic study and hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify relevant differentiating features between IMCCs and HCCs. Multivariate analysis revealed heterogeneous T2 signal intensity and a hypointense rim on the HBP as suggestive findings of IMCCs and the wash-in and ''portal wash-out'' enhancement pattern as well as focal T1 high signal intensity foci as indicative of HCCs (all, p < 0.05). When we combined any three of the above four imaging features, we were able to diagnose IMCCs with 94 % (43/46) sensitivity and 86 % (50/58) specificity. Combined interpretation of enhancement characteristics including HBP images, morphologic features, and strict application of the ''portal wash-out'' pattern helped more accurate discrimination of IMCCs from HCCs. (orig.)

  9. Phase resolved and coherence gated en face reflection imaging of multilayered embryonal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Fukami, Tadashi; Iwai, Hidenao; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2012-03-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, which are cell lines derived from teratocarcinomas, have characteristics in common with stem cells and differentiate into many kinds of functional cells. Similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, undifferentiated EC cells form multi-layered spheroids. In order to visualize the three-dimensional structure of multilayered EC cells without labeling, we employed full-field interference microscopy with the aid of a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope, which is a reflection-type interference microscope employing the digital holographic technique with a low-coherent light source. Owing to the low-coherency of the light-source (halogen lamp), only the light reflected from reflective surface at a specific sectioning height generates an interference image on the CCD camera. P19CL6 EC cells, derived from mouse teratocarcinomas, formed spheroids that are about 50 to 200 micrometers in diameter. Since the height of each cell is around 10 micrometers, it is assumed that each spheroid has 5 to 20 cell layers. The P19CL6 spheroids were imaged in an upright configuration and the horizontally sectioned reflection images of the sample were obtained by sequentially and vertically scanning the zero-path-length height. Our results show the threedimensional structure of the spheroids, in which plasma and nuclear membranes were distinguishably imaged. The results imply that our technique is further capable of imaging induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for the assessment of cell properties including their pluripotency.

  10. Análise da expressão imuno-histoquímica de c-erbB-2 e EGFR em carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago Immunohistochemical expression of c-erbB-2 and EGFR in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Sato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago (CEE possui alta incidência em nosso país, com altas taxas de mortalidade. A família dos receptores do fator epitelial de crescimento (EGFR é composta por quatro membros, e muitos estudos têm sido direcionados para a expressão de EGFR e c-erbB-2, com implicações terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Investigar as expressões imuno-histoquímicas de EGFR e c-erbB-2 e correlacioná-las a aspectos clinicopatológicos em casos de CEE. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Para esse estudo, dados clinicopatológicos de 613 CEE foram revistos. A imunoistoquímica foi feita utilizando anticorpo policlonal para c-erbB-2 e monoclonal para EGFR em 597 e 585 casos, respectivamente. Os casos representados por peças cirúrgicas foram distribuídos em três blocos de parafina de tissue microarray (TMA, inseridos em duplicata; aqueles com biópsias foram analisados em corte convencional. Todos foram classificados de acordo com intensidade e padrão de marcação de membrana das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: As expressões de c-erbB-2 e EGFR foram observadas em 42,4% e 77,6% dos casos, respectivamente. Observou-se correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as expressões de c-erbB-2 (p = 0,04 e EGFR (p = 0,01 e grau histológico. Ambos os marcadores foram significativamente mais expressos em casos bem/moderadamente diferenciados do que nos pouco diferenciados/indiferenciados. Embora não tenha sido significativa, houve uma tendência de associação entre superexpressão de c-erbB-2 e sítio do tumor, em que casos positivos ocorreram com mais freqüência no terço médio do esôfago. Nenhuma correlação significativa foi verificada entre essas proteínas e sobrevida global. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados podem sugerir um papel primordial para essas proteínas na diferenciação tumoral em CEE.INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is highly prevalent in Brazil, and responsible for high mortality index. The

  11. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  12. 165 renal carcinomas: Accuracy of imaging for diagnosis and spread - cost efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plainfosse, M.C.; Delecoeullerie, G.; Vital, J.L.; Paty, E.; Merran, S.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a study of 165 cases of renal carcinoma, we compare the relative diagnosis efficiency of different methods: intravenous urography (IVU), ultrasound (U.S.), arteriography and computed tomography (C.T.). Our evidence enables us to assert the excellent diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and the superiority of computed tomography for good staging of renal carcinoma. The cost efficient methods for the evaluation of this tumour are intravenous urography (to show and localize the renal mass), ultrasound (to assert the echogenic structure) and computed tomography (to establish the diagnosis of carcinoma and judge its spread). (orig.)

