WorldWideScience

Sample records for imaging breast tumors

  1. Imaging of Pelvic Bone Metastasis from Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ba D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reports a patient with a malignant phyllodes breast tumor, who then had a ten-year disease free interval before she developed a left pelvic bone metastasis and soft tissue invasion. Cross-sectional and radionuclide imaging of its musculoskeletal metastasis is presented. Literature concerning bone metastasis from phyllodes tumor is also briefly reviewed and discussed, along with its epidemiology.

  2. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  3. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  4. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  5. Nonrigid registration algorithm for longitudinal breast MR images and the preliminary analysis of breast tumor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Dawant, Benoit M.; Welch, E. Brian; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Freehardt, Darla; Mayer, Ingrid; Kelley, Mark; Meszoely, Ingrid; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Although useful for the detection of breast cancers, conventional imaging methods, including mammography and ultrasonography, do not provide adequate information regarding response to therapy. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to provide relevant information on tumor status. Consequently, accurate longitudinal registration of breast MR images is critical for the comparison of changes induced by treatment at the voxel level. In this study, a nonrigid registration algorithm is proposed to allow for longitudinal registration of breast MR images obtained throughout the course of treatment. We accomplish this by modifying the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) through adding a tumor volume preserving constraint in the cost function. The registration results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can successfully register the longitudinal breast MR images and permit analysis of the parameter maps. We also propose a novel validation method to evaluate the proposed registration algorithm quantitatively. These validations also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm constrains tumor deformation well and performs better than the unconstrained ABA algorithm.

  6. [The actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in differentiating breast tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Yu, Jianqun; Chen, Dongdong; Xu, Zhongzi; Zeng, Hanjiang

    2013-12-01

    We studied the actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating breast tumors. From January 2010 to February 2012, we retrospectively analyzed data of 95 cases with breast tumor pathologically confirmed from DWI and DCE-MRI. We compared the ADC value, time-intensity curve (TIC) and DCE-MRI parameters between breast tumors, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating breast tumors. The results were as follows: (1) On DWI, mean ADC value of malignant tumor was lower than that of benign tumor (P value of time to peak (Tpeak) and maximal enhancement ratio (SImax) were lower than that of benign tumor (all P < 0.05). As for TIC, type II and III were more frequently seen in malignant tumor than in benign tumor whereas type I was more common in benign tumor than in malignant tumor (all P < 0.05). For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, DCE-MRI obtained a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 70.3%. (3) For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, ADC value together with TIC obtained a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 78.4%. Malignant or benign breast tumors could have their own unique characteristics on DWI and DCE-MRI. These characteristics might be helpful for differentiating these tumors.

  7. Analogues of estradiol as potential breast tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Ferriera, N.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The radioiodinated analogue of estradiol, 11..beta..-methoxy-17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/), has been shown to be a good candidate for the imaging of estrogen dependent breast tumors. Although there has been no extensive study on the sensitivity of radiotracers of this type, the authors have not observed localization of the radiotracer in metastatic lesions containing less than 20 fmole estrogen receptor/mg protein or in bone metasteses. In order to improve the sensitivity, they have examined several structural analogues of moxestrol (the parent structure for MIVE/sub 2/) for affinity to the ER isolated from immature rat uterus. The 11..beta..-ethyl analogue (EEE/sub 2/) of ethynyl estradiol (EE/sub 2/) exhibits the highest affinity with the 11..beta..-methyl analogue second best. Although the lipophilicity is also very high this compound should not be much more lipophilic than 16-iodoestradiol or MIVE/sub 2/ since the introduction of iodine increases the log P by greater than 1. The distribution of the tritiated derivative of EEE/sub 2/ is under study.

  8. Non-invasive estimation of the metabolic heat production of breast tumors using digital infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    González, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this work the metabolic heat generated by breast tumors was estimated indirectly and noninvasively from digital infrared images and numerically simulating a simplified breast model and a cancerous tumor, this parameter can be of clinical importance since it has been related to the doubling volume's time and malignancy for that particular tumor. The results indicate that digital infrared imaging has the potential to estimate in a non-invasive way the malignancy of a tumor by calculating its metabolic heat generation from bioheat thermal transfer models.

  9. Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a strategy to visualize the scatterer properties of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the Nakagami parameter in characterizing breast tumors by ultrasound. However, physicians or radiologists may need imaging tools in a clinical setting to visually identify the properties of breast tumors. This study proposed the ultrasonic Nakagami image to visualize the scatterer properties of breast tumors and then explored its clinical performance in classifying benign and malignant tumors. Raw data of ultrasonic backscattered signals were collected from 100 patients (50 benign and 50 malignant cases) using a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. The backscattered signals were used to form the B-scan and the Nakagami images of breast tumors. For each tumor, the average Nakagami parameter was calculated from the pixel values in the region-of-interest in the Nakagami image. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the clinical performance of the Nakagami image. The results showed that the Nakagami image shadings in benign tumors were different from those in malignant cases. The average Nakagami parameters for benign and malignant tumors were 0.69 +/- 0.12 and 0.55 +/- 0.12, respectively. This means that the backscattered signals received from malignant tumors tend to be more pre-Rayleigh distributed than those from benign tumors, corresponding to a more complex scatterer arrangement or composition. The ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.81 +/- 0.04 and the diagnostic accuracy was 82%, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 72%. The results showed that the Nakagami image is useful to distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors.

  10. How to measure breast cancer tumoral size at MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, I., E-mail: isabelle.thomassin@tnn.aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Siles, Pascale [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Trop, I. [Department of Radiology, Centre de recherche et d’investigation des maladies du sein (CRID), Hôtel Dieu, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Montréal (CHUM) (Canada); Chopier, J. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Darai, E. [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Bazot, M. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of different MR sequences to measure tumor size. Methods: Eighty-six women (mean age: 53 years (30–78)) who underwent preoperative MRI for breast cancer were included. Maximal diameters of the index tumor (IT) and of the whole extent of the tumor (WET) were measured on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences, on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1W) sequences and on Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP) reconstructions. Agreements with pathological size were evaluated using concordance correlation coefficient (k). Results: Median pathological size of IT was 20 mm (13–25 mm, interquartile range). Median pathological size of the WET was 29 mm (16–50 mm, interquartile range). Measurement of IT showed a good concordance with pathological size, with best results using T2W (k = 0.690) compared to MIP (k = 0.667), early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.630) and early-native DCE frame (k = 0.588). IT was visible on T2W in 83.7% and accurately measured within 5 mm in 69.9%. Measurement of WET was superior using early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.642) compared to late-native frame (k = 0.635), early-native frame (k = 0.631), late-subtracted frame (k = 0.620) and MIP (k = 0.565). However, even using early-subtracted frame, WET was accurately measured within 5 mm only 39.3%. Conclusion: If visible, IT size is best measured on T2W with a good accuracy (69%) whereas WET is best estimated on early-subtracted DCE frame. However, when adjacent additional sites exist around IT, suspected surrounding disease components need to be proved by pathological analysis.

  11. Evaluation of some ratio effects in 99mTc-MIBI imaging of breast tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of using some ratios in 99mTc-MIBI imaging fbr the diagnosis of breast tumors was evaluated. After 100 patients with the breast tumor underwent 99mTc-MIBI imaging, the ratios of tunor to contralateral uptake (T/N). tumor to heart uptake (T/H), and tumor to sternum uptake (T/S) were obtained and then analysed about their reproducibility and values in differentiating benign breast lesion the from malignant tumor. To detect breast cancers, the sensitivity, specificit y and accuracy of T/N were 92%, 90% and 91%, respectively. However, those of T/S were 70% (p <0.01), 74% (p <0.05), 72% (p <0.01), and those of T/H were 74%(p <0.05). 76% (p >0.05). 75% (p <0.01). The average coefticients of variation(CV) of T/N, T/S and T/H were 9.439±9.712. 4.856+4.420 (p >0.05), and 3.736±3.489 (p <0.05). It was found that T/N had the best sensitivity, specificity and accuracy todetect the breast cancer, but its reproducibility is poor. On the other hand, T/H has better reproducibility.

  12. Ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to detect breast tumors. Comparison with ultrasonography and mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Eri; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Iwamura, Akira; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shinpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    We evaluated the ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to accurately detect breast tumors. Sixty-five breast carcinomas and 24 fibroadenomas were examined by an SE pulse sequence using a 0.2 Tesla unit. Subtraction MR images were obtained every minute during dynamic study with Gd-DTPA. Almost all breast tumors were seen as very bright masses, and the margin of the mass was clearly demonstrated on subtraction MR images. Breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas showed characteristic time-intensity curves on dynamic study. Time-intensity curves of the early peak type and plateau type were seen in 97% of breast carcinomas, while the gradually increasing type was seen in 92% of fibroadenomas. The detectability of breast carcinoma was 98% by MRI, 98% by ultrasonography, and 87% by mammography. That of fibroadenoma was 95% by MRI, 91% by ultrasonography and 60% by mammography. Sensitivity and specificity for breast carcinoma were 98% and 92% for MRI and 97% and 71% for ultrasonography. For fibroadenoma, they were 96% and 98% for MRI and 89% and 92% for ultrasonography. (author).

  13. The electromagnetic-trait imaging computation of traveling wave method in breast tumor microwave sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Han, Zhong-Ling; Yao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Using the difference of dielectric constant between malignant tumor tissue and normal breast tissue, breast tumor microwave sensor system (BRATUMASS) determines the detected target of imaging electromagnetic trait by analyzing the properties of target tissue back wave obtained after near-field microwave radicalization (conelrad). The key of obtained target properties relationship and reconstructed detected space is to analyze the characteristics of the whole process from microwave transmission to back wave reception. Using traveling wave method, we derive spatial transmission properties and the relationship of the relation detected points distances, and valuate the properties of each unit by statistical valuation theory. This chapter gives the experimental data analysis results.

  14. Discrimination of Breast Tumors in Ultrasonic Images by Classifier Ensemble Trained with AdaBoost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akinobu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for acurate automated discrimination of breast tumors (carcinoma, fibroadenoma, and cyst). We defined 199 features related to diagnositic observations noticed when a doctor judges breast tumors, such as internal echo, shape, and boundary echo. These features included novel features based on a parameter of log-compressed K distribution, which reflect physical characteristics of ultrasonic B-mode imaging. Furthermore, we propose a discrimination method of breast tumors by using an ensemble classifier based on the multi-class AdaBoost algorithm with effective features selection. Verification by analyzing 200 carcinomas, 30 fibroadenomas and 30 cycts showed the usefulness of the newly defined features and the effectiveness of the discrimination by using an ensemble classifier trained by AdaBoost.

  15. Localization of tamoxifen in human breast cancer tumors by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, Ákos; Shavkunov, Alexander S; Fehniger, Thomas E; Grabau, Dorthe; Niméus, Emma; Marko-Varga, György

    2016-03-01

    Tamoxifen is used in endocrine treatment of breast cancer to inhibit estrogen signaling. A set of stratified ER-positive and ER-negative tumor sections was subjected to manual deposition of tamoxifen solution in order to investigate its spatial distribution upon exposure to interaction within thin tissue sections. The localization of tamoxifen in tumor sections was assessed by matrix assisted laser deposition/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The images of extracted ion maps were analyzed for comparison of signal intensity distributions. The precursor ion of tamoxifen (m/z 372.233) displayed heterogeneous signal intensity distributions in histological compartments of tumor tissue sections. The levels of tamoxifen in tumor cells compared with stroma were higher in ER-positive tissues, whereas ER-negative tissue sections showed lower signal intensities in tumor cells. The experimental model was successfully applied on frozen tumor samples allowing for differentiation between ER groups based on distribution of tamoxifen.

  16. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Zheng-1@ou.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Hollingsworth, Alan B. [Mercy Women’s Center, Mercy Health Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120 (United States); Qian, Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  17. Tumor characterization and treatment monitoring of postsurgical human breast specimens using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Taback, Bret; Konofagou, Elisa

    2016-05-09

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive technique used in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer and benign tumors. To facilitate its translation to the clinic, there is a need for a simple, cost-effective device that can reliably monitor HIFU treatment. We have developed harmonic motion imaging (HMI), which can be used seamlessly in conjunction with HIFU for tumor ablation monitoring, namely harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU). The overall objective of this study was to develop an all ultrasound-based system for real-time imaging and ablation monitoring in the human breast in vivo. HMI was performed in 36 specimens (19 normal, 15 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 2 fibroadenomas) immediately after surgical removal. The specimens were securely embedded in a tissue-mimicking agar gel matrix and submerged in degassed phosphate-buffered saline to mimic in vivo environment. The HMI setup consisted of a HIFU transducer confocally aligned with an imaging transducer to induce an oscillatory radiation force and estimate the resulting displacement. 3D HMI displacement maps were reconstructed to represent the relative tissue stiffness in 3D. The average peak-to-peak displacement was found to be significantly different (p = 0.003) between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma. There were also significant differences before and after HMIFU ablation in both the normal (53.84 % decrease) and invasive ductal carcinoma (44.69 % decrease) specimens. HMI can be used to map and differentiate relative stiffness in postsurgical normal and pathological breast tissues. HMIFU can also successfully monitor thermal ablations in normal and pathological human breast specimens. This HMI technique may lead to a new clinical tool for breast tumor imaging and HIFU treatment monitoring.

  18. Optical imaging of breast tumors and of gastrointestinal cancer by laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Bernd; Grosenick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging offers a high potential for noninvasive detection of cancer in humans. Recent advances in instrumentation for diffuse optical imaging have led to new capabilities for the detection of cancer in highly scattering tissue such as the female breast. We review recent developments in the detection of breast cancer in humans by fluorescent contrast agents. So far, the unspecific contrast agents indocyanine green (ICG) and omocyanine have been applied, whereas molecular probes for direct targeted imaging of this disease are still in preclinical research. We discuss recent improvements in the differentiation of malignant and benign lesions with ICG based on its enhanced extravasation in breast cancer. Whereas fluorescence imaging in thick tissue layers is hampered by strong light scattering, tissue surfaces can be investigated with high spatial resolution. As an example for superficial tumors, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) are discussed. In these investigations, protoporphyrin IX is used as a tumor-specific (due to its strong enhancement in tumor cells) target for spectroscopic identification and imaging. We present a time-gated method for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy with strong suppression of tissue autofluorescence and show results on patients with Barrett's esophagus and with colitis ulcerosa.

  19. Imaging diagnostics of breast metastases from extramammary tumors; Bildgebende Diagnostik bei Brustmetastasen extramammaerer Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienbeck, S.; Lotz, J. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Nemat, S. [Universitaet Homburg/Saar, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Surov, A. [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Breast metastases of solid extramammary tumors are very rare in comparison to primary malignancies of the breast and account for only 0.33-6.3% of all malignant neoplasms of the breast. The most common primary tumors are malignant melanoma, distant sarcomas, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, renal cell cancer and thyroid cancer in decreasing order of frequency. This review article summarizes the clinical features and the different imaging findings of breast metastases from different extramammary solid tumors. Breast metastases are often incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) imaging. Mammography shows two different imaging patterns, namely focal lesions and diffuse architectural distortion with skin thickening. Breast metastases presenting as focal masses usually occur as solitary and more rarely as multiple round lesions with a smooth edge boundary. Associated calcifications are rare findings. Diffuse architectural distortion with skin thickening is more common in breast metastases from most gastric tumors, ovarian cancer and rhabdomyosarcoma. Using ultrasound most lesions are hypoechoic, oval or round with smooth boundaries and posterior acoustic enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of breast metastases show an inconstant signal behavior that cannot be safely classified as benign or malignant. In summary, in patients with known malignancies the presence of breast metastases should be considered even with imposing clinically and radiologically benign findings. (orig.) [German] Brustmetastasen solider extramammaerer Tumoren sind im Vergleich zu primaeren Malignomen der Brust mit einer Praevalenz von 0,33-6,3 % aller boesartigen Neubildungen in der Brust sehr selten. Die haeufigsten Primaertumoren sind dabei das maligne Melanom, ferner Sarkome, Bronchial-, Ovarial-, Nierenzell- und Schilddruesenkarzinome mit einer absteigenden Haeufigkeit ihres Auftretens. In dieser Uebersichtsarbeit werden die

  20. Optical imaging of breast tumor through temporal log-slope difference mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhixiong; Kan Wan, Siew; August, David A; Ying, Jinpin; Dunn, Stanley M; Semmlow, John L

    2006-02-01

    A novel optical temporal log-slope difference mapping approach is proposed for cancerous breast tumor detection. In this method, target tissues are illuminated by near-infrared (700-1000 nm) ultrashort laser pulses from various surface source points, and backscattered time-resolved light signals are collected at the same surface points. By analyzing the log-slopes of decaying signals over all points on the source-detection grid, a log-slope distribution on the surface is obtained. After administration of absorption contrast agents, the presence of cancerous tumors increases the decaying steepness of the transient signals. The mapping of log-slope difference between native tissue and absorption-enhanced cancerous tissue indicates the location and projection of tumors on the detection surface. In this paper, we examine this method in the detection of breast tumors in two model tissue phantoms through computer simulation. The first model has a spherical tumor of 6mm in diameter embedded at the tissue center. The second model is a large tissue phantom embedded with a non-centered spherical tumor 8mm in diameter. Monte Carlo methods were employed to simulate the light transport and signal measurement. It is shown that the tumor in both the tissue models will be accurately projected on the detection surface by the proposed log-slope difference mapping method. The image processing is very fast and does not require any inverse optimization in image reconstruction.

  1. Automatic segmentation of breast tumor in ultrasound image with simplified PCNN and improved fuzzy mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Xiao, Zhiheng; Zhou, Shichong

    2010-07-01

    Image segmentation is very important in the field of image processing. The pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) has been efficiently applied to image processing, especially for image segmentation. In this study, a simplified PCNN (S-PCNN) model is proposed, the fuzzy mutual information (FMI) is improved as optimization criterion for S-PCNN, and then the S-PCNN and improved FMI (IFMI) based segmentation algorithm is proposed and applied for the segmentation of breast tumor in ultrasound image. To validate the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment is implemented to segment breast images not only by our proposed algorithm, but also by the improved C-V algorithm, the max-entropy-based PCNN algorithm, the MI-based PCNN algorithm, and the IFMI-based PCNN algorithm. The results show that the breast lesions are well segmented by the proposed algorithm without image preprocessing, with the mean Hausdorff of distance of 5.631+/-0.822, mean average minimum Euclidean distance of 0.554+/-0.049, mean Tanimoto coefficient of 0.961+/-0.019, and mean misclassified error of 0.038+/-0.004. These values of evaluation indices are better than those of other segmentation algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm has excellent segmentation accuracy and strong robustness against noise, and it has the potential for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD).

  2. Data mining with decision trees for diagnosis of breast tumor in medical ultrasonic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W J; Chang, R F; Chen, D R; Lee, C C

    2001-03-01

    To increase the ability of ultrasonographic (US) technology for the differential diagnosis of solid breast tumors, we describe a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system using data mining with decision tree for classification of breast tumor to increase the levels of diagnostic confidence and to provide the immediate second opinion for physicians. Cooperating with the texture information extracted from the region of interest (ROI) image, a decision tree model generated from the training data in a top-down, general-to-specific direction with 24 co-variance texture features is used to classify the tumors as benign or malignant. In the experiments, accuracy rates for a experienced physician and the proposed CADx are 86.67% (78/90) and 95.50% (86/90), respectively.

  3. Research on the lesion segmentation of breast tumor MR images based on FCM-DS theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangbin; Ma, Wenjun; Shen, Xing; Li, Yuehua; Zhu, Yuemin; Chen, Li; Zhang, Su

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the treatment of breast tumor by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The doctors evaluate the scale, distribution and the statement of benign or malignancy of breast tumor by analyzing variety modalities of MRI, such as the T2, DWI and DCE images for making accurate preoperative treatment plan and evaluating the effect of the operation. This paper presents a method of lesion segmentation of breast tumor based on FCM-DS theory. Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) algorithm combined with Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory is used to process the uncertainty of information, segmenting the lesion areas on DWI and DCE modalities of MRI and reducing the scale of the uncertain parts. Experiment results show that FCM-DS can fuse the DWI and DCE images to achieve accurate segmentation and display the statement of benign or malignancy of lesion area by Time-Intensity Curve (TIC), which could be beneficial in making preoperative treatment plan and evaluating the effect of the therapy.

  4. Four dimensional optoacoustic imaging of perfusion in preclinical breast tumor model in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mandal, Subhamoy; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in clinical management and preclinical studies of cancer. Application of optical molecular imaging technologies, in combination with highly specific contrast agent approaches, eminently contributed to understanding of functional and histological properties of tumors and anticancer therapies. Yet, optical imaging exhibits deterioration in spatial resolution and other performance metrics due to light scattering in deep living tissues. High resolution molecular imaging at the whole-organ or whole-body scale may therefore bring additional understanding of vascular networks, blood perfusion and microenvironment gradients of malignancies. In this work, we constructed a volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT) scanner for cancer imaging in preclinical models and explored its capacity for real-time 3D intravital imaging of whole breast cancer allografts in mice. Intrinsic tissue properties, such as blood oxygenation gradients, along with the distribution of externally administered liposomes carrying clinically-approved indocyanine green dye (lipo-ICG) were visualized in order to study vascularization, probe penetration and extravasation kinetics in different regions of interest within solid tumors. The use of v-MSOT along with the application of volumetric image analysis and perfusion tracking tools for studies of pathophysiological processes within microenvironment gradients of solid tumors demonstrated superior volumetric imaging system performance with sustained competitive resolution and imaging depth suitable for investigations in preclinical cancer models.

  5. Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S; Llopis, Antonio; Palmer, Gregory M; McCachren, Samuel S; Senlik, Ozlem; Miller, David; Brooke, Martin A; Jokerst, Nan M; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-channel annular photodiode imaging array (arranged in a 4 × 4 grid), a raster-scanning imaging platform with precision pressure control, and compressive sensing with an optimized set of eight wavelengths in the visible spectral range. A scalable Monte-Carlo-based inverse model is used to generate optical property [ ? s ? ( ? ) and ? a ( ? ) ] measures for each of the 16 simultaneously captured diffuse reflectance spectra. Subpixel sampling (0.75 mm) is achieved through incremental x , y raster scanning of the imaging probe, providing detailed optical parameter maps of breast margins over a 2 × 2 ?? cm 2 area in ? 9 ?? min . The morphological landscape of a tumor margin is characterized using optical surrogates for the fat to fibroglandular content ratio, which has demonstrated diagnostic utility in delineating tissue subtypes in the breast.

  6. Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S.; Llopis, Antonio; Palmer, Gregory M.; McCachren, Samuel S., III; Senlik, Ozlem; Miller, David; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan M.; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-channel annular photodiode imaging array (arranged in a 4×4 grid), a raster-scanning imaging platform with precision pressure control, and compressive sensing with an optimized set of eight wavelengths in the visible spectral range. A scalable Monte-Carlo-based inverse model is used to generate optical property [μs‧(λ) and μa(λ)] measures for each of the 16 simultaneously captured diffuse reflectance spectra. Subpixel sampling (0.75 mm) is achieved through incremental x, y raster scanning of the imaging probe, providing detailed optical parameter maps of breast margins over a 2×2 cm2 area in ˜9 min. The morphological landscape of a tumor margin is characterized using optical surrogates for the fat to fibroglandular content ratio, which has demonstrated diagnostic utility in delineating tissue subtypes in the breast.

  7. Molecular imaging of neutropilin-1 receptor using photoacoustic spectroscopy in breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cao, Minsong; Liu, Bo; Miller, Kathy D.; Guo, Lili

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to develop and test a molecular probe that can detect the expression of neutropilin-1 receptor (NPR-1) in vivo using fluorescence imaging and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: NPR-1 is expressed on endothelial cells and some breast cancer cells, and binds to vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF165, a growth factor associated with pathological tumor angiogenesis. This receptor is coexpressed with VEGFR2 and shown to enhance the binding of VEGF165; therefore, it has the potential to be used as a marker of angiogenic activity and targeted for therapy. Material and Methods: A peptide specific to NPR-1 receptor was synthesized and conjugated to a NIR fluorochrome (IRDye800CW) and was intravenously injected into mice with breast tumors (MCF7VEGF). Probe kinetics was monitored in vivo via near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) within an optical imager for up to 72 hours within the tumor and compared to other organs (liver, muscle) for binding specificity. A multivariate fitting algorithm was used to spectrally deconvolve the IRDye800CW from endogenous hemoglobin signature (hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation). Results: Dynamics of the NIR fluorescence signal within the first hour after injection indicates specific binding compared to muscle, with an average tumor-to-muscle ration of 2.00 (+/- 0.27). Spectral analysis clearly indentified the presence of the NPR-1 probe. Based on calibration data, the average tumor concentration from both NIRF and PCT-S was measured to be ~200-300nM. Conclusion: These preliminary results show the capability of PCT to image an exogenous probe in vivo in addition to its hemoglobin state.

  8. Computer-aided global breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy: performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Zheng, Bin; Cheng, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used increasingly in breast cancer diagnosis and assessment of cancer treatment efficacy. In this study, we applied a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment breast regions depicting on MR images and used the kinetic image features computed from the global breast MR images acquired before neoadjuvant chemotherapy to build a new quantitative model to predict response of the breast cancer patients to the chemotherapy. To assess performance and robustness of this new prediction model, an image dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 151 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was retrospectively assembled and used. Among them, 63 patients had "complete response" (CR) to chemotherapy in which the enhanced contrast levels inside the tumor volume (pre-treatment) was reduced to the level as the normal enhanced background parenchymal tissues (post-treatment), while 88 patients had "partially response" (PR) in which the high contrast enhancement remain in the tumor regions after treatment. We performed the studies to analyze the correlation among the 22 global kinetic image features and then select a set of 4 optimal features. Applying an artificial neural network trained with the fusion of these 4 kinetic image features, the prediction model yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83+/-0.04. This study demonstrated that by avoiding tumor segmentation, which is often difficult and unreliable, fusion of kinetic image features computed from global breast MR images without tumor segmentation can also generate a useful clinical marker in predicting efficacy of chemotherapy.

  9. Profiling EGFR in Triple Negative Breast Tumor Using Affibody PET Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingding Xu; Gang Ren; Shibo Qi; Zhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Triple negative breast cancer(TNBC) represents a group of refractory breast cancers with aggressive clinical manifestations as well as poor prognoses.Human epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) expression is strongly associated with TNBC progression and it may serve as a therapeutic target for TNBC.We aimed to evaluate EGFR affibody-based PET imaging to profile EGFR expression in small animal models.Methods 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid(DOTA) conjugated Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 was chemically synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesizer and then radiolabeled with 64Cu.The in vitro cell uptake study was performed using SUM159 and MCF7 cells.The biodistribution and small animal PET imaging using 64Cu-DOTA-ZEGFR:1907 were further carried out with nude mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 and SUM159 tumors.Results DOTA-Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 was successfully synthesized and radiolabeled with 64Cu.Biodistribution study showed that tumor uptake value of 64Cu-DOTA-Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 remained at(4.07±0.93)%ID/g at 24 h in nude mice(n=4) bearing SUM159 xenografts.Furthermore,small animal PET imaging study clearly showed that 64Cu-DOTA-Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 specifically delineated the EGFR positive TNBC tumors at 4 h or later.Conclusion The study demonstrates that 64Cu-DOTA-Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 is a promising molecular probe for PET imaging of EGFR positive TNBC.EGFR based small protein scaffold holds great promise as a novel platform that can be used for EGFR profiling of TNBC.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Red Fluorescent Protein in Breast Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Post, Harm; Winnard, Paul T.; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Raman, Venu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Glunde, Kristine

    2013-05-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in combination with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful technique for visualization and identification of a variety of different biomolecules directly from thin tissue sections. As commonly used tools for molecular reporting, fluorescent proteins are molecular reporter tools that have enabled the elucidation of a multitude of biological pathways and processes. To combine these two approaches, we have performed targeted MS analysis and MALDI-MSI visualization of a tandem dimer (td)Tomato red fluorescent protein, which was expressed exclusively in the hypoxic regions of a breast tumor xenograft model. For the first time, a fluorescent protein has been visualized by both optical microscopy and MALDI-MSI. Visualization of tdTomato by MALDI-MSI directly from breast tumor tissue sections will allow us to simultaneously detect and subsequently identify novel molecules present in hypoxic regions of the tumor. MS and MALDI-MSI of fluorescent proteins, as exemplified in our study, is useful for studies in which the advantages of MS and MSI will benefit from the combination with molecular approaches that use fluorescent proteins as reporters.

  11. MRI-aided tissues interface characterization: An accurate signal propagation time calculation method for UWB breast tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Xiao, Xia; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2016-12-01

    Radar-based ultrawideband (UWB) microwave imaging is expected to be a safe, low-cost tool for breast cancer detection. However, since radar wave travels at different speeds in different tissues, propagation time is hard to be estimated in heterogeneous breast. Wrongly estimated propagation time leads to error of tumor location in resulting image, aka imaging error. In this paper, we develop a magnetic resonance imaging-aided (MRI-aided) propagation time calculation technique which is independent from radar imaging system but can help decrease the imaging error. The technique can eliminate the influence of the rough interface between fat layer and gland layer in breast and get relative accurate thicknesses of two layers. The propagation time in each layer is calculated and summed. The summed propagation time is used in Confocal imaging algorithm to increase the accuracy of resulting image. 25 patients' breast models with glands of varying size are classified into four categories for imaging simulation tests. Imaging accuracy in terms of tumor location along x-direction has been improved for 21 among 25 cases, as a result, overall around 50% improvement compared to conventional UWB imaging.

  12. Contrast-enhanced microwave imaging of breast tumors: a computational study using 3D realistic numerical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. D.; Kosmas, P.; Van Veen, B. D.; Hagness, S. C.

    2010-07-01

    The detection of early-stage tumors in the breast by microwave imaging is challenged by both the moderate endogenous dielectric contrast between healthy and malignant glandular tissues and the spatial resolution available from illumination at microwave frequencies. The high endogenous dielectric contrast between adipose and fibroglandular tissue structures increases the difficulty of tumor detection due to the high dynamic range of the contrast function to be imaged and the low level of signal scattered from a tumor relative to the clutter scattered by normal tissue structures. Microwave inverse scattering techniques, used to estimate the complete spatial profile of the dielectric properties within the breast, have the potential to reconstruct both normal and cancerous tissue structures. However, the ill-posedness of the associated inverse problem often limits the frequency of microwave illumination to the UHF band within which early-stage cancers have sub-wavelength dimensions. In this computational study, we examine the reconstruction of small, compact tumors in three-dimensional numerical breast phantoms by a multiple-frequency inverse scattering solution. Computer models are also employed to investigate the use of exogenous contrast agents for enhancing tumor detection. Simulated array measurements are acquired before and after the introduction of the assumed contrast effects for two specific agents currently under consideration for breast imaging: microbubbles and carbon nanotubes. Differential images of the applied contrast demonstrate the potential of the approach for detecting the preferential uptake of contrast agents by malignant tissues.

  13. Differential expression of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers for imaging in male and female breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer accounts for 0.5-1% of all breast cancers and is generally diagnosed at higher stage than female breast cancers and therefore might benefit from earlier detection and targeted therapy. Except for HER2 and EGFR, little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression profiles of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers in male breast cancer and gynecomastia, in comparison with female breast cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 133 male breast cancer and 32 gynecomastia cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for a panel of membrane-bound targets and compared with data on 266 female breast cancers. RESULTS: Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET up to 38.5% (IGF1-R of male breast cancers. Compared to female breast cancer, IGF1-R and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CAXII were more frequently and CD44v6, MET and FGFR2 less frequently expressed in male breast cancer. Expression of EGFR, HER2, CAIX, and GLUT1 was not significantly different between male and female breast cancer. Further, 48.1% of male breast cancers expressed at least one and 18.0% expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast cancers, a panel of membrane markers will be required for molecular imaging strategies to reach sensitivity. A potential panel of markers for molecular imaging, consisting of EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, CD44v6, CAXII, GLUT1, and CD44v6 was positive in 77% of male breast cancers, comparable to female breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different from female breast cancer. For molecular imaging strategies, a putative panel consisting of markers for EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, GLUT1, CAXII, CD44v6 was positive in 77% of cases and might be considered for development of

  14. Complexity curve and grey level co-occurrence matrix in the texture evaluation of breast tumor on ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, André Victor; Pereira, Wagner C A; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando C; Azevedo, Carolina M

    2007-02-01

    This work aims at investigating texture parameters in distinguishing malign and benign breast tumors on ultrasound images. A rectangular region of interest (ROI) containing the tumor and its neighboring was defined for each image. Five parameters were extracted from the complexity curve (CC) of the ROI. Another five parameters were calculated from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) also for the ROI. The same was carried out for internal tumor region, hence, totaling 20 parameters. The linear discriminant analysis was applied to sets of up to five parameters and then the performances were assessed. The most relevant individual parameters were the contrast (con) (from the GLCM over the ROI) and the maximum value (mvi) from the CC just for the tumor internal region). When they were taken together, a correct classification slightly over 80% of the breast tumors was achieved. The highest performance (accuracy=84.2%, sensitivity=87.0%, and specificity=78.8%) was obtained with mvi, con, the standard deviation of the pixel pairs and the entropy, both for GLCM, and the internal region contrast also from GLCM. Parameters extracted from the internal region generally performed better and were more significant than those from the ROI. Moreover, parameters calculated only from CC or GLCM resulted in no statistically significant performance difference. These findings suggest that the texture parameters can be useful to help radiologist in distinguishing between benign or malign breast tumors on ultrasound images.

  15. Dynamic optical breast imaging: A novel technique to detect and characterize tumor vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Laure S. [Universite Paris Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Radiology Department, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); University Paris Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, EA4062, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, site Necker, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: laure.fournier@gmail.com; Vanel, Daniel; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Gatzemeier, Wolfgang [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Masuykov, I.V. [DOBI Medical International Inc, Mahwah, NJ (United States); Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Dromain, Clarisse [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Galetti, Ken [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Sigal, Robert [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Costa, Alberto [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Balleyguier, Corinne [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 breast lesions. Materials and methods: Forty-six patients with BI-RADS classification 3 (11%), 4 (44%) or 5 (44%) lesions, underwent a novel optical imaging examination using red light to illuminate the breast. Pressure was applied on the breast, and time-dependent curves of light absorption were recorded. Curves that consistently increased or decreased over time were classified as suspicious for malignancy. All patients underwent a core or surgical biopsy. Results: Optical mammography showed a statistical difference in numbers of suspect pixels between benign (N = 12) and malignant (N = 35) lesions (respectively 1325 vs. 3170, P = 0.002). In this population, optical imaging had a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 92%, and diagnostic accuracy of 79%. The optical signal did not vary according to any other parameter including breast size or density, age, hormonal status or histological type of lesions. Conclusion: Optical imaging is a low-cost, non-invasive technique, yielding physiological information dependent on breast blood volume and oxygenation. It appears to have a good potential for discriminating benign from malignant lesions. Further studies are warranted to define its potential role in breast cancer imaging.

  16. Infrared imaging in breast cancer: automated tissue component recognition and spectral characterization of breast cancer cells as well as the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Audrey; Desmedt, Christine; Smolina, Margarita; Szternfeld, Philippe; Verdonck, Magali; Rouas, Ghizlane; Kheddoumi, Naima; Rothé, Françoise; Larsimont, Denis; Sotiriou, Christos; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2014-03-07

    Current evaluation of histological sections of breast cancer samples remains unsatisfactory. The search for new predictive and prognostic factors is ongoing. Infrared spectroscopy and its potential to probe tissues and cells at the molecular level without requirement for contrast agents could be an attractive tool for clinical and diagnostic analysis of breast cancer. In this study, we report the successful application of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) imaging for breast tissue component characterization. We show that specific FTIR spectral signatures can be assigned to the major tissue components of breast tumor samples. We demonstrate that a tissue component classifier can be built based on a spectral database of well-annotated tissues and successfully validated on independent breast samples. We also demonstrate that spectral features can reveal subtle differences within a tissue component, capturing for instance lymphocytic and stromal activation. By investigating in parallel lymph nodes, tonsils and wound healing tissues, we prove the uniqueness of the signature of both lymphocytic infiltrate and tumor microenvironment in the breast disease context. Finally, we demonstrate that the biochemical information reflected in the epithelial spectra might be clinically relevant for the grading purpose, suggesting potential to improve breast cancer management in the future.

  17. Tumor Size of Invasive Breast Cancer on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Conventional Imaging (Mammogram/Ultrasound): Comparison with Pathological Size and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, K H; Jónsson, Þ; Halldórsdóttir, A B; Tranberg, K-G; Ásgeirsson, K S

    2017-03-01

    In Landspitali University Hospital, magnetic resonance imaging is used non-selectively in addition to mammogram and ultrasound in the preoperative assessment of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess invasive tumor size on imaging, compare with pathological size and evaluate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the type of surgery performed. All women with invasive breast cancer, diagnosed in Iceland, between 2007 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. In all, 438 of 641 (68%) patients diagnosed had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded and 65 patients with multifocal or contralateral disease were assessed separately. Correlations between microscopic and radiologic tumor sizes were relatively weak. All imaging methods were inaccurate especially for large tumors, resulting in an overall underestimation of tumor size for these tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging under- and overestimated pathological tumor size by more than 10 mm in 16/348 (4.6%) and 26/348 patients (7.5%), respectively. In 19 patients (73%), overestimation of size was seen exclusively on magnetic resonance imaging. For tumors under- or overestimated by magnetic resonance imaging, the mastectomy rates were 56% and 65%, respectively, compared to an overall mastectomy rate of 43%. Of 51 patients diagnosed with multifocal disease on pathology, 19 (37%) were diagnosed by mammogram or ultrasound and 40 (78%) by magnetic resonance imaging resulting in a total detection rate of 84% (43 patients). Fourteen (3%) patients were diagnosed preoperatively with contralateral disease. Of those tumors, all were detected on magnetic resonance imaging but seven (50%) were also detected on mammogram or ultrasound or both. Our results suggest that routine use of magnetic resonance imaging may result in both under- and overestimation of tumor size and increase mastectomy rates in a small proportion of patients. Magnetic

  18. Freehand 3D ultrasound breast tumor segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yinan; Ou, Yue; Cao, Biao

    2007-12-01

    It is very important for physicians to accurately determine breast tumor location, size and shape in ultrasound image. The precision of breast tumor volume quantification relies on the accurate segmentation of the images. Given the known location and orientation of the ultrasound probe, We propose using freehand three dimensional (3D) ultrasound to acquire original images of the breast tumor and the surrounding tissues in real-time, after preprocessing with anisotropic diffusion filtering, the segmentation operation is performed slice by slice based on the level set method in the image stack. For the segmentation on each slice, the user can adjust the parameters to fit the requirement in the specified image in order to get the satisfied result. By the quantification procedure, the user can know the tumor size varying in different images in the stack. Surface rendering and interpolation are used to reconstruct the 3D breast tumor image. And the breast volume is constructed by the segmented contours in the stack of images. After the segmentation, the volume of the breast tumor in the 3D image data can be obtained.

  19. Breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.; Meyer, J.E.; Sadowsky, N.

    1984-04-12

    The majority of information available today indiates that the most efficient and accurate method of screening women to detect early-stage breast cancer is an aggressive program of patient self-examination, physical examination by well-trained, motivated personnel, and high-quality x-ray mammography. There are two important factors in the implementation of mammographic screening. The first is the availability of facilities to perform high-quality, low-dose mammography, which is directly related to the second factor: the expense to society for support of this large-scale effort. Cost-benefit analysis is beyond the scope of this review. In 1979 Moskowitz and Fox attempted to address this issue, using data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project in Cincinnati, but additional analysis is required. The cost for each ''curable'' cancer that is detected must be compared with the psychological, social, and personal losses that accrue, as well as the numerous medical expenses incurred, in a frequently protracted death from breast cancer. All other imaging techniques that have been reviewed should be regarded as adjuncts to rather than replacements for mammographic screening. Ultrasound and computerized tomography are helpful when the physical examination and mammogram are equivocal. Other techniques, such as transillumination, thermography, and magnetic-resonance imaging, should be considered experimental. In patients with clinically evident lesions, x-ray mammography is helpful to evaluate the suspicious area, as well as to ''screen'' the remaining tissue in both breasts and to search for multicentric or bilateral lesions. Mammography is the only imaging technique that has been proved effective for screening.

  20. Dual in vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Imaging of HER2 Expression in Breast Tumors for Diagnosis, Margin Assessment, and Surgical Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Maeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker-specific imaging probes offer ways to improve molecular diagnosis, intraoperative margin assessment, and tumor resection. Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging probes are of particular interest for clinical applications because the combination enables deeper tissue penetration for tumor detection while maintaining imaging sensitivity compared to a single optical imaging modality. Here we describe the development of a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-targeting imaging probe to visualize differential levels of HER2 expression in a breast cancer model. Specifically, we labeled trastuzumab with Black Hole Quencher 3 (BHQ3 and fluorescein for photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging of HER2 overexpression, respectively. The dual-labeled trastuzumab was tested for its ability to detect HER2 overexpression in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated an over twofold increase in the signal intensity for HER2-overexpressing tumors in vivo, compared to low–HER2-expressing tumors, using photoacoustic imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of detecting tumors and positive surgical margins by fluorescence imaging. These results suggest that multimodal HER2-specific imaging of breast cancer using the BHQ3-fluorescein trastuzumab enables molecular-level detection and surgical margin assessment of breast tumors in vivo. This technique may have future clinical impact for primary lesion detection, as well as intraoperative molecular-level surgical guidance in breast cancer.

  1. Discriminating between benign and malignant breast tumors using 3D convolutional neural network in dynamic contrast enhanced-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2017-03-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art deep learning network architectures that can be used in a range of applications, including computer vision and medical image analysis. It exhibits a powerful representation learning mechanism with an automated design to learn features directly from the data. However, the common 2D CNNs only use the two dimension spatial information without evaluating the correlation between the adjoin slices. In this study, we established a method of 3D CNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign breast tumors. To this end, 143 patients were enrolled which include 66 benign and 77 malignant instances. The MRI images were pre-processed for noise reduction and breast tumor region segmentation. Data augmentation by spatial translating, rotating and vertical and horizontal flipping is applied to the cases to reduce possible over-fitting. A region-of-interest (ROI) and a volume-of-interest (VOI) were segmented in 2D and 3D DCE-MRI, respectively. The enhancement ratio for each MR series was calculated for the 2D and 3D images. The results for the enhancement ratio images in the two series are integrated for classification. The results of the area under the ROC curve(AUC) values are 0.739 and 0.801 for 2D and 3D methods, respectively. The results for 3D CNN which combined 5 slices for each enhancement ratio images achieved a high accuracy(Acc), sensitivity(Sens) and specificity(Spec) of 0.781, 0.744 and 0.823, respectively. This study indicates that 3D CNN deep learning methods can be a promising technology for breast tumor classification without manual feature extraction.

  2. Augmented reality for breast tumors visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Ali; Heydarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Gupta, Gopal; Tamil, Lakshman

    2016-08-01

    3D visualization of breast tumors are shown to be effective by previous studies. In this paper, we introduce a new augmented reality application that can help doctors and surgeons to have a more accurate visualization of breast tumors; this system uses a marker-based image-processing technique to render a 3D model of the tumors on the body. The model can be created using a combination of breast 3D mammography by experts. We have tested the system using an Android smartphone and a head-mounted device. This proof of concept can be useful for oncologists to have a more effective screening, and surgeons to plan the surgery.

  3. Analysis of Contourlet Texture Feature Extraction to Classify the Benign and Malignant Tumors from Breast Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Telagarapu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Breast cancer has been increasing over the past three decades. Early detection of breast cancer is crucial for an effective treatment. Mammography is used for early detection and screening. Especially for young women, mammography procedures may not be very comfortable. Moreover, it involves ionizing radiation. Ultrasound is broadly popular medical imaging modality because of its non-invasive, real time, convenient and low cost nature. However, the excellence of ultrasound image is corrupted by a speckle noise. The presence of speckle noise severely degrades the signal-to noise ratio (SNR and contrast resolution of the image. Therefore speckle noise need to be reduced before extracting the features. In this research focus on developing an algorithm to reduce the speckle noise, feature extraction and classification methods for benign and malignant tumors showed that SVM-Polynomial classification produces a high classification rate (77% for Grey level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM based Contourlet features for wavelet soft thresholding denoised breast ultrasound images.

  4. Male Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor After Prophylactic Breast Radiotherapy and Bicalutamide Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karihtala, Peeter; Rissanen, Tarja; Tuominen, Hannu

    2016-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor in male breast is an exceptionally rare neoplasm with only few published case reports. Herein, we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in male breast nine years after prophylactic breast 10 Gy radiotherapy and after nine year bicalutamide treatment. The imaging findings of the tumor and pathological correlation are also presented.

  5. Accurate and reproducible invasive breast cancer detection in whole-slide images: A Deep Learning approach for quantifying tumor extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Gilmore, Hannah; Basavanhally, Ajay; Feldman, Michael; Ganesan, Shridar; Shih, Natalie N. C.; Tomaszewski, John; González, Fabio A.; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing ability to routinely and rapidly digitize whole slide images with slide scanners, there has been interest in developing computerized image analysis algorithms for automated detection of disease extent from digital pathology images. The manual identification of presence and extent of breast cancer by a pathologist is critical for patient management for tumor staging and assessing treatment response. However, this process is tedious and subject to inter- and intra-reader variability. For computerized methods to be useful as decision support tools, they need to be resilient to data acquired from different sources, different staining and cutting protocols and different scanners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of a deep learning-based method to automatically identify the extent of invasive tumor on digitized images. Here, we present a new method that employs a convolutional neural network for detecting presence of invasive tumor on whole slide images. Our approach involves training the classifier on nearly 400 exemplars from multiple different sites, and scanners, and then independently validating on almost 200 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our approach yielded a Dice coefficient of 75.86%, a positive predictive value of 71.62% and a negative predictive value of 96.77% in terms of pixel-by-pixel evaluation compared to manually annotated regions of invasive ductal carcinoma.

  6. Investigation of Metastatic Breast Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression Using Dual Optical/SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    tumors in the lungs or other internal organs. Figures 3c and 3d show images obtained first in air and then in gel, with the fiber displaced 10 mm from the...the mouse lungs and viscera, and characterize the advantages of this method for quantitative imaging. We have also demonstrated micro-SPECT imaging of...resolution, high-throughput screening. 3. Prototype Recently, a prototype system using CR image plates for co-registered 1-125 planar scintigraphy and x

  7. Segmentation and classification of breast tumor using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Baloch, Sajjad; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2007-01-01

    Accuracy of automatic cancer diagnosis is largely determined by two factors, namely, the precision of tumor segmentation, and the suitability of extracted features for discrimination between malignancy and benignancy. In this paper, we propose a new framework for accurate characterization of tumors in contrast enhanced MR images. First, a new graph cut based segmentation algorithm is developed for refining coarse manual segmentation, which allows precise identification of tumor regions. Second, by considering serial contrast-enhanced images as a single spatio-temporal image, a spatio-temporal model of segmented tumor is constructed to extract Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Patterns (STEPs). STEPs are designed to capture not only dynamic enhancement and architectural features, but also spatial variations of pixel-wise temporal enhancement of the tumor. While temporal enhancement features are extracted through Fourier transform, the resulting STEP framework captures spatial patterns of temporal enhancement features via moment invariants and rotation invariant Gabor textures. High accuracy of the proposed framework is a direct consequence of this two pronged approach, which is validated through experiments yielding, for instance, an area of 0.97 under the ROC curve.

  8. Breast tumor classification in ultrasound images using support vector machines and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Dessana Lima Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of tools for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD has been proposed for detection and classification of breast cancer. Concerning breast cancer image diagnosing with ultrasound, some results found in literature show that morphological features perform better than texture features for lesions differentiation, and indicate that a reduced set of features performs better than a larger one. Methods This study evaluated the performance of support vector machines (SVM with different kernels combinations, and neural networks with different stop criteria, for classifying breast cancer nodules. Twenty-two morphological features from the contour of 100 BUS images were used as input for classifiers and then a scalar feature selection technique with correlation was used to reduce the features dataset. Results The best results obtained for accuracy and area under ROC curve were 96.98% and 0.980, respectively, both with neural networks using the whole set of features. Conclusion The performance obtained with neural networks with the selected stop criterion was better than the ones obtained with SVM. Whilst using neural networks the results were better with all 22 features, SVM classifiers performed better with a reduced set of 6 features.

  9. MALDI-mass spectrometric imaging revealing hypoxia-driven lipids and proteins in a breast tumor model

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    Lu, Jiang; Chughtai, Kamila; Purvine, Samuel O.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Raman, Venu; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2015-06-16

    Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases, and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a strong impact on tumor cell biology and contributes to tumor progression in multiple ways. To date, only a few molecular key players in tumor hypoxia, such as for example hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been discovered. The distribution of biomolecules is frequently heterogeneous in the tumor volume, and may be driven by hypoxia and HIF-1α. Understanding the spatially heterogeneous hypoxic response of tumors is critical. Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) provides a unique way of imaging biomolecular distributions in tissue sections with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, breast tumor xenografts grown from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato cells, with a red fluorescent tdTomato protein construct under the control of a hypoxia response element (HRE)-containing promoter driven by HIF-1α, were used to detect the spatial distribution of hypoxic regions. We elucidated the 3D spatial relationship between hypoxic regions and the localization of small molecules, metabolites, lipids, and proteins by using principal component analysis – linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on 3D rendered MSI volume data from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato breast tumor xenografts. In this study we identified hypoxia-regulated proteins active in several distinct pathways such as glucose metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein folding, translation/ribosome, splicesome, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, hemoglobin chaperone, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, aurora B signaling/apoptotic execution phase, the RAS signaling pathway, the FAS signaling pathway/caspase cascade in apoptosis and telomere stress induced senescence. In parallel we also identified co-localization of hypoxic regions and various lipid species such as PC(16:0/18:1), PC(16:0/18:2), PC(18:0/18:1), PC

  10. Quantitative Sodium MR Imaging at 7 T: Initial Results and Comparison with Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Patients with Breast Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Olgica; Pinker, Katja; Zbyn, Stefan; Strasser, Bernhard; Robinson, Simon; Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Farr, Alex; Singer, Christian; Helbich, Thomas H; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical feasibility of a quantitative sodium 23 ((23)Na) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol developed for breast tumor assessment and to compare it with 7-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and Methods Written informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study was obtained from eight healthy volunteers and 17 patients with 20 breast tumors (five benign, 15 malignant). To achieve the best image quality and reproducibility, the (23)Na sequence was optimized and tested on phantoms and healthy volunteers. For in vivo quantification of absolute tissue sodium concentration (TSC), an external phantom was used. Static magnetic field, or B0, and combined transmit and receive radiofrequency field, or B1, maps were acquired, and image quality, measurement reproducibility, and accuracy testing were performed. Bilateral (23)Na and DWI sequences were performed before contrast material-enhanced MR imaging in patients with breast tumors. TSC and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and correlated for healthy glandular tissue and benign and malignant lesions. Results The (23)Na MR imaging protocol is feasible, with 1.5-mm in-plane resolution and 16-minute imaging time. Good image quality was achieved, with high reproducibility (mean TSC values ± standard deviation for the test, 36 mmol per kilogram of wet weight ± 2 [range, 34-37 mmol/kg]; for the retest, 37 mmol/kg ± 1 [range, 35-39 mmol/kg]; P = .610) and accuracy (r = 0.998, P breast tissue were 35 mmol/kg ± 3 and 18 mmol/kg ± 3, respectively. In malignant lesions (mean size, 31 mm ± 24; range, 6-92 mm), the TSC of 69 mmol/kg ± 10 was, on average, 49% higher than that in benign lesions (mean size, 14 mm ± 12; range, 6-35 mm), with a TSC of 47 mmol/kg ± 8 (P = .002). There were similar ADC differences between benign ([1.78 ± 0.23] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec) and malignant ([1.03 ± 0.23] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec) tumors (P = .002). ADC and TSC were

  11. Breast Lesions: Correlation of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Patterns on MR images with Tumor Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeifangLiu; RunxianBao; YunNiu; YongYu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features of the early -phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal-intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. METHODS Sixty patients with breast lesions, detected with physical examination or conventional mammography, were examined pre-operatively with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from December 1998 to June 2000. Of these 60 patients, histopathological correlation was available in 38. These 38 patients(aged 29-73 years) formed the basis of this study. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-Sl curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5rain.), type Ⅱ (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type Ⅲ (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). The mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immunohistochemical staining methods in all the pathologic specimens by a pathologist without knowledge of the results of the MR examination. Care was taken to ensure identical location in the plane of the MR image and pathologic specimens. The relationships among dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. RESULTS Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 21 malignant lesions were significantly higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 17 benign lesions (P60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type Ⅱ or Ⅲ showed a significant association with MVD and VEGF expression. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance (P 0

  12. Clinical feasibility study of combined opto-acoustic and ultrasonic imaging modality providing coregistered functional and anatomical maps of breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Smith, Remie J.; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Ermilov, Sergey; Conjusteau, André; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2013-03-01

    We report on findings from the clinical feasibility study of the ImagioTM. Breast Imaging System, which acquires two-dimensional opto-acoustic (OA) images co-registered with conventional ultrasound using a specialized duplex hand-held probe. Dual-wavelength opto-acoustic technology is used to generate parametric maps based upon total hemoglobin and its oxygen saturation in breast tissues. This may provide functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism and microvasculature, which is complementary to morphological information obtained with conventional gray-scale ultrasound. We present co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical feasibility study. The clinical results illustrate that the technology may have the capability to improve the efficacy of breast tumor diagnosis. In doing so, it may have the potential to reduce biopsies and to characterize cancers that were not seen well with conventional gray-scale ultrasound alone.

  13. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI) System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S; Schindler, Christine E; Brown, Jonathon Q; Wilke, Lee G; Mulvey, Christine S; Krieger, Marlee S; Gallagher, Jennifer; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel A; Von Windheim, Jesko A; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS), our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI) system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2)) 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR) was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1)) and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1)) coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max) when used on turbid media (including breast tissue). A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm) of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2)) in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2)/min). Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing maps of the ratio of the β-carotene concentration to the reduced scattering coefficient. An empirical cumulative distribution function (eCDF) analysis is used to reduce optical property maps to quantitative distributions representing the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins. The optimizations

  14. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Nichols

    Full Text Available In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS, our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1 and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1 coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max when used on turbid media (including breast tissue. A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2 in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2/min. Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing <1% variation across repeated scans of clinical specimens. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this device through a pilot 20-patient study of high-resolution optical parameter maps of the ratio of the β-carotene concentration to the reduced scattering coefficient. An empirical cumulative

  15. Predicting Ki67% expression from DCE-MR images of breast tumors using textural kinetic features in tumor habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Baishali; Zhou, Mu; Farhidzadeh, Hamidreza; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.; Weinfurtner, Robert J.; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2016-03-01

    The use of Ki67% expression, a cell proliferation marker, as a predictive and prognostic factor has been widely studied in the literature. Yet its usefulness is limited due to inconsistent cut off scores for Ki67% expression, subjective differences in its assessment in various studies, and spatial variation in expression, which makes it difficult to reproduce as a reliable independent prognostic factor. Previous studies have shown that there are significant spatial variations in Ki67% expression, which may limit its clinical prognostic utility after core biopsy. These variations are most evident when examining the periphery of the tumor vs. the core. To date, prediction of Ki67% expression from quantitative image analysis of DCE-MRI is very limited. This work presents a novel computer aided diagnosis framework to use textural kinetics to (i) predict the ratio of periphery Ki67% expression to core Ki67% expression, and (ii) predict Ki67% expression from individual tumor habitats. The pilot cohort consists of T1 weighted fat saturated DCE-MR images from 17 patients. Support vector regression with a radial basis function was used for predicting the Ki67% expression and ratios. The initial results show that texture features from individual tumor habitats are more predictive of the Ki67% expression ratio and spatial Ki67% expression than features from the whole tumor. The Ki67% expression ratio could be predicted with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.67%. Quantitative image analysis of DCE-MRI using textural kinetic habitats, has the potential to be used as a non-invasive method for predicting Ki67 percentage and ratio, thus more accurately reporting high KI-67 expression for patient prognosis.

  16. Fractal dimension and lacunarity of tumor microscopic images as prognostic indicators of clinical outcome in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, Jelena; Vasiljevic, Jelena; Kanjer, Ksenija; Konstantinovic, Zora Neskovic; Milosevic, Nebojsa T; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of breast cancer outcome prognosis has been focused on molecular biomarkers, while neglecting the discovery of novel tumor histology structural clues. We thus aimed to improve breast cancer prognosis by fractal analysis of tumor histomorphology. This retrospective study included 92 breast cancer patients without systemic treatment. Fractal dimension and lacunarity of the breast tumor microscopic histology possess prognostic value comparable to the major clinicopathological prognostic parameters. Fractal analysis was performed for the first time on routinely produced archived pan-tissue stained primary breast tumor sections, indicating its potential for clinical use as a simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of distant metastasis risk to complement the molecular approaches for cancer risk prognosis.

  17. Intravital multiphoton imaging reveals multicellular streaming as a crucial component of in vivo cell migration in human breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsialou, Antonia; Bravo-Cordero, Jose Javier; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Liu, Huiping; Clarke, Michael; Condeelis, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. Cell migration is an essential component of almost every step of the metastatic cascade, especially the early step of invasion inside the primary tumor. In this report, we have used intravital multiphoton microscopy to visualize the different migration patterns of human breast tumor cells in live primary tumors. We used xenograft tumors of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as a low passage xenograft tumor from orthotopically injected patient-derived breast tumor cells. Direct visualization of human tumor cells in vivo shows two patterns of high-speed migration inside primary tumors: a. single cells and b. multicellular streams (i.e., cells following each other in a single file but without cohesive cell junctions). Critically, we found that only streaming and not random migration of single cells was significantly correlated with proximity to vessels, with intravasation and with numbers of elevated circulating tumor cells in the bloodstream. Finally, although the two human tumors were derived from diverse genetic backgrounds, we found that their migratory tumor cells exhibited coordinated gene expression changes that led to the same end-phenotype of enhanced migration involving activating actin polymerization and myosin contraction. Our data are the first direct visualization and assessment of in vivo migration within a live patient-derived breast xenograft tumor. PMID:25013744

  18. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  19. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  20. Coexistence of Granular Cell Tumor and Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer in Contralateral Breasts: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Di Bonito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is a benign tumor of the breast that can mimic, on breast imaging, invasive carcinomas. Biological evolution of mammary GCT is unknown, especially if it is associated with an invasive carcinoma in the same or contralateral breast. This report details the morphological features of these synchronous lesions highlighting their biological characteristics and suggesting an appropriate follow up.

  1. Breast Imaging Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts appear on breast images for a number of reasons. Radiologic technologists play an important role in identifying artifacts that can help or hinder breast cancer diagnosis and in minimizing artifacts that degrade image quality. This article describes various artifacts that occur in breast imaging, along with their causes. The article focuses on artifacts in mammography, with a heavy emphasis on digital mammography, and on magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Artifacts in ultrasonography of the breast, digital breast tomosynthesis, and positron emission mammography also are discussed.

  2. Visualization of tumor-related blood vessels in human breast by photoacoustic imaging system with a hemispherical detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, M.; Asao, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takada, M.; Kataoka, M.; Endo, T.; Kawaguchi-Sakita, N.; Kawashima, M.; Fakhrejahani, E.; Kanao, S.; Yamaga, I.; Nakayama, Y.; Tokiwa, M.; Torii, M.; Yagi, T.; Sakurai, T.; Togashi, K.; Shiina, T.

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of the distribution and oxygenation state of hemoglobin (Hb) inside the tissue is strongly required to analyze the tumor-associated vasculatures. We developed a photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system with a hemispherical-shaped detector array (HDA). Here, we show that PAI system with HDA revealed finer vasculature, more detailed blood-vessel branching structures, and more detailed morphological vessel characteristics compared with MRI by the use of breast shape deformation of MRI to PAI and their fused image. Morphologically abnormal peritumoral blood vessel features, including centripetal photoacoustic signals and disruption or narrowing of vessel signals, were observed and intratumoral signals were detected by PAI in breast cancer tissues as a result of the clinical study of 22 malignant cases. Interestingly, it was also possible to analyze anticancer treatment-driven changes in vascular morphological features and function, such as improvement of intratumoral blood perfusion and relevant changes in intravascular hemoglobin saturation of oxygen. This clinical study indicated that PAI appears to be a promising tool for noninvasive analysis of human blood vessels and may contribute to improve cancer diagnosis. PMID:28169313

  3. Application prospective of nanoprobes with MRI and FI dual-modality imaging on breast cancer stem cells in tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hetao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Tong; Shi, Dongxing; Sun, Zengrong; Xia, Chunhui; Wang, Baiqi

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer (BC) is a serious disease to threat lives of women. Numerous studies have proved that BC originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs). But at present, no one approach can quickly and simply identify breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in solid tumor. Nanotechnology is probably able to realize this goal. But in study process, scientists find it seems that nanomaterials with one modality, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or fluorescence imaging (FI), have their own advantages and drawbacks. They cannot meet practical requirements in clinic. The nanoprobe combined MRI with FI modality is a promising tool to accurately detect desired cells with low amount in tissue. In this work, we briefly describe the MRI and FI development history, analyze advantages and disadvantages of nanomaterials with single modality in cancer cell detection. Then the application development of nanomaterials with dual-modality in cancer field is discussed. Finally, the obstacles and prospective of dual-modal nanoparticles in detection field of BCSCs are also pointed out in order to speed up clinical applications of nanoprobes.

  4. Extremely rare borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Gyu; Kim, Shin Young; Jung, Hae Yoen; Lee, Deuk Young; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the male breast is an extremely rare disease, and far fewer cases of borderline phyllodes tumors than benign or malignant tumors in the male breast have been reported. We report a case of borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast with imaging findings of the tumor and pathologic correlation.

  5. Linear classifier and textural analysis of optical scattering images for tumor classification during breast cancer extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Texture analysis of light scattering in tissue is proposed to obtain diagnostic information from breast cancer specimens. Light scattering measurements are minimally invasive, and allow the estimation of tissue morphology to guide the surgeon in resection surgeries. The usability of scatter signatures acquired with a micro-sampling reflectance spectral imaging system was improved utilizing an empirical approximation to the Mie theory to estimate the scattering power on a per-pixel basis. Co-occurrence analysis is then applied to the scattering power images to extract the textural features. A statistical analysis of the features demonstrated the suitability of the autocorrelation for the classification of notmalignant (normal epithelia and stroma, benign epithelia and stroma, inflammation), malignant (DCIS, IDC, ILC) and adipose tissue, since it reveals morphological information of tissue. Non-malignant tissue shows higher autocorrelation values while adipose tissue presents a very low autocorrelation on its scatter texture, being malignant the middle ground. Consequently, a fast linear classifier based on the consideration of just one straightforward feature is enough for providing relevant diagnostic information. A leave-one-out validation of the linear classifier on 29 samples with 48 regions of interest showed classification accuracies of 98.74% on adipose tissue, 82.67% on non-malignant tissue and 72.37% on malignant tissue, in comparison with the biopsy H and E gold standard. This demonstrates that autocorrelation analysis of scatter signatures is a very computationally efficient and automated approach to provide pathological information in real-time to guide surgeon during tissue resection.

  6. Primary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Breast: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Kim, Eun Ah; Kwon, Young Mee [Hospital and Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignant tumors, affecting mostly children and adolescents. Only three cases of primary breast PNETs have been reported in the medical literature, with none in Korea. We present a case of a primary PNET of the breast in a 33-year-old woman, with imaging and immunohistopathology findings.

  7. HyMaP: A hybrid magnitude-phase approach to unsupervised segmentation of tumor areas in breast cancer histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmentation of areas containing tumor cells in standard H&E histopathology images of breast (and several other tissues is a key task for computer-assisted assessment and grading of histopathology slides. Good segmentation of tumor regions is also vital for automated scoring of immunohistochemical stained slides to restrict the scoring or analysis to areas containing tumor cells only and avoid potentially misleading results from analysis of stromal regions. Furthermore, detection of mitotic cells is critical for calculating key measures such as mitotic index; a key criteria for grading several types of cancers including breast cancer. We show that tumor segmentation can allow detection and quantification of mitotic cells from the standard H&E slides with a high degree of accuracy without need for special stains, in turn making the whole process more cost-effective. Method: Based on the tissue morphology, breast histology image contents can be divided into four regions: Tumor, Hypocellular Stroma (HypoCS, Hypercellular Stroma (HyperCS, and tissue fat (Background. Background is removed during the preprocessing stage on the basis of color thresholding, while HypoCS and HyperCS regions are segmented by calculating features using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain, respectively, and performing unsupervised segmentation on these features. Results: All images in the database were hand segmented by two expert pathologists. The algorithms considered here are evaluated on three pixel-wise accuracy measures: precision, recall, and F1-Score. The segmentation results obtained by combining HypoCS and HyperCS yield high F1-Score of 0.86 and 0.89 with re-spect to the ground truth. Conclusions: In this paper, we show that segmentation of breast histopathology image into hypocellular stroma and hypercellular stroma can be achieved using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain. The segmentation leads to demarcation of tumor

  8. A comparison study between gross tumor volumes defined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, postoperative specimens, and tumor bed for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; Mu, Dianbin; Chen, Zhaoqiu; Shao, Qian; Li, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The identification and contouring of target volume is important for breast-conserving therapy. The aim of the study was to compare preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative pathology, excised specimens’ (ES) size, and tumor bed (TB) delineation as methods for determining the gross tumor volume (GTV) for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods: Thirty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radiotherapy after BCS were enrolled. The GTVs determined by MRI, pathology, and the ES were defined as GTVMRI, GTVPAT, and GTVES, respectively. GTVMRI+1 was defined as a 1.0-cm margin around the GTVMRI. The radiation oncologist delineated GTV of the TB (GTVTB) using planning computed tomography according to ≥5 surgical clips placed in the lumpectomy cavity (LC). Results: The median GTVMRI, GTVMRI+1, GTVPAT, GTVES, and GTVTB were 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.88), 12.58 cm3 (range, 3.90–34.13), 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.36), 15.46 cm3 (range, 1.15–70.69), and 19.24 cm3 (range, 4.72–54.33), respectively. There were no significant differences between GTVMRI and GTVPAT, GTVMRI+1 and GTVES, GTVES and GTVTB (P = 0.188, 0.070, and 0.264, respectively). GTVMRI is positively related with GTVPAT. However, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI (P = 0.071 and 0.378, respectively). Furthermore, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI+1 (P = 0.068 and 0.375, respectively). Conclusion: When ≥5 surgical clips were placed in the LC for BCS, the volume of TB was consistent with the volume of ES. Neither the volume of TB nor the volume of ES correlated significantly with the volume of tumor defined by preoperative MRI. PMID:28079816

  9. 不同级别乳腺叶状肿瘤的影像学研究%Imaging Analysis of Breast Phyllode Tumors of Different Pathological Grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 徐维敏; 杨磊; 陈卫国

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the imaging features of phyllode breast tumors of different pathological grades in order to make a further understanding of this disease.Methods A total of 43 patients with pathologically-proved phyllode breast tumor,who were encountered at author' s hospital during the period from March 2009 to Dec.2013,were collected.The imaging materials were retrospectively analyzed,and the imaging findings were compared between the tumors of different pathological grades.Results Of the 43 cases with phyllode breast tumor,benign tumor was confirmed in 19,borderline tumor in 18 and malignant tumor in 6.On mammography the typical appearance of the tumor was a smooth,round or lobulated high-density mass.MRI was performed in 10 cases.The lesions presented as iso-or slight hyper-intensity signal on T1 WI,while bright hyper-intensity signal on T2WI.In 8 cases,septa of hypo-intensity signal were observed within the lesion on T2WI.Conclusion Phyllode breast tumors carry certain MR imaging features.MR T2WI and contrast-enhanced MR scanning have definite value in diagnosing and grading the phyllode breast tumors.%目的 分析不同级别乳腺叶状肿瘤的影像特征,提高对此类病变的认识.方法 搜集2009年3月至2013年12月经手术病理证实的43例乳腺叶状肿瘤影像学资料,分析各级别叶状肿瘤的影像学差异.结果 43例叶状肿瘤中良性占19例,交界性占18例,恶性占6例.X线表现为边界光滑的分叶形或椭圆形高密度肿块.10例行MRI检查,T1WI为等或稍高信号,T2WI为高或明亮高信号,内部有低信号分隔.结论 乳腺叶状肿瘤的影像学表现有一定的特点,MR-T2 WI和增强扫描对诊断叶状肿瘤及确定级别有一定价值.

  10. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in 3.0 Tesla Breast MRI: Diagnostic Performance and Tumor Characterization Using Small Subregions vs. Whole Tumor Regions of Interest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otso Arponen

    Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values are increasingly reported in breast MRI. As there is no standardized method for ADC measurements, we evaluated the effect of the size of region of interest (ROI to diagnostic utility and correlation to prognostic markers of breast cancer.This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board; the need for written informed consent for the retrospective analyses of the breast MRIs was waived by the Chair of the Hospital District. We compared diagnostic accuracy of ADC measurements from whole-lesion ROIs (WL-ROIs to small subregions (S-ROIs showing the most restricted diffusion and evaluated correlations with prognostic factors in 112 consecutive patients (mean age 56.2±11.6 years, 137 lesions who underwent 3.0-T breast MRI.Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were substantial (κ = 0.616-0.784; Intra-Class Correlation 0.589-0.831. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was excellent (area under curve 0.957-0.962, cut-off ADC values for WL-ROIs: 0.87×10-3 mm2s-1; S-ROIs: 0.69×10-3 mm2s-1, P<0.001. WL-ROIs/S-ROIs achieved sensitivities of 95.7%/91.3%, specificities of 89.5%/94.7%, and overall accuracies of 89.8%/94.2%. In S-ROIs, lower ADC values correlated with presence of axillary metastases (P = 0.03, high histological grade (P = 0.006, and worsened Nottingham Prognostic Index Score (P<0.05. In both ROIs, ADC values correlated with progesterone receptors and advanced stage (P<0.01, but not with HER2, estrogen receptors, or Ki-67.ADC values assist in breast tumor characterization. Small ROIs were more accurate than whole-lesion ROIs and more frequently associated with prognostic factors. Cut-off values differed significantly depending on measurement procedure, which should be recognized when comparing results from the literature. Instead of using a whole lesion covering ROI, a small ROI could be advocated in diffusion

  11. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio as measured on MRI: a possible predictor of breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faermann, Renata; Sperber, Fani; Schneebaum, Schlomo; Barsuk, Daphna

    2014-02-01

    The surgical approach to breast cancer changed dramatically in the past 20 years. The surgical objective today is to remove the tumor, ensuring negative margins and good cosmetic results, and preserving the breast when possible. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an essential imaging tool prior to surgery, diagnosing additional tumors and assessing tumor extent. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio, an important predictor of breast conservation, can be measured with MRI and may change the surgical decision. To measure the tumor-to-breast volume ratio using MRI in order to assess whether there is a correlation between this ratio and the type of surgery selected (breast-conserving or mastectomy). The volumes of the tumor and the breast and the tumor-to-breast volume ratio were retrospectively calculated using preoperative breast MRI in 76 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) was performed in 64 patients and mastectomy in 12. The average tumor-to-breast volume ratio was 0.06 (6%) in the lumpectomy group and 0.30 (30%) in the mastectomy group (P < 0.0001). The tumor-to-breast volume ratio correlated with the type of surgery. As measured on MRI, this ratio is an accurate means of determining the type of surgery best suited for a given patient. It is recommended that MRI-determined tumor-to-breast volume ratio become part of the surgical planning protocol for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

  12. New Microscope Scans Breast Tumors During Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166925.html New Microscope Scans Breast Tumors During Surgery The instrument examines ... WEDNESDAY, June 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new microscope could help surgeons remove breast tumors completely, reducing ...

  13. Two-dimensional multi-frequency imaging of a tumor inclusion in a homogeneous breast phantom using the harmonic motion Doppler imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Tafreshi, Azadeh; Barış Top, Can; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2017-06-01

    Harmonic motion microwave Doppler imaging (HMMDI) is a novel imaging modality for imaging the coupled electrical and mechanical properties of body tissues. In this paper, we used two experimental systems with different receiver configurations to obtain HMMDI images from tissue-mimicking phantoms at multiple vibration frequencies between 15 Hz and 35 Hz. In the first system, we used a spectrum analyzer to obtain the Doppler data in the frequency domain, while in the second one, we used a homodyne receiver that was designed to acquire time-domain data. The developed phantoms mimicked the elastic and dielectric properties of breast fat tissue, and included a 14~\\text{mm}× 9 mm cylindrical inclusion representing the tumor. A focused ultrasound probe was mechanically scanned in two lateral dimensions to obtain two-dimensional HMMDI images of the phantoms. The inclusions were resolved inside the fat phantom using both experimental setups. The image resolution increased with increasing vibration frequency. The designed receiver showed higher sensitivity than the spectrum analyzer measurements. The results also showed that time-domain data acquisition should be used to fully exploit the potential of the HMMDI method.

  14. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  15. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  16. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  17. Brca1/p53 deficient mouse breast tumor hemodynamics during hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored by a novel wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Tromberg, Bruce; Cerussi, Albert; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Current imaging modalities allow precise visualization of tumors but do not enable quantitative characterization of the tumor metabolic state. Such quantitative information would enhance our understanding of tumor progression and response to treatment, and to our overall understanding of tumor biology. To address this problem, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument which combines two optical imaging modalities, spatially modulated imaging (MI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm × 5 cm) field of view. Using MI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are estimated using a Monte Carlo model. From the spatial maps of local absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, tissue composition information is extracted in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. Using LSI, the reflectance of a 785 nm laser speckle pattern on the tissue is acquired and analyzed to compute maps of blood perfusion in the tissue. Tissue metabolism state is estimated from the values of blood perfusion, volume and oxygenation state. We currently are employing the WiFI instrument to study tumor development in a BRCA1/p53 deficient mice breast tumor model. The animals are monitored with WiFI during hyperoxic respiratory challenge. At present, four tumors have been measured with WiFI, and preliminary data suggest that tumor metabolic changes during hyperoxic respiratory challenge can be determined.

  18. A CAD System for Identification and Classification of Breast Cancer Tumors in DCE-MR Images Based on Hierarchical Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rastiboroujeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD system based on hierarchical convolutional neural networks (HCNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign tumors in breast DCE-MRIs. A HCNN is a hierarchical neural network that operates on two-dimensional images. A HCNN integrates feature extraction and classification processes into one single and fully adaptive structure. It can extract two-dimensional key features automatically, and it is relatively tolerant to geometric and local distortions in input images. We evaluate CNN implementation learning and testing processes based on gradient descent (GD and resilient back-propagation (RPROP approaches. We show that, proposed HCNN with RPROP learning approach provide an effective and robust neural structure to design a CAD base system for breast MRI, and has potential as a mechanism for the evaluation of different types of abnormalities in medical images.

  19. Dual-wavelength imaging of tumor progression by activatable and targeting near-infrared fluorescent probes in a bioluminescent breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Wen Xie

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence imaging (BLI has shown its appeal as a sensitive technique for in vivo whole body optical imaging. However, the development of injectable tumor-specific near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF probes makes fluorescence imaging (FLI a promising alternative to BLI in situations where BLI cannot be used or is unwanted (e.g., spontaneous transgenic tumor models, or syngeneic mice to study immune effects.In this study, we addressed the questions whether it is possible to detect tumor progression using FLI with appropriate sensitivity and how FLI correlates with BLI measurements. In addition, we explored the possibility to simultaneously detect multiple tumor characteristics by dual-wavelength FLI (~700 and ~800 nm in combination with spectral unmixing. Using a luciferase-expressing 4T1-luc2 mouse breast cancer model and combinations of activatable and targeting NIRF probes, we showed that the activatable NIRF probes (ProSense680 and MMPSense680 and the targeting NIRF probes (IRDye 800CW 2-DG and IRDye 800CW EGF were either activated by or bound to 4T1-luc2 cells. In vivo, we implanted 4T1-luc2 cells orthotopically in nude mice and were able to follow tumor progression longitudinally both by BLI and dual-wavelength FLI. We were able to reveal different probe signals within the tumor, which co-localized with immuno-staining. Moreover, we observed a linear correlation between the internal BLI signals and the FLI signals obtained from the NIRF probes. Finally, we could detect pulmonary metastases both by BLI and FLI and confirmed their presence histologically.Taken together, these data suggest that dual-wavelength FLI is a feasible approach to simultaneously detect different features of one tumor and to follow tumor progression with appropriate specificity and sensitivity. This study may open up new perspectives for the detection of tumors and metastases in various experimental models and could also have clinical applications, such as image

  20. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging th...

  1. A comparison of breast cancer tumor cells with varying expression of the Her2/neu receptor by Raman microspectroscopic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Zeijen, Nicole J.L.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Otto, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The Her2/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast carcinomas. The roles of Her2/neu have been reported before in literature, showing different relations to intracellular lipid composition. Here, we use Raman microspectroscopic imaging to reveal the chemical composi

  2. Three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound score and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging score in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis: Correlation with biological factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Wan-Ru, E-mail: jiawanru@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chai, Wei-Min, E-mail: chai_weimin@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Tang, Lei, E-mail: jessietang1003@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: xiatian.0602@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Fei, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcf0222@163.com [Department of Pathology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Han, Bao-San, E-mail: hanbaosan@126.com [Department of Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Man, E-mail: lucyjia1370@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) score systems in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis by comparing their diagnostic efficacy and correlation with biological factors. Methods: 3D-CEUS was performed in 183 patients with breast tumors by Esaote Mylab90 with SonoVue (Bracco, Italy), DCE-MRI was performed on a dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (DBMRI) system (Aurora Dedicated Breast MRI Systems, USA) with a dedicated breast coil. 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI score systems were created based on tumor perfusion and vascular characteristics. Microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pathological results showed 35 benign and 148 malignant breast tumors. MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.76), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.55), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.39) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.41) expression were all significantly different between benignity and malignancy. Regarding 3D-CEUS 4 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 85.1%, 94.3% and 86.9%, respectively, and correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.50) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.66). Taking DCE-MRI 5 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86.5%, 94.3% and 88.0%, respectively and also correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.52), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.44), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.42) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.35). Conclusions: 3D-CEUS score system displays inspiring diagnostic performance and good agreement with DCE-MRI scoring. Moreover, both score systems correlate well with MVD, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and thus have great potentials in tumor angiogenesis evaluation.

  3. Investigation of Metastatic Breast Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression Using Dual Optical/SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    the cheapest electron-multiplication CCD on the market (the Texas Instruments TC253). In addition, we have also evaluated more costly commercial...After SQ injection of 450 mg/Kg luciferin an 8 minute image was acquired with 1x1 binning (highest resolution, but lowest sensitivity mode) and the

  4. Prediction of Malignancy in Breast Tumors Using Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    amplifier [18] Turner R. Gradient coil design: a review of methods. Magn parameters: Reson Imaging 1993:11:902 20. [19] Parker RS, Zupancic 1, Pirs J...use of a quadrupole coil for NMR spin-echo diffusion studies. J Magn Reson 1974;16:342- 7. [22] Zupancic I. Pirs J. Coils producing a magnetic field

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems in Breast Cancer Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    events in situ and can be valuable tools for early detection and diagnosis of the diseases where macrophages are involved. The use of MR contrast...Et Al. Nephrotoxic Nephritis And Obstructive Nephropathy : Evaluation With MR Imaging Enhanced With Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

  6. Intraoperative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    RY, Gambhir SS (2004) Imaging tri-fusion multimodality reporter gene expression in living subjects. Cancer Res 64: 1323. 25. Yaghoubi S, Barrio JR...California; 3Stanford Photonics, Inc., Palo Alto , California; and 4Department of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford

  7. Combined Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography for Breast Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    electromagnetic field and coil characteristics were per- formed from simulations using a commercially available EM program FEKO , which is based on the method of...are provided here. Repeatability measurements were made for two imaging modes , one records the intensity of the excitation source while the other...titanium dioxide, and India ink was used to measure the repeatability of transmission mode measurements using the spectroscopy system. Optical

  8. Intra-operative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    tool. 3.4 System Evaluation For benchmarking purposes, we simulated the diffusion of a 633 nm laser beam within a turbid 5-cm radius cylinder filled...a sample not incubated with 18F-FDG and mea- sured a background rate of 1.2 cps, likely caused by cosmic radi- ation and background noise in the...form the raw data. The raw data were image-processed offline using an algorithm to remove cosmic and stray g-events. This algorithm removed noisy

  9. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno

    2006-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  10. Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Local Tumor Staging in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer: A Comparison With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Nagarajah, James; Buchbender, Christian; Hoffmann, Oliver; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Poeppel, Thorsten; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H; Umutlu, Lale; Kinner, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast for lesion detection and local tumor staging of patients with primary breast cancer in comparison to PET/computed tomography (CT) and MRI. The study was approved by the local institutional review board. Forty-nine patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a PET/CT, and subsequently, a contrast-enhanced PET/MRI of the breast after written informed consent was obtained before each examination. Two radiologists independently evaluated the corresponding data sets (PET/CT, PET/MRI, and MRI) and were instructed to identify primary tumors lesions as well as multifocal/multicentric and bilateral disease. Furthermore, the occurrence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and the T-stage for each patient was determined. Histopathological verification of the local tumor extent and the axillary lymph node status was available for 30 of 49 and 48 of 49 patients, respectively. For the remaining patients, a consensus characterization was performed for the determination of the T-stage and nodal status, taking into account the results of clinical staging, PET/CT, and PET/MRI examinations. Statistical analysis was performed to test for differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Positron emission tomography/MRI and MRI correctly identified 47 (96%) of the 49 patients with primary breast cancer, whereas PET/CT enabled detection of 46 (94%) of 49 breast cancer patients and missed a synchronous carcinoma in the contralateral breast in 1 patient. In a lesion-by-lesion analysis, no significant differences could be obtained between the 3 imaging procedures for the identification of primary breast cancer lesions (P > 0.05). Positron emission tomography/MRI and

  11. Dose reduction in molecular breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Chowdhury, Samir; Hugg, James W.; Moats, Rex A.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) is the imaging of radiolabeled drugs, cells, or nanoparticles for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Screening of broad populations of women for breast cancer with mammography has been augmented by the emergence of breast MRI in screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. Screening MBI may benefit the sub-population of women with dense breast tissue that obscures small tumors in mammography. Dedicated breast imaging equipment is necessary to enable detection of early-stage tumors less than 1 cm in size. Recent progress in the development of these instruments is reviewed. Pixellated CZT for single photon MBI imaging of 99mTc-sestamibi gives high detection sensitivity for early-stage tumors. The use of registered collimators in a near-field geometry gives significantly higher detection efficiency - a factor of 3.6-, which translates into an equivalent dose reduction factor given the same acquisition time. The radiation dose in the current MBI procedure has been reduced to the level of a four-view digital mammography study. In addition to screening of selected sub-populations, reduced MBI dose allows for dual-isotope, treatment planning, and repeated therapy assessment studies in the era of molecular medicine guided by quantitative molecular imaging.