  13. Stating of cervical carcinoma using magnetic resonance imaging; Estadificacion del carcinoma de cervix por resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Vela, M. C.; Grande, J.; Cura del, J. L.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The infiltration of the parametrium represents one of the most important factors that determine the prediction and treatment of cervical carcinoma. Our objetive is to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging of cervical carcinomas, to establish the reliability of this technique and to carry out a comparative study of the sequences used to demonstrate the parametrial invasion. We have carried out a retrospective study on 44 patients diagnosed with cervix neoplasia, using clinical exploration and performing a biopsy. the MRI studies have been carried out using a 1 Tesla magnet and the sequences used have been SE T1, Se proton density (PD) and T2 and dynamic GRE after administering gadolinium intravenously in the axial and sagital projections. The stages determined by MRI have been compared to the anatomopathological stages of the surgical specimens in cases where surgery was carried out and with the clinical stage in cases where no radical surgery was carried out. A diagnosis value of MRI has been determined to demonstrate the parametrial invasion, comparing the SE T2 sequence with the dynamic GE sequence with gadolinium. We calculate the volume of the tumour in the MRI studies to evaluate the difference of the volume between patients with tumoral stages that are clinically surgical and not surgical. MRI determines the invasion of the parametrium with a sensitivity of 88.8%, a specificity of 80% a positive value of 76.1%, a negative predictive value of 90.9% and a reliability of 83.7%. For the SE T2 sequences the sensitivity was 86.6%, the specifity 80%, the posistive predictive value 81.25%, the negative predictive value 85.7% and the reliability 83.3%. For the dynamic GE sequence with intravenous gadolinium the sensitivity was 86.6%, the specifity 86.6%, the posistive predictive value 86.6%, the negative predictive value 86.6% and the reliability 86.6%. The use of the dynamic GE sequence after the intravenous administration of

  14. Carcinoma papilífero de tireóide associado à tireoidite de hashimoto: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A tireoidite de Hashimoto é o tipo de hipotireoidismo primário adquirido de causa auto-imune mais comum em região não-carente de iodo. Já o carcinoma papilífero de tireóide é o tipo mais comum de câncer de tireóide diferenciado na infância. Embora exista controvérsia na literatura quanto à associação entre Carcinoma Papilífero de Tireoide (CPT e Tireoidite de Hashimoto (TH, vários estudos detectaram incidência aumentada deste tipo de câncer em pacientes com TH. Objetivos: relatar o caso de uma paciente pediátrica com TH que desenvolveu CPT. Metodologia: revisão de dados obtidos e analisados do prontuário médico e pesquisa bibliográfica. Relato de caso: L. P, nascida em 25/07/1999, sexo feminino, foi encaminhada ao ambulatório de endocrinologia infantil da Policlínica Municipal de Sorocaba aos 9 anos de idade, devido ao desenvolvimento precoce de características sexuais secundárias, com aparecimento de pelos pubianos e de telarca há 1 ano. Ao exame físico, constatou-se desenvolvimento puberal segundo a classificação de Tanner, M3 P3 e tireóide palpável. Através de exames laboratoriais, foi diagnosticada com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Após 2 anos de tratamento, constatou-se aumento de tireóide em USG, diagnosticado como nódulo benigno em PAAF. No entanto, após 5 anos de seguimento, foi observada a presença de nódulo maligno, identificado como carcinoma papilífero da tireóide. Paciente foi submetida à tireoidectomia total com esvaziamento paratraqueal, devido as metástases em linfonodos. Após a cirurgia a paciente evoluiu bem, sem intercorrências e sem evidências de metástases funcionantes de carcinoma diferenciado de tireóide. Conclusão: É importante que os profissionais de saúde fiquem atentos à possibilidade de associação do CPT com a TH, quando houver mudança no padrão ultrassonográfico com a presença de linfoadenopatia cervical significativa.