  12. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI; Multiparametrische und molekulare Bildgebung von Brusttumoren mit MRT und PET-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Florida (United States); Marino, M.A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria); Policlinico Universitario G. Martino, University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Messina (Italy); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Florida (United States); Helbich, T.H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) der Brust ist ein etabliertes nichtinvasives bildgebendes Verfahren mit vielfaeltigen Indikationen. In den letzten Jahren wurden zahlreiche funktionelle MRT- und Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)-Parameter in der Brustbildgebung evaluiert, und ihre kombinierte Anwendung ist als multiparametrische Bildgebung definiert. Bisherige Daten legen nahe, dass die multiparametrische Bildgebung mit MRT und PET

  13. Bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast: case seriesand literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongmaneerung, Phanchaporn; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Watcharachan, Kirati; Ditsatham, Chagkrit

    2016-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumor of the breast is very rare and locally aggressive but has no distant metastasis. Bilateral lesions are extremely rare, found in only 4% of patients. Two cases of bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast are reported. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, and follow-up outcomes of recurrence as well as a brief literature review are provided. Case reports Case 1 is a 31-year-old woman who presented with nipple retraction. An ultrasound revealed BIRAD V in both breasts. She underwent a bilateral excisional biopsy under ultrasound mark with the pathology result of extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in both breasts. The patient had a bilateral mastectomy with silicone implantation due to the involved margins by excision. She remained tumor free after 7-year follow-up. Case 2 is a 28-year-old woman who presented with a lump on her right breast that she had discovered ~2 months earlier. An ultrasound showed a spiculated mass in the right breast and some circumscribed hypoechoic masses in both breasts. A bilateral breast excision was done. The pathology result was an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. She had recurrence on both sides and underwent a mastectomy and silicone implantation. The tumor has not recurred after 1-year follow-up. Conclusion Imaging cannot distinguish between benign breast lesions and malignancy. Pathology results are helpful in making a definitive diagnosis. Given that the desmoid tumor is locally aggressive, a local excision with clear margins is recommended. Chemotherapy and hormonal treatment are controversial. PMID:27578999

  14. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  15. Breast Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Histopathologist's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewe Seng Ch'ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made since the conceptualization of tumor angiogenesis—the induction of growth of new blood vessels by tumor—as a salient feature of clinically significant primary or metastatic cancers. From a practicing histopathologist's point of view, we appraise the application of this concept in breast cancer with particular reference to the evaluation of proangiogenic factors and the assessment of new microvessels in histopathological examination. Recently, much focus has also been centered on the active roles played by tumor-associated macrophages in relation to tumor angiogenesis. We review the literature; many data supporting this facet of tumor angiogenesis were derived from the breast cancer models. We scrutinize the large body of clinical evidence exploring the link between the tumor-associated macrophages and breast tumor angiogenesis and discuss particularly the methodology and limitations of incorporating such an assessment in histopathological examination.

  16. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

  17. A comparison of breast cancer tumor cells with varying expression of the Her2/neu receptor by Raman microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Zeijen, Nicole J L; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Otto, Cees

    2010-12-01

    The Her2/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast carcinomas. The roles of Her2/neu have been reported before in literature, showing different relations to intracellular lipid composition. Here, we use Raman microspectroscopic imaging to reveal the chemical composition of single live cells from breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435s and SK-BR-3, which express Her2/neu receptor in different extent. Average Raman spectra of the different cell populations show prominent lipid presence in all cell lines. With high significance, Raman difference spectra reveal increased lipid contents, as well as a lower degree of fatty acid saturation in the MDA-MB cell lines with respect to the SK-BR-3 cells. These results are confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis of single cells. High internal consistency of the chemical compositions in the cell lines is shown by hierarchical cluster analysis on a single matrix composed of the data of different cells from a single cell line. Although Her2/neu expression is highest for SK-BR-3 cells, their lipid contents are lower than that of the MDA-MB cell lines, which express less to no Her2/neu receptors. Rather than metabolic rate or senescence, the degree of metastaticity of the cells appears to be related to the polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the cells.

  18. Laminin isoform expression in breast tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, Eggehard

    2005-01-01

    Certain laminins of vascular basement membranes have been identified in human breast tumors and brain gliomas that share the same β1 chain. These laminins are new carcinoma angiogenic markers and might represent potential targets for antiangiogenic therapy.

  19. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  20. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized.

  1. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Giant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillebeeckx, Charlotte; Verbeeck, Guy; Daenen, Geert; Servaes, Dirk; Bronckaers, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic) and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow. PMID:27746880

  3. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Miller; Constance Albarracin; Selin Carkaci; Whitman, Gary J.; Adrada, Beatriz E.

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed.

  4. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed.

  5. Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast radar imaging system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the imaging capabilities of a multistatic radar imaging modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for imaging are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave radar breast profile. The proposed imaging method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each imaging scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound imaging technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.

  6. 乳腺分叶状肿瘤影像表现分析%Imaging analysis of phyllodes tumor of the breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 赵卫; 罗春燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺分叶状肿瘤(PTB)影像表现特征。方法收集经手术病理证实的 PTB 35例,分析其临床特点及影像特征。结果35例 PTB(36个病灶)中19个良性,8个交界性,9个恶性。X 线表现为卵圆形(16/36)或分叶状肿块(20/36),大部分呈高密度(30/36),边界清晰(28/36),所有病灶均未见钙化、毛刺、皮肤增厚、乳头内陷及腋窝淋巴结肿大。1例 MRI 表现为分叶状肿块,T1 WI 呈等/稍低信号,T2 WI 呈不均匀高信号,DWI 呈稍高信号,动态增强时间-信号曲线为Ⅱ型。结论PTB 的临床及影像学表现具有一定的特点,术前可提示诊断,最终诊断依靠手术病理。%Objective To evaluate the imaging features of phyllodes tumor of the breast.Methods 35 patients with phyllodes tumor of the breast confirmed by surgery and histopathology were collected.All clinical and imaging findings were analyzed.Results 35 cases with 36 lesions were classified as benign (1 9 lesions),borderline (8 lesions),and malignant (9 lesions).The typical ap-pearances on mammography were ellipse (1 6/36)or lobulated (20/36)mass.Most of them were high density (30/36)and clear boundary (28/36).No evidence of calcification,spiculated margin,skin thickening,nipple retraction and enlargement of axillary lymph nodes were detected.On MRI,1 lesion presented as lobulated mass with nonuniform hypointensity on T1 WI,hyperintensity on T2 WI and DWI.The time-intensity curve was Ⅱ type on dynamic contrast enhancement MRI.Conclusion The clinical and ima-ging features of phyllodes tumor are characteristic.These features are helpful to preoperatively diagnose,the final diagnosis would confirmed by histopathology.

  7. Potential value of color-coded dynamic breast-specific gamma-imaging; comparing {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in a mouse mammary tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.n [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buckle, Tessa; Batteau, Lukas; Pool, Bert; Sinaasappel, Michiel [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonkers, Jos [Department of Molecular Biology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Using a mouse mammary tumor model based on orthotopic transplantation of luciferase-expressing mouse ILC cells (KEP1-Luc cells), we evaluated the diagnostic value of three clinically applied tracers: {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP. Uptake of the tracers is compared using static and dynamic imaging procedures. We found that dynamic imaging in combination with pixel-by-pixel color coding has an added value over (high resolution) static imaging procedures. Such dynamic imaging procedures could enhance the potential of breast-specific gamma-imaging.

  8. Contour classification in thermographic images for detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuniewski, Rafał; Nowak, Robert M.; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Oleszkiewicz, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device are uploaded into web application which uses different classification algorithms to automatically decide whether a patient should be more thoroughly examined. This article presents the approach to the task of classifying contours visible on thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device in order to make the decision about the existence of cancerous tumors in breast. It presents the results of the researches conducted on the different classification algorithms.

  9. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRIs of breast cancer patients: Impact on tumor size estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun, E-mail: rad-ksh@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ah Won [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: To evaluate whether the degree of background parenchymal enhancement affects the accuracy of tumor size estimation based on breast MRI. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two patients who had known breast cancer and underwent breast MRIs were recruited in our study. The total number of breast cancer cases was 339. All images were assessed retrospectively for the level of background parenchymal enhancement based on the BI-RADS criteria. Maximal lesion diameters were measured on the MRIs, and tumor types (mass vs. non-mass) were assessed. Tumor size differences between the MRI-based estimates and estimates based on pathological examinations were analyzed. The relationship between accuracy and tumor types and clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Results: The cases included minimal (47.5%), mild (28.9%), moderate (12.4%) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (11.2%). The tumors of patients with minimal or mild background parenchymal enhancement were more accurately estimated than those of patients with moderate or marked enhancement (72.1% vs. 56.8%; p = 0.003). The tumors of women with mass type lesions were significantly more accurately estimated than those of the women with non-mass type lesions (81.6% vs. 28.6%; p < 0.001). The tumor of women negative for HER2 was more accurately estimated than those of women positive for HER2 (72.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.047). Conclusion: Moderate and marked background parenchymal enhancement is related to the inaccurate estimation of tumor size based on MRI. Non-mass type breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer are other factors that may cause inaccurate assessment of tumor size.

  10. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  11. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  12. Development of Tethered Hsp90 Inhibitors Carrying Radioiodinated Probes to Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Timothy Haystead CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Duke University Durham, NC 27708 REPORT...Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0072 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy...as imaging agents in mouse models of breast cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiodination, tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, malignant breast tumor , ectopic Hsp90

  13. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Role of RGD Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women of all ages worldwide. With advances in molecular imaging procedures, it has been possible to detect breast cancer in its early stage, determine the extent of the disease to administer appropriate therapeutic protocol and also monitor the effects of treatment. By accurately characterizing the tumor properties and biological processes involved, molecular imaging can play a crucial role in minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer. The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis and is expressed on tumor endothelial cells as well as on some tumor cells. It is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide sequence and therefore RGD peptides can preferentially bind to integrin αvβ3. In this context, targeting tumor vasculature or tumor cells by RGD-based probes is a promising strategy for molecular imaging of breast cancer. Using RGD-based probes, several preclinical studies have employed different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and optical imaging for visualization of integrin αvβ3 expression in breast cancer models. Limited clinical trials using (18)F-labeled RGD peptides have also been initiated for non-invasive detection and staging of breast cancer. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes and discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancement of the field. The reported strategies for molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes holds promise for making clinically translatable advances that can positively impact the overall diagnostic and therapeutic processes and result in improved quality of life for breast cancer patients.

  15. Microwave detection of breast tumors: comparison of skin subtraction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, Elise C.; Stuchly, Maria A.

    2000-07-01

    Early detection of breast cancer is an important part of effective treatment. Microwave detection of breast cancer is of interest due to the contrast in dielectric properties of normal and malignant breast tissues. We are investigating a confocal microwave imaging system that adapts ideas from ground penetrating radar to breast cancer detection. In the proposed system, the patient lies prone with the breast extending through a hole in the examining table and encircled by an array of antennas. The breast is illuminated sequentially by each antenna with an ultrawideband signal, and the returns are recorded at the same antenna. Because the antennas are offset from the breast, the dominant component of the recorded returns is the reflection from the thin layer of breast skin. Two methods of reducing this reflection are compared, namely approximation of the signal with two time shifted, scaled and summed returns from a cylinder of skin, and subtraction of the mean of the set of aligned returns. Both approaches provide effective decrease of the skin signal, allowing for tumor detection.

  16. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  17. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  18. Breast MR Imaging: What the Radiologist Needs to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the breast is being performed more frequently to improve primary and recurrent tumor detection, characterization, and response to therapy. Sensitivity of this test approaches 90% and the specificity ranges from 37% to 100%. We present a concise tutorial for the general radiologist with a pictorial review of common lesions identified with breast MRI.

  19. Phyllodes tumors of breast:magnetic resonance imaging findings and differential diagnosis%乳腺叶状肿瘤的MRI特征及鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗冉; 汪登斌; 王丽君

    2014-01-01

    乳腺叶状肿瘤(PT)是一类少见的乳腺肿瘤,具有上皮和间叶细胞双向分化的特点,表现多样,在临床及影像上可与纤维腺瘤、边缘光整的乳腺癌或乳腺肉瘤相似,在治疗及预后方面则明显不同。传统影像学诊断PT价值有限,而在乳腺增强MRI及功能成像上,PT 的影像表现具有一定特征性,对术前诊断及活检穿刺定位有重要意义。就PT的临床表现、病理、MRI特征及鉴别诊断予以综述。%Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon fibroepithelial tumors of breast and are capable of a diverse range of biological behaviors. Clinically and radiologically PTs may manifest as fibroadenomas, or demarked carcinoma and sarcoma. However, the treatments and outcomes are quite different. Conventional radiological methods play a limited role in diagnosis, while dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI can provide specific information, and are useful in pre-surgical diagnosis and localization for biopsy. In this article we reviewed PT in clinical features, pathological findings, MRI features and differential diagnosis.

  20. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  1. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  2. Research Situation of Ultrasound Breast Tumor Computer-aided Diagnosis with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System%结合乳腺影像报告及数据系统的超声乳腺肿瘤辅助诊断系统的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴君; 黄多; 贺超; 岳文胜; 冯元元; 穆兰

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a valuable tool in the detection of breast tumor, and the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) guides the ultrasound diagnosis of breast tumor to improve the diagnosis accuracy. Ultrasound breast tumor computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) combined with BI-RADS-US has become the research hospot. This paper introduces the design of CAD system based on BI-RADS-US and main technology of these functional modules, and finally, summarizes the research situation of Ultrasound breast tumor CAD with BI-RADS-US.%医学超声诊断是临床检查乳腺肿瘤的有效手段,而乳腺影像报告和数据体系(BIRADS)为超声诊断乳腺肿瘤制定了指南性规范.结合BI-RADS-US的超声乳腺肿瘤计算机辅助诊断(CAD)已经成为研究热点.本文介绍了基于BI-RADS-US体系的CAD系统的设计,以及几个重要的功能模块,并介绍了实现这些功能模块的主要技术,最后对结合BI-RADS-US的乳腺超声CAD 研究现状进行了综述.

  3. Value Analysis Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Applied to Diagnose Breast Tumor and Characteristics Manifestation%CT和MRI应用于乳腺肿瘤诊断的价值分析与特征表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘登

    2015-01-01

    Objective This Paper is to study clinical value of CT and MRI applied to diagnose the breast tumor and its characteristics.Methods Fifty eight patients who were confirmed to suffer from breast cancer, by pathology admitted by the Radiology Department of the Hospital were selected as research objects, who were retrospectively analyzed and summarized according to the clinical data, patients were subject to CT and MRI examinations respectively, and two types of inspection diagnosis were contrasted and analyzed.Results MRI detected 29 patients suffering from benign breast tumor and 23 patients with breast cancer, CT detected 19 patients with benign breast tumor and 11 patients with breast cancer, the detection rate of MRI on the breast tumor was obviously higher than that of CT(p<0.05), and the difference was significant.Conclusions Both CT and MRI deliver high clinical value in diagnosis of breast tumor, their images pose certain characteristic, but MRI is capable of providing more information, and it can provide important reference basis for subsequent treatment, throwing high value of clinical application and promotion.%目的:探讨CT和MRI应用于乳腺肿瘤诊断的临床价值及其特征表现。方法以我院放射科收治的58例经病理证实的乳腺肿瘤患者为研究对象,根据其临床资料进行回顾性分析和总结,分别对其进行CT和MRI检查,对比分析两种检查方式的诊断结果。结果 MRI检出乳腺良性肿瘤29例,乳腺癌23,CT检出乳腺良性肿瘤19例,乳腺癌11例,MRI对乳腺肿瘤的检出率明显高于CT,p<0.05,差异显著。结论 CT和MRI在诊断乳腺肿瘤方面均具有较高的临床价值,其影像具有一定的特征性,但是MRI可以提供更多的信息,可以为患者的后续治疗提供重要的参考依据,具有较高的临床应用推广价值。

  4. Multicenter prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Liu Yinhua; Xu Ling; Duan Xuening; Li Ting; Qin Naishan; Kang Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study aimed to assess the utility of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer.Methods The research subjects were drawn from patients with primary early resectable breast cancer treated in the breast disease centers of six three-level hospitals in Beijing from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012.The participants were allocated to a breast-conserving surgery group (breast-conserving group) or a total mastectomy group (total mastectomy group).Enhanced MRI was used to measure breast volume,longest diameter of tumor and tumor volume.The correlations between these measurements and those derived from histopathologic findings were assessed.The relationships between the success rate of breast-conserving surgery and MRI-and pathology-based measurement results were statistically analyzed in the breast-conserving group.Results The study included 461 cases in the total mastectomy group and 195 in the breast-conserving group.Allocation to these groups was based on clinical indications and patient preferences.The cut-off for concurrence between MRI-and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was set at 0.3 cm.In the total mastectomy group,the confidence interval for 95% concurrence of these measurements was 35.41%-44.63%.Correlation coefficients for MRI and histopathology-based measurements of breast volume,tumor volume and tumor volume/breast volume ratio were r=0.861,0.569,and 0.600,respectively (all P <0.001).In the breast-conserving group,with 0.30 cm taken as the cut-off for concurrence,the 95% confidence interval for MRI and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was 29.98%-44.01%.The subjective and objective success rates for breast-conserving surgery were 100% and 88.54%,respectively.Conclusions There were significant correlations between dynamic enhanced MRI-and histopathology-based measurements of the longest

  5. Breast cancer tumor classification using LASSO method selection approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celaya P, J. M.; Ortiz M, J. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Ortiz R, J. M., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide among women. Early tumor detection is key in reducing breast cancer deaths and screening mammography is the widest available method for early detection. Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. In an attempt to alleviate radiological workload, this work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD x) method aimed to automatically classify tumor lesions into malign or benign as a means to a second opinion. The CAD x methos, extracts image features, and classifies the screening mammogram abnormality into one of two categories: subject at risk of having malignant tumor (malign), and healthy subject (benign). In this study, 143 abnormal segmentation s (57 malign and 86 benign) from the Breast Cancer Digital Repository (BCD R) public database were used to train and evaluate the CAD x system. Percentile-rank (p-rank) was used to standardize the data. Using the LASSO feature selection methodology, the model achieved a Leave-one-out-cross-validation area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Auc) of 0.950. The proposed method has the potential to rank abnormal lesions with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the detection of potential malign cases as a second opinion to the radiologist. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of a bromine-76-labeled progestin 16{alpha},17{alpha}-dioxolane for breast tumor imaging and radiotherapy: in vivo biodistribution and metabolic stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Dong; Sharp, Terry L.; Fettig, Nicole M.; Lee, Hsiaoju; Lewis, Jason S. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Katzenellenbogen, John A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Welch, Michael J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: welchm@wustl.edu

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: Progesterone receptors (PRs) are present in many breast tumors, and their levels are increased by certain endocrine therapies. They can be used as targets for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy. Method: 16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-[{sup 76}Br]Bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione ([{sup 76}Br]16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (3)), a PR ligand with relative binding affinity (RBA)=65 and log P{sub o/w}=5.09{+-}0.84, was synthesized via a two-step reaction, and its tissue biodistribution and metabolic stability were evaluated in estrogen-primed immature female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: [{sup 76}Br]16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 3 was synthesized in 5% overall yield with specific activity being 200-1250 Ci/mmol. [{sup 76}Br]16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 3 demonstrated high PR-mediated uptake in the target tissue uterus (8.72{+-}1.84 %ID/g at 1 h) that was reduced by a blocking dose of unlabeled progestin R5020, but the nonspecific uptake in blood and muscle (2.11{+-}0.14 and 0.89{+-}0.16 %ID/g at 1 h, respectively) was relatively high. [{sup 76}Br]16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 3 was stable in whole rat blood in vitro, but it was not stable in vivo due to the fast metabolism that occurred in the liver, resulting in the formation of a more polar radioactive metabolite and free [{sup 76}Br]bromide. The level of free [{sup 76}Br]bromide in blood remained high during the experiment (2.11{+-}0.14 %ID/g at 1 h and 1.52{+-}0.24 %ID/g at 24 h). The tissue distribution of [{sup 76}Br]16{alpha},17{alpha}-[(R)-1'-{alpha}-(5-bromofurylmethylidene)dioxyl]-21-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3

  7. International study on inter-reader variability for circulating tumor cells in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ignatiadis (Michael); S. Riethdorf (Sabine); F.-C. Bidard (François-Clement); I. Vaucher (Isabelle); M. Khazour (Mustapha); F. Rothé (Françoise); J. Metallo (Jessica); G. Rouas (Ghizlane); R.E. Payne (Rachel); R.C. Coombes (Raoul); I. Teufel (Ingrid); U. Andergassen (Ulrich); M. Apostolaki (Maria); E. Politaki (Eleni); D. Mavroudis (Dimitris); E. Bessi (Elena); M. Pestrin (Marta); A. Di Leo (Angelo); D. Campion (Dominique); M. Reinholz (Monica); E. Perez (Edith); M.J. Piccart (Martine); E. Borgen (Elin); B. Naume (Bjorn); J. Jimenez (Jose); C.M. Aura (Claudia); L. Zorzino (Laura); M.C. Cassatella (Maria); M.T. Sandri (Maria); B. Mostert (Bianca); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J. Kraan (Jaco); W. Janni (Wolfgang); T. Fehm (Tanja); B. Rack (Brigitte); L.W.M.M. Terstappen (Leon); M. Repollet (Madeline); J.Y. Pierga (Jean Yves); C. Miller (Craig); C. Sotiriou (Christos); S. Michiels (Stefan); K. Pantel (Klaus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been studied in breast cancer with the CellSearch® system. Given the low CTC counts in non-metastatic breast cancer, it is important to evaluate the inter-reader agreement.Methods: CellSearch® images (N = 272) of either CTCs or white bloo

  8. Imaging in Pediatric Infratentorial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajiahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors are the second cause of malignancies in childhood following leukemia. The overall incidence varies between 1:20000 and 1:100000 in different series. They are the most common solid tumors that occur in childhood .The most important diagnostic feature of an intracranial mass is its location. They can be supratentorial or infratentorial. With the exception of the first year of life, infratentorial brain tumors are more frequent than supratentorial tumors in the first decade of life. In particular, these are cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, brain stem gliomas and ependymomas of the fourth ventricle. .Posterior fossa tumors also are readily identified with both CT and MRI. Spectroscopy in the analysis of brain tumors has recently come on the scene but may be of limited practical value when it comes to differentiating tumors. However, CT and especially MRI are the primary imaging modalities for the investigation of brain tumors. Sonography can be used in the neonates. With modern imaging, it is relatively easy to detect the presence of a tumor in most patients. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging features of various infratentorial brain tumors to make a clue for differentiation them by these features.

  9. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  10. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  11. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  12. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  13. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-08

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast.

  14. Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work aims to enact a quick and reasonable estimation of breast cancer margin thickness using time of flight analysis of embedded breast cancer tissue. A pulsed terahertz system is used to obtain reflection imaging scans from breast cancer tumors that are formalin-fixed and embedded in paraffin blocks. Time of flight analysis is then used to compare the reflection patterns seen within the block to pathology sections and paraffin-embedded sections that are taken throughout the depth of the tumor in order to estimate the three-dimensional boundaries of the tumor.

  15. Lupus mastitis mimicking a breast tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenovic, Nebojsa; Terzic, Milan

    2008-10-01

    Lupus mastitis represents a subset of breast-limited lupus panniculitis, and occurs very rarely in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of a 33-year-old white woman with a previous history of systemic lupus erythematosus, complaining of an acute tenderness and pain in the right breast associated with localized skin erythema. Ultrasound and mammography reports from a private breast clinic, where she was scheduled for core needle biopsy, aroused suspicion of a breast tumor. Clinically the patient had a painful mass suggestive of an inflammatory lump with an abscess. Her double-stranded DNA antibody level, white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were increased; and her renal function was impaired and serology findings negative. All other laboratory tests were within the normal ranges. The patient underwent urgent surgical incision and excisional biopsy of the lesion, and histology revealed lupus mastitis. Lupus mastitis very rarely may appear as a breast lump and therefore presents a great diagnostic challenge for clinicians, occasionally for radiologists and rarely for pathologists.

  16. Tumor Molecular Imaging with Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging (MI can provide not only structural images using traditional imaging techniques but also functional and molecular information using many newly emerging imaging techniques. Over the past decade, the utilization of nanotechnology in MI has exhibited many significant advantages and provided new opportunities for the imaging of living subjects. It is expected that multimodality nanoparticles (NPs can lead to precise assessment of tumor biology and the tumor microenvironment. This review addresses topics related to engineered NPs and summarizes the recent applications of these nanoconstructs in cancer optical imaging, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and radionuclide imaging. Key challenges involved in the translation of NPs to the clinic are discussed.

  17. Automated detection of breast tumor in MRI and comparison of kinetic features for assessing tumor response to chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used increasingly in diagnosis of breast cancer and assessment of treatment efficacy in current clinical practice. The purpose of this preliminary study is to develop and test a new quantitative kinetic image feature analysis method and biomarker to predict response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using breast MR images acquired before the chemotherapy. For this purpose, we developed a computer-aided detection scheme to automatically segment breast areas and tumors depicting on the sequentially scanned breast MR images. From a contrast-enhancement map generated by subtraction of two image sets scanned pre- and post-injection of contrast agent, our scheme computed 38 morphological and kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal regions. We applied a number of statistical data analysis methods to identify effective image features in predicting response of the patients to the chemotherapy. Based on the performance assessment of individual features and their correlations, we applied a fusion method to generate a final image biomarker. A breast MR image dataset involving 68 patients was used in this study. Among them, 25 had complete response and 43 had partially response to the chemotherapy based on the RECIST guideline. Using this image feature fusion based biomarker, the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve is AUC = 0.850±0.047. This study demonstrated that a biomarker developed from the fusion of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired pre-chemotherapy has potentially higher discriminatory power in predicting response of the patients to the chemotherapy.

  18. Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes' Lynparza may offer a new treatment for women ... with breast cancer linked to BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, according to the study. Olaparib delayed cancer ...

  19. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mills, Anne M; Showalter, Shayna L

    2014-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, fast-growing tumors that can be difficult to diagnose. A case study is featured about a young adult patient who lacked insurance and received a delayed diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. This article includes pertinent clinical and age-specific considerations for comprehensive management.

  20. 乳腺叶状肿瘤的临床特点及影像学表现%The Clinic Findings and Imaging Manifestations of Phyllodes Tumor of Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晏

    2013-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of breast (PTB) is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm that accounts for 0.3%-1.0% of all breast tumors and 2%-3% of fibroepithelial breast lesions.The tumors are biphasic breast neoplasms with widely variable biologic potential,and have both epithelial and stromal components.Histopathologically,PTB are classified into categories of benign,borderline and malignant.The clinical and pathological features,and the imaging manifestations of it are lack of specificity,similar to fibroadenoma.The final diagnosis rate of preoperative is very low.It may have the danger of recurrence and distant metastasis.%乳腺叶状肿瘤是一种少见的乳腺纤维上皮类肿瘤,其发病率仅占乳腺肿瘤的0.3%~1.0%,占乳腺纤维上皮类肿瘤的2%~ 3%,它具有双相性分化的特点,同时含有上皮及间质成分,生物学行为多样,组织病理学上分为良性、交界性及恶性.叶状肿瘤在临床、病理与影像学的表现与纤维腺瘤难以鉴别,缺乏一定的特异性,术前正确诊断率较低,且手术切除后存在复发及转移的风险.

  1. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: protocol optimization, interpretation, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Savannah C; McDonald, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) has shown promise for improving the positive predictive value of breast MR imaging for detection of breast cancer, evaluating tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and as a noncontrast alternative to MR imaging in screening for breast cancer. However, data quality varies widely. Before implementing DWI into clinical practice, one must understand the pertinent technical considerations and current evidence regarding clinical applications of breast DWI. This article provides an overview of basic principles of DWI, optimization of breast DWI protocols, imaging features of benign and malignant breast lesions, promising clinical applications, and potential future directions.

  2. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  3. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  4. Image to physical space registration of supine breast MRI for image guided breast surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Rebekah H.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR

  5. On the Forward Scattering of Microwave Breast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Hoi-Shun; Fhager, Andreas; Persson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection has been of significant interest for the last two decades. Recent studies focus on solving the imaging problem using an inverse scattering approach. Efforts have mainly been focused on the development of the inverse scattering algorithms, experimental setup, antenna design and clinical trials. However, the success of microwave breast imaging also heavily relies on the quality of the forward data such that the tumor inside the breast volume is well illuminated. In this work, a numerical study of the forward scattering data is conducted. The scattering behavior of simple breast models under different polarization states and aspect angles of illumination are considered. Numerical results have demonstrated that better data contrast could be obtained when the breast volume is illuminated using cross-polarized components in linear polarization basis or the copolarized components in the circular polarization basis. PMID:22611371

  6. 应用乳腺影像报告和数据系统分析乳腺叶状肿瘤的影像表现%Imaging manifestations of breast phyllodes tumors:based on BI-RADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜蕾; 周意明; 李惠章; 陈起航; 周诚; 谭庆亭; 王征

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging manifestations of breast phyllodes tumor on mammography, sonogram and MRI,based on BI-RADS. Methods Eighteen patients with twenty breast phyllodes tumors,proven by pathology, were collected from 2004 to 2011, including 6 benign, 5 boundary and 7 malignant tumors. 13,13 and 4 patients underwent mammography, sonograms and MRI examination,respectively. The tumors were multiple in unilateral breast in one patient and the others were single. According to BI-RADS lexicons, the imaging manifestations were retrospectively analyzed with gross and histological pathology as comparison. Results No matter benign,boundary or malignant phyllode tumors, they presented with the following imaging features:lobulated shape except 1 with focal asymmetry and 2 with oval shape,clear margin,abundant vascularization,homogeneous density/echo/signal intensity for tumor less than 5 cm (except 1 malignant tumor) , heterogeneity for tumor larger than 5 cm due to cystic or necrotic areas. No calcifications were seen. No signs of skin invasion and lymph node metastasis were noted. At MR imaging,the lesions were hyperin-tense on DWI,type III of density-time curve on dynamic contrast-enhanced images and choline peak presented on MRS. Conclusion BI-RADS is beneficial to analyse the imaging manifestations of breast phyllodes tumors comprehensively.%目的 应用乳腺影像报告和数据系统(BI-RADS)探讨乳腺叶状肿瘤的X线、超声及MRI表现,以期提高对该病的影像诊断能力.方法 收集2004-2011年经手术病理证实的乳腺叶状肿瘤18例(20个病灶),其中良性6例,交界性5例,恶性7例.13例行乳腺X线摄影检查,13例做乳腺超声检查,4例行乳腺MRI检查.1例患者为单侧乳腺多发(3个)肿瘤,余17例为单发.按照BI-RADS术语,回顾性分析其影像表现及病变分类,并与大体及镜下病理表现对照.结果 无论良性、交界性还是恶性,影像表现为:除1例于X线

  7. "COMPARISON BETWEEN NUMBER OF NERVE FIBERS IN NORMAL BREAST TISSUE, BENIGN LESIONS AND MALIGNANT BREAST TUMORS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Soltanghoraiee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is common and is considered second cause of cancer related mortality in females. Regarding importance of breast cancer, more investigation in this field is recommended. For many years investigators believed that neoplasms were not innervated but new findings have proved otherwise. This descriptive study was carried out to compare number of nerve fibers in benign, malignant and normal breast tissue. Of each group several slides were reviewed and 3608.50 mm2 of malignant tumors (ductal carcinoma, 3641 mm2 of benign tumors (fibroadenoma and 2331.25 mm2 of normal breast tissue (mammoplasty were assessed. Numbers of nerve fibers were compared and a significant increase in nerve fibers was found in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors and normal breast tissue. Accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin method were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (neurofilament method and affirmed. These results reveal that malignant tumors of breast have more nerve fibers than normal breast tissue or benign tumors.

  8. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved.

  9. GRANULAR CELL TUMOR OF BREAST (CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS CONFIRMED BY HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a tumor derived from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and it can occur throughout the body. About 5% of granular cell tumors occur in breast and are mostly benign in nature. We report a case of 30 year old female who presented with a swelling in right breast which on histo pathological examination revealed features consistent with granular cell tumor. This case is highlighted to reveal the importance of histopathology in differentiating granular cell tumor from carcinoma breast which is difficult based on clinical, radiological and cytological examination alone.

  10. Chemically Induced Breast Tumors in Rats Are Detectable in Early Stages by Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging but Not by Changes in the Acute-Phase Reactants in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onn Haji Hashim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to develop a rat model for monitoring the early development of breast cancer. Twelve female rats were divided into two groups of six rats that were either treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to induce breast cancer or with bacterial lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation. Serum samples taken from the rats prior to the treatment were used as controls. By the 14th week, presence of the tumor was detectable by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by histopathology. When the serum proteins of the rats were examined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, no difference could be detected in the profiles of all proteins before and 18 weeks after administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. However, higher expression of alpha-1B glycoprotein was detectable by 2-DE in serum samples of rats at the 18th week post-treatment with lipopolysaccharide.

  11. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Aggressiveness Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Swapan K. Gayen, Ph. D. CONTRACTING ... CONTRACT NUMBER Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...r X X r X X absorptive       mLM T sd ml ml ml m l x y z g gK          X X scattering Ns Nd M Lm m th M Nd Ns gs r Gs r

  12. Imaging inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, J-P

    2012-02-01

    Carcinomatous mastitis is a severe form of breast cancer and its diagnosis is essentially clinical and histological. The first examination to perform is still mammography, not only to provide evidence supporting this diagnosis but also to search for a primary intramammary lesion and assess local/regional spread. It is essential to study the contralateral breast for bilaterality. Ultrasound also provides evidence supporting inflammation, but appears to be better for detecting masses and analysing lymph node areas. The role of MRI is debatable, both from a diagnostic point of view and for monitoring during treatment, and should be reserved for selected cases. An optimal, initial radiological assessment will enable the patient to be monitored during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Éditions française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. 不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线片、MRI影像学特征分析%Analysis of X-ray, MRI images in different pathological types of breast phyllodes tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 景朝朝; 刘亚运; 徐曼丽; 王鸿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the features of X-ray,MRI of different pathological types of breast phyllodes tumor imaging.Method From March 2012 to September 2014,retrospectively analyzed the breast the imaging of 54 cases of phyllodes tumor patients in Datong Coal Group Co General Hospital,reviewed their clinical presentation.Analyzed the pathological pressure type.Compared the benign,borderline and malignant tumor.Results There were no obvious differences in morphology,location and size of tumor.X-ray examination revealed masses as the density increased,the benign and borderline for round of malignant lobular morphology;magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),T2WI showed the tumor was high signal.Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumor on T2WI easily showed low signal separation.Conclusion There are certain characteristics of X-ray and MRI features of phyllodes tumor;MRI of phyllodes tumor pathological subtype diagnosis has a certain value.%目的:研究分析不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线片、MRI影像学特征。方法回顾性分析2012年3月至2014年9月期间,经大同煤矿集团有限责任公司总医院确诊的54例乳腺分叶状肿瘤的女性患者,回顾其临床表现,分析其各病理类型的影像学表现。并对良性、交界性及恶性肿瘤进行比较。结果肿瘤形态、位置、大小无明显差异。X线片检查显现肿块多为密度增高,良性和交界性多为类圆形,恶性多为分叶状形态;MRI检查,T2WI显示肿瘤为高信号。交界性和恶性分叶状肿瘤在T2WI上易显示低信号分隔。结论分叶状肿瘤的X线片及MRI表现有一定特征,MRI对分叶状肿瘤的病理亚型诊断具有一定价值。

  14. Mucocele-like tumor of the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Park, Jeong Mi; Ji, Eun Kyung; Gong, Gyung Yub; Ahn, Sei Hyun [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    Mucocele-like tumor(MLT) is a rare benign neoplasm occurring in the breast. Differentiation of MLT from mucinous carcinoma of the breast on the basis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens is difficult, and in Korea, the radiologic findings of these lesions have not been reported. We describe a case of MLT of the breast, and review of the literature.

  15. Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R. M.; Kuhl, C. K.; Kinkel, K.; BOETES, C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of breast MRI is to obtain a reliable evaluation of any lesion within the breast. It is currently always used as an adjunct to the standard diagnostic procedures of the breast, i.e., clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound. Whereas the sensitivity of breast MRI is usually very high, specificity—as in all breast imaging modalities—depends on many factors such as reader expertise, use of adequate techniques and composition of the patient cohorts. Since breast MRI will always yi...

  16. Treatment Approaches to Recurrent Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Erözgen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rarely encountered clinical condition. Recurrent cases are even rarer. Treatment protocols vary among breast centers. In our study, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumors and to present our treatment approach. Methods: Among 31000 patients, who presented to our breast outpatient clinic between March 2005 and December 2011, we retrospectively evaluated three patients with recurrent phyllodes tumors of the breast. Results: The three female patients, aged 24, 28 and 30 years, had been previously operated for phyllodes tumor of the breast. The first tumor localization was the superolateral part of the right breast in all subjects. Recurrences were in the same localizations, but pathologies were more aggressive than the previous reports. In two patients mastectomy and in one breast-conserving surgery were performed. Conclusion: Relapse of phyllodes tumors can result in mastectomy and recurrent phyllodes tumors seem to be more aggressive than the original tumor. (The Me di cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 43-7

  17. Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L; Khalil, Michael A; Al Abdi, Rabah; Kim, Hyun K; Fong, Christopher J; Desperito, Elise; Hershman, Dawn L; Barbour, Randall L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography has shown promising results as a tool for breast cancer screening and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Dynamic imaging of the transient response of the breast to an external stimulus, such as pressure or a respiratory maneuver, can provide additional information that can be used to detect tumors. We present a new digital continuous-wave optical tomography system designed to simultaneously image both breasts at fast frame rates and with a large number of sources and detectors. The system uses a master-slave digital signal processor-based detection architecture to achieve a dynamic range of 160 dB and a frame rate of 1.7 Hz with 32 sources, 64 detectors, and 4 wavelengths per breast. Included is a preliminary study of one healthy patient and two breast cancer patients showing the ability to identify an invasive carcinoma based on the hemodynamic response to a breath hold.

  18. Pten in the Breast Tumor Microenvironment: Modeling Tumor-Stroma Co-Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie A.; Li, Fu; Leone, Gustavo; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Solid human tumors and their surrounding microenvironment are hypothesized to co-evolve in a manner that promotes tumor growth, invasiveness and spread. Mouse models of cancer have focused on genetic changes in the epithelial tumor cells and therefore have not robustly tested this hypothesis. We have recently developed a murine breast cancer model that ablates the PTEN tumor suppressor pathway in stromal fibroblasts. Remarkably, the model resembles human breast tumors both at morphologic and molecular levels. We propose that such models reflect subtypes of tumor-stromal co-evolution relevant to human breast cancer, and will therefore be useful in defining the mechanisms that underpin tumor-stroma crosstalk. Additionally, these models should also aid in molecularly classifying human breast tumors based on both the microenvironment subtypes they contain as well as on the tumor subtype. PMID:21303970

  19. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...... that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 appears to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence...... tumor progression, but that ADAM12 expression by tumor cells is necessary for tumor progression in these mice. This finding is consistent with our observation that in human breast carcinoma ADAM12 is almost exclusively located in tumor cells and only rarely seen in the tumor-associated stroma. We...

  20. Experimental and Other Breast Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optical imaging with other tests like MRI or 3D mammography to help diagnose breast cancer. Molecular breast ... radioactive particle to detect cancer cells. The PEM scanner is approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  1. Proficient Feature Extraction Strategy for Performance Enhancement of NN Based Early Breast Tumor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khondker Jahid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra Wideband is one of the promising microwave imaging techniques for breast tumor prognosis. The basic principle of tumor detection depends on the dielectric properties discrepancies between healthy and tumorous tissue. Usually, the tumor affected tissues scatter more signal than the healthy one and are used for early tumor detection through received pulses. Feedforward backpropagation neural network(NN was so far used for some research works by showing its detection efficiency up to 1mm (radius size with 95.8% accuracy. This paper introduces an efficient feature extraction method to further improve the performance by considering four main features of backpropagation NN. This performance is being increased to 99.99%. This strategy is well justified for classifying the normal and tumor affected breast with 100% accuracy in its early stage. It also enhances the training and testing performances by reducing the required duration. The overall performance is 99.99% verified by using thirteen different tumor sizes.

  2. Occult Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastasis to the Breast Detected on Screening Mammogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Policeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient′s left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic WDNET. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was then performed and demonstrated left axillary Level 2 lymphadenopathy, and liver lesions were suspicious for metastasis. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT to evaluate for distant metastatic disease. A spiculated mass was found near the ileocecal valve, suggestive of primary ileal WDNET. In addition, CT identified multiple liver lesions, most compatible with metastasis. Indium 111 OctreoScan confirmed radiotracer uptake in the ileum consistent with primary neuroendocrine tumor. In this report, we review the imaging characteristics of metastatic WDNET to the breast by different imaging modalities including mammogram, ultrasound, and breast MRI.

  3. Alpha2-Adrenergic Receptors and Breast Tumor Stroma: A Novel Pathway Driving Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    increased metastasis to the lungs in conjunction with elevated tumor SHG-emitting collagen. DEX did not alter metastasis or tumor SHG in immunodeficient ...undergoing diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer often experience severe and chronic psychological stress. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is...anesthesia administered for IVIS imaging may interact with DEX. For example, anesthesia (ketamine combined with xylazine, an α2-AR agonist) may reduce

  4. Sunitinib treatment enhances metastasis of innately drug resistant breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Joseph W; Heath, Victoria L; Bicknell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapies have failed to confer survival benefits in patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). However, to date there has not been an inquiry into roles for acquired versus innate drug resistance in this setting. In this study, we report roles for these distinct phenotypes in determining therapeutic response in a murine model of mBC resistance to the anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Using tumor measurement and vascular patterning approaches, we differentiated tumors displaying innate versus acquired resistance. Bioluminescent imaging of tumor metastases to the liver, lungs and spleen revealed that sunitinib administration enhances metastasis, but only in tumors displaying innate resistance to therapy. Transcriptomic analysis of tumors displaying acquired versus innate resistance allowed the identification of specific biomarkers, many of which have a role in angiogenesis. In particular, aquaporin-1 upregulation occurred in acquired resistance, mTOR in innate resistance, and pleiotrophin in both settings, suggesting their utility as candidate diagnostics to predict drug response or to design tactics to circumvent resistance. Our results unravel specific features of antiangiogenic resistance, with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:28011623

  5. High-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo.

  6. Dynamic MRI study for breast tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tsuneaki (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Application of MRI for diagnosis of breast tumors was retrospectively examined in 103 consecutive cases. Contrast enhancement, mostly by dynamic study, was performed in 83 cases using Gd-DTPA and 0.5 T superconductive apparatus. Results were compared to those of mammography and sonography. On dynamic study, carcinoma showed abrupt rise of signal intensity with clear-cut peak formation in early phase, while benign fibroadenoma showed slow rise of signal intensity and prolonged enhancement without peak formation. In 12 of 33 carcinomas (33%), peripheral ring enhancement was noted reflecting vascular stroma of histologic sections. All fibroadenomas showed homogenous enhancement without peripheral ring. In MRI, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 96%, 91%. In mammography 82%, 95%, 87% and in ultrasonography 91%, 95%, 93%. Although MRI should not be regarded as routine diagnostic procedure because of expense and limited availability, it may afford useful additional information when standard mammographic findings are not conclusive. (author).

  7. 超微血管成像与乳腺肿瘤微血管密度的相关性研究%Correlation analysis between superb microvascular imaging and pathological microvessel density in breast tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕; 李晶; 任卫东; 邓力军

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference in the ability of blood lfow detection between superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) among benign and malignant breast tumors. The correlation between the two imaging techniques and microvessel density (MVD) were also evaluated.Methods:A total of 79 women patients with 88 lesions (48 benign, 40 malignant) were included. CDFI and SMI were used to detect blood lfows of breast masses according to Adler’s grading criteria, respectively. hTe Kappa analysis was used to assess the consistency. hTe anti-CD34 immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of microvessels in the tumor, and the correlation coeffcient of Spearman was used to analyze the correlation between the expression of MVD and the Adler classiifcation of the SMI and CDFI, respectively.Results:hTe consistency of SMI and CDFI for all tumors is unfavorable (κ=0.67), poor for malignant tumor (κ=0.39), favorable for benign tumor (κ=0.79). Compared with CDFI, SMI and MVD have a signiifcant positive correlation (r=0.82,P<0.01). Conclusion:The detection ability of SMI on microvessels of the breast malignant tumor is better than CDFI, which is signiifcantly related to MVD. SMI can be used as a non-invasive method to evaluate the microvessel of breast malignant tumor before surgery.%目的:探讨超微血管成像(superb microvascular imaging,SMI)与彩色多普勒血流显像(color Doppler flow imaging,CDFI)检出乳腺良恶性肿物的血流情况的差异,并分析二者与肿物病理微血管密度(microvessel density,MVD)的相关性。方法:对79名女性乳腺肿物患者共88个病灶(良性48个、恶性40个)进行SMI及CDFI检测,参照Adler分级标准,应用上述两种成像技术分别观察同一病灶的血流情况,Kappa分析以评估其一致性。对术后病理标本进行CD34免疫组织化学染色,检测肿瘤MVD表达,Spearman相关系数,分别分析MVD表达与两

  8. Giant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of giant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Phyllodes tumor is a rare type of fibroepithelial tumor composed of epithelial and connective tissue with the predominant development of a connective tissue component. Surgery is the only radical treatment.

  9. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  10. Functional Imaging of Breast Tissue and Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to image hemoglobin concentration(ΔDhb) and oxygen saturation (ΔDoxy) of breast tissue is presented. The scenograph of dual-wavelength (760 and 850 nm) near infrared lights through breast tissue is acquired by high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The evaluation criterion of the difference of ΔDhb and ΔDoxy between detected and referenced breast tissue can be obtained by a calculation formula without complicate caculation. This approach is applied to clinic detection in breast tissue. The ongoing clinical experiments indicate that malignant tumor usually exhibits characterize of "higher ΔDhb and lower ΔDoxy", while benign lesion often shows "lower ΔDhb and higher ΔDoxy" or other characters. So it is useful to assist the diagnosis of breast disease.

  11. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E., E-mail: k.pengel@nki.nl [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted.

  12. 不同病理类型的乳腺分叶状肿瘤影像特征分析%Imaging Analysis of Different Pathological Types of Breast Phyllodes Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦明珠; 顾雅佳; 肖勤; 彭卫军; 张胜箭; 王伯胤; 赵振华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨不同病理类型乳腺分叶状肿瘤的X线、MRI影像学特征.方法:回顾性分析25例26个经手术、病理证实的乳腺分叶状肿瘤患者的临床表现,分析各病理亚型的影像学表现的差异.结果:26个分叶状肿瘤中良性7个,交界性11个,恶性8个.肿瘤形态、大小、位置在各病理亚型间分布无差异.X线检查显示肿块多为密度增高(22/26),良性和交界性多为类圆形,恶性多呈分叶状形态(P=0.033);交界性与恶性分叶状肿瘤边界不清晰,良性边界清晰(P=0.012).17个肿瘤行MRI检查,T2WI上肿瘤为高信号(12/17),并能见其中更高亮的囊变裂隙区(8/12).交界性和恶性分叶状肿瘤在T2WI上易出现低信号分隔(P=0.021),增强扫描后也显示低信号分隔(P=0.028).结论:分叶状肿瘤的X线及MRI表现有一定特征,MR-T2WI及增强扫描对判断分叶状肿瘤的病理亚型有一定的价值.%Purpose:To study the MRI and X-ray mammography features of different pathological types of phyllodes tumors of breast.Methods:The clinical manifestations and imaging findings of 25 patients with 26 different subtype phyllodes tumors confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Twenty six phyllodes tumors included 7 benign,11 borderline and 8 malignant ones.Shape,size and location of the tumors were with no statistical difference between the various histological subtypes.On mammography,most of the tumors were shown as high density lesions (22/26).The Shape of benign and borderline tumors were round,and malignant tumors were lobular (P=0.033).The margin of borderline and malignant subtypes were not sharp and smooth,but benign ones were smooth (P=0.012).Seventeen tumors had MR images,12 lesions were shown with high signal intensity on T2WI,and 8 of them were with higher bright cystic area.Borderline and malignant lesions were shown with low signal internal septations on T2WI (P=0.021),and the same appearance on enhanced imaging (P=0

  13. Subtraction and dynamic MR images of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Manabu; Harada, Junta (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging in patients with breast masses. In 23 breast cancers and six fibroadenomas, spin echo T1 images were obtained at 0.2 Tesla before and every minute after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 or 0.2 mmol/kg). Subtraction images were obtained sequentially on the CRT monitor. All breast masses were enhanced after gadolinium and stood out as bright lesions on subtraction images. The tumor margin and its extension were more precisely evaluated on subtraction MR images than on conventional postcontrast MR images. Breast cancer showed a characteristic time-intensity curve with an early peak, in contrast to fibroadenoma, which showed a gradual increase in signal intensity. Subtraction MR imaging is a simple method for the evaluation of breast masses, and further, the time-intensity curve obtained by dynamic study is helpful in the differential diagnosis of lesions. (author).

  14. Huge malignant phyllodes breast tumor: a real entity in a new era of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Errico, Valentina; Travaglini, Roberto; Voulaz, Emanuele; Alloisio, Marco

    2015-02-27

    Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare tumor of the breast. It occurs in females in the third and fourth decades. The difficulty in distinguishing between phyllodes tumors and benign fibroadenoma may lead to misdiagnosis. Lymph node involvement is rarely described in phyllodes tumors; for this reason, sentinel node biopsy may be warranted. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman affected by huge tumor of the right breast with ulceration in the skin with a rapid tumor growth and with omolateral axillary metastasis.

  15. Radiologic findings of metastatic tumors to the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Heum; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Young Ha; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. of Korea College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To analyze the radiologic findings of metastatic tumors of the breast. We retrospectively analyzed the findings of mammography (n = 12), ultrasonography (n = 9) and CT (n = 4) of 13 patients with metastatic tumors of the breast. Methods for confirmation were biopsy (n = 8) and clinical follow-up (n = 5). The patient' s ages ranged from 24 to 63 (mean 43)years. Primary malignancies were contralateral breast cancer (n = 3), non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma (n = 3), stomach cancer (n = 2), uterine cervix cancer (n = 1), laryngeal cancer (n = 1), esophageal melanoma (n = 1), malignant thymoma (n 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Patterns of metastasis from contralateral breast cancer and the stomach cancer were diffuse and infiltrative, while metastasis from other cancers was of the focal mass-forming type. The radiologic findings of metastasis from contralateral breast cancer (n = 3) were diffuse skin thickening and increased density or echogenicity in the medial aspect of the breast, while in cases involving metastasis from stomach cancer (n = 2) radiographs revealed extensive skin thickening, increased density or echogenicity, lymphedema and ipsilateral lymphadenopathy in the left breast. In cases of metastatic tumors to the breast in which focal masses were seen on mammography (n = 7), marginal spiculation or microcalcification of the tumors was not present. In six such cases, ultrasonography revealed well-defined margin, posterior acoustic shadowing or an irregular thick echogenic boundary was not seen. It two patients who underwent CT scanning, well-defined masses with moderate contrast enhancement were present. Radiographs of metastatic tumors to the breast from contralateral breast cancer and stomach cancer showed diffuse infiltration. The metastatic tumors with focal masses showed oval to round, smooth-mar-ginated, well-defined masses without spiculation or microcalcification on mammography, and a well-defined mass without posterior acoustic shadowing or irregular

  16. Breast lump removal - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a breast lump is very important to a patient's prognosis (probable outcome). Most breast lumps are not diagnosed at the ... is required. If the lump is malignant, the outcome depends on the ... lumpectomy does not require a breast replacement (prosthesis).

  17. Recurrent angio-fibroma of breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Jai K; Alam, Feroz; Shadan, Mariam; Naim, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A young Indian female presented with a recurring tumor in the right breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor. Patient had history of five times excision and recurrences of the tumor, diagnosed as fibrous phyllodes of the breast. Presently, a well-circumscribed tumor of about 10 cm size, comprising of benign fibrous-angiomatous tissue with evidence of foci of pyogenic vasculitis was observed. Immuno-histochemical markers for the myo-epithelial and epithelial elements excluded the possibility of fibrous phyllodes, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, desmoid fibromatosis, and metaplastic carcinoma. The present findings were diagnostic of an inflammatory angio-fibroma of the right breast, not reported in the earlier literature. The observations indicated that the female breast may be susceptible to spontaneous productive and common-antibiotic-resistant focal septic vascular inflammation giving rise to angio-fibromatous proliferation producing a well-defined tumor mass in the breast, distinguishable from the other breast lesions by the connective tissue stains and immuno-histochemical markers.

  18. Phyllodes tumors of the breast: diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors related to recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Wang, Chen-Chen; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare tumor types that consist of 0.3–1.0% in all breast tumors. The naming and classification of breast phyllodes tumor have been debated for years. Based on the classification criteria modified by WHO in 2003, this review mainly introduced the clinicopathologic characteristics, pre-operational diagnosis and the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors, and also summarized the prognostic factors related to tumor recurrence. PMID:28066617

  19. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    3803662 (16q12), rs889312 (5q11), rs3817198 (11p15) and rs13387042 (2q35); however, only two of them (16q12 and 2q35) were associated with tumors with the core basal phenotype (P = 0.002). These analyses are consistent with different biological origins of breast cancers, and indicate that tumor......Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes...... were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations...

  20. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and condu......Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...

  1. Breast cancer margin delineation with fluorescence lifetime imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Darrow, Morgan; Unger, Jakob; Bold, Richard; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The current standard of care for early stages of breast cancer is breast-conserving surgery (BCS). BCS involves a lumpectomy procedure, during which the tumor is removed with a rim of normal tissue-if cancer cells found in that rim of tissue, it is called a positive margin and means part of the tumor remains in the breast. Currently there is no method to determine if cancer cells exist at the margins of lumpectomy specimens aside from time-intensive histology methods that result in reoperations in up to 38% of cases. We used fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) to measure time-resolved autofluorescence from N=13 ex vivo human breast cancer specimens (N=10 patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy) and compared our results to histology. Tumor (both invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ), fibrous tissue, fat and fat necrosis have unique fluorescence signatures. For instance, between 500-580 nm, fluorescence lifetime of tumor was shortest (4.7 +/- 0.4 ns) compared to fibrous tissue (5.5 +/- 0.7 ns) and fat (7.0 +/- 0.1 ns), P<0.05 (ANOVA). These differences are due to the biochemical properties of lipid, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen fibers in the fat, tumor and fibrous tissue, respectively. Additionally, the FLIm data is augmented to video of the breast tissue with image processing algorithms that track a blue (450 nm) aiming beam used in parallel with the 355 nm excitation beam. This allows for accurate histologic co-registration and in the future will allow for three-dimensional lumpectomy surfaces to be imaged for cancer margin delineation.

  2. Value of ultrasound elastography in detecting small breast tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li-na; WANG Yi; WANG Yong; HUANG Yong-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Detecting small breast tumors is difficult for conventional ultrasound. The goal of this study was to assess the value of ultrasound elastography in characterizing small breast tumors and to compare its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with conventional ultrasound. Methods A total of 308 breast tumors less than 2 cm in size from 283 in-hospital patients examined with both conventional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography were retrospectively analyzed. The results were compared to surgical pathology. Results There were 104 malignant and 204 benign lesions. The sensitivities of sonography and sonoelastography were similar (P <0.05), and the sensitivity of the two modalities combined improved remarkably to 97.1%. The mean elastic score of malignant and benign tumors less than 2 cm were 3.76±1.01 and 1.73±0.99, respectively (P<0.05), and the mean elastic score of the false-negative lesions on conventional ultrasound was 3.61 ±1.14. Conclusions Ultrasound elastography in combination with conventional ultrasound can improve the sensitivity for detecting small breast tumors. It is also valuable in detecting small malignant tumors which are difficult to diagnose with conventional ultrasound. Ultrasound elastography can be a useful adjunct to conventional ultrasound in diagnosing small breast tumors.

  3. Optically measured microvascular blood flow contrast of malignant breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Choe

    Full Text Available Microvascular blood flow contrast is an important hemodynamic and metabolic parameter with potential to enhance in vivo breast cancer detection and therapy monitoring. Here we report on non-invasive line-scan measurements of malignant breast tumors with a hand-held optical probe in the remission geometry. The probe employs diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS, a near-infrared optical method that quantifies deep tissue microvascular blood flow. Tumor-to-normal perfusion ratios are derived from thirty-two human subjects. Mean (95% confidence interval tumor-to-normal ratio using surrounding normal tissue was 2.25 (1.92-2.63; tumor-to-normal ratio using normal tissues at the corresponding tumor location in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.94-2.66, and using normal tissue in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.90-2.70. Thus, the mean tumor-to-normal ratios were significantly different from unity irrespective of the normal tissue chosen, implying that tumors have significantly higher blood flow than normal tissues. Therefore, the study demonstrates existence of breast cancer contrast in blood flow measured by DCS. The new, optically accessible cancer contrast holds potential for cancer detection and therapy monitoring applications, and it is likely to be especially useful when combined with diffuse optical spectroscopy/tomography.

  4. Detection of cellular senescence within human invasive breast carcinomas distinguishes different breast tumor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotarelo, Cristina L; Schad, Arno; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Sleeman, Jonathan P; Springer, Erik; Schmidt, Marcus; Thaler, Sonja

    2016-11-15

    Oncogene-induced senescence is thought to act as a barrier to tumorigenesis by arresting cells at risk of malignant transformation. Nevertheless, numerous findings suggest that senescent cells may conversely promote tumor progression through the development of the senescence-associated secretome they produce. It is likely that the composition and the physiological consequences mediated by the senescence secretome are dependent on the oncogenes that trigger the senescence program. Breast cancer represents a heterogenous disease that can be divided into breast cancer subtypes due to different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. As tumor initiation and progression of these breast cancer subtypes is triggered by diverse oncogenic stimuli, differences in the senescence secretomes within breast tumors might be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and therapeutic response. Many studies have addressed the role of senescence as a barrier to tumor progression using murine xenograft models. However, few investigations have been performed to elucidate the degree to which senescent tumor cells are present within untreated human tumors, and if present, whether these senescent tumor cells may play a role in disease progression. In the present study we analysed the appearance of senescent cells within invasive breast cancers. Detection of cellular senescence by the use of SAβ-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) staining within invasive breast carcinoms from 129 untreated patients revealed differences in the amount of SAβ-gal+ tumor cells between breast cancer subtypes. The highest percentages of SAβ-gal+ tumor cells were found in HER2-positive and luminal A breast carcinomas whereas triple negative tumors showed either little or no positivity.

  5. Cancer-associated adipocytes promotes breast tumor radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochet, Ludivine; Meulle, Aline [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Imbert, Sandrine [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Salles, Bernard [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Valet, Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Muller, Catherine, E-mail: muller@ipbs.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Tumor-surrounding adipocytes contribute to breast cancer progression. {yields} Breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance. {yields} Increased in Chk1 phosphorylation is observed in irradiated co-cultivated tumor cells. {yields} IL-6 is over-expressed in tumor cells co-cultivated with adipocytes. {yields} IL-6 exposure confers increased Chk1 phosphorylation and radioresistance in tumor cells. -- Abstract: Mature adipocytes are excellent candidates to influence tumor behavior through heterotypic signaling processes since these cells produce hormones, growth factors, cytokines and other molecules, a heterogeneous group of molecules named adipokines. Using a 2D coculture system, we demonstrate that breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance and an earlier and higher increase in the effector kinase Chk1, a phenotype that was associated with decreased cell death as compared to tumor cells grown alone. Interestingly, the adipocytes-induced tumor changes taking place during the coculture time preceding the exposure to IR were sufficient to confer the radioresistant effect. Notorious among the changes brought by adipocytes was the significant increase of IL-6 expression in tumor cells, whose activity may well account for the observed tumor cell protection from IR toxicity. Indeed, our data confirmed the protective role of this cytokine as tumor cells incubated after irradiation with recombinant IL-6 exhibit an increased in Chk1 phosphorylation and a radioresistant phenotype, thus far recapitulating the effects observed in the presence of adipocytes. Our current study sheds light on a new role of tumor-surrounding adipocytes in fostering a radioresistant phenotype in breast tumors, a finding that might have important clinical implications in obese patients that frequently exhibit aggressive diseases.

  6. Quantification of tumor changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy with longitudinal breast DCE-MRI registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Ou, Yangming; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Yu, Ning; Hoshmand, Vahid; Keller, Brad; Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Rosen, Mark; DeMichele, Angela; Davatzikos, Christos; Kontos, Despina

    2015-03-01

    Imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Image-based assessment of tumor change via deformable registration is a powerful, quantitative method potentially to explore novel information of tumor heterogeneity, structure, function, and treatment response. In this study, we continued a previous pilot study to further validate the feasibility of an open source deformable registration algorithm DRAMMS developed within our group as a means to analyze spatio-temporal tumor changes for a set of 14 patients with DCE-MR imaging. Two experienced breast imaging radiologists marked landmarks according to their anatomical meaning on image sets acquired before and during chemotherapy. Yet, chemotherapy remarkably changed the anatomical structure of both tumor and normal breast tissue, leading to significant discrepancies between both raters for landmarks in certain areas. Therefore, we proposed a novel method to grade the manually denoted landmarks into different challenge levels based on the inter-rater agreement, where a high level indicates significant discrepancies and considerable amounts of anatomical structure changes, which would indeed impose giant problem for the following registration algorithm. It is interesting to observe that DRAMMS performed in a similar manner as the human raters: landmark errors increased as inter-rater differences rose. Among all selected six deformable registration algorithms, DRAMMS achieves the highest overall accuracy, which is around 5.5 mm, while the average difference between human raters is 3 mm. Moreover, DRAMMS performed consistently well within both tumor and normal tissue regions. Lastly, we comprehensively tuned the fundamental parameters of DRAMMS to better understand DRAMMS to guide similar works in the future. Overall, we further validated that DRAMMS is a powerful registration tool to accurately quantify tumor changes and potentially predict early tumor response to

  7. Cancer stem cells from human breast tumors are involved in spontaneous metastases in orthotopic mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiping; Patel, Manishkumar R.; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Patsialou, Antonia; Qian, Dalong; Lin, Jiahui; Wen, Susanna; Chang, Ya-Fang; Bachmann, Michael H.; Shimono, Yohei; Dalerba, Piero; Adorno, Maddalena; Lobo, Neethan; Bueno, Janet; Dirbas, Frederick M.; Goswami, Sumanta; Somlo, George; Condeelis, John; Contag, Christopher H.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Clarke, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in metastasis, we generated human-in-mouse breast cancer orthotopic models using patient tumor specimens, labeled with optical reporter fusion genes. These models recapitulate human cancer features not captured with previous models, including spontaneous metastasis in particular, and provide a useful platform for studies of breast tumor initiation and progression. With noninvasive imaging approaches, as few as 10 cells of stably labeled BCSCs could be tracked in vivo, enabling studies of early tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. These advances in BCSC imaging revealed that CD44+ cells from both primary tumors and lung metastases are highly enriched for tumor-initiating cells. Our metastatic cancer models, combined with noninvasive imaging techniques, constitute an integrated approach that could be applied to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the dissemination of metastatic CSCs (MCSCs) and to explore therapeutic strategies targeting MCSCs in general or to evaluate individual patient tumor cells and predict response to therapy. PMID:20921380

  8. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  9. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  10. Granular cell tumor in breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Lara M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Castillo Lara, Antonia Martínez Herrera, Rafael Torrejón Cardoso, Daniel Maria Lubián López Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Universitario Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain Abstract: Granular cell tumor (GCT is a rare neoplasm of the soft tissues, and <1% of all GCTs are malignant. It usually appears in the tongue and sometimes may affect the female breast. Initially, GCT was considered to be a myogenic lesion affecting female breast (myoblastoma. Actually, it is assumed as a tumor originating from perineural or putative Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or their precursors that grows in the lobular breast tissue, due to the immunohistochemical features. Here, we review the importance of differentiating between this tumor and malignant breast carcinoma. Mammographically, by ultrasound scan and clinically, this case appears to be a malignant tumor of the breast, but with a correct and precise diagnosis including histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical studies, it was correctly identified as a GCT.Case details: We present a case of a 52-year-old premenopausal woman. This report is of interest because of patient’s familial oncologic history and personal history of gynecologic cancer. This rare tumor of the breast and the special way to approach the tumor by local anesthesia makes it interesting to communicate.Conclusion: This is a case of interest because GCT located in the breast is very unusual and knowledge of GCT is required for the differential diagnosis with breast cancer. Keywords: carcinoma, S-protein, calretinin, PAS diastase, local anesthesia

  11. Performance Benchmarks for Screening Breast MR Imaging in Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Ichikawa, Laura; Valencia, Elizabeth; Miglioretti, Diana L; Wernli, Karen; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Sprague, Brian L; Onega, Tracy; Rauscher, Garth H; Lehman, Constance D

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare screening magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) benchmarks. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA and included BCSC screening MR examinations collected between 2005 and 2013 from 5343 women (8387 MR examinations) linked to regional Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registries, state tumor registries, and pathologic information databases that identified breast cancer cases and tumor characteristics. Clinical, demographic, and imaging characteristics were assessed. Performance measures were calculated according to BI-RADS fifth edition and included cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value of biopsy recommendation (PPV2), sensitivity, and specificity. Results The median patient age was 52 years; 52% of MR examinations were performed in women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, 46% in women with a personal history of breast cancer, and 15% in women with both risk factors. Screening MR imaging depicted 146 cancers, and 35 interval cancers were identified (181 total-54 in situ, 125 invasive, and two status unknown). The CDR was 17 per 1000 screening examinations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15, 20 per 1000 screening examinations; BI-RADS benchmark, 20-30 per 1000 screening examinations). PPV2 was 19% (95% CI: 16%, 22%; benchmark, 15%). Sensitivity was 81% (95% CI: 75%, 86%; benchmark, >80%), and specificity was 83% (95% CI: 82%, 84%; benchmark, 85%-90%). The median tumor size of invasive cancers was 10 mm; 88% were node negative. Conclusion The interpretative performance of screening MR imaging in the BCSC meets most BI-RADS benchmarks and approaches benchmark levels for remaining measures. Clinical practice performance data can inform ongoing benchmark development and help identify areas for quality improvement. (©) RSNA

  12. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  13. Dynamic characterization for tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts on breast surface: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between the thermal contrasts on the breast surface and the underlying physiological and pathological factors is important for thermogram-based breast cancer detection. Our previous work introduced a combined thermal-elastic modeling method with improved ability to simultaneously characterize both elastic-deformation-induced and tumor-induced thermal contrasts on the breast. In this paper, the technique is further extended to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the breast thermal contrasts during cold stress and thermal recovery procedures in the practice of dynamic thermal imaging. A finite-element method (FEM) has been developed for dynamic thermal and elastic modeling. It is combined with a technique to address the nonlinear elasticity of breast tissues, as would arise in the large deformations caused by gravity. Our simulation results indicate that different sources of the thermal contrasts, such as the presence of a tumor, and elastic deformation, have different transient time courses in dynamic thermal imaging with cold-stress and thermal-recovery. Using appropriate quantifications of the thermal contrasts, we find that the tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts show opposite changes in the initial period of the dynamic courses, whereas the global maxima of the contrast curves are reached at different time points during a cold-stress or thermal-recovery procedure. Moreover, deeper tumors generally lead to smaller peaks but have larger lags in the thermal contrast time course. These findings suggest that dynamic thermal imaging could be useful to differentiate the sources of the thermal contrast on breast surface and hence to enhance tumor detectability.

  14. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  15. "Ruptured" malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditsatham C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagkrit Ditsatham, Areewan Somwangprasert, Kirati Watcharachan, Phanchaporn WongmaneerungDivision of Head, Neck and Breast, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandAbstract: Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare disease and is usually seen in middle-aged patients. Ruptured phyllodes tumor is a very rare condition. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case. A 58-year-old premenopausal female was diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor and presented with a rapidly growing mass for 2 months that ruptured 1 month later. She underwent simple mastectomy at the left side of her breast and received adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was found 4 months after operation.Keywords: ruptured, malignant, phyllodes tumor, breast 

  16. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Metastasizing to the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Kayode Ajenifuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare breast tumors that resemble fibroadenoma. They are composed of two types of tissues: stromal and glandular tissues. Unlike fibroadenoma, they are commonly found in the third decade of life and they tend to grow more rapidly. Depending on the relative components of the cells and mitotic activity, they are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant. They are usually present as a lump in the breast. Phyllodes tumors are usually managed by wide excision. The excision should be wide enough to ensure a tumor-free margin. Recurrence rate is very high and most recurrences are usually local. Metastasis to the vulva has not been reported.

  17. Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Savas D; Tzankov, Alexandar; Muenst, Simone E

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that breast cancer consists not only of neoplastic cells, but also of significant alterations in the surrounding stroma or tumor microenvironment. These alterations are now recognized as a critical element for breast cancer development and progression, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Various components of the breast cancer microenvironment, such as suppressive immune cells, soluble factors and altered extracellular matrix, act together to impede effective antitumor immunity and promote breast cancer progression and metastasis. Stromal cells in the breast cancer microenvironment are characterized by molecular alterations and aberrant signaling pathways, some of which are prognostic of clinical outcome. Several new therapies targeting stromal components are in development or undergoing clinical trials. We focus herein on the composition of the breast cancer microenvironment and concomitant molecular alterations, the specific interplay between various cell types and cancer cells, and the clinical implications of these findings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Clinical evaluation of pixellated NaI:Tl and continuous LaBr 3:Ce, compact scintillation cameras for breast tumors imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; De Vincentis, G.; Cinti, M. N.; Bennati, P.; Vittorini, F.; Casali, V.; Mattioli, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Navarria, F.; Bollini, D.; Moschini, G.; Iurlaro, G.; Montani, L.; de Notaristefani, F.

    2007-02-01

    The principal limiting factor in the clinical acceptance of scintimammography is certainly its low sensitivity for cancers sized scintillation camera based on Lanthanum tri-Bromide Cerium-doped crystal (LaBr 3:Ce), that demonstrating superior imaging performances with respect to the dedicated scintillation γ-camera that was previously developed. The proposed detector consists of continuous LaBr 3:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 Flat Panel PMT. One centimeter thick crystal has been chosen to increase crystal detection efficiency. In this paper, we propose a comparison and evaluation between lanthanum γ-camera and a Multi PSPMT camera, NaI(Tl) discrete pixel based, previously developed under "IMI" Italian project for technological transfer of INFN. A phantom study has been developed to test both the cameras before introducing them in clinical trials. High resolution scans produced by LaBr 3:Ce camera showed higher tumor contrast with a detailed imaging of uptake area than pixellated NaI(Tl) dedicated camera. Furthermore, with the lanthanum camera, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio ( SNR) value was increased for a lesion as small as 5 mm, with a consequent strong improvement in detectability.

  19. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karina Banin Hirata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity.

  20. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  1. Causes of breast lumps (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  2. Breast Imaging Utilizing Dedicated Gamma Camera and (99m)Tc-MIBI: Experience at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and Review of the Literature Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Golan, Orit; Menes, Tehillah; Weinstein, Yuliana; Lerman, Hedva

    2016-07-01

    The scope of the current article is the clinical role of gamma cameras dedicated for breast imaging and (99m)Tc-MIBI tumor-seeking tracer, as both a screening modality among a healthy population and as a diagnostic modality in patients with breast cancer. Such cameras are now commercially available. The technology utilizing a camera composed of a NaI (Tl) detector is termed breast-specific gamma imaging. The technology of dual-headed camera composed of semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride detectors that directly converts gamma-ray energy into electronic signals is termed molecular breast imaging. Molecular breast imaging system has been installed at the Department of Nuclear medicine at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv in 2009. The article reviews the literature well as our own experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The complex evaluation of tumor oxygen state and vasculature during preoperative chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, M. V.; Subochev, P. V.; Kalganova, T. I.; Golubyatnikov, G. Yu.; Plekhanov, V. I.; Ilyinskaya, O. E.; Orlova, A. G.; Shakhova, N. M.; Maslennikova, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Effective breast cancer treatment requires the assessment of metabolic changes of tumor tissue during chemo- and hormonotherapy for prediction tumor response. Evaluation of the dynamics of tumor oxygen state (by diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging) and tumor vasculature (by ultrasound investigation in power Doppler mode) was performed before treatment beginning and before the second cycle of chemotherapy in 16 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy. Changes of these indicators were compared then with tumor pathologic response. Breast tumors demonstrated different dynamics of tumor oxygenation depending on the changes of tumor tissue. The increase of the tumor oxygenation after the first cycle of chemotherapy was observed in five of six patients with grade 4 and 5 of pathologic tumor response. Decrease of the oxygenation level was revealed in one patient with the 4th degree of tumor response. Variable changes of the oxygenation level were mentioned in the patients with moderate (the 3d degree) tumor response. Tumor oxygenation decreased or was unchanged in case of 1 or 2 degree of tumor response in five of six cases. The study of the tumor blood vessels didn't reveal any correlation between vasculature changes and tumor response under the performed treatment. The trend of tumor oxygenation in early time after treatment beginning might be a predictive criterion of tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  4. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M; Piras, D; Brinkhuis, M; van Hespen, J C G; van den Engh, F M; van der Schaaf, M; Klaase, J M; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W; Manohar, S

    2015-07-10

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  5. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  6. Diagnosis of breast tumors with 1H-MRS and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging%联合应用1H-MRS与MR动态增强成像诊断乳腺肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欣; 张婷婷; 胡国清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) alone and combined with 1 H-MRS in diagnosis of breast tumors. Methods ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI of 50 patients with breast tumors including 33 malignant lesions and 17 benign lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic results of ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI were compared with pathological and clinical follow-up results. All patients underwent pre-enhanced conventional scanning, 1 H-MRS scanning and DCE-MR scanning after injection of contrast agent. The type of time-intensity curves (TIC) and display of choline (Cho) peak for all lesions were calculated. Results The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate for TIC alone was 100% (33/33), 58. 82% (10/17) and 66. 00% (33/50), respectively, while was 100% (33/33), 88.24% (15/17) and 96.00% (48/50) respectively for combined application of 1H-MRS and DCE-MRI. There was statistical difference in diagnostic specificity and accuracy rate between the two methods (both P<0. 02). Conclusion DCE-MRI has lower specificity and accuracy rate for diagnosis of breast tumors. Combination of ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI can improve the diagnostic accuracy rate of breast tumors.%目的 比较应用MR动态增强成像(DCE-MRI)与联合应用1H-MRS及DCE-MRI对乳腺肿瘤的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析50例乳腺肿瘤患者的1H-MRS及DCE-MRI表现,包括恶性肿瘤33例,良性肿瘤17例,并与病理及临床随诊结果进行对比.对所有患者分别行常规扫描、1H-MRS扫描及注射对比剂后动态增强扫描,分析时间-信号曲线(TIC)类型和胆碱(Cho)峰的显示情况.结果 以TIC类型判断肿瘤的良恶性,诊断的敏感度为100%(33/33),特异度为58.82%(10/17),准确率为66.00%(33/50);应用1H-MRS联合DCE-MRI诊断的敏感度为100%(33/33),特异度为88.24%(15/17),准确率为96.00%(48/50),与单纯DCE-MRI诊断的特异度和准确率差异有统计学意义(P均<0.02).结论 DCE

  7. Broadband near-infrared tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition can be quantitatively estimated, including hemoglobin, water and lipid concentrations, together with scattering properties. In this thesis work, strategies to improve the accuracy of NIR imaging have been explored experimentally and numerically. A novel Ti:Sapphire laser-based frequency domain tomography system was developed to achieve maximum spectral information, using intrinsic phase-locked detection of the signal propagation. The improvement in quantification through addition of more wavelengths was demonstrated in simulations and in tissue-phantom experiments. A hybrid NIR tomography system combining frequency domain and continuous wave spectroscopy approaches was implemented for imaging healthy subjects and women with malignant breast tumors. Adding measurements at wavelengths above 850nm with the continuous wave method significantly improved the accuracy of water and lipid estimation. When used in cancer imaging in vivo, the NIR contrast information is consistent with physiological and pathological values expected in tumor as seen by investigational studies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and pathology analysis.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  9. Multimodality Imaging of Tumor Response to Doxil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang, Lei Zhu, Gang Liu, Naoki Hida, Guangming Lu, Henry S. Eden, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early assessment of tumor responses to chemotherapy could enhance treatment outcomes by ensuring that, from the beginning, treatments meet the individualized needs of patients. In this study, we applied multiple modality molecular imaging techniques to pre-clinical monitoring of early tumor responses to Doxil, focusing on imaging of apoptosis.Methods: Mice bearing UM-SCC-22B human head and neck squamous cancer tumors received either PBS or 1 to 2 doses of Doxil® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection (10 mg/kg/dose. Bioluminescence signals from an apoptosis-responsive reporter gene were captured for apoptosis evaluation. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by 18F-FDG and 3'-18F-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (18F-FLT positron emission tomography. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI was performed to calculate averaged apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs for the whole tumor volume. After imaging, tumor samples were collected for histological evaluation, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL, anti-CD31, and Ki-67 immunostaining.Results: Two doses of Doxil significantly inhibited tumor growth. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI indicated apoptosis of tumor cells after just 1 dose of Doxil treatment, before apparent tumor shrinkage. 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET imaging identified decreased tumor metabolism and proliferation at later time points than those at which BLI indicated apoptosis. MRI measurements of ADC altered in response to Doxil, but only after tumors were treated with 2 doses. Decreased tumor proliferation and increased apoptotic cells were confirmed by changes of Ki-67 index and apoptotic ratio.Conclusion: Our study of tumor responses to different doses of Doxil demonstrated that it is essential to combine apoptosis imaging strategies with imaging of other critical biological or pathological pathways, such as metabolism and proliferation, to improve clinical decision making

  10. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I. N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L. P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S. C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R. I.; Lesko, N. M.; Newman, D. P.; Geisinger, K. R.; Berg, W. A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission.

  11. Effects of menopausal hormonal therapy on occult breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Richard J; Song, Yan; Yue, Wei; Wang, Ji-Ping; Heitjan, Daniel F

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 7% of 40-80 year old women dying of unrelated causes harbor occult breast tumors at autopsy. These lesions are too small to be detected by mammography, a method which requires tumors to be approximately 1cm in diameter to be diagnosed. Tumor growth rates, as assessed by "effective doubling times" on serial mammography range from 10 to >700 days with a median of approximately 200 days. We previously reported two models, based on iterative analysis of these parameters, to describe the biologic behavior of undiagnosed, occult breast tumors. One of our models is biologically based and includes parameters of a 200 day effective doubling time, 7% prevalence of occult tumors in the 40-80 aged female population and a detection threshold of 1.16 cm and the other involves computer based projections based on age related breast cancer incidence. Our models facilitate interpretation of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and anti-estrogen prevention studies. The biologically based model suggests that menopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the WHI trial primarily promoted the growth of pre-existing, occult lesions and minimally initiated de novo tumors. The paradoxical reduction of breast cancer incidence in women receiving estrogen alone is consistent with a model that this hormone causes apoptosis in women deprived of estrogen long term as a result of the cessation of estrogen production after the menopause. Understanding of the kinetics of occult tumors suggests that breast cancer "prevention" with anti-estrogens or aromatase inhibitors represents early treatment rather than a reduction in de novo tumor formation. Our in vivo data suggest that the combination of a SERM, bazedoxifene (BZA), with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) acts to block maturation of the mammary gland in oophorectomized, immature mice. This hormonal combination is defined by the generic term, tissue selective estrogen complex or

  12. A superpixel-based framework for automatic tumor segmentation on breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Wu, Jia; Weinstein, Susan P.; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Keller, Brad M.; Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Jiang, YunQing; Davatzikos, Christos; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2015-03-01

    Accurate and efficient automated tumor segmentation in breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is highly desirable for computer-aided tumor diagnosis. We propose a novel automatic segmentation framework which incorporates mean-shift smoothing, superpixel-wise classification, pixel-wise graph-cuts partitioning, and morphological refinement. A set of 15 breast DCE-MR images, obtained from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6657 I-SPY trial, were manually segmented to generate tumor masks (as ground truth) and breast masks (as regions of interest). Four state-of-the-art segmentation approaches based on diverse models were also utilized for comparison. Based on five standard evaluation metrics for segmentation, the proposed framework consistently outperformed all other approaches. The performance of the proposed framework was: 1) 0.83 for Dice similarity coefficient, 2) 0.96 for pixel-wise accuracy, 3) 0.72 for VOC score, 4) 0.79 mm for mean absolute difference, and 5) 11.71 mm for maximum Hausdorff distance, which surpassed the second best method (i.e., adaptive geodesic transformation), a semi-automatic algorithm depending on precise initialization. Our results suggest promising potential applications of our segmentation framework in assisting analysis of breast carcinomas.

  13. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.05 and 0.98 ± 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  14. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, P-H; Chang, C-C [Division of Mechanics, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C-K; Liao, Y-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mechang@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ckyeh@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 {+-} 0.01, 0.65 {+-} 0.05 and 0.98 {+-} 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 {+-} 0.03, 0.67 {+-} 0.11 and 0.89 {+-} 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  15. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  16. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwave...... community. This paper presents the survey of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues, with major focus on the breast tumor detection application. The existing microwave imaging systems are categorized on the basis of the employed measurement concepts. The advantages...