  15. The role of breast MR imaging in pre-operative determination of invasive disease for ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed by needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mariko; Yuen, Sachiko; Akazawa, Kentaro; Nishida, Kaori; Yamada, Kei; Konishi, Eiichi; Kajihara, Mariko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features can predict the presence of occult invasion in cases of biopsy-proven pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We retrospectively reviewed 92 biopsy-proven pure DCIS in 92 women who underwent MR imaging. The following MR imaging findings were compared between confirmed DCIS and invasive breast cancer (IBC): lesion size, type, morphological and kinetic assessments by ACR BI-RADS MRI, and findings of fat-suppressed T2-weighted (FS-T2W) imaging. Sixty-eight of 92 (74%) were non-mass-like enhancements (NMLE) and 24 were mass lesions on MR imaging. Twenty-one of 68 (31%) NMLE and 13 of 24 (54%) mass lesions were confirmed as IBC. In NMLE lesions, large lesions (P = 0.007) and higher signal intensities (SI) on FS-T2W images (P = 0.032) were significantly associated with IBC. Lesion size remained a significant independent predictor of invasion in multivariate analysis (P = 0.032), and combined with FS-T2W SIs showed slightly higher observer performances (area under the curve, AUC, 0.71) than lesion size alone (AUC 0.68). There were no useful findings that enabled the differentiation of mass-type lesions. Breast MR imaging is potentially useful to predict the presence of occult invasion in biopsy-proven DCIS with NMLE. MR mammography permits more precise lesion assessment including ductal carcinoma in situ A correct diagnosis of occult invasion before treatment is important for clinicians This study showed the potential of MR mammography to diagnose occult invasion Treatment and/or aggressive biopsy can be given with greater confidence MR mammography can lead to more appropriate management of patients. (orig.)

  16. Monitoring Cell Death in Regorafenib-Treated Experimental Colon Carcinomas Using Annexin-Based Optical Fluorescence Imaging Validated by Perfusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp M Kazmierczak

    Full Text Available To investigate annexin-based optical fluorescence imaging (OI for monitoring regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas in rats, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry.Subcutaneous human colon carcinomas (HT-29 in athymic rats (n = 16 were imaged before and after a one-week therapy with regorafenib (n = 8 or placebo (n = 8 using annexin-based OI and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and MRI tumor perfusion parameters (plasma flow PF, mL/100mL/min; plasma volume PV, % were assessed. On day 7, tumors underwent immunohistochemical analysis for tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL, proliferation (Ki-67, and microvascular density (CD31.Apoptosis-targeted OI demonstrated a tumor-specific probe accumulation with a significant increase of tumor SNR under therapy (mean Δ +7.78±2.95, control: -0.80±2.48, p = 0.021. MRI detected a significant reduction of tumor perfusion in the therapy group (mean ΔPF -8.17±2.32 mL/100 mL/min, control -0.11±3.36 mL/100 mL/min, p = 0.036. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly more apoptosis (TUNEL; 11392±1486 vs. 2921±334, p = 0.001, significantly less proliferation (Ki-67; 1754±184 vs. 2883±323, p = 0.012, and significantly lower microvascular density (CD31; 107±10 vs. 182±22, p = 0.006 in the therapy group.Annexin-based OI allowed for the non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry.

  17. The significance of multi-slice helical CT multiplanar reconstruction in the diagnoses of laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Luo Dehong; Zhou Chunwu; Zhao Xinming; Jiang Liming; Huang Yao; Jiang Lingxia; Li Jing; Wu Ning