  17. Effects of radiation on tumor hemodynamics and NF-kappaB in breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cao, Ning; Liu, Bo; Cao, Minsong; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc; Li, Jian Jian

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to monitor in vivo the IR dose dependent response of NF-κB and tumor hemodynamics as a function of time. Material and Methods: An MDA-231 breast cancer cell line was stably transfected with a firefly luciferase gene within the NF-kappaB promoter. Tumors on the right flank irradiated with a single fractionated dose of 5Gy or 10Gy. Over two weeks, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PCT-S), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) was used to monitor hemoglobin status, NF-kappaB expression, and physiology, respectively. Results: From the BLI, an increase in NF-kappaB expression was observed in both the right (irradiation) and left (nonirradiated) tumors, which peaked at 8-12 hours, returned to basal levels after 24 hours, and increased a second time from 3 to 7 days. This data identifies both a radiation-induced bystander effect and a bimodal longitudinal response associated with NF-κB-controlled luciferase promoter. The physiological results from DCE-CT measured an increase in perfusion (26%) two days after radiation and both a decrease in perfusion and an increase in fp by week 1 (10Gy cohort). PCT-S measured increased levels of oxygen saturation two days post IR, which did not change after 1 week. Initially, NF-κB would modify hemodynamics to increase oxygen delivery after IR insult. The secondary response appears to modulate tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions: A bimodal response to radiation was detected with NF-kappaB-controlled luciferase reporter with a concomitant hemodynamic response associated with tumor hypoxia. Experiments are being performed to increase statistics.

  18. Identifying metastatic breast tumors using textural kinetic features of a contrast based habitat in DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Baishali; Zhou, Mu; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to identify aggressive tumors from indolent tumors using quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) would dramatically change the breast cancer treatment paradigm. With this prognostic information, patients with aggressive tumors that have the ability to spread to distant sites outside of the breast could be selected for more aggressive treatment and surveillance regimens. Conversely, patients with tumors that do not have the propensity to metastasize could be treated less aggressively, avoiding some of the morbidity associated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. We propose a computer aided detection framework to determine which breast cancers will metastasize to the loco-regional lymph nodes as well as which tumors will eventually go on to develop distant metastses using quantitative image analysis and radiomics. We defined a new contrast based tumor habitat and analyzed textural kinetic features from this habitat for classification purposes. The proposed tumor habitat, which we call combined-habitat, is derived from the intersection of two individual tumor sub-regions: one that exhibits rapid initial contrast uptake and the other that exhibits rapid delayed contrast washout. Hence the combined-habitat represents the tumor sub-region within which the pixels undergo both rapid initial uptake and rapid delayed washout. We analyzed a dataset of twenty-seven representative two dimensional (2D) images from volumetric DCE-MRI of breast tumors, for classification of tumors with no lymph nodes from tumors with positive number of axillary lymph nodes. For this classification an accuracy of 88.9% was achieved. Twenty of the twenty-seven patients were analyzed for classification of distant metastatic tumors from indolent cancers (tumors with no lymph nodes), for which the accuracy was 84.3%.

  19. FGFR2 promotes breast tumorigenicity through maintenance of breast tumor-initiating cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Kim

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that some cancers contain a population of stem-like TICs (tumor-initiating cells and eliminating TICs may offer a new strategy to develop successful anti-cancer therapies. As molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the TIC pool are poorly understood, the development of TIC-specific therapeutics remains a major challenge. We first identified and characterized TICs and non-TICs isolated from a mouse breast cancer model. TICs displayed increased tumorigenic potential, self-renewal, heterogeneous differentiation, and bipotency. Gene expression analysis and immunostaining of TICs and non-TICs revealed that FGFR2 was preferentially expressed in TICs. Loss of FGFR2 impaired self-renewal of TICs, thus resulting in marked decreases in the TIC population and tumorigenic potential. Restoration of FGFR2 rescued the defects in TIC pool maintenance, bipotency, and breast tumor growth driven by FGFR2 knockdown. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of FGFR2 kinase activity led to a decrease in the TIC population which resulted in suppression of breast tumor growth. Moreover, human breast TICs isolated from patient tumor samples were found enriched in a FGFR2+ population that was sufficient to initiate tumor growth. Our data suggest that FGFR2 is essential in sustaining the breast TIC pool through promotion of self-renewal and maintenance of bipotent TICs, and raise the possibility of FGFR2 inhibition as a strategy for anti-cancer therapy by eradicating breast TICs.

  20. Tumor microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Samadi, Nasser; Barazvan, Balal; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2016-12-01

    Therapy resistance or tumor relapse in cancer is common. Tumors develop resistance to chemotherapeutic through a variety of mechanisms, with tumor microenvironment (TM) serving pivotal roles. Using breast cancer as a paradigm, we propose that responses of cancer cells to drugs are not exclusively determined by their intrinsic characteristics but are also controlled by deriving signals from TM. Affected microenvironment by chemotherapy is an avenue to promote phenotype which tends to resist on to be ruined. Therefore, exclusively targeting cancer cells does not demolish tumor recurrence after chemotherapy. Regardless of tumor-microenvironment pathways and their profound influence on the responsiveness of treatment, diversity of molecular properties of breast cancer also behave differently in terms of response to chemotherapy. And also it is assumed that there is cross-talk between phenotypic diversity and TM. Collectively, raising complex signal from TM in chemotherapy condition often encourages cancer cells are not killed but strengthen. Here, we summarized how TM modifies responses to chemotherapy in breast cancer. We also discussed successful treatment strategies have been considered TM in breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutathione Transferase GSTπ In Breast Tumors Evaluated By Three Techniques

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    Rafael Molina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione transferases are involved in intracellular detoxification reactions. One of these, GSTπ, is elevated in some breast cancer cells, particularly cells selected for resistance to anticancer agents. We evaluated GSTπ expression in 60 human breast tumors by three techniques, immunohistochemistry, Northern hybridization, and Western blot analysis. There was a significant positive correlation between the three methods, with complete concordance seen in 64% of the tumors. There was strong, inverse relationship between GSTπ expression and steroid receptor status with all of the techniques utili zed. [n addition, there was a trend toward higher GSTπ expression in poorly differentiated tumors, but no correlation was found between tumor GSTπ content and DNA ploidy or %S-phase. GSTπ expression was also detected in adjacent benign breast tissue as well as infiltrating lymphocytes; this expression may contribute to GSTπ measurements using either Northern hybridization or Western blot analysis. These re sults suggest that immunohistochemistry is the method of choice for measuring GSTπ in breast tumors.

  2. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wideband (UWB microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80×80 mm2 features a −10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter.

  3. Investigating the KLF4 Gene Expression as a New Molecular Marker in Breast Tumors

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    MA Hosseinpour Feizi

    2013-12-01

    Results: The results showed that: 1 KLF4 is over expressed in Breast tumors rather than adjacent normal tissues. 2 KLF4 is an oncogene in breast tumors (at least in IDC type. 3 The KLF4 expression levels are related significantly with nature of malignant breast tumors. Conclusion: Findings do not confirm KLF4 as a diagnostic marker in classification and identification of tumoral tissues from non-tumoral ones in breast, but we can use this marker to identify at least 50% of invasive Ductal Carcinoma in breast and utilize it as a potential predictive factor to demonstrate severity degree in various tumors.

  4. Race-associated biological differences among Luminal A breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Monica; Fleming, Jodie; Robinson, Whitney R; Kirk, Erin L; Perou, Charles M; Troester, Melissa A

    2015-07-01

    African-American (AA) women have higher breast cancer-specific mortality rates. A higher prevalence of the worse outcome Basal-like breast cancer subtype contributes to this, but AA women also have higher mortality even within the more favorable outcome Luminal A breast cancers. These differences may reflect treatment or health care access issues, inherent biological differences, or both. To identify potential biological differences by race among Luminal A breast cancers, gene expression data from 108 CAU and 57 AA breast tumors were analyzed. Race-associated genes were evaluated for associations with survival. Finally, expression of race- and survival-associated genes was evaluated in normal tissue of AA and CAU women. Six genes (ACOX2, MUC1, CRYBB2, PSPH, SQLE, TYMS) were differentially expressed by race among Luminal A breast cancers and were associated with survival (HR 1.25). For all six genes, tumors in AA had higher expression of poor prognosis genes (CRYBB2, PSPH, SQLE, TYMS) and lower expression of good prognosis genes (ACOX2, MUC1). A score based on all six genes predicted survival in a large independent dataset (HR = 1.9 top vs. bottom quartile, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5). For four genes, normal tissue of AA and CAU women showed similar expression (ACOX2, MUC1, SQLE, TYMS); however, the poor outcome-associated genes CRYBB2 and PSPH were more highly expressed in AA versus CAU women's normal tissue. This analysis identified gene expression differences that may contribute to mortality disparities and suggests that among Luminal A breast tumors there are biological differences between AA and CAU patients. Some of these differences (CRYBB2 and PSPH) may exist from the earliest stages of tumor development, or may even precede malignancy.

  5. MR imaging of mucinous carcinoma of the breast associated with ductal carcinoma in situ: case report

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    Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Young Up; Kim, Sei Joong; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Han, Jee Young [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    A mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon carcinoma containing mucin that is associated with a mucocele-like tumor or other malignant tumors. We report the MR imaging findings of two cases, a mucinous carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), associated with mucocele-like tumor. The mucinous carcinoma showed a gradually enhancing kinetic pattern on the dynamic MR and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. The MR findings were indistinguishable from a common benign mass of the breast.

  6. Imaging the pharmacokinetics of [F-18]FAU in patients with tumors: PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haihao; Collins, Jerry M; Mangner, Thomas J; Muzik, Otto; Shields, Anthony F

    2006-02-01

    FAU (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D: -arabinofuranosyl) uracil) can be phosphorylated by thymidine kinase, methylated by thymidylate synthase, followed by DNA incorporation and thus functions as a DNA synthesis inhibitor. This first-in-human study of [F-18]FAU was conducted in cancer patients to determine its suitability for imaging and also to understand its pharmacokinetics as a potential antineoplastic agent. Six patients with colorectal (n = 3) or breast cancer (n = 3) were imaged with [F-18]FAU. Serial blood and urine samples were analyzed using HPLC to determine the clearance and metabolites. Imaging showed that [F-18]FAU was concentrated in breast tumors and a lymph node metastasis (tumor-to-normal-breast-tissue-ratio 3.7-4.7). FAU retention in breast tumors was significantly higher than in normal breast tissues at 60 min and retained in tumor over 2.5 h post-injection. FAU was not retained above background in colorectal tumors. Increased activity was seen in the kidney and urinary bladder due to excretion. Decreased activity was seen in the bone marrow with a mean SUV 0.6. Over 95% of activity in the blood and urine was present as intact [F-18]FAU at the end of the study. Increased [F-18]FAU retention was shown in the breast tumors but not in colorectal tumors. The increased retention of FAU in the breast compared to bone marrow indicates that FAU may be useful as an unlabeled antineoplastic agent. The low retention in the marrow indicates that unlabeled FAU might lead to little marrow toxicity; however, the images were not of high contrast to consider FAU for diagnostic clinical imaging.

  7. Simulation study of an X-ray diffraction system for breast tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticke, F.; Montémont, G.; Paulus, C.; Michel, O.; Mars, J. I.; Verger, L.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique used to determine the molecular structure of biological tissues. In breast tissues for example, the scattering signatures of dense fibroglandular tissue and carcinoma have been shown to be significantly different. In this study, XRD was used as a second control level when conventional mammography results were unclear, for instance because of overly high breast density. A system optimized for this issue, called multifocal XRD, was developed combining energy dispersive spectral information at different scattering angles. This system allows depth-imaging in one go but needs an x,y-direction scan to image the region conventional mammography identified as suspect. The scan-time for about 10 cm3 with an incident flux of about 4.8·107 photons per second would be around 2 s. For this study, breast phantoms with and without cancerous nodule were simulated to assess the separation power of the method and to determine the radiation dose required to obtain nearly ideal separation. For tumors situated in the center of the breast, the required dose was only about 0.3 mGy, even for breasts with high density. The tumor position was shown to have a low impact on detectability provided it remained in a zone where the system was sufficiently sensitive. The influence of incident spectrum maximum energy was also studied. The required dose remained very low with any of the incident spectra tested. Finally, an image slice was reconstructed in the x-direction and showed that the system can detect the presence of a small tumor (4 mm). Hence, XRD is a very promising tool to reduce the number of unnecessary invasive breast biopsies.

  8. Degree of tumor FDG uptake correlates with proliferation index in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchou, Julia; Sonnad, Seema S; Bergey, Meredith R; Basu, Sandip; Tomaszewski, John; Alavi, Abass; Schnall, Mitchell

    2010-12-01

    2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake may be a useful surrogate marker for proliferation index, but the correlation has not always been clear-cut. Previous research by our group suggests that FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) is sensitive in detecting triple negative breast cancer. We therefore performed a pilot study to test if FDG uptake correlated with proliferation index in women with triple negative cancer. To determine whether proliferation index correlates with metabolic uptake of FDG in women with triple negative breast cancer, we performed a retrospective analysis correlating %Ki67 nuclear stain with tumor maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in a group of 41 women, 22 with triple negative and 19 with non-triple negative breast cancer. As expected, [18F]-PET imaging was significantly more sensitive in detecting triple negative breast cancer than non-triple negative breast cancer, 95.5% vs 68.4% (p = 0.036). In general, SUVmax and %Ki67 nuclear stain values rise as histologic grade worsens. Histologic grade of triple negative breast cancer was more often poorly differentiated than non-triple negative cancer (p = 0.001). SUVmax correlated with %Ki67 nuclear staining in our entire cohort (spearman correlation = 0.485, p = 0.002). Moreover, this significant correlation appeared to be driven primarily by a subset of women with triple negative cancer (spearman correlation = 0.497, p = 0.019). Degree of tumor FDG uptake correlated significantly with proliferation index in women with triple negative breast cancer suggesting a potential role of FDG-PET in treatment response monitoring for this group of women. Future studies are necessary to define the role of PET imaging as a non-invasive means to monitor breast cancer treatment response in the neoadjuvant setting.

  9. Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Lutz, Amelie M.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Tranquart, Francois; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical-ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study we assessed the potential of molecular-ultrasound imaging, using clinically-translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2), to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul). In vivo binding specificity studies (n=26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P95% of cases and highly agreed between each other (ICC=0.98; 95% CI, 97, 99). These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women. PMID:23328585

  10. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with heterologous high-grade angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Tranesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors (PTs account for <3% of fibroepithelial breast lesions and for 0.3% to 1.0% of primary breast tumors. They occur predominantly in middle-aged women (mean age range, 40–50 years. PTs can be categorized into benign, borderline, and malignant; the first 2 categories are distinguished only by degree of cellular atypia and mitotic activity. Malignant PTs are more frequent among persons of Hispanic ethnicity, especially those born in Central America or South America. Heterologous sarcomatous elements may be present in malignant PTs, predominantly liposarcoma and rarely fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Breast angiosarcoma (BA is a rare heterologous, sarcomatous element that may arise secondary to malignant PT. We report a 47-year-old woman with no history of previous surgery or radiation therapy who presented to the emergency department with a painful right breast mass. She admittedly noticed the right breast mass for many years; however, recently it increased in size. Mammography and ultrasonography identified a partially cystic mass. Core needle biopsy showed dense hyalinized fibrous tissue with old blood clots, suggestive of infarcted fibroadenoma. The patient received antibiotics and analgesics; however, she reported intractable pain and a worsening skin rash of her right breast. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a doubling in mass size, with pectoralis major muscle involvement. Incisional biopsy showed malignant PT with heterologous high-grade angiosarcoma. The diagnosis of angiosarcoma was confirmed through immunoreactivity for CD31, FLI1, and ERG immunostains.

  11. Genomic alterations associated with early stages of breast tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Patney, Heather L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-07-01

    Molecular studies suggest that acquisition of metastatic potential occurs early in the development of breast cancer; mechanisms by which cells disseminate from the primary carcinomas and successfully colonize foreign tissues are, however, largely unknown. Thus, we examined levels and patterns of chromosomal alterations in primary breast tumors from node-negative (n = 114) and node-positive (n = 115) patients to determine whether specific genomic changes are associated with tumor metastasis. Fifty-two genetic markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly altered in breast cancer were examined in laser microdissected tumor samples to assess levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI). Real time-PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression levels of candidate genes. Data was analyzed using exact unconditional and Student's t-tests with significance values of P .05 and P .002 used for the clinicopathological and genomic analyses, respectively. Overall levels of AI in primary breast tumors from node-negative (20.8%) and node-positive (21.9%) patients did not differ significantly (P = 0.291). When data were examined by chromosomal region, only chromosome 8q24 showed significantly higher levels (P .0005) of AI in node-positive primary tumors (23%) versus node-negative samples (6%). c-MYC showed significantly higher levels of gene expression in primary breast tumors from patients with lymph node metastasis. Higher frequencies of AI at chromosome 8q24 in patients with positive lymph nodes suggest that genetic changes in this region are important to the process of metastasis. Because overexpression of c-MYC has been associated with cellular dissemination as well as development of the premetastatic niche, alterations of the 8q24 region, including c-MYC, may be key determinants in the development of lymph node metastasis.

  12. Tumor tissue protein signatures reflect histological grade of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Petter; Ohlsson, Mattias; Fernö, Mårten; Rydén, Lisa; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Histological grade is one of the most commonly used prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with breast cancer. However, conventional grading has proven technically challenging, and up to 60% of the tumors are classified as histological grade 2, which represents a heterogeneous cohort less informative for clinical decision making. In an attempt to study and extend the molecular puzzle of histologically graded breast cancer, we have in this pilot project searched for additional protein biomarkers in a new space of the proteome. To this end, we have for the first time performed protein expression profiling of breast cancer tumor tissue, using recombinant antibody microarrays, targeting mainly immunoregulatory proteins. Thus, we have explored the immune system as a disease-specific sensor (clinical immunoproteomics). Uniquely, the results showed that several biologically relevant proteins reflecting histological grade could be delineated. In more detail, the tentative biomarker panels could be used to i) build a candidate model classifying grade 1 vs. grade 3 tumors, ii) demonstrate the molecular heterogeneity among grade 2 tumors, and iii) potentially re-classify several of the grade 2 tumors to more like grade 1 or grade 3 tumors. This could, in the long-term run, lead to improved prognosis, by which the patients could benefit from improved tailored care.

  13. Multispectral image segmentation of breast pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Joseph P.; Blaakman, Andre; Rubens, Deborah; Totterman, Saara

    1991-06-01

    The signal intensity in a magnetic resonance image is not only a function of imaging parameters but also of several intrinsic tissue properties. Therefore, unlike other medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the imaging scientist to locate pathology using multispectral image segmentation. Multispectral image segmentation works best when orthogonal spectral regions are employed. In MRI, possible spectral regions are spin density (rho) , spin-lattice relaxation time T1, spin-spin relaxation time T2, and texture for each nucleus type and chemical shift. This study examines the ability of multispectral image segmentation to locate breast pathology using the total hydrogen T1, T2, and (rho) . The preliminary results indicate that our technique can locate cysts and fibroadenoma breast lesions with a minimum number of false-positives and false-negatives. Results, T1, T2, and (rho) algorithms, and segmentation techniques are presented.

  14. Imaging Appearance and Clinical Impact of Preoperative Breast MRI in Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kelly S; Green, Lauren A; Lebron, Lizza; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the imaging features of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) on breast MRI and to consider the impact of preoperative MRI on patient management. A retrospective review of medical records from January 1994 to May 2014 identified 183 women who presented with a new diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy or within 1 year postpartum. MR images were available for 53 of these patients, all of whom were included in the study. Clinical history and available breast images were reviewed. The clinical impact of preoperative breast MRI was also recorded. Of the 53 women, nine (17%) presented during pregnancy and 44 (83%) presented during the first year postpartum. The sensitivity of MRI was 98% (52/53). Among the 53 patients, the most common findings of PABC on MRI included a solitary mass (29 patients [55%]), nonmass enhancement (12 patients [23%]), and multiple masses (eight patients [15%]). For 12 patients (23%), MRI showed a pathologically proven larger tumor size or greater extent of disease than did mammography or ultrasound, with an additional eight patients (15%) having findings suspicious for greater extent of disease but having unavailable pathologic data. Breast MRI changed surgical management for 15 patients (28%), with four patients (8%) requiring a larger lumpectomy, seven (13%) no longer being considered candidates for lumpectomy, two (4%) having contralateral disease, and two (4%) having unsuspected metastasis. Breast MRI had a high sensitivity for PABC in our study population. MRI may play an important role in PABC because it changed the surgical management of 28% of patients.

  15. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mituś, Jerzy; Reinfuss, Marian; Mituś, Jerzy W; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Blecharz, Pawel; Wysocki, Wojciech M; Skotnicki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Surgery remains the mainstay of the treatment in patients with malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast (MPTB); however, the extent of surgery (breast conserving surgery [BCS] versus mastectomy) and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy have been controversial. We report a single institution's experience with MPTB. We discuss controversial therapeutic aspects of this rare tumor. Seventy patients with MPTB treated primarily with surgery were evaluated. The mean age was 50 years (21-76), and the mean size of the tumor was 6 cm. Thirty-four (48.6%) patients were treated with total mastectomy, and 36 (51.4%) were treated with BCS (lumpectomy or wide local excision). Microscopic surgical margins were free of tumor in all cases. In 64 (91.4%) patients, margins were ≥1 cm. Remaining 6 (8.6%) patients treated with BCS margins were tumor-free margin ≥1 cm) and BCS with irradiation (tumor-free margin tumor-free margins cannot be obtained by BCS. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered if tumor-free margins are <1 cm.

  16. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

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    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 110 Donner, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla. (author)

  17. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  18. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  19. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hunter, David J.; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990–2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses. PMID:28152060

  20. Breast conserving therapy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tsuneaki; Masuda, Yu; Hachiya, Junichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Hisayoshi; Uchigasaki, Shinya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    Recently, breast conserving therapy has been widely accepted in our country. The extensive intraductal component (EIC) is a serious problem in breast conserving therapy, because it is well-known that EIC frequently causes locoregional recurrence in preserved breast parenchyma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful method for detecting breast masses due to its excellent contrast resolution. We studied the application of MRI to detection of intraductal spread in twenty-two patients. All cases were revealed invasive cancer with intraductal spread by histopathological examination. MRI findings of intraductal spread can be divided into two major groups. One is daugter nodules or strand-like enhancement and the other is bridging enhancement. We also reffered to the preliminary study of MR-guiding transcutaneous aspiration biopsy of mammographically and clinically occult breast masses. (author)

  1. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Creighton; C. Kent Osborne; M.J. van de Vijver; J.A. Foekens; J.G. Klijn; H.M. Horlings; D. Nuyten; Y. Wang; Y. Zhang; G.C. Chamness; S.G. Hilsenbeck; A.V. Lee; R. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying biolog

  2. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR BREAST MALIGNANT TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志民; 刘国津; 盖学良; 王晓军; 辛志泳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To review the evolution of the current surgical treatment for breast malignant tumors over the past twenty years in the First Hospital of Jilin University (the former Bethune University of Medical Sciences). Methods: 1195 eligible patients with primary breast malignant tumor diagnosed and surgically treated at the First Teaching Hospital from January 1980 and December 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The peak frequency was in 40-49 years of age (40.00%), the age of the patients with breast malignant tumors trends to become young. The most common pTNM classification was Stage Ⅱ. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (398 patients, 33.31%), and simple carcinoma (279 patients, 23.53%). Modified radical mastectomy was the most common operation procedure performed (779 patients, 65.19%), and was increasingly used while radical mastectomy was adopted decreasingly in recent decade. Conclusion: The variation of operation procedures performed on patients with breast malignant tumors reflected the advance of our understanding of the biology of cancer and the progression of new treatment principles.

  3. Functional Imaging of Proteolysis: Stromal and Inflammatory Cells Increase Tumor Proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The underlying basement membrane is degraded during progression of breast and colon carcinoma. Thus, we imaged degradation of a quenched fluorescent derivative of basement membrane type IV collagen (DQ-collagen IV by living human breast and colon tumor spheroids. Proteolysis of DQ-collagen IV by HCT 116 and HKh-2 human colon tumor spheroids was both intracellular and pericellular. In contrast, proteolysis of DQ-collagen IV by BT20 human breast tumor spheroids was pericellular. As stromal elements can contribute to proteolytic activities associated with tumors, we also examined degradation of DQ-collagen IV by human monocytes/macrophages and colon and breast fibroblasts. Fibroblasts themselves exhibited a modest amount of pericellular degradation. Degradation was increased 4–17-fold in cocultures of fibroblasts and tumor cells as compared to either cell type alone. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, plasmin, and the cysteine protease, cathepsin B, all reduced degradation in the cocultures. Monocytes did not degrade DQ-collagen IV; however, macrophages degraded DQ-collagen IV intracellularly. In coculture of tumor cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, degradation of DQ-collagen IV was further increased. Imaging of living tumor and stromal cells has, thus, allowed us to establish that tumor proteolysis occurs pericellularly and intracellularly and that tumor, stromal, and inflammatory cells all contribute to degradative processes.

  4. Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  5. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2016-11-28

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 November 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.421.

  6. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, K [University of Oklahoma, Oklahomoa City, OK (United States); Yaffe, M [University Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chen, J [GE/U-Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  7. Adenosis tumor of the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Oh, Ki Keun; Jung, Mi Kyeong; Jung, Woo Hee; Shim, Jung Yeon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Adenosis tumor is a rare tumor of the breast and primarily consists of adenosis. Authors report a case of surgically proved adenosis tumor in a 31-year-old woman. Mammogram showed a lobulated, well-circumscribed mass with several surrounding radiolucent halos. In the center of the mass several linear radiolucent densities were seen with the appearance of a conglomerated well-circumscribed mass such as fibroadenoma. These linear radiolucent densities were consistent with the fat between the fibrous sclerosis in pathologic specimen. Ultrasonogram showed a well-circumscribed mass with homogeneous low echogenicity, partial posterior enhancement, and bilateral acoustic shadowings.

  8. Characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hou-Jun; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; He, Bao-Li; Jiao, Jian-Lin; Chen, Ce-Shi

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor. It is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents, which have been widely used in laboratory research. Spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however, no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date. Here, we characterized a spontaneous breast tumor from tree shrews by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining. This tumor was identified as a papillary tumor. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 showed that tumor cells were positive for PR, highly proliferative, and less apoptotic compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Thus, the spontaneous tumor of tree shrew is very close to human papillary tumors in terms of morphology and pathology and we concluded that tree shrew may be a suitable animal model for breast cancer research.

  9. Breast cancer imaging; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Radiologische Klinik, Baden-Baden (Germany); Villena, C. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Frauenklinik, Baden-Baden (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Die Fortschritte bei den bildgebenden Verfahren der weiblichen Brust haben in den letzten Jahren die Diagnostik, die Therapie und die Prognose des Mammakarzinoms erheblich beeinflusst. Die Frueherkennungsmammographie in traditioneller oder digitaler Technik gilt heute als der ''Goldstandard'' fuer die fruehzeitige Detektion von Brustkrebs. Weitere Modalitaeten wie die Mammasonographie und die kontrastmittelgestuetzte MR-Mammographie spielen bei der bildgebenden Diagnostik, im Staging sowie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms eine wichtige Rolle. Die perkutane Nadelbiopsie stellt eine schnellere, weniger invasive und kostenguenstigere Methode dar als die diagnostische Exzision fuer die histologische Sicherung der Diagnose. Neue Modalitaeten wie Tomosynthese der Brust, kontrastverstaerkte Mammographie und Positronenemissionstomographie erheben den Anspruch, zu einer weiteren Verbesserung der Bildgebung beizutragen. Weitere Studien sind notwendig, um diese neuen Methoden an die klinischen Beduerfnisse zu adaptieren und ihren Stellenwert im klinischen Alltag

  10. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivon, Anne A; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Thibault, Fabienne; El Khoury, Carl

    2007-02-01

    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology.

  11. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): Magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardivon, Anne A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: anne.tardivon@curie.net; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Thibault, Fabienne [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); El Khoury, Carl [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-02-15

    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology.

  12. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  13. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  14. Imaging exosome transfer from breast cancer cells to stroma at metastatic sites in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Honma, Kimi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Ochiya, Takahiro; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-03-01

    Exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication to promote tumor metastasis. In order to image the fate of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in orthotopic nude mouse models of breast cancer, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged CD63, which is a general marker of exosomes. Breast cancer cells transferred their own exosomes to other cancer cells and normal lung tissue cells in culture. In orthotopic nude-mouse models, breast cancer cells secreted exosomes into the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-derived exosomes were incorporated into tumor-associated cells as well as circulating in the blood of mice with breast cancer metastases. These results suggest that tumor-derived exosomes may contribute to forming a niche to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of GFP imaging to investigate the role of exosomes in cancer metastasis.

  15. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Ball

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer.

  16. Diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in breast tumor%声脉冲辐射力成像对乳腺肿瘤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 隋秀芳; 王磊; 叶磊; 崔亚云

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价声脉冲辐射力成像(ARFI)技术对乳腺良恶性病变的鉴别诊断价值。方法选取84例患者共87个肿块进行常规超声、声触诊组织成像(VTI)及声触诊组织量化(VTQ)检查,得出剪切波速度值,并运用image J软件对VTI图像进行后处理得出肿块的平均光密度值,以病理结果为金标准,绘制受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,评价ARFI的意义。结果经手术病理证实,87个乳腺肿块中良性病灶56个、恶性病灶31个。恶性病灶V T Q≥3.49 m/s (临界值)的病灶数为21个,<3.49 m/s为10个。良性病灶V T Q≥3.49 m/s病灶数为3个,<3.49 m/s为53个。恶性病灶平均光密度值大于或等于202.25(临界值)的病灶数为28个,<202.25为3个。良性病变平均光密度值大于或等于202.25的病灶数6个,<202.25为50个。乳腺良恶性病灶VTQ剪切波速度及VTI平均光密度值比较,差异均有统计学意义(P=0.000)。关于乳腺肿瘤的诊断灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、准确率及约登指数,常规超声分别为96.8%、67.8%、62.5%、97.4%、78.2%、0.645;ARFI分别为93.5%、98.2%、96.7%、96.5%、96.6%、0.917。结论 ARFI成像对乳腺肿瘤诊断的特异度、准确率优于常规超声。%Objective To evaluate the differentiation diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) technique to the benign and malignant breast lesions .Methods A total of 87 breast masses in 84 patients were selected and per‐formed the routine ultrasound ,virtual touch imaging(VTI) and virtual touch quantification(VTQ) examination .The shear wave ve‐locity was obtained .The average optical density of the tumor was obtained by processing the VTI images by using the image J soft‐ware .The pathological results served as the gold standard and the ROC curve was drawn .Finally

  17. Breast Tumor Ablation by Selective Autophagic Degradation of Postmitotic Midbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    resistant and metastatic cancers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast cancer, stem cells, midbody, mitosis , microtubules 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...bottom, phase contrast image of ring- like MB; inset top MBs overlaid with phase contrast cell image. 4) % normal or cancer cells with MB

  18. Correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and histopathology in the measurement of tumor and breast volume and their ratio in breast cancer patients: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; YE Jing-ming; XU Ling; DUAN Xue-ning; ZHAO Jian-xin; LIU Yin-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have examined the association between the diameter of primary tumors measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology in breast cancer patients.However,the diameter does not completely describe the dimensions of the breast tumor or its volumetric proportion relative to the whole breast.The association between breast tumor volume/breast volume ratios measured by these two techniques has not been reported.Methods Seventy-three patients were recruited from female patients with primary breast tumors admitted to our center between January and December 2010.They were divided into two groups.Group A (n=46) underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM),and Group B (n=27) underwent preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy before MRM.They were examined by dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to measure breast volumes (BVs),tumor volumes (TVs),and tumor volume/breast volume ratios (TV/BV).These measurements were compared with histopathology results after MRM,and the associations between MRI and pathology were analyzed by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.Results For Group A,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by the two techniques were 0.938,0.921,and 0.897 (all P <0.001),respectively.For Group B,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios were 0.936,0.902,and 0.869 (all P<0.01),respectively.The results suggest statistically significant correlations between these parameters measured by the two techniques for both groups.Conclusion For these patients,BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by DCE-MRI significantly correlated with those determined by histopathology.

  19. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Bae (Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)), Email: med20@hanmail.net; Shu, Kwang Sun (Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-02-15

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  20. Prognostic Impact of Time to Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence after Breast Conserving Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gosset, Marie; Hamy, Anne-sophie; Mallon, Peter; Delomenie, Myriam; Mouttet, Delphine; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Lae, Marick; Fourquet, Alain; Rouzier, Roman; Reyal, Fabien; Feron, Jean-Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Background The poor prognosis of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast conserving surgery (BCS) is established. A short time between primary cancer and IBTR is a prognostic factor but no clinically relevant threshold was determined. Classification of IBTR may help tailor treatment strategies. Purpose We determined a specific time frame, which differentiates IBTR into early and late recurrence, and identified prognostic factors for patients with IBTR a...

  1. Molecular breast imaging. An update; Molekulare Brustbildgebung. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Magometschnigg, H.; Baltzer, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Fueger, B. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging ({sup 23}Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.) [German] Die molekulare Bildgebung zielt auf die Darstellung, Beschreibung und Quantifizierung biologischer, physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse auf zellulaerer und molekularer Ebene ab. In den letzten Jahren hat sich die molekulare Bildgebung mit ihren verschiedenen Modalitaeten in der Brustdiagnostik etabliert. Die molekularen Brustbildgebung umfasst derzeit die multiparametrische(MP)-MRT mit funktioneller und morphologischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter MRT (KM-MRT), molekularer diffusionsgewichteter Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) und metabolischer Protonenspektroskopie ({sup 1}H-MRSI) sowie nuklearmedizinische Verfahren (brustspezifische Gammakamerabildgebung [BSGI], Positronenemissionstomographie [PET], PET

  2. Differential diagnosis of breast tumors on the basis of radiothermometric findings

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Vidyukov; Ch. K. Mustafin; R. A. Kerimov; L. N. Fisher

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a method for the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in accordance with radiothermometric findings, which is based on the authors’ developed diagnostic technique (Patent No. 2532372 dated 5 September 2014). The radiometric method was used to examine 119 patients with malignant breast tumors, 53 patients with benign breast tumors, and 60 women without breast involvement. The data were obtained in 3 institutions: the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, the ...

  3. Expression of p53 and CD44 in Canine Breast Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun; CUI Wen; CHENG Xi; FENG Xinchang

    2008-01-01

    The p53 and CD44 expression of 10 cases in canine breast tumor were examined utilizing immunohistochemical assay with rabbit anti-mouse polyclonal antibodies against p53 or CD44,respectively.The p53 expression was significantly higher in malignant than in benign breast tumor.The expression of CD44 was not significantly different in malignant breast cancer and benign breast tumor.This suggests that p53 can be used as an indicator for animal prognosis.

  4. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  5. Molecular imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. It is different from normal tissue in the extracellular matrix, vascular and lymphatic networks, as well as physiologic conditions. Molecular imaging of the tumor microenvironment provides a better understanding of its function in cancer biology, and thus allowing for the design of new diagnostics and therapeutics for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. The clinical translation of cancer molecular imaging is often hampered by the high cost of commercialization of targeted imaging agents as well as the limited clinical applications and small market size of some of the agents. Because many different cancer types share similar tumor microenvironment features, the ability to target these biomarkers has the potential to provide clinically translatable molecular imaging technologies for a spectrum of cancers and broad clinical applications. There has been significant progress in targeting the tumor microenvironment for cancer molecular imaging. In this review, we summarize the principles and strategies of recent advances made in molecular imaging of the tumor microenvironment, using various imaging modalities for early detection and diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    oncologists discuss treatment for their recent cases. Breast Cancer Medicine Service Conference and Journal Club: This conference is held on every...Antiarrhythmics Dr. G. Abbott Fri. 3/21 Antihypertensives Dr. R. Levi Week 7 Mon. 3/24 Review session Dr. R. Levi Wed. 3/26 SECOND TEST (weeks 4...No lecture (moved to Feb.12th) Nov 20 Uses of viral vectors for the treatment of cancer Yuman Fong Nov 27 Thanksgiving week Dec 4 Photodynamic

  7. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: river7774@gmail.com; Chie, Eui Kyu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment.

  8. Imaging infrared spectroscopy for fixation-free liver tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, James V.; Chen, Zhaomin; Li, Ran; Butke, Ryan; Miller, Barrie; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Allen, Heather C.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy of human liver tissue slices has been used to identify and characterize a liver metastasis of breast origin (mucinous carcinoma) which was surgically removed from a consenting patient and frozen without formalin fixation or dehydration procedures, so that lipids and water remain in the tissues. Previously, a set of IR metrics was determined for tumors in fixation-free liver tissues facilitating a k-means cluster analysis differentiating tumor from nontumor. Different and more in depth aspects of these results are examined in this work including three metric color imaging, differencing for lipid identification, and a new technique to simultaneously fit band lineshapes and their 2nd derivatives in order to better characterize protein changes.

  9. Microwave-induced thermal acoustic tomography for breast tumor based on compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaozhang; Zhao, Zhiqin; Wang, Jinguo; Song, Jian; Liu, Qing Huo

    2013-05-01

    Microwave-induced thermal acoustic tomography (MITAT) is an innovative technique to image biomedical tissues based on their electric properties. It has the advantages of both high contrast and high spatial resolution. Image reconstruction method in MITAT is always a critical issue. In this paper, a CS-MITAT (CS: compressive sensing) imaging method is proposed. Compressive sensing (CS) is a recently developed sparse signal representation and analysis framework which handles medical imaging measurements using low sampling rate or increasing imaging quality. The CS-MITAT imaging method applies CS theory to the MITAT for breast tumor imaging. In this method, an over-complete dictionary is established to make sparse measurements in the spatial domain. This treatment greatly saves measurement time. Simulations and experiments with real breast tumor tissues demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. Compared with conventional time reversal mirror method which has been used in MITAT research, CS-MITAT provides the same peak signal-to-noise ratio imaging quality by using significantly fewer acoustic sensor positions or scanning times.

  10. Using diffuse optical tomograpy to monitor tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Jacqueline E.; Lim, Emerson; Kim, Hyun Keol; Flexman, Molly; Brown, Mindy; Refrice, Susan; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer patients often undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the size of the tumor before surgery. Tumors which demonstrate a pathologic complete response associate with improved disease-free survival; however, as low as 10% of patients may achieve this status. The goal is to predict response to anti-cancer therapy early, so as to develop personalized treatments and optimize the patient's results. Previous studies have shown that tumor response can be predicted within a few days of treatment initiation. We have developed a diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging system for monitoring the response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our breast imaging system is a continuous wave system that uses four wavelengths in the near-infrared spectrum (765 nm, 808 nm, 827 nm, and 905 nm). Both breasts are imaged simultaneously with a total of 64 sources and 128 detectors. Three dimensional reconstructions for oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]), deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]) concentrations, and water are performed using a PDE-constrained multispectral imaging method that uses the diffusion approximation as a model for light propagation. Each patient receives twelve weekly treatments of Taxane followed by four cycles of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC) given every other week. There are six DOT imaging time points: baseline, week 3 and 5 of Paclitaxel, before cycle 1 and 2 of AC, and before surgery. Preliminary results show that there is statistical significance for the percent change of [HbO2], [Hb], [HbT], and percent water at week 2 from the baseline between patients with a pathologic response to chemotherapy.

  11. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  12. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature incr

  13. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography

  14. A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio; Espejo-Fonseca, Ruby; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US) was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring 1.26 × 1 cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a 1.8 × 1.2 cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later. PMID:28105378

  15. Surgical Treatment of Giant Recurrent Breast Phyllodes Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiru LI; Yungong YANG; Jiandong WANG; Bing MA; Yuanchao JIN; Rong LI

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a recurrent massive phyllodes tumor of the breast was surgically removed and the grafting was used to repair the local skin defects. A 29-y female patient had recurring breast phyllodes tumor of extremely large size in the chest wall after the excision of a previous tumor. The massive phyllodes tumor was eliminated by completely removing the layers of the skin and tissues above the costal bones with incisal margin being 2 cm away from the tumor lesion. The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, lateral thoracic skin flap, and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap were grafted to replace the lost tissues due to the surgery. Anti-infection and anticoagulation treatments were used after the surgery. The graft flaps had sufficient blood supply and good blood circulation,and the incisions mostly healed. The outcome of the surgery was acceptable. For the surgical treatment of the massive phyllodes tumor in the chest wall, it is an alternative of choice to use latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, lateral thoracic skin flap and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in combination for skin grafting.

  16. Giant breast tumors: Surgical management of phyllodes tumors, potential for reconstructive surgery and a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKelvey Michael T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyllodes tumors are biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast. While the surgical management of these relatively uncommon tumors has been addressed in the literature, few reports have commented on the surgical approach to tumors greater than ten centimeters in diameter – the giant phyllodes tumor. Case presentation We report two cases of giant breast tumors and discuss the techniques utilized for pre-operative diagnosis, tumor removal, and breast reconstruction. A review of the literature on the surgical management of phyllodes tumors was performed. Conclusion Management of the giant phyllodes tumor presents the surgeon with unique challenges. The majority of these tumors can be managed by simple mastectomy. Axillary lymph node metastasis is rare, and dissection should be limited to patients with pathologic evidence of tumor in the lymph nodes.

  17. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: Analysis of 48 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Terzioğlu, Serdar Gökay; Bozkurt, Betül; Dağlar, Gül

    2016-01-01

    Objective Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare biphasic breast neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all breast tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic difficulties, and therapeutic outcomes of patients with PT. Materials and Methods A total of 48 female patients who underwent surgery for PT were included in the study. Patient characteristics, clinicopathologic features of tumors, diagnostic findings, surgical outcomes, adjuvant therapies, and follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results The mean age of patients was 35 years. Painless breast mass was the most common (85.4%) presenting symptom. Total excision with at least 1 cm macroscopic clear margins was the most frequently performed (87.5%) surgery. Most patients (n=34, 70.8%) had benign PT; however, borderline and malignant tumors were found in 9 (18.8%) and 5 (10.4%) patients, respectively. During the mean follow-up period of approximately 30 months, local and distant recurrence was detected in three (6.3%) patients and one (2.1%) patient, respectively. Patients with malignant PT had larger tumors than those with benign and borderline PTs (p=0.010). No significant difference in other clinical, diagnostic, and pathologic characteristics was found between the groups. Conclusion PT can be easily confused with other breast masses such as fibroadenoma due to the non-specific clinical and radiologic findings. Surgical excision with at least 1 cm clear margins is of great importance to reduce the risk of local recurrence. However, recurrence can develop even after appropriate surgery, thus patients should be closely followed up after surgery. PMID:28331755

  18. Dissecting Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in breast cancer, affecting more than 70% of late stage cancer patients with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain, and hypercalcemia. The pathogenesis of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on cross-communications between tumor cells and various stromal cells residing in the bone microenvironment. Several growth factor signaling pathways, secreted micro RNAs (miRNAs and exosomes are functional mediators of tumor-stromal interactions in bone metastasis. We developed a functional genomic approach to systemically identified molecular pathways utilized by breast cancer cells to engage the bone stroma in order to generate osteolytic bone metastasis. We showed that elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1 in disseminated breast tumor cells mediates the recruitment of pre-osteoclasts and promotes their differentiation to mature osteoclasts during the bone metastasis formation. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is released from bone matrix upon bone destruction, and signals to breast cancer to further enhance their malignancy in developing bone metastasis. We furthered identified Jagged1 as a TGF-β target genes in tumor cells that engaged bone stromal cells through the activation of Notch signaling to provide a positive feedback to promote tumor growth and to activate osteoclast differentiation. Substantially change in miRNA expression was observed in osteoclasts during their differentiation and maturation, which can be exploited as circulating biomarkers of emerging bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastasis. Further research in this direction may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for bone metastasis.

  19. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  20. In vivo cation exchange in quantum dots for tumor-specific imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyou; Braun, Gary B; Qin, Mingde; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sugahara, Kazuki N

    2017-08-24

    In vivo tumor imaging with nanoprobes suffers from poor tumor specificity. Here, we introduce a nanosystem, which allows selective background quenching to gain exceptionally tumor-specific signals. The system uses near-infrared quantum dots and a membrane-impermeable etchant, which serves as a cation donor. The etchant rapidly quenches the quantum dots through cation exchange (ionic etching), and facilitates renal clearance of metal ions released from the quantum dots. The quantum dots are intravenously delivered into orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice by using the tumor-penetrating iRGD peptide. Subsequent etching quenches excess quantum dots, leaving a highly tumor-specific signal provided by the intact quantum dots remaining in the extravascular tumor cells and fibroblasts. No toxicity is noted. The system also facilitates the detection of peritoneal tumors with high specificity upon intraperitoneal tumor targeting and selective etching of excess untargeted quantum dots. In vivo cation exchange may be a promising strategy to enhance specificity of tumor imaging.The imaging of tumors in vivo using nanoprobes has been challenging due to the lack of sufficient tumor specificity. Here, the authors develop a tumor-specific quantum dot system that permits in vivo cation exchange to achieve selective background quenching and high tumor-specific imaging.

  1. MR imaging of gestational trophoblastic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Bum; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Hak Hee; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Jae Hee; Song, Ha Hun; Kim, Taek Geun; Ro, Sang Chun; Jee, Mi Kyung; Chung, Jae Geun [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of gestational trophoblastic tumor(GTT) in correlation with pathological results. Nine patients who confirmed the diagnosis (four choriocarcinomas and five invasive moles) constituted the basis of our study. Pathologic specimens were taken from the tumors corresponding to the regions of interest on MR images The MR images were analyzed in respect of the morphology and signal intensity of the tumors, uterine and adnexal vascularity, and the adnexal lesion. The MR findings of four choriocarcinomas were well-defined, hemorrhagic masses with central necrosis; the masses were hyperintense on T1-weighted images. In contrast, the five invasive moles showed irregular and permeative masses with densely enhanced solid components and tiny cystic lesion. The trophoblstic proliferation, coagulation necrosis, and molar villi had variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. Our results suggest that MR imaging is a promising tool for noninvasive morphologic analysis of GTTS.

  2. Clinical evaluation of fat suppressed fast-SPGR sequence of the breast MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Hasegawa, Makoto; Matsubara, Tadashi [Yokohama Sakae Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    MR-mammography by fat suppressed Fast-SPGR was evaluated for diagnosis and determination of invasion of tumor. Dynamic MRIs were performed in 12 phases, such as, before infusion of contrast media, right after and one to ten minutes after infusion with interval of one minute. In 15 patients (breast cancer, fibroadenoma, lymphocytic lobulitits and cystic intraductal papilloma), underwent MRI, the images were compared with pathological findings. Ten cases were confirmed as malignancy among 11 cases of breast cancer (sensitivity 91%). Eleven cases were confirmed as breast cancer among 12 cases diagnosed as breast cancer by MRI (specificity 92%). In 12 of all 15 cases, benignity or malignancy was checked correctly (accuracy 80%). Invasion of breast cancer was defined as the deep color dyeing area which was neighbored with the tumor in early stage of cystography. Eight of 11 cases were diagnosed precisely with fat suppression image, and nine were by subtraction image. Diagnosis was possible only by subtraction image in a case of scirrhous carcinoma accompanied with intradutal invasion. The area of invasion was not defined correctly in the case accompanied by mastopathy. It is difficult to evaluate benignity or malignancy of mammary gland tumor only by dynamic MRI, it is necessary to diagnose the shape and deep color image of tumor generally. (K.H.)

  3. Breast Cancer Imaging Using the Near-Infrared Fluorescent Agent, CLR1502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Korb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive margins after breast conservation surgery represent a significant problem in the treatment of breast cancer. The near-infrared fluorescence agent CLR1502 (Cellectar Biosciences, Madison, WI was studied in a preclinical breast cancer model to determine imaging properties and ability to detect small islands of malignancy. Nude mice bearing human breast cancer flank xenografts were given a systemic injection of CLR1502, and imaging was performed using LUNA (Novadaq Technologies Inc., Richmond, BC and Pearl Impulse (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE devices. Normal tissues were examined for fluorescence signal, and conventional and fluorescence histology was performed using the Odyssey scanner. Peak tumor to background ratio occurred 2 days after injection with CLR1502. The smallest amount of tumor that was imaged and detected using these devices was 1.9 mg, equivalent to 1.9 × 106 cells. The highest fluorescence signal was seen in tumor and normal lymph node tissue, and the lowest fluorescence signal was seen in muscle and plasma. Human breast cancer tumors can be imaged in vivo with multiple optical imaging platforms using CLR1502. This pilot study supports further investigations of this fluorescent agent for improving surgical resection of malignancies, with the goal of eventual clinical translation.

  4. [Phyllodes tumors of the breast. Forty one cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, N; Soumani, A; Noun, M; Chraibi, T; Himmi, A; el Mansouri, A; Aderdour, M; Bekkay, M

    1997-01-01

    Phyllode tumors of the breast are fibroepithelial tumors similar to fibroadenomas but with a predominant conjunctive tissue component. The aim of this work was to determine the specific diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic features of this tumor. A retrospective series of 41 cases was collected in the gynecology-obstetrics ward from 1980 to 1991. The analysis of this series showed the following characteristics: incidence of phyllode tumors was 0.46% of all breast tumors. Mean age at diagnosis was 30 years, in 75.6% of the women were in a period of reproductive activity. Mean delay between the first clinical signs and diagnosis was 20 months. Mean size was 12 cm Diagnosis was confirmed at pathology examination in all cases. The tumor was classed grade 1 and 2 in 65.9% of the cases, grade 3 in 9.8%, grade 4 in 17.1%. Surgical treatment alone was used in all cases with large tumorectomy (48%), simple mastectomy (30%), and total mastectomy with node dissection (22%). After a follow-up of 1 to 7 years, there were 3 deaths and 11 local recurrences requiring reoperation. In the remaining cases, the outcome was favorable without recurrence or metastasis. These results together with those reported in the literature show that histological confirmation is required for the diagnosis of phyllode tumors. Surgical treatment alone is required with wide exeresis because of the voluminous tumor formation the age of the patient and the histological grade. Finally, prognosis depends on the histological characteristics of the conjunctive tissue component of the tumors.

  5. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 +/- 0.01, 0.65 +/- 0.05 and 0.98 +/- 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.67 +/- 0.11 and 0.89 +/- 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  6. Uncommon breast tumors in perspective: incidence, treatment and survival in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwman, M.W.; Vriezen, M.; Beek, M.W. van; Nolthenius-Puylaert, M.C.; Sangen, M.J. van der; Roumen, R.M.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively small group of patients with breast tumors other than the ductal, lobular or mixed ducto-lobular types, has reached nonnegligible numbers due to the ongoing increase in the incidence of breast cancer. We investigated stage and grade distribution of uncommon breast tumors using the nat

  7. TUMORS INVADING PARAPHARYNGEAL SPACE: REFINED IMAGING DIAGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Qixin; Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Shixun; Shang kezhong; Yan Xinhua

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate imaging findings of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)and digital subtruation angiography (DSA) findings of 19patients with tumors infiltrating parapharyngeal space by surgery and pathology were analysed, including four branchial cleft cysts, three jugular glomus tumors, four carotid body tumors, three neurilemomas and five carcinomas of nasopharynx involving parapharyngeal space. Fifteen patients underwent MRI scanning nine patients had CT scanning, three patients MRA and five patients DSA. Results: MRI provided clinically useful informations about the size, shape, extent and site of the parapharyngeal space tumors, and also their effects on adjacent structures. The main MRI features of paraganglioma presented as many low signal tortuous and creeping vessels in the tumor. The main CT features of jugular glomus tumor revealed as jugular foramen enlargement with bone destruction. Tumor vessels were clearly displayed by MRA and DSA. Conclusion: MRI was superior to CT in the diagnosis of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. The location and nature of the lesions could be diagnosed accurately by MRI combined with CT or DSA.

  8. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  9. Molecular Imaging System for Monitoring Tumor Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Esra; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In cancer, non-invasive imaging techniques that monitor molecular processes associated with the tumor angiogenesis could have a central role in the evaluation of novel antiangiogenic and proangiogenic therapies as well as early detection of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can serve as specific biological targets for imaging of angiogenesis since expression of MMPs is required for angiogenesis and has been found to be upregulated in every type of human cancer and correlates with stage, invasive, metastatic properties and poor prognosis. However, for most cancers it is still unknown when, where and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis [1]. Development of high-resolution, high sensitivity imaging techniques in parallel with the tumor models could prove invaluable for assessing the physical location and the time frame of MMP enzymatic acitivity. The goal of this study is to understand where, when and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis. We will accomplish this goal by following two objectives: to develop a high sensitivity, high resolution molecular imaging system, to develop a virtual tumor simulator that can predict the physical location and the time frame of the MMP activity. In order to achieve our objectives, we will first develop a PAM system and develop a mathematical tumor model in which the quantitative data obtained from the PAM can be integrated. So, this work will develop a virtual tumor simulator and a molecular imaging system for monitoring tumor angiogenesis. 1.Kessenbrock, K., V. Plaks, and Z. Werb, MMP:regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell, 2010. 141(1)

  10. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  11. Can We Predict Phyllodes Tumor among Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma Diagnosed at Breast Core Needle Biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byeong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of fibroepithelial lesion with cellular stroma (FELCS) diagnosed at sonography guided core needle biopsy of breast masses, and to determine whether the clinical and imaging features of this lesion could predict the presence of a phyllodes tumor. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic results of sonography guided core needle biopsy of solid breast masses. A total of 55 FELCS diagnosed with this procedure that underwent subsequent surgical excision were included in this study; their medical records and radiologic images were retrospectively reviewed. The results of the surgical excision revealed 22 (40%) phyllodes tumors and 33 (60%) non-phyllodes tumors: 30 (54.6%) fibroadenomas, 1 (1.8%) adenosis, 1 (1.8%) fibrocystic changes and 1 (1.8%) fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Lesion size and patient age were significantly different between phyllodes tumors and nonphyllodes tumors groups (32.2 {+-} 14.07 mm/22.4 {+-} 13.64 mm, p=0.0078, 43.5 {+-} 11.60 years/36.5 {+-} 10.25 years, p=0.0207). Among the sonographic features, only cleft was significantly more visible in phyllodes tumors than in non-phyllodes tumors (n=14 (70%)/n=6 (30%), p=0.0016). The size of the lesions, the age of the patients, and the sonographic features of cleft were the significant helpful variables to predict phyllodes tumors among FELCS diagnosed at breast core biopsy.

  12. Computational feasibility of deformable mirror microwave hyperthermia technique for localized breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Udpa, Satish S; Udpa, Lalita

    2007-11-01

    Computational feasibility of a new non-invasive microwave hyperthermia technique that employs dual deformable mirror is investigated using simplified computational tools and anatomically realistic breast models. The proposed technique employs two pairs of electromagnetic sources and continuously deformable mirrors to focus the electromagnetic radiation at the target site for hyperthermia. The mirror functions like a continuum of radiating elements that offer effective scan coverage inside the breast with efficient field focusing at the target location. The electric field focusing and temperature mapping in the two-dimensional numerical simulations are investigated using wave propagation and bio-heat transfer models respectively. The method of moments, a popular numerical simulation tool, is used to model the electric field maintained by the deformable mirrors for continuous wave excitation. The electromagnetic (EM) energy deposited by the mirrors is used in the steady state bio-heat transfer equation to quantify the temperature distribution inside two-dimensional anatomically realistic breast models. Feasibility of the proposed technique is evaluated using numerical breast models derived from magnetic resonance images of patients with variation in breast density, age and pathology. The computational study indicates preferential EM energy deposition and temperature elevation inside tumor tissue with minimum collateral damage to the neighboring normal tissues. Simulation results obtained for the magnetic resonance (MR) breast data appear promising and indicate the merit in pursuing the investigation using 3D computational models.

  13. [Pulmonary Metastasis from a Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Developing Sixteen Years after Initial Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Soo; Nakano, Takayuki; Okamoto, Taku; Takabatake, Daisuke

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of solitary pulmonary metastasis from a phyllodes tumor of the breast appearing 16 years after initial surgery. The patient was a 56-year-old woman who had undergone surgical extirpation of a left breast tumor diagnosed as phyllodes tumor (borderline malignancy) in 1998, and a right breast tumor diagnosed as fibromatosis in 2000. Sixteen years after the initial operation, she consulted our hospital because of a chest X-ray abnormality detected at a screening examination. Chest computed tomography revealed a well defined nodular shadow in the left upper lobe of the lung. Surgery was done since primary lung cancer was suspected. However, pathological diagnosis was a pulmonary metastasis from the phyllodes tumor of the left breast. Right breast tumor was also diagnosed as a metastasis from the left breast tumor by histopathological re-evaluation.

  14. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-02

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells develop tumor tropism but do not accelerate breast cancer tumorigenesis in a somatic mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Usha

    Full Text Available The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on breast cancer progression, growth and tumorigenesis remains controversial or unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of MSCs on breast tumor induction and growth in a clinically relevant somatic breast cancer model. We first conducted in vitro studies and found that conditioned media (CM of RCAS-Neu and RCAS-PyMT breast cancer cell lines and tumor cells themselves dramatically increased the proliferation and motility of MSCs and induced morphological changes of MSCs and differentiation into fibroblast-like cells. In contrast, the CM of MSCs inhibited the proliferation of two breast cancer cell lines by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In vivo studies revealed that fluorescence dye-labeled MSCs migrated into tumor tissues. Unexpectedly, single or multiple intravenous injections of MSCs did not affect the latency of breast cancer in TVA- transgenic mice induced by intraductal injection of the RCAS vector encoding polyoma middle-T antigen (PyMT or Neu oncogenes. Moreover, MSCs had no effect on RCAS-Neu tumor growth in a syngeneic ectopic breast cancer model. While our studies consistently demonstrated the ability of breast cancer cells to profoundly induce MSCs migration, differentiation, and proliferation, the anti-proliferative effect of MSCs on breast tumor cells observed in vitro could not be translated into an antitumor activity in vivo, probably reflecting the antagonizing or complex effects of MSCs on tumor environment and tumor cells themselves.

  16. MR imaging as an additional screening modality for the detection of breast cancer in women aged 50-75 years with extremely dense breasts : The DENSE trial study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, Marleen J.; Bakker, Marije F.; Peeters, Petra H M; Loo, Claudette E.; Mann, Ritse M.; De Jong, Mathijn D F; Bisschops, Robertus H C; Veltman, Jeroen; Duvivier, Katya M.; Lobbes, Marc B I; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Karssemeijer, Nico; De Koning, Harry J.; Van Den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Veldhuis, WB; Van Gils, Carla H.

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  17. MR Imaging as an Additional Screening Modality for the Detection of Breast Cancer in Women Aged 50-75 Years with Extremely Dense Breasts: The DENSE Trial Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, M.J.; Bakker, M.F.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Loo, C.E.; Mann, R.M.; Jong, M.D.E.; Bisschops, R.H.; Veltman, J.; Duvivier, K.M.; Lobbes, M.B.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Bosch, M.A. van den; Monninkhof, E.M.; Mali, W.P.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Gils, C.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  18. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  19. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Emmons, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 REPORT DATE: August 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM...binding affinities of peptide and carbohyd- Hollingsworth, M. A. 1997. Oligosaccharides expressed on MUCl rate with I-A’ will be illuminating. However

  20. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 45 to 60 minutes to perform. Prior to imaging, you will be injected with a small amount of radiotracer. One breast at a time will be placed next to the BSGI gamma camera and compressed with a flat plate, similar to a screening mammogram. Some machines have ...

  1. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis c

  2. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  3. Radiologic images of an aggressive implant-associated fibromatosis of the breast and chest wall: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Alanis, MD, MPH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis of the breast is a rare benign disease compromising <0.2% of all primary breast tumors. Although the chest wall is a common location, occurrences of implant-associated fibromatosis of the breast are extremely rare; only 33 cases have been reported. We present a case of a 42-year-old female who underwent breast augmentation with silicone breast implants, and 2 years later developed an aggressive implant-associated fibromatosis of the breast and chest wall. On imaging studies, the tumor mimicked breast carcinoma, and despite chemotherapy, the fibromatosis rapidly enlarged and was locally invasive requiring wide surgical excision. Unlike previously reported imaging findings, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an oval circumscribed mass with fringe-like internal architecture. We provide a review of the literature and discuss the imaging features of implant-associated fibromatosis of the breast.

  4. Family history of cancer associated with breast tumor clinicopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Luisel J; Ewing, Altovise; Thompson, Nicole; Harrison, Barbara; Wilson, Bradford; Richardson, Finie; Carter-Nolan, Pamela; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; Williams, Carla

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary breast cancers have unique clinicopathological characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the relationship between self-reported family history of cancer and clinicopathological features in breast cancer patients from Washington, DC. Data on incident breast cancer cases from 2000 to 2010 were obtained from the Washington, DC Cancer Registry. Variables such as estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptor status, as well as stage and grade, were analyzed in those that self-reported with (n = 1,734) and without a family history of cancer (n = 1,712). The breast cancer molecular subtypes were compared when ER, PR, and HER2 statuses were available. Furthermore, tumor characteristics were compared by race/ethnicity. Regression and chi-square analyses were performed. A report of family history was associated with age (OR = 1.27 95 % CI: 1.09-1.48; p PR negative breast cancer (OR = 1.26 95 % CI: 1.02-1.57; p = 0.029). When tumor characteristics were compared by race/ethnicity, those that self-reported as African American with a family history had a higher frequency of ER negative tumors (OR = 1.51 95 % CI: 1.09-2.08; p = 0.008), PR negative tumors (OR = 1.46 95 % CI: 1.09-1.94; p = 0.028), grade 3 tumors (OR = 1.42 95 % CI: 1.05-1.93; p PR negative tumors (OR = 1.5 95 % CI: 1.088-2.064; p = 0.01). These results suggest that a positive family history of cancer in African Americans should increase suspicions of hereditary cancer. Therefore, behavioral risk reduction activities, such as collecting a family history, may reduce late stage diagnosis and cancer mortality.

  5. MR imaging and histopathology of cartilage tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Ohtsuka, Takanobu; Matui, Norio; Nakamura, Takaaki (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    The MR imaging-pathologic correlation of cartilaginous bone tumors and the value of intravenously administered Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging was studied. The MR studies were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven cases were examined with 0.5 T and 1.0 T scanner and all cases were pathologically proved. We discussed the following MR findings: signal intensities of tumors, Gd-DTPA features, morphological findings, and associated findings. Hyaline cartilage tumors showed low signal intensity on T[sub 1]-weighted images and very high signal intensity on T[sub 2]-weighted images. Lobulated marginal enhancements were recognized in chondrosarcomas. This may be an important finding to suspect chondrosarcoma. (author).

  6. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients

  7. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.......Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors....

  8. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients f

  9. Evolutionary pathways in BRCA1-associated breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Filipe C; De, Subhajyoti; Almendro, Vanessa; Gönen, Mithat; Park, So Yeon; Blum, Joanne L; Herlihy, William; Ethington, Gabrielle; Schnitt, Stuart J; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E; Fetten, Katharina; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2012-06-01

    BRCA1-associated breast tumors display loss of BRCA1 and frequent somatic mutations of PTEN and TP53. Here we describe the analysis of BRCA1, PTEN, and p53 at the single cell level in 55 BRCA1-associated breast tumors and computational methods to predict the relative temporal order of somatic events, on the basis of the frequency of cells with single or combined alterations. Although there is no obligatory order of events, we found that loss of PTEN is the most common first event and is associated with basal-like subtype, whereas in the majority of luminal tumors, mutation of TP53 occurs first and mutant PIK3CA is rarely detected. We also observed intratumor heterogeneity for the loss of wild-type BRCA1 and increased cell proliferation and centrosome amplification in the normal breast epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers. Our results have important implications for the design of chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions in this high-risk patient population.

  10. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  11. Breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with occult breast carcinoma: evaluation on feasibility and correlation with histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; XU Yi-lin; ZHANG Shu-ping; LANG Rong-gang; Chi S.Zee; LIU Pei-fang; FU Li

    2011-01-01

    Background As an uncommon presentation, occult primary breast cancer remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. This study aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with malignant axillary lymphadenopathy and unknown primary malignancy, and correlation with histopathological characteristics.Methods A total of 35 women with occult breast carcinoma were evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Whole seriate section was used in all cases. MRI performance was assessed and correlated with histopathological findings.Results Twenty-one of 35 patients were found to have primary breast carcinoma histologically. Twenty of the 21 patients had abnormal MR findings and 1 patient had a normal MRI study. Of the remaining 14 patients, 10 were negative on both MRI and surgery. Four had suspicious enhancement on MRI and no corresponding tumor was found. Lesions with mass enhancement were found in 55% (11/20) and ductual and segmental enhancement in 45%. The average diameter of the primary tumors was 15 mm. Invasive ductal carcinomas were found in 81% (17/21). One of 17 invasive ductual carcinomas was too small to be graded. Fourteen of the remaining 16 were classified as grade II and 2 as grade I. Thirty-two of the 35 patients had received estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 examinations and the 12 of 32 were triple-negative breast carcinoma.Conclusions Mass lesions with small size and lesions with ductal or segment enhancement are common MRI features in patients with occult breast cancer. The dominant types of primary tumors are invasive ductal carcinoma with moderate histopathological grade. The rate of triple-negative breast carcinoma may be higher in occult breast cancer.

  12. A novel breast ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score and level set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation is a challenging task due to the speckle noise, poor quality of the ultrasound images and size and location of the breast lesions. In this paper, we propose a new BUS image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score (NSS) and level set algorithm. At first, the input BUS image is transferred to the NS domain via three membership subsets T, I and F, and then, a similarity score NSS is defined and employed to measure the belonging degree to the true tumor region. Finally, the level set method is used to segment the tumor from the background tissue region in the NSS image. Experiments have been conducted on a variety of clinical BUS images. Several measurements are used to evaluate and compare the proposed method's performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to segment the BUS images effectively and accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Integrins for Tumor Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Haubner; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Beer, Ambros J.; Eugenija Vabuliene; Daniel Reim; Mario Sarbia; Karl-Friedrich Becker; Michael Goebel; Rüdiger Hein; Hans-Jürgen Wester; Horst Kessler; Markus Schwaiger

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The integrin alphavbeta3 plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor cell metastasis, and is currently being evaluated as a target for new therapeutic approaches. Several techniques are being studied to enable noninvasive determination of alphavbeta3 expression. We developed [(18)F]Galacto-RGD, a (18)F-labeled glycosylated alphavbeta3 antagonist, allowing monitoring of alphavbeta3 expression with positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show by quant...

  14. Osteoprotegerin mediates tumor-promoting effects of Interleukin-1beta in breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.T.M. (Stephanie Tsang Mui); D. Geerts (Dirk); Roseman, K. (Kim); Renaud, A. (Ashleigh); Connelly, L. (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ It is widely recognized that inflammation promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Given the complex nature of the breast tumor inflammatory microenvironment, much remains to be understood of the molecular mechanisms that govern these effects. We have

  15. Preoperative imaging diagnosis of carotid body tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ojeda, Luis A; Martínez-Viteri, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are relatively frequent lesions encountered at high altitudes, such in as the Andean Mountains. A correct preoperative diagnosis is essential for surgical planning and performance. For this reason, we have reviewed the evolution of our experience in the imaging diagnosis of these tumors. Between 1980 and June 2008, 160 CBTs were diagnosed. A total of 138 tumors were operated on, 4 are waiting for surgery, and 18 were not operated on because of age, medical conditions, or patient refusal. We have reviewed retrospectively the modalities of imaging diagnosis in our patients who underwent operation. Among the 138 tumors operated on, a correct preoperative diagnosis was done in 127 cases (92%). The preoperative diagnosis of the remaining 11 patients was unspecified benign tumor for 6 patients and neck lymph node for 5 patients. The imaging methods performed by different radiologists were conventional ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, carotid conventional angiography (CA), axial tomography, magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Most patients had more than one image study. Review of radiologist reports revealed a correct diagnosis in all carotid CA, magnetic resonance studies, and CTA. Additionally, CTA appeared to be a valuable method to predict the Shamblin group. Clinical suspicion and current image techniques permit a correct diagnosis in practically all cases of CBT.

  16. Iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells to the sentinel node after surgical excision in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tumor cells (ITC) are more common in the sentinel node (SN) after needle biopsy of a breast cancer, indicating iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells. We here investigate whether similar iatrogenic displacement occurs after surgical excision of a breast tumor. We compared the incidence...

  17. Objective breast tissue image classification using Quantitative Transmission ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Klock, John; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QT) is a powerful and emerging imaging paradigm which has the potential to perform true three-dimensional image reconstruction of biological tissue. Breast imaging is an important application of QT and allows non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging of whole breasts in vivo. Here, we report the first demonstration of breast tissue image classification in QT imaging. We systematically assess the ability of the QT images’ features to differentiate between normal breast tissue types. The three QT features were used in Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, and classification of breast tissue as either skin, fat, glands, ducts or connective tissue was demonstrated with an overall accuracy of greater than 90%. Finally, the classifier was validated on whole breast image volumes to provide a color-coded breast tissue volume. This study serves as a first step towards a computer-aided detection/diagnosis platform for QT.

  18. Image Cytometry Data From Breast Lesions Analyzed using Hybrid Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sakim, H A; Mat Isa, N A; G Naguib, Raouf; Sherbet, Gajanan

    2005-01-01

    The treatment and therapy to be administered on breast cancer patients are dependent on the stage of the disease at time of diagnosis. It is therefore crucial to determine the stage at the earliest time possible. Tumor dissemination to axillary lymph nodes has been regarded as an indication of tumor aggression, thus the stage of the disease. Neural networks have been employed in many applications including breast cancer prognosis. The performance of the networks have often been quoted based on accuracy and mean squared error. In this paper, the performance of hybrid networks based on Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function networks to predict axillary lymph node involvement have been investigated. A measurement of how confident the networks are with respect to the results produced is also proposed. The input layer of the networks include four image cytometry features extracted from fine needle aspiration of breast lesions. The highest accuracy achieved by the hybrid networks was 69% only. However, most of the correctly predicted cases had a high confidence level.

  19. From Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    to the date of euthanasia (Fig. 4, right panel). Normalization to the photon flux of the mammary tumors was not possible because they were resected... Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Emily Powell CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The University of Texas MD Anderson...Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging 5b. GRANT

  20. Surgical Management of Benign and Borderline Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutte, Amandine; Chopin, Nicolas; Faure, Christelle; Beurrier, Frédéric; Ho Quoc, Christophe; Guinaudeau, Florence; Treilleux, Isabelle; Carrabin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PT) are uncommon fibroepithelial breast neoplasms and there is currently no clear consensual treatment for these tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the surgical management and outcome of benign and borderline PT. We retrospectively assessed 76 cases of benign or borderline PT managed at the Leon Berard comprehensive cancer center in Lyon, France between July 2003 and December 2013. The mean age at diagnosis was 37.9 years and the median follow-up was 58 months. Seventy-five patients (99%), with a mean tumor size of 27 mm, underwent a breast-conserving procedure. The tumor margins were considered positive (when the tumor was present at the inked surgical section) in seven of 76 cases (9%) and negative in 65 out of 76 cases (86%). We observed the presence of small negative surgical margins <10 mm in 89% and <1 mm in 71% of the patients. Although no re-excision was performed to increase these margins, we did not see any increase in the local recurrence rate (4%) when compared to recurrence rates reported in the literature. We thus suggest that systematic revision surgery for close or positive surgical margins for benign PT should not be systematically performed. However, as recurrences occur within 2 years of initial excision, we recommend a regular clinical and imaging follow-up especially during this period for which patient's compliance is essential.

  1. Three-dimensional finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Li, Lihua; Goldgof, Dmitry; Sarkar, Sudeep; Anton, Sorin; Clark, Robert A.

    2004-05-01

    Predicting breast tissue deformation is of great significance in several medical applications such as biopsy, diagnosis, and surgery. In breast surgery, surgeons are often concerned with a specific portion of the breast, e.g., tumor, which must be located accurately beforehand. Also clinically it is important for combining the information provided by images from several modalities or at different times, for the detection/diagnosis, treatment planning and guidance of interventions. Multi-modality imaging of the breast obtained by X-ray mammography, MRI is thought to be best achieved through some form of data fusion technique. However, images taken by these various techniques are often obtained under entirely different tissue configurations, compression, orientation or body position. In these cases some form of spatial transformation of image data from one geometry to another is required such that the tissues are represented in an equivalent configuration. We propose to use a 3D finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging. The novelty of the approach lies in the following facts: (1) Finite element is the most accurate technique for modeling deformable objects such as breast. The physical soundness and mathematical rigor of finite element method ensure the accuracy and reliability of breast modeling that is essential for lesion correspondence. (2) When both MR and mammographic images are available, a subject-specific 3D breast model will be built from MRIs. If only mammography is available, a generic breast model will be used for two-view mammography reading. (3) Incremental contact simulation of breast compression allows accurate capture of breast deformation and ensures the quality of lesion correspondence. (4) Balance between efficiency and accuracy is achieved through adaptive meshing. We have done intensive research based on phantom and patient data.

  2. An intraoperative 3D ultrasound system for tumor margin determination in breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Paul; Brackstone, Muriel; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical utility of a portable three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) system to be used for surgical guidance of lumpectomy surgeries. In 11%-60% of lumpectomy surgeries, a second surgery is required to fully resect the tumor. Previous studies have used 3DUS as a guidance tool with the hope of more accuracy in resecting the entire tumor during the first surgery. However, they utilized larger systems, which are not easily integrated into the operating room. The portable 3DUS scanning system we developed consisted of a motorized "tilt" scanner coupled to a Terason t3000 portable ultrasound machine (Terason Ultrasound, Burlington, MA). The 3DUS system was evaluated by measuring agar "tumor" phantoms of known volumes and acquiring and segmenting images from nine patients undergoing lumpectomy. Experiments on simulated agar tumor phantoms have shown that our device could be used to measure objects with smooth, well-defined boundaries of known volume with an error of 3%. It was possible to view and segment estimated tumor margins from the clinical images in three dimensions. Correspondence between measurements obtained in the laboratory and the operating room varied with tumor geometry and the degree of spiculation in the ultrasound image. The measured values obtained by the system did not correspond closely with those obtained using histology. However, a more accurate histological measurement using 3D histology may provide a better basis for comparison. The results of imaging simulated agar tumor phantoms indicate the system's consistency in measuring objects of known volume and geometry. The system could be used for segmenting the approximate boundary of lumpectomy patients' breast tumors relative to inserted guide wires. The potential advantages of this system are a reduction in the number of re-excision surgeries required and a reduction in the operative time with the patient under anesthesia.

  3. Deep learning based classification of breast tumors with shear-wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Wei; Suo, Jingfeng; Wang, Congzhi; Shi, Jun; Zheng, Hairong

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to build a deep learning (DL) architecture for automated extraction of learned-from-data image features from the shear-wave elastography (SWE), and to evaluate the DL architecture in differentiation between benign and malignant breast tumors. We construct a two-layer DL architecture for SWE feature extraction, comprised of the point-wise gated Boltzmann machine (PGBM) and the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). The PGBM contains task-relevant and task-irrelevant hidden units, and the task-relevant units are connected to the RBM. Experimental evaluation was performed with five-fold cross validation on a set of 227 SWE images, 135 of benign tumors and 92 of malignant tumors, from 121 patients. The features learned with our DL architecture were compared with the statistical features quantifying image intensity and texture. Results showed that the DL features achieved better classification performance with an accuracy of 93.4%, a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 97.1%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.947. The DL-based method integrates feature learning with feature selection on SWE. It may be potentially used in clinical computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Disruption of estrogen receptor α-p53 interaction in breast tumors: a novel mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequent events in cancer. Unlike many other cancers, however, p53 gene mutations are infrequent in breast cancers, as about 80% of breast tumors contain wild type p53. The mechanisms underlying functional inactivation of wild type p53 in breast cancer have remained elusive. Besides, how p53 gets activated in breast tumors subjected to radiation therapy remains unknown. We recently reported that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, estrogen rec...

  5. Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Leddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC, an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

  6. Radiation-associated breast tumors display a distinct gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2010-01-01

    radiation-associated cause underlies the carcinogenic process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study we used gene expression profiling technology to assess gene expression changes in radiation-associated breast tumors compared with a set of control breast tumors of women unexposed to radiation, diagnosed...... at the same age. RNA was obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples from 22 patients who developed breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma (BfHL) and from 20 control breast tumors. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the profile data resulted in a clustering of the radiation-associated tumors...... separate from the control tumors (p tumors were often of the intrinsic basal breast tumor subtype, and they showed a chromosomal instability profile and a higher expression...

  7. Adipose progenitor cells increase fibronectin matrix strain and unfolding in breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, E. M.; Saunders, M. P.; Yoon, C. J.; Gourdon, D.; Fischbach, C.

    2011-02-01

    Increased stiffness represents a hallmark of breast cancer that has been attributed to the altered physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of fibronectin (Fn) in modulating the composition and mechanical properties of the tumor-associated ECM remains unclear. We have utilized a combination of biochemical and physical science tools to evaluate whether paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and adipose progenitor cells regulates Fn matrix assembly and stiffness enhancement in the tumor stroma. In particular, we utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to map the molecular conformation and stiffness of Fn that has been assembled by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in response to conditioned media from MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Our results reveal that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote Fn expression, unfolding, and stiffening by adipose progenitor cells and that transforming growth factor-β serves as a soluble cue underlying these changes. In vivo experiments using orthotopic co-transplantation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells and MDA-MB231 into SCID mice support the pathological relevance of our results. Insights gained by these studies advance our understanding of the role of Fn in mammary tumorigenesis and may ultimately lead to improved anti-cancer therapies.

  8. The expression of succinate dehydrogenase in breast phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, WooHee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, SDHB, and HIF-1α in phyllodes tumors and the association with clinic-pathologic factors. Using tissue microarray (TMA) for 206 phyllodes tumor cases, we performed immunohistochemical stains for SDHA, SDHB, and HIF-1α and analyzed their expression in regard to clinicopathologic parameters of each case. The cases were comprised of 156 benign, 34 borderline, and 16 malignant phyllodes tumors. The expression of stromal SDHA and epithelial- and stromal- SDHB increased as the tumor progressed from benign to malignant (P⟨0.001). There were five stromal SDHA-negative cases and 31 stromal SDHB-negative cases. SDHB negativity was associated with a lower histologic grade (P=0.054) and lower stromal atypia (P=0.048). Univariate analysis revealed that a shorter disease free survival (DFS) was associated with stromal SDHB high-positivity (P=0.013) and a shorter overall survival (OS) was associated with high-positivity of stromal SDHA and SDHB (P⟨0.001 and P⟨0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox analysis with the variables stromal cellularity, stromal atypia, stromal mitosis, stromal overgrowth, tumor margin, stromal SDHA expression, and stromal SDHB expression revealed that stromal overgrowth was associated with a shorter DFS (hazard ratio: 24.78, 95% CI: 3.126-196.5, P=0.002) and a shorter OS (hazard ratio: 176.7, 95% CI: 8.466-3691, P=0.001). In conclusion, Tumor grade is positively correlated with SDHA and SDHB expression in the tumor stroma in phyllodes tumors of the breast. This result may be attributed to the increased metabolic demand in high grade tumors.

  9. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3-Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V; Jensen, Kristin C; Wilson, Katheryne E; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T-cell coregulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor, and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an IHC analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients.

  10. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  11. STEP: spatiotemporal enhancement pattern for MR-based breast tumor diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Englander, Sarah; Baloch, Sajjad; Zacharaki, Evangelia I; Fan, Yong; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-07-01

    The authors propose a spatiotemporal enhancement pattern (STEP) for comprehensive characterization of breast tumors in contrast-enhanced MR images. By viewing serial contrast-enhanced MR images as a single spatiotemporal image, they formulate the STEP as a combination of (1) dynamic enhancement and architectural features of a tumor, and (2) the spatial variations of pixelwise temporal enhancements. Although the latter has been widely used by radiologists for diagnostic purposes, it has rarely been employed for computer-aided diagnosis. This article presents two major contributions. First, the STEP features are introduced to capture temporal enhancement and its spatial variations. This is essentially carried out through the Fourier transformation and pharmacokinetic modeling of various temporal enhancement features, followed by the calculation of moment invariants and Gabor texture features. Second, for effectively extracting the STEP features from tumors, we develop a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm that aims at refining coarse manual segmentations of tumors. The STEP features are assessed through their diagnostic performance for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors using a linear classifier (along with a simple ranking-based feature selection) in a leave-one-out cross-validation setting. The experimental results for the proposed features exhibit superior performance, when compared to the existing approaches, with the area under the ROC curve approaching 0.97.