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of multi-slice helical CT with multiplanar reconstruction in laryngeal carcinoma. Methods: Thirty-five patients with laryngeal carcinoma were studied by helical CT, MPR were subsequently done. The lesion extent of the axial image findings, MPR findings and the combined image findings were compared with the pathological results respectively. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: In the evaluation of the anterior commissure, the axial image findings, MPR findings and the combined image findings were 82.9%, 68.6% and 91.4% in accuracy respectively, the results were statistically different (P 0.05). The combined images were superior to the axial images and the MPR images in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the lesion extent. Conclusion: The axial images could show the shape, size, extension of the tumor and the lymphadenopathy, MPR images displayed the shape, size and extension roundly and directly, they were the supplement for the axial images. Axial images combined with MPR could improve the accuracy in the diagnoses of laryngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  18. Valor preditivo da expressão dos anticorpos Antifator VIII no carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago Predictive value of antifactor VIII antibody expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gonzaga Barbosa-Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago apresenta alta mortalidade, baixo índice de diagnóstico precoce e altos custos nos tratamentos, com resultados freqüentemente desapontadores e prognóstico sombrio. O melhor entendimento das técnicas de biologia molecular com citofotometria de imagem, permitiu avançar no conhecimento das alterações na expressão das proteínas desse câncer. OBJETIVOS: Quantificar a expressão das proteínas envolvidas na angiogênese e correlacioná-las com variáveis clínico-patológicas. MÉTODOS: Com o uso da técnica de imunoistoquímica, citofotometria de imagem pelo sistema SAMBA, foram analisadas 29 amostras de carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago incluídas em blocos de parafina. Critérios clínicos como idade, sexo e histopatológicos do grau de diferenciação tumoral, tamanho e localização do tumor foram analisados. Os parâmetros analisados foram o índice de marcagem e a densidade óptica. O marcador utilizado foi o anticorpo anti-Fator VIII. RESULTADOS: Foi possível verificar que as expressões médias do marcador no índice de marcagem foram maiores que as da densidade óptica. Fator VIII apresentou leituras homogêneas. O índice de marcagem foi de 80,17+/-10,40 com P=0,073 e a densidade óptica 51,25+/-11,02 com P=0,245. CONCLUSÃO: A análise quantificação da expressão das proteínas envolvidas na angiogênese permite definir subgrupos de acordo com a diferenciação do carcinoma, estágio tumoral, tamanho e localização do tumor, porém não associa-se com o sexo e a idade dos pacientes, e a densidade óptica do Fator VIII não tem expressão significativa em nenhum dos subgrupos analisados.BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus exhibits high mortality rate, rare precocious diagnosis, and expensive treatments, presenting frequently disappointed results and poor prognosis. The better understanding about Molecular Biology techniques using cytophotometric imaging allowed

  19. A prospective comparison of patient body image after robotic thyroidectomy and conventional open thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohee; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Seulkee; Son, Haiyoung; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Body image is associated with self-esteem and identity and has a close relationship with quality of life (QoL). We compared the impact of surgical scars on the patient's perception of body image between conventional open thyroidectomy (OT) and robotic thyroidectomy (RT) in female papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. From October 2009 to December 2010, we enrolled prospectively 116 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent total thyroidectomy at the Yonsei University Health System (Seoul, Korea). Of these 116 patients, 56 had OT and 60 RT. Their scars were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and psychometric properties were evaluated using the Body Image Scale (BIS) questionnaire postoperatively. Both groups were compared using cross-sectional and time-series methods. Mean age was significantly younger in the RT group. Regarding scar quality, the OT group showed superiority in scar pigmentation and the total VSS score during the early postoperative period, but the VSS score improved over time and was similar between both groups at 9 months. The RT group had better scores regarding most of the BIS items, a trend that remained relatively constant over time. In patients with noticeable scars (VSS ≥ 2) at 9 months, the RT group had better BIS scores regarding almost all items, including "self-conscious," "physical attractiveness," "feeling of less feminine," "sexual attractiveness," "dissatisfaction with body, scar and appearance when dressed," and "avoidance of people due to appearance." RT provides a better self-body image and improves QoL compared with conventional OT by avoiding a noticeable cervical scar. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation between chemical shift artifact and infiltration on MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Makino, Hideki; Yanada, Syuichi; Ohishi, Yukihiko; Mashima, Yasuoki; Yamada, Hideo.

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective study on the relation between existence of the interruption and disturbance of chemical shift artifact and tumor infiltration at the periphery of the kidney on MR imaging was evaluated in 28 cases with renal cell carcinoma. Judgement was possible in 9 out of the 11 cases with pathological stage below pT2 and 14 cases out of 17 pT3 cases. Judgement was impracticable in 5 cases because the peripheral fat tissue of the kidney was too less to observe chemical shift artifact and the tumor was spreading at the side opposite to the chemical shift artifact. Chemical shift artifact on MRI in this study correlated well with renal tumor infiltration. (author)

  1. Four-dimensional MAP-RBI-EM image reconstruction method with a 4D motion prior for 4D gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M.W. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Gullberg, Grant T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We evaluated and proposed here a 4D maximum a posteriori rescaled-block iterative (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with a motion prior to improve the accuracy of 4D gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) SPECT images. We hypothesized that a 4D motion prior which resembles the global motion of the true 4D motion of the heart will improve the accuracy of the reconstructed images with regional myocardial motion defect. Normal heart model in the 4D XCAT (eXtended CArdiac-Torso) phantom is used as the prior in the 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm where a Gaussian-shaped distribution is used as the derivative of potential function (DPF) that determines the smoothing strength and range of the prior in the algorithm. The mean and width of the DPF equal to the expected difference between the reconstructed image and the motion prior, and smoothing range, respectively. To evaluate the algorithm, we used simulated projection data from a typical clinical {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi GMP SPECT study using the 4D XCAT phantom. The noise-free projection data were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response and scatter (ADS) and Poisson noise was added to generated noisy projection data. The projection datasets were reconstructed using the modified 4D MAP-RBI-EM with various iterations, prior weights, and sigma values as well as with ADS correction. The results showed that the 4D reconstructed image estimates looked more like the motion prior with sharper edges as the weight of prior increased. It also demonstrated that edge preservation of the myocardium in the GMP SPECT images could be controlled by a proper motion prior. The Gaussian-shaped DPF allowed stronger and weaker smoothing force for smaller and larger difference of neighboring voxel values, respectively, depending on its parameter values. We concluded the 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm with the general motion prior can be used to provide 4D GMP SPECT images with improved

  2. Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu'an; Yang Kai; Li Zhigang; Zhao Cheng; Yang Jia; Shi Chunmeng

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.

  3. A comparison of imaging methods for the diagnosis of gallbladder and biliary duct carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Koester, O.; Heuer, M.; Schneider, B.; Bonn Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients with carcinomas of the gallbladder and eight patients with biliary duct carcinomas were examined by CT, sonography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and angiography. The results were compared retrospectively. Sonography proved suitable as a screening method. For accurate demonstration, this should be supplemented by C.T.. PTC and ERC demonstrate intraductal extension of biliary carcinomas and of gallbladder carcinomas infiltrating the bile ducts. The value of angiography consists merely in the pre-operative demonstration of the vascular anatomy. (orig.) [de

  4. Pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Naito, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is extremely rare and is often detected incidentally by symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction. Breast and lung cancer are the most common primary metastasizing to pituitary gland. Metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland is extremely rare, with only 10 cases having been previously reported. We present here the first case of pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia after having previously been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on low levels of pituitary hormones, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism caused by metastasis of the hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin-labeling was effective in the differential diagnosis of the intrasellar tumor. The patient died despite hormone replacement therapy because of hypovolemic shock. Metastasis to the pituitary gland causes various non-specific symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose. The present case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging in identifying these metastases. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pituitary metastasis in patients with malignant tumors who demonstrate hypopituitarism

  5. Pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Naito, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-11-06

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is extremely rare and is often detected incidentally by symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction. Breast and lung cancer are the most common primary metastasizing to pituitary gland. Metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland is extremely rare, with only 10 cases having been previously reported. We present here the first case of pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia after having previously been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on low levels of pituitary hormones, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism caused by metastasis of the hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin-labeling was effective in the differential diagnosis of the intrasellar tumor. The patient died despite hormone replacement therapy because of hypovolemic shock. Metastasis to the pituitary gland causes various non-specific symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose. The present case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging in identifying these metastases. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pituitary metastasis in patients with malignant tumors who demonstrate hypopituitarism.