  12. Nanobubbles for enhanced ultrasound imaging of tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tinghui Yin1*, Ping Wang1*, Rongqin Zheng1, Bowen Zheng1, Du Cheng2, Xinling Zhang1, Xintao Shuai21Department of Medical Ultrasonic, Third Affiliated Hospital, 2PCFM Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The fabrication and initial applications of nanobubbles (NBs have shown promising results in recent years. A small particle size is a basic requirement for ultrasound contrast-enhanced agents that penetrate tumor blood vessel pores to allow for targeted imaging and therapy. However, the nanoscale size of the particles used has the disadvantage of weakening the imaging ability of clinical diagnostic ultrasound. In this work, we fabricated a lipid NBs contrast-enhanced ultrasound agent and evaluated its passive targeting ability in vivo. The results showed that the NBs were small (436.8 ± 5.7 nm, and in vitro ultrasound imaging suggested that the ultrasonic imaging ability is comparable to that of microbubbles (MBs. In vivo experiments confirmed the ability of NBs to passively target tumor tissues. The NBs remained in the tumor area for a longer period because they exhibited enhanced permeability and retention. Direct evidence was obtained by direct observation of red fluorescence-dyed NBs in tumor tissue using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have demonstrated the ability to fabricate NBs that can be used for the in vivo contrast-enhanced imaging of tumor tissue and that have potential for drug/gene delivery.Keywords: phospholipids, ultrasound, contrast agent, tumor-targeted

  13. Digital breast tomosynthesis for detecting multifocal and multicentric breast cancer: influence of acquisition geometry on model observer performance in breast phantom images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Park, Subok; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MFMC), i.e., the presence of two or more tumor foci within the same breast, has an immense clinical impact on treatment planning and survival outcomes. Detecting multiple breast tumors is challenging as MFMC breast cancer is relatively uncommon, and human observers do not know the number or locations of tumors a priori. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in which an x-ray beam sweeps over a limited angular range across the breast, has the potential to improve the detection of multiple tumors.1, 2 However, prior efforts to optimize DBT image quality only considered unifocal breast cancers (e.g.,3-9), so the recommended geometries may not necessarily yield images that are informative for the task of detecting MFMC. Hence, the goal of this study is to employ a 3D multi-lesion (ml) channelized-Hotelling observer (CHO) to identify optimal DBT acquisition geometries for MFMC. Digital breast phantoms and simulated DBT scanners of different geometries (e.g., wide or narrow arc scans, different number of projections in each scan) were used to generate image data for the simulation study. Multiple 3D synthetic lesions were inserted into different breast regions to simulate MF cases and MC cases. 3D partial least squares (PLS) channels, and 3D Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels were estimated to capture discriminant information and correlations among signals in locally varying anatomical backgrounds, enabling the model observer to make both image-level and location-specific detection decisions. The 3D ml-CHO with PLS channels outperformed that with LG channels in this study. The simulated MC cases and MC cases were not equally difficult for the ml-CHO to detect across the different simulated DBT geometries considered in this analysis. Also, the results suggest that the optimal design of DBT may vary as the task of clinical interest changes, e.g., a geometry that is better for finding at least one lesion may be worse for counting the

  14. Significance of Micrometastases: Circulating Tumor Cells and Disseminated Tumor Cells in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oakman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant systemic therapy targets minimal residual disease. Our current clinical approach in the adjuvant setting is to presume, rather than confirm, the presence of minimal residual disease. Based on assessment of the primary tumor, we estimate an individual’s recurrence risk. Subsequent treatment decisions are based on characteristics of the primary tumor, with the presumption of consistent biology and treatment sensitivity between micrometastases and the primary lesion. An alternative approach is to identify micrometastatic disease. Detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTC in the bone marrow and circulating tumor cells (CTC from peripheral blood collection may offer quantification and biocharacterization of residual disease. This paper will review the prognostic and predictive potential of micrometastatic disease in early breast cancer.

  15. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  16. The adaptive computer-aided diagnosis system based on tumor sizes for the classification of breast tumors detected at screening ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chen, I-Ling; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Lo, Chung-Ming; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Screening ultrasound (US) is increasingly used as a supplement to mammography in women with dense breasts, and more than 80% of cancers detected by US alone are 1cm or smaller. An adaptive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on tumor size was proposed to classify breast tumors detected at screening US images using quantitative morphological and textural features. In the present study, a database containing 156 tumors (78 benign and 78 malignant) was separated into two subsets of different tumor sizes (<1cm and ⩾1cm) to explore the improvement in the performance of the CAD system. After adaptation, the accuracies, sensitivities, specificities and Az values of the CAD for the entire database increased from 73.1% (114/156), 73.1% (57/78), 73.1% (57/78), and 0.790 to 81.4% (127/156), 83.3% (65/78), 79.5% (62/78), and 0.852, respectively. In the data subset of tumors larger than 1cm, the performance improved from 66.2% (51/77), 68.3% (28/41), 63.9% (23/36), and 0.703 to 81.8% (63/77), 85.4% (35/41), 77.8% (28/36), and 0.855, respectively. The proposed CAD system can be helpful to classify breast tumors detected at screening US.

  17. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Maria [Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Tzika, A.A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shriners Burn Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. (orig.)

  18. Induction of tumor necrosis factor expression and resistance in a human breast tumor cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, D; Imamura, K; Rodriguez, C; Horiguchi, J; Kufe, D W

    1987-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a polypeptide cytokine that is cytotoxic to some but not all tumor cells. The basis for resistance to the cytotoxic effects of this agent remains unclear. We have studied the development of TNF resistance in human ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells. ZR-75-1 cells have undetectable levels of TNF RNA and protein. However, TNF transcripts are transiently induced in these cells by exposure to recombinant human TNF. This induction of TNF RNA is associated with production...

  19. New approach to optical imaging of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2001-07-01

    Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

  20. MRI-compatible ultrasound heating system with ring-shaped phased arrays for breast tumor thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Nien; Chen, Guan-Ming; Lin, Bo-Sian; Lien, Pi-Hsien; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Chen, Gin-Shin; Lin, Win-Li

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound transducers can carry out precise and efficient power deposition for tumor thermal therapy under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging. For a better heating, organ-specific ultrasound transducers with precision location control system should be developed for tumors located at various organs. It is feasible to perform a better heating for breast tumor thermal therapy with a ring-shaped ultrasound phased-array transducer. In this study, we developed ring-shaped phased-array ultrasound transducers with 1.0 and 2.5 MHz and a precision location control system to drive the transducers to the desired location to sonicate the designated region. Both thermo-sensitive hydrogel phantom and ex vivo fresh pork were used to evaluate the heating performance of the transducers. The results showed that the ring-shaped phased array ultrasound transducers were very promising for breast tumor heating with the variation of heating patterns and without overheating the ribs.

  1. Correlation of levels and patterns of genomic instability with histological grading of invasive breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L; Patney, Heather L; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-01-01

    Pathological grade is a useful prognostic factor for stratifying breast cancer patients into favorable (well-differentiated tumors) and less favorable (poorly-differentiated tumors) outcome groups. The current system of tumor grading, however, is subjective and a large proportion of tumors are characterized as intermediate-grade tumors, making determination of optimal treatments difficult. To determine whether molecular profiles can discriminate breast disease by grade, patterns and levels of allelic imbalance (AI) at 26 chromosomal regions frequently altered in breast disease were examined in 185 laser microdissected specimens representing well-differentiated (grade 1; n = 55), moderately-differentiated (grade 2; n = 71), and poorly-differentiated (grade 3; n = 59) stage I-IV breast tumors. Overall levels of AI were significantly higher in grade 3 compared to grade 1 tumors (P .05). Grades 1 and 3 showed distinct genetic profiles--grade 1 tumors were associated with large deletions of chromosome 16q22, while alterations at 9p21, 11q23, 13q14, 17p13.1 and 17q12 were characteristics of grade 3 carcinomas. In general, levels and patterns of AI in grade 2 carcinomas were intermediate between grade 1 and grade 3 tumors. Patterns of AI accurately categorized approximately 70% of samples into high- or low-grade disease groups, suggesting that the majority of breast tumors have genetic profiles consistent with high- or low-grade, and that molecular signatures of breast tumors can be useful for more accurate characterization of invasive breast cancer.

  2. Promotion of Tumor-Initiating Cells in Primary and Recurrent Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Currently we have shown that NF-κB is highly active in TICs isolated from different basal-like/ triple - negative cancer cell lines. Inhibition of NF-κB...phenotype, via its regulation of RelB. FDA-approved thiordiazine may be a treatment for basal-like/ triple - negative breast cancer via its ability to...Moreover, we have demonstrated that the EMT transcription factor, Snail, is markedly upregulated in recurrent mammary tumors, and that forced expression of

  3. Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol H; Dershaw, D David; Kopans, Daniel; Evans, Phil; Monsees, Barbara; Monticciolo, Debra; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence; Berg, Wendie; Feig, Stephen; Hendrick, Edward; Mendelson, Ellen; D'Orsi, Carl; Sickles, Edward; Burhenne, Linda Warren

    2010-01-01

    Screening for breast cancer with mammography has been shown to decrease mortality from breast cancer, and mammography is the mainstay of screening for clinically occult disease. Mammography, however, has well-recognized limitations, and recently, other imaging including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been used as adjunctive screening tools, mainly for women who may be at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. The Society of Breast Imaging and the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR are issuing these recommendations to provide guidance to patients and clinicians on the use of imaging to screen for breast cancer. Wherever possible, the recommendations are based on available evidence. Where evidence is lacking, the recommendations are based on consensus opinions of the fellows and executive committee of the Society of Breast Imaging and the members of the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR.

  4. A Case of Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Radmehr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS or chloroma is a solid tumor composed of extramedullary proliferation of myeloid cells. It can appear in a variety of locations, but it is rare, especially in the breast. Diagnosis of GS in the breast could be a challenge for clinicians, radiologists, and even pathologists; especially, in the absence of clinical history. "nIn this report, we present imaging features of a 20-year-old woman with relapse of acute myeloid leu-kemia as GS in her left breast and a brief review of the literature

  5. Osteoprotegerin rich tumor microenvironment: implications in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sudeshna; Sharma-Walia, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). OPG was initially discovered to contribute to homeostasis of bone turnover due to its capability of binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). However, apart from bone turnover, OPG plays important and diverse role(s) in many biological functions. Besides having anti-osteoclastic activity, OPG is thought to exert a protective anti-apoptotic action in OPG-expressing tumors by overcoming the physiologic mechanism of tumor surveillance exerted by TRAIL. Along with inhibiting TRAIL induced apoptosis, it can induce proliferation by binding to various cell surface receptors and thus turning on the canonical cell survival and proliferative pathways. OPG also induces angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, thus facilitating tumor growth. Recently, the understanding of OPG and its different roles has been augmented substantially. This review is aimed at providing a very informative overview as to how OPG affects cancer progression especially breast cancer. PMID:27072583

  6. Quantitative classification of breast tumors in digitized mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, S; Powell, K A; Obuchowski, N A; Chilcote, W A; Grundfest-Broniatowski, S

    1996-08-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a technique to distinguish benign and malignant breast lesions in secondarily digitized mammograms. A set of 51 mammograms (two views/patient) containing lesions of known pathology were evaluated using six different morphological descriptors: circularity, mu R/sigma R (where mu R = mean radial distance of tumor boundary, sigma R = standard deviation); compactness, P2/A (where P = perimeter length of tumor boundary and A = area of the tumor); normalized moment classifier; fractal dimension; and a tumor boundary roughness (TBR) measurement (the number of angles in the tumor boundary with more than one boundary point divided by the total number of angles in the boundary). The lesion was segmented from the surrounding background using an adaptive region growing technique. Ninety-seven percent of the lesions were segmented using this approach. An ROC analysis was performed for each parameter and the results of this analysis were compared to each other and to those obtained from a subjective review by two board-certified radiologists who specialize in mammography. The results of the analysis indicate that all six parameters are diagnostic for malignancy with areas under their ROC curves ranging from 0.759 to 0.928. We observed a trend towards increased specificity at low false-negative rates (0.01 and 0.001) with the TBR measurement. Additionally, the diagnostic accuracy of a classification model based on this parameter was similar to that of the subjective reviewers.

  7. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHURBENKO, V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwave community. This paper presents the survey of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues, with major focus on the breast tumor detection application. The existing microwave imaging systems are categorized on the basis of the employed measurement concepts. The advantages and disadvantages of the implemented imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs between the various system requirements are indicated. Some strategies to overcome these limitations are outlined.

  8. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fang; Lin, Yi-Yu; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shen; Pang, Fei; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1- tk) and luciferase ( luc). Both 131I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis.

  9. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-F. [Department of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong Street, Pei-tou 112, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-Y. [Department of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong Street, Pei-tou 112, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong Street, Pei-tou 112, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, R.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Nuclear Medicine Department, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pang Fei [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong Street, Pei-tou 112, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jjhwang@ym.edu.tw

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) and luciferase (luc). Both {sup 131}I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis.

  10. Pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor of breast: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Sankalp M; Sawaimoon, Satyakam K; Ahmed, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast accounts for 0.3-1% of all the tumors of breast and only a couple of cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma (PL) arising in a malignant phyllodes (MP) tumor have been reported. A thorough sampling is most essential in phyllodes tumor, not only to detect high grade component of the neoplasm but also to diagnose heterologous elements in the same lesion elsewhere, as it may affect the prognosis adversely and may have a greater metastatic potential.

  11. Multiplatform molecular profiling identifies potentially targetable biomarkers in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    Gatalica, Zoran; Vranic, Semir; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Xiu, Joanne; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; McGill, John; Bender, Ryan P.; Discianno, Erin; Schlum, Aaron; Sanati, Souzan; Palazzo, Juan; Reddy, Sandeep; Pockaj, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare breast malignancy with sarcomatous overgrowth and with limited effective treatment options for recurrent and metastatic cases. Recent clinical trials indicated a potential for anti-angiogenic, anti-EGFR and immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with sarcomas, which led us to investigate these and other targetable pathways in malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Thirty-six malignant phyllodes tumors (including 8 metastatic tumors with two cases havin...

  12. AZU-1: A Candidate Breast Tumor Suppressor and Biomarker for Tumor Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Schmeichel, Karen L; Mian, I. Saira; Lelie`vre, Sophie; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2000-02-04

    To identify genes misregulated in the final stages of breast carcinogenesis, we performed differential display to compare the gene expression patterns of the human tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, HMT-3522-T4-2, with those of their immediate premalignant progenitors, HMT-3522-S2. We identified a novel gene, called anti-zuai-1 (AZU-1), that was abundantly expressed in non- and premalignant cells and tissues but was appreciably reduced in breast tumor cell types and in primary tumors. The AZU-1 gene encodes an acidic 571-amino-acid protein containing at least two structurally distinct domains with potential protein-binding functions: an N-terminal serine and proline-rich domain with a predicted immunoglobulin-like fold and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. In HMT-3522 cells, the bulk of AZU-1 protein resided in a detergent-extractable cytoplasmic pool and was present at much lower levels in tumorigenic T4-2 cells than in their nonmalignant counterparts. Reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of T4-2 cells, by means described previously, was accompanied by the up-regulation of AZU-1. In addition, reexpression of AZU-1 in T4-2 cells, using viral vectors, was sufficient to reduce their malignant phenotype substantially, both in culture and in vivo. These results indicate that AZU-1 is a candidate breast tumor suppressor that may exert its effects by promoting correct tissue morphogenesis.

  13. Development of Tyrosine-Based Radiotracer Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine for Breast Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Lin Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient way to synthesize Tc99m-O-[3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclohexadecane-propyl]-tyrosine (Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine, a novel amino acid-based radiotracer, and evaluate its potential in breast cancer gamma imaging. Precursor N4-Tyrosine was synthesized using a 5-step procedure, and its total synthesis yield was 38%. It was successfully labeled with Tc99m with high radiochemical purity (>95%. Cellular uptake of Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine was much higher than that of Tc99m-N4 and the clinical gold standard 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose (18F-FDG in rat breast tumor cells in vitro. Tissue uptake and dosimetry estimation in normal rats revealed that Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine could be safely administered to humans. Evaluation in breast tumor-bearing rats showed that although Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine appeared to be inferior to 18F-FDG in distinguishing breast tumor tissue from chemical-induced inflammatory tissue, it had high tumor-to-muscle uptake ratios and could detect breast tumors clearly by planar scintigraphic imaging. Tc99m-N4-Tyrosine could thus be a useful radiotracer for use in breast tumor diagnostic imaging.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  15. Significance of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after breast conserving treatment: role of surgical removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romano Demicheli; Ilaria Ardoino; Federico Ambrogi; Roberto Agresti; Elia Biganzoli

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the pattern over time (dynamics) of further recurrence and death after ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving treatment (BCT).Methods:A total of 338 evaluable patients experiencing IBTR were extracted from a database of 3,293 patients undergoing BCT.The hazard rates for recurrence and mortality throughout 10 years of follow-up after IBTR were assessed and were compared to the analogous estimates associated to the primary treatment.Results:In a time frame with the time origin at the surgical treatment for IBTR,the hazard rate for further recurrence displays a bimodal pattern (peaks at the second and at the sixth year).Patients receiving mastectomy for IBTR reveal recurrence and mortality dynamics similar to that of node positive (N+) patients receiving mastectomy as primary surgery,apart from the first two-three years,when IBTR patients do worse.If the patients with time to IBTR longer than 2.5 years are considered,differences disappear.Conclusions:The recurrence and mortality dynamics following IBTR surgical removal is similar to the corresponding dynamics following primary tumor removal.In particular,patients with time to IBTR in excess of 2.5 years behave like N+ patients following primary tumor removal.Findings may be suitably explained by assuming that the surgical manoeuvre required by IBTR treatment is able to activate a sudden growing phase for tumor foci most of which,as suggested by the systemic model of breast cancer,would have reached the clinical level according to their own dynamics.

  16. MR imaging of intradural extramedullary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.H.; Holtaas, S.; Larsson, E.M. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Thirty-one consecutive intradual extramedullary spinal tumors examined with MR at 0.3 T were reviewed. In 13 of the patients myelography had been performed. There were 11 patients with meningeoma, 14 with neuroma, one ependymoma, 3 metastases, and 2 lipomas. All tumours were surgically removed and verified by histology. The intradural extramedullary location of the tumors was accurately assessed by MR imaging in all patients and by myelography in 10 of 13. The MR diagnoses were in accordance with the histologic findings in 74% of cases. Compression of the spinal cord of cauda equina with widening of the subarachnoid space above and below the mass or outward displacement of epidural fat was characteristic of the intradural extramedullary tumors. The signal intensity of meningeoma as well as neuroma was slightly lower or equal to that of the cord on T1-weighted images, and equal to or higher than cord signal on T2-weighted images. Neuroma had a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a higher signal intensity on T2-weighted images than meningeoma. Meningeoma appeared more homogeneous than neuroma and had a broad base towards the dura. (orig.).

  17. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2 DNA is demethylated in breast tumors and breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2 is a known anti-viral gene that has been recently identified to be overexpressed in many cancers, including breast cancer. BST-2 is critical for the invasiveness of breast cancer cells and the formation of metastasis in vivo. Although the regulation of BST-2 in immune cells is unraveling, it is unknown how BST-2 expression is regulated in breast cancer. We hypothesized that meta-analyses of BST-2 gene expression and BST-2 DNA methylation profiles would illuminate mechanisms regulating elevated BST-2 expression in breast tumor tissues and cells.We performed comprehensive meta-analyses of BST-2 gene expression and BST-2 DNA methylation in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA and various Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO datasets. BST-2 expression levels and BST-2 DNA methylation status at specific CpG sites on the BST-2 gene were compared for various breast tumor molecular subtypes and breast cancer cell lines.We show that BST-2 gene expression is inversely associated with the methylation status at specific CpG sites in primary breast cancer specimens and breast cancer cell lines. BST-2 demethylation is significantly more prevalent in primary tumors and cancer cells than in normal breast tissues or normal mammary epithelial cells. Demethylation of the BST-2 gene significantly correlates with its mRNA expression. These studies provide the initial evidence that significant differences exist in BST-2 DNA methylation patterns between breast tumors and normal breast tissues, and that BST-2 expression patterns in tumors and cancer cells correlate with hypomethylated BST-2 DNA.Our study suggests that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of BST-2 may play a role in disease pathogenesis and could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. Molecular imaging for assessment of mesenchymal stem cells mediated breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Liang; Wang, Yuebing; He, Ningning; Wang, Di; Zhao, Qianjie; Feng, Guowei; Su, Weijun; Xu, Yang; Han, Zhongchao; Kong, Deling; Cheng, Zhen; Xiang, Rong; Li, Zongjin

    2014-06-01

    The tumor tropism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) makes them an excellent delivery vehicle used in anticancer therapy. However, the exact mechanisms of MSCs involved in tumor microenvironment are still not well defined. Molecular imaging technologies with the versatility in monitoring the therapeutic effects, as well as basic molecular and cellular processes in real time, offer tangible options to better guide MSCs mediated cancer therapy. In this study, an in situ breast cancer model was developed with MDA-MB-231 cells carrying a reporter system encoding a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase (Fluc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). In mice breast cancer model, we injected human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) armed with a triple fusion (TF) gene containing the herpes simplex virus truncated thymidine kinase (HSV-ttk), renilla luciferase (Rluc) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) into tumor on day 13, 18, 23 after MDA-MB-231 cells injection. Bioluminescence imaging of Fluc and Rluc provided the real time monitor of tumor cells and hUC-MSCs simultaneously. We found that tumors were significantly inhibited by hUC-MSCs administration, and this effect was enhanced by ganciclovir (GCV) application. To further demonstrate the effect of hUC-MSCs on tumor cells in vivo, we employed the near infrared (NIR) imaging and the results showed that hUC-MSCs could inhibit tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis to a certain degree. In conclusion, hUC-MSCs can inhibit breast cancer progression by inducing tumor cell death and suppressing angiogenesis. Moreover, molecular imaging is an invaluable tool in tracking cell delivery and tumor response to hUC-MSCs therapies as well as cellular and molecular processes in tumor.

  19. Genetic and phenotypic diversity in breast tumor metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Kim, Hee Jung; Cheng, Yu-Kang; Gönen, Mithat; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Argani, Pedram; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Sukumar, Saraswati; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-03-01

    Metastatic disease is the main cause of cancer-related mortality due to almost universal therapeutic resistance. Despite its high clinical relevance, our knowledge of how cancer cell populations change during metastatic progression is limited. Here, we investigated intratumor genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity during metastatic progression of breast cancer. We analyzed cellular genotypes and phenotypes at the single cell level by performing immunoFISH in intact tissue sections of distant metastatic tumors from rapid autopsy cases and from primary tumors and matched lymph node metastases collected before systemic therapy. We calculated the Shannon index of intratumor diversity in all cancer cells and within phenotypically distinct cell populations. We found that the extent of intratumor genetic diversity was similar regardless of the chromosomal region analyzed, implying that it may reflect an inherent property of the tumors. We observed that genetic diversity was highest in distant metastases and was generally concordant across lesions within the same patient, whereas treatment-naïve primary tumors and matched lymph node metastases were frequently genetically more divergent. In contrast, cellular phenotypes were more discordant between distant metastases than primary tumors and matched lymph node metastases. Diversity for 8q24 was consistently higher in HER2(+) tumors compared with other subtypes and in metastases of triple-negative tumors relative to primary sites. We conclude that our integrative method that couples ecologic models with experimental data in human tissue samples could be used for the improved prognostication of patients with cancer and for the design of more effective therapies for progressive disease.

  20. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  1. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  2. In vitro and in vivo analysis of [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}]: a site-directed radiopharmaceutical for positron-emission tomography imaging of T-47D human breast cancer tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanphanich, Adam F. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Retzloff, Lauren [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lane, Stephanie R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nanda, Prasant K. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma, Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Figueroa, Said D. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Sublett, Samantha V. [The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-02-15

    Introduction: Human breast cancer, from which the T-47D cell line was derived, is known to overexpress the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in some cases. Bombesin (BBN), an agonist for the GRPR, has been appended with a radionuclide capable of positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging and therapy. {sup 64}Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} (NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate) has produced high-quality microPET images of GRPR-positive breast cancer xenografted tumors in mice. Methods: The imaging probe was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by manual conjugation of the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) bifunctional chelator and radiolabeling in aqueous solution. The radiolabeled conjugate was subjected to in vitro and in vivo studies to determine its specificity for the GRPR and its pharmacokinetic profile. A T-47D tumor-bearing mouse was imaged with microPET/CT and microMRI imaging. Results: The {sup 64}Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} targeting vector was determined to specifically localize in GRPR-positive tissue. Accumulation was observed in the tumor in sufficient quantities to allow for identification of tumors in microPET imaging procedures. For example, uptake and retention in T-47D xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h were determined to be 2.27{+-}0.08, 1.35{+-}0.14 and 0.28{+-}0.07 % ID/g, respectively. Conclusions: The {sup 64}Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} produced high-quality microPET images. The pharmacokinetic profile justifies investigation of this bioconjugate as a potentially useful diagnostic/therapeutic agent. Additionally, the bioconjugate would serve as a good starting point for modification and optimization of similar agents to maximize tumor uptake and minimize nontarget accumulation.

  3. Differential diagnosis of breast tumors on the basis of radiothermometric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Vidyukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in accordance with radiothermometric findings, which is based on the authors’ developed diagnostic technique (Patent No. 2532372 dated 5 September 2014. The radiometric method was used to examine 119 patients with malignant breast tumors, 53 patients with benign breast tumors, and 60 women without breast involvement. The data were obtained in 3 institutions: the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, and Moscow Oncology Dispensary Five. A microwave radiothermometer was used to measure core and skin temperatures in 9 symmetrical points of each breast. Using the findings as a basis, the authors proposed quantitative criteria that ensured that breast tumors should be differentially diagnosed with high specificity.

  4. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  5. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  6. Simulation of holographic radar application in detection of breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborova, I. L.; Anishchenko, Lesya

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments and mathematical simulation carried out to confirm the possibility of using holographic radar for the detection of breast tumors. In the work the software designed for the numerical solution of electromagnetic problems using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method. The simulation was performed with the three probe frequencies 4, 7 and 15 GHz. The model is a parallelepiped with dimensions 200×200×100 mm - mimicking the normal tissue of the breast, with the inclusion of a sphere - malignant neoplasm of breast tissue, the radius and depth of which have been varied. Frequency dispersion of normal and malignant tissues dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) was taken into account. It was shown both by theoretical and experimental results that it is preferable to use lower-frequency probing signal, namely, 4GHz, which can detect the inclusion of 5 mm diameter up to a depth of 10 mm. While using of probing signals of 7 and 15 GHz the depth limit of detection inclusion is not more than 5 mm, which is caused by the high attenuation in a medium. However, their usage is preferred because of higher resolution.

  7. Correlation of primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with tumor suppressor gene p53 in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topić Brano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of standard path morphological prognostic parameters, primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with new prognostic factor in breast carcinoma: tumor suppressor gene p53 was analyzed. The studied sample included 65 women who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma at the Surgical Clinic of Clinical Center Banja Luka, from January 1st 1997 till January 1st 1999. Statistical data analysis was performed and correlation of prognostic factors was determined. The majority of authors in this field agree that the primary tumor size and axillary nodal status are the two most important prognostic factors. These factors are the best predictors of prognosis and survival of women who had the tumor and were operated on. Tumor markers were immunohistochemically determined in the last ten years and, according to the majority of authors, are still considered the additional or relative prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Their prognostic value and significance increase almost daily. Most frequently determined tumor markers are bcl-2, pS2, Ki-67 and p53. There was a positive, directly proportional relationship between primary tumor size and tumor suppressor gene p53, but there was no positive correlation between the axillary nodal status and tumor suppressor gene p53. Significance of determination of new tumor markers as the prognostic factors was emphasized. These markers represent a powerful tool in the early detection and prevention of breast carcinoma.

  8. Inorganic Nanovehicle Targets Tumor in an Orthotopic Breast Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Goeun; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Oh, Yeonji; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The clinical efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), can be limited by its very short plasma half-life, the drug resistance, and the high dosage required for cancer cell suppression. In this study, a new drug delivery system is proposed to overcome such limitations. To realize such a system, MTX was intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), inorganic drug delivery vehicle, through a co-precipitation route to produce a MTX-LDH nanohybrid with an average particle size of approximately 130 nm. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing orthotopic human breast tumors revealed that the tumor-to-liver ratio of MTX in the MTX-LDH-treated-group was 6-fold higher than that of MTX-treated-one after drug treatment for 2 hr. Moreover, MTX-LDH exhibited superior targeting effect resulting in high antitumor efficacy inducing a 74.3% reduction in tumor volume compared to MTX alone, and as a consequence, significant survival benefits. Annexin-V and propidium iodine dual staining and TUNEL analysis showed that MTX-LDH induced a greater degree of apoptosis than free MTX. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a new MTX-LDH nanohybrid exhibits a superior efficacy profile and improved distribution compared to MTX alone and has the potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy via inhibition of tumor proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

  9. Global proteomic characterization of microdissected estrogen receptor positive breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso De Marchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We here describe two proteomic datasets deposited in ProteomeXchange via PRIDE partner repository [1] with dataset identifiers PXD000484 (defined as “training” and PXD000485 (defined as “test” that have been used for the development of a tamoxifen outcome predictive signature [2]. Both datasets comprised 56 fresh frozen estrogen receptor (ER positive primary breast tumor specimens derived from patients who received tamoxifen as first line therapy for recurrent disease. Patient groups were defined based on time to progression (TTP after start of tamoxifen therapy (6 months cutoff: 32 good and 24 poor treatment outcome patients were comprised in the training set, respectively. The test set included 41 good and 15 poor treatment outcome patients. All specimens were subjected to laser capture microdissection (LCM to enrich for epithelial tumor cells prior to high resolution mass spectrometric (MS analysis. Protein identification and label-free quantification (LFQ were performed with MaxQuant software package [3]. A total of 3109 and 4061 proteins were identified and quantified in the training and test set, respectively. We here present the first public proteomic dataset analyzing ER positive recurrent breast cancer by LCM coupled to high resolution MS.

  10. Longitudinal optical monitoring of blood flow in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. M.; Chung, S. H.; Leproux, A.; Baker, W. B.; Busch, D. R.; DeMichele, A. M.; Tchou, J.; Tromberg, B. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    We measure tissue blood flow markers in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and investigate their correlation to pathologic complete response in a pilot longitudinal patient study (n  =  4). Tumor blood flow is quantified optically by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and tissue optical properties, blood oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration are derived from concurrent diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI). The study represents the first longitudinal DCS measurement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in humans over the entire course of treatment; it therefore offers a first correlation between DCS flow indices and pathologic complete response. The use of absolute optical properties measured by DOSI facilitates significant improvement of DCS blood flow calculation, which typically assumes optical properties based on literature values. Additionally, the combination of the DCS blood flow index and the tissue oxygen saturation from DOSI permits investigation of tissue oxygen metabolism. Pilot results from four patients suggest that lower blood flow in the lesion-bearing breast is correlated with pathologic complete response. Both absolute lesion blood flow and lesion flow relative to the contralateral breast exhibit potential for characterization of pathological response. This initial demonstration of the combined optical approach for chemotherapy monitoring provides incentive for more comprehensive studies in the future and can help power those investigations.

  11. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  12. Quantum dots-based double-color imaging of HER2 positive breast cancer invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiu-Li, E-mail: usually.158@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Peng, Chun-Wei, E-mail: pqc278@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Chuang, E-mail: chenc2469@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Xue-Qin, E-mail: yxqjenny@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Ming-Bai, E-mail: humingbai@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xia, He-Shun, E-mail: xiaheshun@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pathology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Liu, Shao-Ping, E-mail: lsp_77@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); and others

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} HER2 level is closely related to the biologic behaviors of breast cancer cells. {yields} A new method to simultaneously image HER2 and type IV collagen was established. {yields} HER2 status and type IV collagen degradation predict breast cancer invasion. {yields} The complex interactions between tumor and its environment were revealed. -- Abstract: It has been well recognized that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) level in breast cancer (BC) is closely related to the malignant biologic behaviors of the tumor, including invasion and metastasis. Yet, there has been a lack of directly observable evidence to support such notion. Here we report a quantum dots (QDs)-based double-color imaging technique to simultaneously show the HER2 level on BC cells and the type IV collagen in the tumor matrix. In benign breast tumor, the type IV collagen was intact. With the increasing of HER2 expression level, there has been a progressive decrease in type IV collagen around the cancer nest. At HER2 (3+) expression level, there has virtually been a total destruction of type IV collagen. Moreover, HER2 (3+) BC cells also show direct invasion into the blood vessels. This novel imaging method provides direct observable evidence to support the theory that the HER2 expression level is directly related to BC invasion.

  13. Radiologic findings of mucocele-Iike tumor of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doo Kyung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Jung, Yong Sik; Yim, Hyunee [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of mucocele-like tumors. Twelve breast lesions from 1994 through 2004, coded as mucocele or mucocele-like tumors, were retrieved from the surgical pathology database files at our institution. Eleven of the patients had undergone mammography, and sonography had been performed in all 12 patients. We retrospectively reviewed the mammographic, sonographic and pathologic findings. The mammographies showed calcifications alone (n=6), calcification with mass or asymmetric density (n=3), and normal mammogram (n=2). The shapes of the calcifications were pIeomorphic (n=4, 44.4%), amorphous (n=3, 33.3%) and round (n=2, 22.2%). Sonography was performed in all patients (n=12) and showed cysts (n=8), cystic mass (n=2), tubular hypoechoic structure (n=1) and hypoechoic mass (n=1). Pathologic examination revealed 5 cases of benign mucocele-Iike tumor that included epithelial hyperplasia without atypia (n=2) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (n=4), and 3 cases of associated intraductal carcinoma. Calcification was more frequently detected in the mucocele-like tumors with atypical ductal hyperplasia or intraductal carcinoma than in the benign tumors. Pleomorphic calcification was only visualized in those cases involving atypical hyperplasia or intraductal carcinoma. Of the 9 cases of calcification seen in the mammograms, 7 cases (77.8%) were detected in the associated sonograms and all were located within the lesion. The most common mammographic finding of mucocele-like tumors was segmentally distributed pIeomorphic or amorphous calcifications, and the most common sonographic finding was cyst or cystic mass.

  14. Nonlinear Optical Imaging to Evaluate the Impact of Obesity on Mammary Gland and Tumor Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T. Le

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the mechanism that links obesity to tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here we combined nonlinear optical imaging technologies with an early-onset diet-induced obesity breast cancer animal model to evaluate the impact of obesity on the composition of mammary gland and tumor stroma. Using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation on the same platform, we simultaneously imaged mammary adipocytes, blood capillaries, collagen fibrils, and tumor cells without any labeling. We observed that obesity increases the size of lipid droplets of adipocytes in mammary gland and collagen content in mammary tumor stroma, respectively. Such impacts of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma could not be analyzed using standard two-dimensional histologic evaluation. Given the importance of mammary stroma to the growth and migration of tumor cells, our observation provides the first imaging evidence that supports the relationship between obesity and breast cancer risk.

  15. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity.

  16. Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients: An Evolving Role in Patient Prognosis and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Graves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in breast cancer. CTCs are tumor cells present in the peripheral blood. They are found in many different carcinomas but are not present in patients with benign disease. Recent advances in theories regarding metastasis support the role of early release of tumor cells in the neoplastic process. Furthermore, it has been found that phenotypic variation exists between the primary tumor and CTCs. Of particular interest is the incongruency found between primary tumor and CTC HER2 status in both metastatic and early breast cancer. Overall, CTCs have been shown to be a poor prognostic marker in metastatic breast cancer. CTCs in early breast cancer are not as well studied, however, several studies suggest that the presence of CTCs in early breast cancer may also suggest a poorer prognosis. Studies are currently underway looking at the use of CTC level monitoring in order to guide changes in therapy.

  17. NI-78LABEL-FREE MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY: A NOVEL TOOL FOR THE IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Galli, Roberta; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tissue composition caused by brain tumor growth involve a series of complex biochemical alterations which can be imaged on unstained native tissue using multiphoton microscopy: We used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging that resonantly excites the symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 groups at 2850 cm−1 and visualizes lipid content in combination with imaging of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to discern different types of tumors from normal tissue in unstained, native brain samples. Experimental brain tumors were induced in nude mice NMRI nu/nu (n = 25) by stereotactic implantation of glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (A375) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Label-free multiphoton microscopy of brain cryosections provided exhaustive information of the tumor morphochemistry. The tumor border was defined with cellular resolution by a strong reduction of CARS signal intensity to 61% (glioblastoma), 71% (melanoma) and 68% (breast cancer). This reduction of lipid content within the tumor was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Micrometastases infiltrating normal tissue (size 50 - 200 µm) were identified in glioblastoma and melanoma. Additionally, multiphoton microscopy proved a reduction of CARS signal intensity in all human glioblastoma samples analyzed (to 72%, n = 6). Additionally, relevant SHG and TPEF signals were detected in human primary and secondary brain tumor samples and enabled to image variations in tumor associated vasculature, fibrosis, necrosis and nuclear size and density. All primary or secondary brain tumors investigated were characterized by a lower intensity of the CARS signal, therefore offering a simple tool for objective tumor detection and delineation. The combination of techniques allows retrieving a quantity of information on native unstained tissue which is comparable to H&E staining. Therefore, label-free multiphoton microscopy has the potential to become a

  18. Alpha2-Adrenergic Receptors and Breast Tumor Stroma: A Novel Pathway Driving Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0439 TITLE: Alpha2-Adrenergic Receptors and Breast Tumor Stroma: A Novel Pathway Driving Breast Cancer Growth and...treatment of breast cancer often experience severe and chronic psychological stress. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important pathway by which...Sephton SE, McDonald PG, et al. The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: pathways and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer . 2006;6:240-8. 3

  19. Diagnostic performance of core needle biopsy in identifying breast phyllodes tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of diagnoses was performed in patients with phyllodes tumors of the breast (PTB) who received preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) and had breast surgery at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 1, 2002 to April 1, 2013. The resulting data allowed us to compare the accordance between CNB and excision diagnoses of PTB patients and evaluate the accuracy of CNB in preoperative diagnosis. Methods Data from 128 patients with PTB who had undergone preoperative CNB and breast surgery were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed the medical history, clinical follow-up data, and CNB diagnostic data. A diagnostic test was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CNB in diagnosing benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors. Results The accuracy of CNB for diagnosing PTB was 13.3% (17/128). Of the remaining patients, 98 (75.5% of the PTB patients) were diagnosed with fibroadenoma or fibroepithelial lesions. The sensitivity of CNB at diagnosing benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors were 4.9% (2/41), 4.2% (3/71), and 25.0% (4/16), respectively, whereas the corresponding specificity were 92.0%, 98.2%, and 100%, respectively. Some clinical features, such as large tumor size, rapid growth, or surgical history of fibroadenomas, were indicative of an increased possibility of PTB. Conclusions CNB provides a pathological basis for the preoperative diagnosis of PTB, but it has a poor accuracy and offers limited guidance for surgical decisions. Considering CNB along with multiple histologic features may improve the ability to accurately diagnose PTB. An integrated assessment using CNBs in combination with clinical data and imaging features is suggested as a reliable strategy to assist PTB diagnosis. PMID:28066593

  20. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, Frederic, E-mail: fredclare5@msn.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Bonneville, Fabrice [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Rangueil, Toulouse University Hospital, 31000 Toulouse (France); Rousseau, Audrey [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Galanaud, Damien [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Kujas, Michele [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Naggara, Olivier [Department of Neuroradiology, St Anne Hospital, 75014 Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Chiras, Jacques [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To study the neuroimaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs). Materials and methods: Retrospective study of neuroimaging features of 9 consecutive histopathologically proven ISFT cases. Location, size, shape, density, signal intensity and gadolinium uptake were studied at CT and MRI. Data collected from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (3 patients), perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy (2 patients), and DSA (4 patients) were also analyzed. Results: The tumors most frequently arose from the intracranial meninges (7/9), while the other lesions were intraventricular. Tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean = 6.6 cm). They presented multilobular shape in 6/9 patients. Most ISFTs were heterogeneous (7/9) with areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration (6/8). Erosion of the skull was present in about half of the cases (4/9). Components with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient were seen in 2/3 ISFTs on DWI. Spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks of choline and myo-inositol. MR perfusion showed features of hyperperfusion. Conclusion: ISFT should be considered in cases of extra-axial, supratentorial, heterogeneous, hypervascular tumor. Areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhance after gadolinium injection are suggestive of this diagnosis. Restricted diffusion and elevated peak of myo-inositol may be additional valuable features.

  1. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  2. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  3. Cerebellar metastases of recurrent phyllodes tumor breast; a rare phenomenon reflecting the unpredictable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Majumdar, Kaushik; Gupta, Rahul; Batra, Vineeta Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Carcinomas of lung, breast, colon, kidney, and malignant melanomas are the most common malignancies that metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS). Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial tumor of the breast, often having unpredictable recurrences, with increasing histological grade and distant metastasis. Malignant forms exist, which may develop distant metastases usually to the lung, pleura, bone, and liver. CNS metastasis of phyllodes tumor is rare and associated with a poor prognosis, with resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. We present a rare case of cerebellar metastasis in recurrent phyllodes tumor breast with subsequent rapid downhill course.

  4. Prevalence of Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses, and Herpesviruses in Triple-Negative and Inflammatory Breast Tumors from Algeria Compared with Other Types of Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbex, Marilys; Bouzbid, Sabiha; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Aouras, Hayette; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Carreira, Christine; Lankar, Abdelaziz; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups. Materials and Methods One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria) to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses) using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology. Results Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9%) of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type) than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04). Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009). Conclusions Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative). While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings. PMID:25478862

  5. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  6. Three-dimensional in vitro co-culture model of breast tumor using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa; Gage, Jacob; Leonard, Fransisca; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Souza, Glauco R; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Godin, Biana

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigate a novel in vitro model to mimic heterogeneous breast tumors without the use of a scaffold while allowing for cell-cell and tumor-fibroblast interactions. Previous studies have shown that magnetic levitation system under conventional culturing conditions results in the formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures, closely resembling in vivo tissues (fat tissue, vasculature, etc.). Three-dimensional heterogeneous tumor models for breast cancer were designed to effectively model the influences of the tumor microenvironment on drug efficiency. Various breast cancer cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts and then magnetically levitated. Size and cell density of the resulting tumors were measured. The model was phenotypically compared to in vivo tumors and examined for the presence of ECM proteins. Lastly, the effects of tumor stroma in the 3D in vitro model on drug transport and efficiency were assessed. Our data suggest that the proposed 3D in vitro breast tumor is advantageous due to the ability to: (1) form large-sized (millimeter in diameter) breast tumor models within 24 h; (2) control tumor cell composition and density; (3) accurately mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment; and (4) test drug efficiency in an in vitro model that is comparable to in vivo tumors.