  6. Expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz e de seus inibidores teciduais em carcinomas basocelulares Expression of matrix metalloproteinasis and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Aproximadamente 80% das neoplasias malignas de pele não-melanomas são carcinomas basocelulares (CBC. Apesar das raras metástases, esses tumores são localmente agressivos. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, especialmente as MMP-2 e 9, são importantes no processo de invasão. Em contrapartida, os inibidores teciduais das MMPs (TIMPs têm como principal função a inibição dessas enzimas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação de variáveis clinicopatológicas de pacientes portadores de CBC com a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 31 casos de CBC, sendo então obtidos, retrospectivamente, os dados referentes a idade, sexo e tamanho da lesão. Cortes histológicos das lesões foram submetidos a reação imuno-histoquímica pela técnica estreptavidina-biotina-peroxidase para detecção dos antígenos de interesse. Índices de imunomarcação foram construídos e comparados com os dados previamente obtidos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação significativa entre idade e tamanho da lesão (R = 0,532; p = 0,008. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre as outras variáveis e a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos de interesse. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão das metaloproteinases e de seus inibidores teciduais não parece ser influenciada pelos parâmetros investigados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para melhor compreensão de sua associação com o comportamento biológico do CBC.INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of non-melanoma skin neoplasias are basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Although metastasis is rare, BBC carcinomas are locally aggressive tumors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role on the invasion process. On the other hand, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs have the main function of inhibiting these enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological variables of BCC patients with the

  7. Mutação BRAF em pacientes idosos submetidos à tireoidectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto T. Bertelli

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência da mutação V600E do gene BRAF em pacientes com mais de 65 anos de idade submetidos à tireoidectomia, correlacionando sua presença ou ausência com as diferentes lesões histológicas, com as variantes e com fatores prognósticos do carcinoma papilífero. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 85 pacientes com mais de 65 anos de idade submetidos à tireoidectomia, analisando a mutação BRAF V600E através de reação de PCR-RT realizada após a extração do DNA dos blocos de parafina. RESULTADOS: Detectou-se ausência ou presença da mutação BRAF V600E em 47 pacientes (55,3%. Entre os 17 carcinomas papilíferos estudados, sete apresentavam a mutação (41,2%. Demonstrou-se associação estatística entre a presença desta mutação e a variante clássica do carcinoma papilífero, além de tendência de associação com o extravasamento tireoideano. CONCLUSÃO: A mutação BRAF nos pacientes idosos também é exclusiva do carcinoma papilífero e tem frequência expressiva. Além disso, está relacionada à variante clássica e, possivelmente, ao extravasamento tireoideano.

  8. Contribution of mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched exponential model-based diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of uterine cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng; Yu, Xiaoduo; Chen, Yan; Ouyang, Han; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan [GE MR Research China, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the potential of various metrics derived from mono-exponential model (MEM), bi-exponential model (BEM) and stretched exponential model (SEM)-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing and differentiating the pathological subtypes and grades of uterine cervical carcinoma. 71 newly diagnosed patients with cervical carcinoma (50 cases of squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 21 cases of adenocarcinoma [AC]) and 32 healthy volunteers received DWI with multiple b values. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (alpha), and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were calculated and compared between tumour and normal cervix, among different pathological subtypes and grades. All of the parameters were significantly lower in cervical carcinoma than normal cervical stroma except alpha. SCC showed lower ADC, D, f and DDC values and higher D* value than AC; D and DDC values of SCC and ADC and D values of AC were lower in the poorly differentiated group than those in the well-moderately differentiated group. Compared with MEM, diffusion parameters from BEM and SEM may offer additional information in cervical carcinoma diagnosis, predicting pathological tumour subtypes and grades, while f and D showed promising significance. (orig.)

  9. Tracheal epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma associated with sarcoid-like reaction: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huawei; Tatsuno, Brent K.; Betancourt, Jaime; Oh, Scott S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas are rare tumors that primarily originate in the salivary glands but have also been found in the tracheobronchial tree. We report the first case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma associated with sarcoidosis. A 61 year old Hispanic man presented with altered mental status and hypercalcemia. Imaging revealed diffuse intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. A diagnostic bronchoscopy was performed where an incidental tracheal nodule was discovered and biopsied. Pathology was consistent with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. Patient underwent tracheal resection of the primary tumor with primary tracheal reconstruction. Hypercalcemia subsequently normalized with clinical improvement. Repeat CT imaging demonstrated complete resolution of lymphadenopathy. Our findings are suggestive of a possible paraneoplastic sarcoid-like reaction to the epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with associated lymphadenopathy and symptomatic hypercalcemia. PMID:26029574

  10. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood: nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martinez Vianna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a carcinoma that arises from the nasopharyngeal mucosa and differs from other head and neck carcinomas by its unique histologic, epidemiologic, and biologic characteristics. NPC is rare in most countries, especially Europe and North America. However, it has a high incidence in several regions of South China. The incidence variability of NPC, among different geographical and ethnic groups, indicates a combination of genetic susceptibility, infection by Epstein-Barr virus and environmental factors. NPC is classified into three histological subtypes according to the 1991 World Health Organization classification: squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The symptoms of patients with NPC are related to the primary tumor site and the degree of dissemination. Therefore, patients can remain asymptomatic during a long period of time. Imaging exams and biopsy of the tumor mass generally are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. NPC is a rare disease among children. The authors report a case of a 12-year-old boy who sought medical attention complaining of a progressive growing tumoral mass on the right side of the neck. The computed tomography images of the head and neck and the histological examination of a cervical lymph node biopsy diagnosed a metastatic NPC.

  11. Alignment of cryo-EM movies of individual particles by optimization of image translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, John L; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2015-11-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras have revolutionized single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). In addition to an improved camera detective quantum efficiency, acquisition of DDD movies allows for correction of movement of the specimen, due to both instabilities in the microscope specimen stage and electron beam-induced movement. Unlike specimen stage drift, beam-induced movement is not always homogeneous within an image. Local correlation in the trajectories of nearby particles suggests that beam-induced motion is due to deformation of the ice layer. Algorithms have already been described that can correct movement for large regions of frames and for >1 MDa protein particles. Another algorithm allows individual images to be aligned without frame averaging or linear trajectories. The algorithm maximizes the overall correlation of the shifted frames with the sum of the shifted frames. The optimum in this single objective function is found efficiently by making use of analytically calculated derivatives of the function. To smooth estimates of particle trajectories, rapid changes in particle positions between frames are penalized in the objective function and weighted averaging of nearby trajectories ensures local correlation in trajectories. This individual particle motion correction, in combination with weighting of Fourier components to account for increasing radiation damage in later frames, can be used to improve 3-D maps from single particle cryo-EM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polimorfismos em genes de reparo do DNA (XPC, ERCC1, XRCC7) em mulheres com câncer do colo do útero

    OpenAIRE

    Saffar, Issamir Farias [UNIFESP

    2010-01-01

    Estudos demonstram que polimorfismos em genes relacionados ao reparo do DNA estão envolvidos na patogênese de diversas doenças neoplásicas, como o câncer ginecológico, particularmente o câncer do colo do útero. O presente estudo, caso-controle, compara os polimorfismos dos genes XPC, ERCC1 e XRCC7 em 77 mulheres com câncer cervical (70 casos de carcinoma espinocelular e 7 casos de adenocarcinoma do colo do útero) e 73 mulheres saudáveis atendidas no Hospital do Câncer Alfredo Abrão, entre Jun...

  13. MR features to suggest microinvasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: can it be differentiated from pure DCIS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Soo Yeon; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Shin, Jung Hee; Nam, Meeyoung; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background: Morphologic and kinetic characteristics of breast lesions are regarded as a major criterion for their differential diagnosis in dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there have not been well-reported MRI findings of microinvasive ductal carcinoma. Purpose: To evaluate MRI characteristics of microinvasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and to compare MRI findings in patients with microinvasive ductal carcinoma and pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Material and Methods: Eighty-one patients with pathologically confirmed microinvasive ductal carcinomas (n = 37) or pure DCIS (n = 44) were included in this study. The MRI findings were analyzed withou