  7. A role for ADAM12 in breast tumor progression and stromal cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Frohlich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar;

    2005-01-01

    of stromal fibroblasts in tumor initiation and progression has been elucidated. Here, we show that stromal cell apoptosis occurs in human breast carcinoma but is only rarely seen in nonmalignant breast lesions. Furthermore, we show that ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease up-regulated in human breast...... cancer, accelerates tumor progression in a mouse breast cancer model. ADAM12 does not influence tumor cell proliferation but rather confers both decreased tumor cell apoptosis and increased stromal cell apoptosis. This dual role of ADAM12 in governing cell survival is underscored by the finding that ADAM......12 increases the apoptotic sensitivity of nonneoplastic cells in vitro while rendering tumor cells more resistant to apoptosis. Together, these results show that the ability of ADAM12 to influence apoptosis may contribute to tumor progression....

  8. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, J.; Mann, R.; Blickman, J.G.; Boetes, C. [University Medical Center, 430 Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kok, T. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Obdeijn, I.M. [Erasmus Medical Center Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogerbrugge, N. [University Medical Center, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    The appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases. Detection rates on both modalities were evaluated. Tumors were analyzed on morphology, density (mammography), enhancement pattern and kinetics (MRI). Overall detection was significantly better with MRI than with mammography (55/58 vs 44/57, P = 0.021). On mammography, lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (12//19 vs 3/13, P = 0.036) and with sharp margins (9/19 vs 1/13, P = 0.024). On MRI lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (16/27 vs 7/28, P = 0.010), with sharp margins (20/27 vs 7/28, P < 0.001) and with rim enhancement (7/27 vs 1/28, P = 0.025). No significant difference was found for enhancement kinetics (P = 0.667). Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins. This applies for both mammography and MRI. However the possibility of MRI to evaluate the enhancement pattern and kinetics enables the detection of characteristics suggestive for a malignancy. (orig.)

  9. Surface driven biomechanical breast image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Björn; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H.; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Buelow, Thomas; Williams, Norman R.; Keshtgar, M.; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical modelling enables large deformation simulations of breast tissues under different loading conditions to be performed. Such simulations can be utilised to transform prone Magnetic Resonance (MR) images into a different patient position, such as upright or supine. We present a novel integration of biomechanical modelling with a surface registration algorithm which optimises the unknown material parameters of a biomechanical model and performs a subsequent regularised surface alignment. This allows deformations induced by effects other than gravity, such as those due to contact of the breast and MR coil, to be reversed. Correction displacements are applied to the biomechanical model enabling transformation of the original pre-surgical images to the corresponding target position. The algorithm is evaluated for the prone-to-supine case using prone MR images and the skin outline of supine Computed Tomography (CT) scans for three patients. A mean target registration error (TRE) of 10:9 mm for internal structures is achieved. For the prone-to-upright scenario, an optical 3D surface scan of one patient is used as a registration target and the nipple distances after alignment between the transformed MRI and the surface are 10:1 mm and 6:3 mm respectively.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of the breast. Examination techniques, appearances, differential diagnosis and interventiones. 3. compl. rev. ed.; Bildgebende Mammadiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnik, Befundmuster, Differenzialdiagnose und Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, Sylvia H. [Referenzzentrum Mammographie, Muenchen (Germany).; Schreer, Ingrid [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany).

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the breast covers the following topics: Part I: Techniques: anamnesis and dialogue, clinical indications, mammography, sonography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, new imaging techniques, image clarification and percutaneous breast biopsy, preoperative marking. Part II: Appearance: the normal mamma, benign mamma modifications, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, lesions with uncertain biological potential (B3 lesions), in-situ carcinoma, invasive carcinoma. Lymph nodes, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-operative and post-therapeutic changes, imaging diagnostics for breast implants, skin changes, the male breast. Part III: Use of imaging breast diagnostics: continuative diagnostics of screening indications and problem solution for the symptomatic patient.

  11. MRI of intraspinal tumors. Usefulness of the transaxial images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hiromi; Takemoto, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Teruo

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 24 patients with intraspinal tumors were reviewed. This study included 8 intramedullary tumors, 11 intradural extramedullary tumors, and 5 extradural tumors. In all cases sagittal spin echo (SE) images with an echo time (TE) of 40 msec and a repetition time (TR) of 600 msec and transaxial SE images with a TE of 40 msec and a TR of 1000 msec were obtained using a 0.5 T MR scanner. Coronal SE images were obtained in 11 of 24 cases. In all intraspinal tumors except for a case of seeding into the subarachnoid space from an intracranial glioblastoma, differentiation of intramedullary tumors from extramedullary ones and intradural extramedullary tumors from extradural ones was able to be made on MR images. The extradural sign, which was demonstrated as a low intensity band between the tumor and the cord, was of diagnostic value in distinguishing intradural tumors from extradural ones. This extradural sign was more frequently shown on the transaxial images than sagittal and coronal images. MR imaging shows the location of intraspinal tumors without an invasive technique. Particularly the transaxial images always provide good delineation of both intraspinal tumors and the spinal cord. Therefore, the transaxial SE images should be routinely obtained in the evaluation of intraspinal tumors by MR imaging.

  12. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer: a step toward an individualized 'image and treat' strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers.......HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...

  13. Tropomyosin-1, A Putative Tumor-Suppressor and a Biomarker of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    cDNA. Lobular carcinoma - 2 A polyclonal pan-TM antibody that recognizes multiple TM Phyllodes tumor - 1 Not determined from the initial pathology...AD Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8162 TITLE: Tropomyosin-1, A Putative Tumor -Suppressor and a Biomarker of Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Tropomyosin-l, A Putative Tumor -Suppressor and a Biomarker DAMD17-98-1-8162 of Human Breast Cancer 6. A UTHOR

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ...

  15. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  16. Roscovitine confers tumor suppressive effect on therapy-resistant breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binoj C; Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2011-08-11

    Current clinical strategies for treating hormonal breast cancer involve the use of anti-estrogens that block estrogen receptor (ER)α functions and aromatase inhibitors that decrease local and systemic estrogen production. Both of these strategies improve outcomes for ERα-positive breast cancer patients, however, development of therapy resistance remains a major clinical problem. Divergent molecular pathways have been described for this resistant phenotype and interestingly, the majority of downstream events in these resistance pathways converge upon the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins including aberrant activation of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). In this study, we examined whether the CDK inhibitor roscovitine confers a tumor suppressive effect on therapy-resistant breast epithelial cells. Using various in vitro and in vivo assays, we tested the effect of roscovitine on three hormonal therapy-resistant model cells: (a) MCF-7-TamR (acquired tamoxifen resistance model); (b) MCF-7-LTLTca (acquired letrozole resistance model); and (c) MCF-7-HER2 that exhibit tamoxifen resistance (ER-growth factor signaling cross talk model). Hormonal therapy-resistant cells exhibited aberrant activation of the CDK2 pathway. Roscovitine at a dose of 20 μM significantly inhibited the cell proliferation rate and foci formation potential of all three therapy-resistant cells. The drug treatment substantially increased the proportion of cells in G2/M cell cycle phase with decreased CDK2 activity and promoted low cyclin D1 levels. Interestingly, roscovitine also preferentially down regulated the ERα isoform and ER-coregulators including AIB1 and PELP1. Results from xenograft studies further showed that roscovitine can attenuate growth of therapy-resistant tumors in vivo. Roscovitine can reduce cell proliferation and survival of hormone therapy-resistant breast cancer cells. Our results support the emerging concept that inhibition of CDK2 activity has the potential to

  17. Expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in human tumors: relationship to breast, colorectal, and prostate tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zeqiu; Slack, Rebecca S; Li, Wenping; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2003-01-01

    High levels of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), the alternative-binding site for diazepam, are part of the aggressive human breast cancer cell phenotype in vitro. We examined PBR levels and distribution in normal tissue and tumors from multiple cancer types by immunohistochemistry. Among normal breast tissues, fibroadenomas, primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas, there is a progressive increase in PBR levels parallel to the invasive and metastatic ability of the tumor (p cancers, such as those of breast, colon-rectum and prostate tissues, where elevated PBR expression is associated with tumor progression. Thus, we propose that PBR overexpression could serve as a novel prognostic indicator of an aggressive phenotype in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers.

  18. miRNA expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE hereditary breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljana Tanić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer constitutes only 5–10% of all breast cancer cases and is characterized by strong family history of breast and/or other associated cancer types. Only ~25% of hereditary breast cancer cases carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, while mutations in other rare high and moderate-risk genes and common low penetrance variants may account for additional 20% of the cases. Thus the majority of cases are still unaccounted for and designated as BRCAX tumors. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles as regulators of gene expression and are deregulated in cancer. To characterize hereditary breast tumors based on their miRNA expression profiles we performed global microarray miRNA expression profiling on a retrospective cohort of 80 FFPE breast tissues, including 66 hereditary breast tumors (13 BRCA1, 10 BRCA2 and 43 BRCAX, 10 sporadic breast carcinomas and 4 normal breast tissues, using Exiqon miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array v.11.0. Here we describe in detail the miRNA microarray expression data and tumor samples used for the study of BRCAX tumor heterogeneity (Tanic et al., 2013 and biomarkers associated with positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (Tanic et al., 2014. Additionally, we provide the R code for data preprocessing and quality control.

  19. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ah young [Dept. of Pathology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  20. Sensitivity of imaging for multifocal-multicentric breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    .5%. Re-reviewed Mx detected only 3 additional lesions. The sensitivity of Mx was affected by the presence of dense breast tissue which obscured lesions or by an incorrect interpretation of suspicious findings. US detected 73/80 index cancers (sensitivity of 91.2%, US missed 117 malignant foci with a mean tumor diameter of 6.5 mm; the sensitivity was 52.9% Undetected lesions by US were those smallest in size and present in fatty breast or in the presence of microcalcifications without a visible mass. US sensitivity was affected by the presence of fatty tissue or by the extent of calcification. Conclusion Mx missed MMBC malignant foci more often in dense or fibroglandular breasts. US missed small lesions in mainly fatty breasts or when there were only microcalcifications. The combined sensitivity of both techniques to assess MMBC was 58%. We suggest larger studies on multimodality imaging.

  1. Imaging-Assisted Large-Format Breast Pathology: Program Rationale and Development in a Nonprofit Health System in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lee Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breast imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, provides an increasingly clear depiction of breast cancer extent, often with suboptimal pathologic confirmation. Pathologic findings guide management decisions, and small increments in reported tumor characteristics may rationalize significant changes in therapy and staging. Pathologic techniques to grossly examine resected breast tissue have changed little during this era of improved breast imaging and still rely primarily on the techniques of gross inspection and specimen palpation. Only limited imaging information is typically conveyed to pathologists, typically in the form of wire-localization images from breast-conserving procedures. Conventional techniques of specimen dissection and section submission destroy the three-dimensional integrity of the breast anatomy and tumor distribution. These traditional methods of breast specimen examination impose unnecessary limitations on correlation with imaging studies, measurement of cancer extent, multifocality, and margin distance. Improvements in pathologic diagnosis, reporting, and correlation of breast cancer characteristics can be achieved by integrating breast imagers into the specimen examination process and the use of large-format sections which preserve local anatomy. This paper describes the successful creation of a large-format pathology program to routinely serve all patients in a busy interdisciplinary breast center associated with a community-based nonprofit health system in the United States.

  2. Real-time MRI navigated ultrasound for preoperative tumor evaluation in breast cancer patients: Technique and clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  3. Real-Time MRI Navigated Ultrasound for Preoperative Tumor Evaluation in Breast Cancer Patients: Technique and Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan 15355 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  4. Fluorescence goggle for intraoperative breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Charanya, Tauseef; Mondal, Suman; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a fluorescence goggle device for intraoperative oncologic imaging. With our system design, the surgeon can directly visualize the fluorescence information from the eyepieces in real time without any additional monitor, which can improve one's coordination and surgical accuracy. In conjunction with targeting fluorescent dyes, the goggle device can successfully detect tumor margins and small nodules that are not obvious to naked eye. This can potentially decrease the incidence of incomplete resection.

  5. Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woowon; Kabir, Mohammad M; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the imaging of unstained breast tissue biopsies using third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. As a label-free imaging technique, THG microscopy is compared to phase contrast and polarized light microscopy which are standard imaging methods for breast tissues. A simple feature detection algorithm is applied to detect tumour-associated lymphocyte rich regions in unstained breast biopsy tissue and compared with corresponding regions identified by a pathologist from bright-field images of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. Our results suggest that THG imaging holds potential as a complementary technique for analysing breast tissue biopsies. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Borderline phyllodes tumor of breast in a premenarchal girl: A relatively common tumor at an uncommon age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors are relatively rare breast lesions that usually occur in the age group of 35 ‒ 55 years. It is a very rare diagnosis in young girls, particularly at prepubertal age. Because of the uncommon nature of this tumor in children, it may be misdiagnosed leading to inappropriate management. We report a case of a 9–year-old girl who was diagnosed as a case of borderline phyllodes tumor left breast. Simple mastectomy without axillary staging was performed. She has recovered well and is on follow up.

  7. A Case of Large Phyllodes Tumor Causing “Rupture” of the Breast: A Unique Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors which constitute less than 1% of all known breast neoplasms. The importance of recognizing these tumors lies in the need to differentiate them from fibroadenomas and other benign breast lesions to avoid inappropriate surgical management. We report a case of large phyllodes tumor which caused rupture of the breast and presented as an external fungating breast mass, a presentation which is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of a mass in her right breast and eruption of the mass through the skin for the last 3 months. On physical examination, an ulcerated, irregular, and nodular mass measuring  cms was found hanging in the lower and outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasonography revealed an exophytic mass with heterogeneous echotexture and vascularity. Under general anesthesia, the tumor was excised. The resected specimen was  cm in size and the tumor was not invasive to the surrounding tissues. Histological examination confirmed a benign case of Phyllodes tumor. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware of the myriad ways in which Phyllodes can present. A rapidly growing breast mass in a female should raise strong suspicion for Phyllodes. It is necessary to differentiate it from fibroadenomas to avoid inappropriate surgical management which may lead to local recurrence.

  8. An approach to parameter estimation for breast tumor by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, A.-qing; Yang, Hong-qin; Ye, Zhen; Su, Yi-ming; Xie, Shu-sen

    2009-02-01

    The temperature of human body on the surface of the skin depends on the metabolic activity, the blood flow, and the temperature of the surroundings. Any abnormality in the tissue, such as the presence of a tumor, alters the normal temperature on the skin surface due to increased metabolic activity of the tumor. Therefore, abnormal skin temperature profiles are an indication of diseases such as tumor or cancer. This study is to present an approach to detect the female breast tumor and its related parameter estimations by combination the finite element method with infrared thermography for the surface temperature profile. A 2D simplified breast embedded a tumor model based on the female breast anatomical structure and physiological characteristics was first established, and then finite element method was used to analyze the heat diffuse equation for the surface temperature profiles of the breast. The genetic optimization algorithm was used to estimate the tumor parameters such as depth, size and blood perfusion by minimizing a fitness function involving the temperature profiles simulated data by finite element method to the experimental data obtained by infrared thermography. This preliminary study shows it is possible to determine the depth and the heat generation rate of the breast tumor by using infrared thermography and the optimization analysis, which may play an important role in the female breast healthcare and diseases evaluation or early detection. In order to develop the proposed methodology to be used in clinical, more accurate anatomy 3D breast geometry should be considered in further investigations.

  9. Combined thermal and elastic modeling of the normal and tumorous breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray

    2008-03-01

    The abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of a high risk of breast cancer, but an open question is how to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques generally did not utilize the breast geometry determined by the gravity-induced elastic deformations arising from various body postures. In this paper, a 3-D finite-element method is developed for combined modeling of the thermal and elastic properties of the breast, including the mechanical nonlinearity associated with large deformations. The effects of the thermal and elastic properties of the breast tissues are investigated quantitatively. For the normal breast in a standing/sitting up posture, the gravity-induced deformation alone is found to be able to cause an asymmetric temperature distribution even though all the thermal/elastic properties are symmetrical, and this temperature asymmetry increases for softer and more compressible breast tissues. For a tumorous breast, we found that the surface-temperature alterations generally can be recognizable for superficial tumors at depths less than 20 mm. Tumor size plays a less important role than the tumor depth in determining the tumor-induced temperature difference. This result may imply that a higher thermal sensitivity is critical for a breast thermogram system when deeper tumors are present, even if the tumor is relatively large. We expect this new method to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis and treatment of breast tumors.

  10. Tumor Genomic Profiling in Breast Cancer Patients Using Targeted Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Number of Breast Tumors Total Number of ER+ Tumors Stephens et al1 100 primary tumors 79 ER+ primary tumors Banerji et al2 108 primary tumors 60...NHGRI Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium. 11. REFERENCES: 1. Stephens PJ, Tarpey PS, Davies H, Van Loo P, Greenman C, Wedge DC, Nik...Latimer C, Lau KW, McLaren S, McBride DJ, Menzies A, Mudie L, Raine K, Rad R, Chapman MS, Teague J, Easton D, Langerød A; Oslo Breast Cancer Consortium

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer and Correlation with Prognostic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun-Woo; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Wha; Lee, Min Hyuk (College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Lee, Hye Kyung (Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Bucheon Hospital, Kyonggi (Korea)); Yang, Seung Boo (Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Gumi Hospital, Kyungbook (Korea)); Kim, Yongbae (Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chungnam (Korea)); Seo, Dae Young (Dept. of Computer Engineering (KO) Polytechnic Univ., Kyonggi (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Prognostic factors of breast cancer have been used for the prediction of clinical outcome or selection of patients for complementary treatment. Some of the imaging features of breast cancer, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are associated with these prognostic factors. Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between dynamic enhanced MR features and prognostic factors of clinical outcome of breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 136 patients with 151 breast cancers underwent 1.5T dynamic MR imaging with the use of a dynamic T1-weighted three-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) subtraction imaging technique. Morphological and kinetic analyses of MR features were evaluated using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon. Pathological prognostic factors were correlated with MR imaging characteristics, including tumor size, histological grade, lymph node status, expression of estrogen receptor (ER), expression of progesterone receptor (PR), expression of c-erbB2, determination of Ki-67 index, and microvascular density (MVD), using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results: Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, spiculated tumor margins correlated significantly with lower histological grade (I-II) and positive PR expression. Rim enhancement was significantly correlated with high histological grade, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, large tumor size, increased Ki-67 index, and increased MVD. Early peak enhancement, as seen on the first scan after contrast medium injection, was correlated with negative ER expression. Conclusion: The presence of a lesion with a spiculated margin may predict a relatively good prognosis, and the presence of a lesion with rim enhancement may predict a relatively poor prognosis

  12. Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of mouse tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Kung, Andrew L

    2015-01-05

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has become an essential technique for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapeutics and provides sensitive and quantitative measurements of tumor burden in experimental cancer models. For light generation, a vector encoding firefly luciferase is introduced into human cancer cells that are grown as tumor xenografts in immunocompromised hosts, and the enzyme substrate luciferin is injected into the host. Alternatively, the reporter gene can be expressed in genetically engineered mouse models to determine the onset and progression of disease. In addition to expression of an ectopic luciferase enzyme, bioluminescence requires oxygen and ATP, thus only viable luciferase-expressing cells or tissues are capable of producing bioluminescence signals. Here, we summarize a BLI protocol that takes advantage of advances in hardware, especially the cooled charge-coupled device camera, to enable detection of bioluminescence in living animals with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range.

  13. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  14. Optimization of image quality in breast tomosynthesis using lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberg, Pontus; Ruschin, Mark; Båth, Magnus; Hemdal, Bengt; Andersson, Ingvar; Svahn, Tony; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how image quality in breast tomosynthesis (BT) is affected when acquisition modes are varied, using human breast specimens containing malignant tumors and/or microcalcifications. Images of thirty-one breast lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens were acquired on a BT prototype based on a Mammomat Novation (Siemens) full-field digital mammography system. BT image acquisitions of the same specimens were performed varying the number of projections, angular range, and detector signal collection mode (binned and nonbinned in the scan direction). An enhanced filtered back projection reconstruction method was applied with constant settings of spectral and slice thickness filters. The quality of these images was evaluated via relative visual grading analysis (VGA) human observer performance experiments using image quality criteria. Results from the relative VGA study indicate that image quality increases with number of projections and angular range. A binned detector collecting mode results in less noise, but reduced resolution of structures. Human breast specimens seem to be suitable for comparing image sets in BT with image quality criteria.

  15. The Role of Tumor Metastases Suppressor Gene, Drg-1, in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    catenin. Nuclear staining beta-catenin 36 72 Breast Carcinoma Phyllodes tumor 73 74 75 Reduced...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0309 TITLE: The Role of Tumor Metastases Suppressor...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 MAR 2007 - 29 FEB 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Tumor Metastases

  16. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed IGFBP5-Related Genes in Breast Cancer Tumor Tissues Using cDNA Microarray Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    IGFBP5 is an important regulatory protein in breast cancer progression. We tried to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between breast tumor tissues with IGFBP5 overexpression and their adjacent normal tissues. In this study, thirty-eight breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissue samples were used to determine IGFBP5 expression by qPCR. cDNA microarrays were applied to the highest IGFBP5 overexpressed tumor samples compared to their adjacent normal breast tissue. Microarray a...

  18. Implementing Tumor Detection and Area Calculation in Mri Image of Human Brain Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil L. Bangare; Madhura Patil

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the research on Human Brain Tumor which uses the MRI imaging technique to capture the image. In this proposed work Brain Tumor area is calculated to define the Stage or level of seriousness of the tumor. Image Processing techniques are used for the brain tumor area calculation and Neural Network algorithms for the tumor position calculation. Also in the further advancement the classification of the tumor based on few parameters is also expected. Proposed wor...

  19. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Heidari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

  20. Role of COX-2 in the regulation of the metastatic potential of human breast tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of СOX-2, VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, EGFR, endoglin (СD105, and IL-6 was analyzed in the human breast tumor cells having a varying metastatic potential. The role of these factors in the regulation of the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells, as well as that of COX-2 in the regulation of metastatic processes at the cellular level were examined. The potential capacity of human breast tumor cells to elaborate factors that stimulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis was evaluated.

  1. Phyllodes tumor: an unexpected tumor of the breast. A report on six patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzl, H.; Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria); Peintinger, F. [Div. of Gynecology, Leoben (Austria)

    2004-03-01

    Background and purpose: to evaluate the role of adjuvant radiotherapy for an unexpected malignancy of the breast, known as phyllodes tumor, a retrospective study was undertaken. Patients and methods: between 1994 and 2002, six female patients with a phyllodes tumor (borderline, n = 2; malignant, n = 4) were irradiated after modified radical mastectomy at our institution. No patient received adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: two patients experienced local failure, after 17 months (malignant) and 23 (borderline) months of observation. One of the patients with local relapse died intercurrently, the other because of multiple pulmonary metastases. Four patients are alive and show no evidence of disease. Median follow-up was 33.8 months (range 29-42 months). Conclusion: based on the data from the literature and the authors' findings, it is concluded that surgery with wide negative margins is the preferred initial treatment option. There is no indication for axillary dissection, since these tumors rarely metastasize to regional lymph nodes. In patients with phyllodes tumors showing adverse prognostic factors, postoperative irradiation is recommended. (orig.)

  2. Breast fibromatosis associated with breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoon Nae; Park, Young Mi; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Fibromatosis refers to an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor or aggressive fibromatosis. Breast fibromatosis can develop in association with the capsule around a breast implant, although reports of cases of fibromatosis associated with breast implants are rare. As the demand for breast augmentation has increased, it is important to understand the diseases associated with breast implants. In the present report, we describe a case of breast fibromatosis that developed adjacent to a breast implant and demonstrated a relatively well-defined border even though it invaded the surrounding structures. We also explore the specific imaging features for diagnosing breast fibromatosis in association with implants by reviewing previous literature.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of breast cancer; O uso da ressonancia magnetica na investigacao do cancer mamario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: alvaresb@terra.com.br; Michell, Michael [King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2003-12-01

    Mammography, ultrasonography and scintimammography are essential examinations for the diagnosis and post-surgical follow-up of patients with breast cancer, although all these modalities may present specific limitations. In recent years magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated good performance in detecting breast tumors in the mammary gland. In this study the authors describe the magnetic resonance imaging main indications and findings in patients with breast cancer, and compare the performance of mammography, ultrasonography and scintimammography, including the advantages and limitations of each modality. (author)

  4. Optical Imaging of Tumors with Copper-Labeled Rhodamine Derivatives by Targeting Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan, Yang Zhou, Shuang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated Cu(L1 in two xenografted tumor-bearing (U87MG and MDA-MB-435 animal models to prove the concept that Cu(II-labeled rhodamine derivatives, Cu(L (L = L1 - L4 are useful as selective fluorescent probes for tumor imaging. We found that both multidrug resistance (MDR negative U87MG gliomas and MDR-positive MDA-MB-435 breast tumors could be visualized. Because of tissue attenuation, accurate quantification of tumor uptake was difficult by optical methods. Therefore, 64Cu(L (L = L1 - L4 were evaluated to compare their biodistribution properties. It was found that all four 64Cu radiotracers had a high glioma uptake (64Cu(L1: 5.71± 1.43 %ID/g; 64Cu(L2: 5.98 ± 2.75 %ID/g; 64Cu(L3: 4.28 ± 1.45 %ID/g; and 64Cu(L4: 6.25 ± 3.42 %ID/g with 64Cu(L1 showing the highest tumor/background ratios. In athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts, 64Cu(L4 showed almost identical normal organ uptake to that in the glioma-bearing animals, but its breast tumor uptake (1.26 ± 0.10% ID/g was significantly lower (p < 0.001 than that in the glioma (6.25 ± 3.42% ID/g because of MDR Pgps (P-glycoproteins and MRPs (multidrug resistance-associated proteins overexpressed in the xenografted MDA-MB-435 breast tumors. Results from cellular staining assays showed that both Cu(L2 and Cu(L4 were able to localize in mitochondria of U87MG cells, and their tumor selectivity was caused by the elevated negative mitochondrial potential in U87MG glioma cells as compared to that in human fibroblast cells. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that Cu(L (L = L1 - L4 are useful as selective fluorescent probes for cellular staining assays and optical tumor imaging while 64Cu(L (L = L1 - L4 have the potential as PET radiotracers for tumor imaging. This study represents a good example of dual modality imaging (PET and optical using two agents, 64Cu(L and Cu(L, with identical chemical composition. Future research will focus on developing

  5. Morphological predictors of nipple areola involvement in malignant breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Kalyan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nipple areola (NA sparing mastectomy has an acceptable complication rate, is oncologically safe and facilitates an improved cosmetic result, aiding greatly in reducing psychological trauma associated with breast loss. Questions regarding preoperative case selection for NA sparing mastectomy are pertinent. Aims: The principle objective was to develop a simple model based on correlation of malignant involvement of NA with morphological factors in breast cancer cases to accurately predict the cancerous involvement of nipple areola preoperatively. Settings and Design: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 136 patients of breast cancer. The period of study spanned 3 years from 2004 to 2007. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 17 different morphological parameters which had proven prognostic significance in breast cancer cases for their relationship with NA involvement. Data regarding cytological parameters were available in 120 cases out of the total number of 136 cases. Simple and conventional methods appropriate for any under-resourced set-up were employed to enhance the economic viability and acceptability of the project. Statistical Analysis used: Statistical analysis in this study was mostly done using SPSS version: 14 software. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant when assessing correlation between two parameters. Results: The frequency of NA involvement detected in this study was 19.1%. In univariate analysis, 13 of the 17 morphological parameters were found to have strong statistical association (P < 0.05 with NA involvement. In multivariate analysis, only four parameters-macroscopic NA changes, tumor-NA distance ( < 1.5cm, histological lymph node grade and extra capsular extension in lymph node were found to have independent role for NA involvement prediction. This multivariate Cox and Snell Regression model with Cox and Snell Regression Square of 0.551 can predict accurately 98.5% cases of nipple involvement

  6. Groupwise registration of MR brain images with tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihong; Fan, Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel groupwise image registration framework is developed for registering MR brain images with tumors. Our method iteratively estimates a normal-appearance counterpart for each tumor image to be registered and constructs a directed graph (digraph) of normal-appearance images to guide the groupwise image registration. Particularly, our method maps each tumor image to its normal appearance counterpart by identifying and inpainting brain tumor regions with intensity information estimated using a low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image representation technique. The estimated normal-appearance images are groupwisely registered to a group center image guided by a digraph of images so that the total length of ‘image registration paths’ to be the minimum, and then the original tumor images are warped to the group center image using the resulting deformation fields. We have evaluated our method based on both simulated and real MR brain tumor images. The registration results were evaluated with overlap measures of corresponding brain regions and average entropy of image intensity information, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were adopted to compare different methods with respect to their regional overlap measures. Compared with a groupwise image registration method that is applied to normal-appearance images estimated using the traditional low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image inpainting, our method achieved higher image registration accuracy with statistical significance (p  =  7.02  ×  10-9).

  7. Endocrine disruptors and the tumor microenvironment: A new paradigm in breast cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Hope; Pashos, Nicholas; Martin, Elizabeth; Mclachlan, John; Bunnell, Bruce; Burow, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in women and is characterized by predominantly estrogen dependent growth. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) have estrogenic properties which have been shown to increase breast cancer risk. While the direct effects of EDCs on breast cancer cell biology and tumor progression have been well studied, the roles for EDCs on tumor microenvironment composition, signaling and structure are incompletely defined. Estrogen targeting of tumor stromal cells can drive paracrine signaling to breast cancer cells regulating tumorigenesis and progression. Additionally, estrogen and estrogen receptor signaling has been shown to alter breast architecture and extracellular matrix component synthesis. Unsurprisingly, EDCs have been shown to induce structural changes in the mammary gland as well as increased collagen fibers in the tissue stroma. Previous work demonstrates that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are essential components of the tumor microenvironment and are direct targets of both estrogens and EDCs. Furthermore, estrogen-stem cell cross talk has been implicated in breast cancer progression and results in increased tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion. This review aims to dissect the possible relationship and mechanisms between EDCs, the tumor microenvironment, and breast cancer progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Automated quality assessment in three-dimensional breast ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Julia; Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; van Zelst, Jan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a valuable adjunct to x-ray mammography for breast cancer screening of women with dense breasts. High image quality is essential for proper diagnostics and computer-aided detection. We propose an automated image quality assessment system for ABUS images that detects artifacts at the time of acquisition. Therefore, we study three aspects that can corrupt ABUS images: the nipple position relative to the rest of the breast, the shadow caused by the nipple, and the shape of the breast contour on the image. Image processing and machine learning algorithms are combined to detect these artifacts based on 368 clinical ABUS images that have been rated manually by two experienced clinicians. At a specificity of 0.99, 55% of the images that were rated as low quality are detected by the proposed algorithms. The areas under the ROC curves of the single classifiers are 0.99 for the nipple position, 0.84 for the nipple shadow, and 0.89 for the breast contour shape. The proposed algorithms work fast and reliably, which makes them adequate for online evaluation of image quality during acquisition. The presented concept may be extended to further image modalities and quality aspects.

  9. Study into the displacement of tumor localization needle during navigated breast cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Christina; Ungi, Tamas; Gauvin, Gabrielle; Jabs, Doris; Lasso, Andras; Engel, Jay; Rudan, John; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Early stage breast cancer is typically treated with lumpectomy. During lumpectomy, electromagnetic tracking can be used to monitor tumor position using a localization needle with an electromagnetic sensor fixed on the needle shaft. This needle is stabilized in the tumor with tissue locking wire hooks, which are deployed once the needle is inserted. The localization needle may displace from its initial position of insertion due to mechanical forces, providing false spatial information about the tumor position and increasing the probability of an incomplete resection. This study investigates whether gravitational and mechanical forces affected the magnitude of needle displacement. METHODS: Ten ultrasound scans were evaluated to measure needle displacement in vivo. Needle position was approximated by the distance between the needle tip and the tumor boundary on a 2D ultrasound image, and needle displacement was defined by the change in position. The angle between the localization needle and the coronal plane was computed in an open-source platform. RESULTS: A significant relationship (p = 0.04) was found between the needle to coronal plane angle and increased needle displacement. Needles inserted vertically, pointing towards the operating room ceiling, tended to exhibit greater needle displacement. Average needle displacement was 1.7 +/-1.2 mm. CONCLUSION: Angle between the needle and the horizontal plane has been shown to affect needle displacement, and should be taken into consideration when inserting the localization needle. Future works can be directed towards improving the clinical workflow and mechanical design of the localization needle to reduce slippage during surgery.

  10. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  11. Pattern of Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobsen, Jan, E-mail: j.jobsen@mst.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Palen, Job van der [Department of Epidemiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, Faculty of Behavioral Science, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Riemersma, Sietske [Laboratory for Pathology Oost Nederland, Hengelo (Netherlands); Heijmans, Harald [Department of Surgery, Ziekenhuis Groep Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); Ong, Francisca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Struikmans, Henk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Radiotherapy Centre West, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the incidence and prognostic factors of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) in a large, population-based, single-center study with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 3595 cases in which BCT was performed in 3824 women with stage I or II breast cancer. The incidence of IBTR was analyzed over time and was based on IBTR as first event. Results: The 15-year local relapse-free survival was 90.9%. The hazard estimates for IBTR showed a time course with 2 peaks, the first at approximately 5 years and the second, twice as high, at 12 years. Stratifying subjects by age and margin status showed that, for women ≤40 years old with negative margins, adjuvant systemic therapy led to a 5-fold reduced risk of recurrence compared to none, and the presence of lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) had a 3-fold increased risk compared to its absence. For women >40 years old, the presence of LVSI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5) and the presence of lobular carcinoma in situ in the lumpectomy specimen (HR 2.3) were the only 2 risk factors. Conclusions: We demonstrated a pattern in risk of IBTR over time, with 2 peaks, first at approximately 5 years and a second, much higher peak at approximately 12 years, especially for women ≤40 years old. For women ≤40 years old with tumor-free resection margins, we noted that the absence of adjuvant systemic therapy and the presence of LVSI were independent prognostic factors of IBTR. For women >40 years old, the presence of LVSI and the presence of lobular carcinoma in situ were independent risk factors.

  12. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  13. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  14. Discrimination between normal breast tissue and tumor tissue using CdTe series detector developed for photon-counting mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Chizuru; Ihori, Akiko; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okada, Masahiro; Kato, Misa; Nakajima, Ai; Kodera, Yoshie

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new mammography system using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) series photon-counting detector, having high absorption efficiency over a wide energy range. In a previous study, we showed that the use of high X-ray energy in digital mammography is useful from the viewpoint of exposure dose and image quality. In addition, the CdTe series detector can acquire X-ray spectrum information following transmission through a subject. This study focused on the tissue composition identified using spectral information obtained by a new photon-counting detector. Normal breast tissue consists entirely of adipose and glandular tissues. However, it is very difficult to find tumor tissue in the region of glandular tissue via a conventional mammogram, especially in dense breast because the attenuation coefficients of glandular tissue and tumor tissue are very close. As a fundamental examination, we considered a simulation phantom and showed the difference between normal breast tissue and tumor tissue of various thicknesses in a three-dimensional (3D) scatter plot. We were able to discriminate between both types of tissues. In addition, there was a tendency for the distribution to depend on the thickness of the tumor tissue. Thinner tumor tissues were shown to be closer in appearance to normal breast tissue. This study also demonstrated that the difference between these tissues could be made obvious by using a CdTe series detector. We believe that this differentiation is important, and therefore, expect this technology to be applied to new tumor detection systems in the future.

  15. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  16. Spectral imaging of breast fibroadenoma using second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA), typically composed of stroma and epithelial cells, is a very common benign breast disease. Women with FA are associated with an increased risk of future breast cancer. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) for characterizing the morphology of collagen in the human breast fibroadenomas. In the study, high-contrast SHG images of human normal breast tissues and fibroadenoma tissues were obtained for comparison. The morphology of collagen was different between normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. This study shows that MPLSM has the ability to distinguish fibroadenoma tissues from the normal breast tissues based on the noninvasive SHG imaging. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature MPLSM, we believe that the technique has great potential to be used in vivo studies and for monitoring the treatment responses of fibroadenomas in clinical.

  17. Male breast cancer according to tumor subtype and race: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Clarke, Christina A.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer occurs rarely in men. To the best of our knowledge, there are no population-based estimates of the incidence of HER2-neu-positive breast cancer or of the distribution of breast cancer subtypes among male patients. We explored breast tumor subtype distribution by race/ethnicity among men in the large, ethnically diverse population of California. Methods We included male breast cancer patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2005-2009 with known ER, PR and HER2-neu status reported to the California Cancer Registry. Among the patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors, survival probabilities between groups were compared using log-rank tests. Results Six-hundred and six patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 68 years. Four hundred and ninety four (81.5%) patients had HR+ tumors, defined as ER+ and/or PR+ and HER2-negative. Ninety (14.9%) had HER2-neu-positive, and 22 (3.6%) had triple receptor-negative tumors (TN). Among HR+ patients, Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have PR negative tumors compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in survival according to tumor subtype (p=0.088). Differences in survival according to race/ethnicity were seen among all patients (p=0.087) and among those with HR+ tumors (p=0.0170), with Non-Hispanic Blacks having poorer outcomes. Conclusions In this large, representative cohort of male breast cancer patients, the distribution of tumor subtypes was different from that reported for females and varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have triple receptor-negative tumors and more likely to have ER+/PR- tumors than white men. PMID:23341341

  18. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  19. Interference of breast implants with echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movahed Mohammad-Reza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography is one of the most important diagnostic testing in cardiology. The presence of a breast implant overlying heart can cause significant impairment of the echocardiographic acoustic window. Breast implants are increasing in popularity in the USA and the Federal Drug and Food Administration (FDA just approved silicone implants again. In this review, the impact of silicone breast implant on the echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation is discussed.

  20. Large malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with metastases to the lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Augustyn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors of the breast account for less than 0.5% of breast cancers and present most commonly in women 45 to 49 years old. The importance in managing fibroepithelial lesions lies in distinguishing fibroadenomas, which are benign, from phyllodes tumors, which can be malignant and require complete surgical excision. We report the case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in her right breast 18 cm in maximum dimension that completely effaced the breast and distorted the nipple. The patient underwent a successful total mastectomy after core biopsy revealed a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor. Surgical resection is the primary treatment modality; neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies remain controversial. Here, we report the case of a large malignant phyllodes tumor metastatic to the lungs, review the literature, and discuss diagnostic modalities and adjunct nonsurgical therapies.

  1. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  2. Age- and Tumor Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Risk Estimates for CHEK2*1100delC Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hogervorst, Frans; van Hien, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a well-established breast cancer risk variant that is most prevalent in European populations; however, there are limited data on risk of breast cancer by age and tumor subtype, which limits its usefulness in breast cancer risk prediction. We aimed to generate tumor subt...

  3. Localized fibrous tumor of the liver: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecesne, R.; Drouillard, J.; Laurent, F. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale-Radiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Le Bail, B. [Department d`Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Place Amelie Raba-Leon, Bordeaux (France); Saric, J. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive, Groupe Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux (France); Balabaud, C. [Service des Maladies de L`Appareil Digestif, Groupe Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux (France)

    1998-02-01

    We report the imaging of a localized fibrous tumor of the liver, focusing on color Doppler US, CT, MR imaging, and angiographic findings. We discuss the differential diagnosis of such a rare, benign lesion of the liver. Detailed imaging of this tumor has not been reported in the literature previously. (orig.) With 6 figs., 10 refs.

  4. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  5. Prospective dual role of mesenchymal stem cells in breast tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senst, Christiane; Nazari-Shafti, Timo; Kruger, Stefan; Höner Zu Bentrup, Kirstin; Dupin, Charles L; Chaffin, Abigail E; Srivastav, Sudesh K; Wörner, Philipp M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Alt, Eckhard U; Izadpanah, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer tissue is a heterogeneous cellular milieu comprising cancer and host cells. The interaction between breast malignant and non-malignant cells takes place in breast tumor microenvironment (TM), and has a crucial role in breast cancer progression. In addition to cellular component of TM, it mainly consists of cytokines released by tumor cells. The tumor-tropic capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their interaction with breast TM is an active area of investigation. In the present communication, the interplay between the breast resident adipose tissue-derived MSCs (B-ASCs) and breast TM was studied. It was found that a distinct subset of B-ASCs display a strong affinity for conditioned media (CM) from two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB 231 (MDA-CM) and MCF-7 (MCF-CM). The expressions of several cytokines including angiogenin, GM-CSF, IL-6, GRO-α and IL-8 in MDA-CM and MCF-CM have been identified. Upon functional analysis a crucial role for GRO-α and IL-8 in B-ASCs migration was detected. The B-ASC migration was found to be via negative regulation of RECK and enhanced expression of MMPs. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis showed that migratory subpopulation express both pro- and anti-tumorigenic genes and microRNAs (miRNA). Importantly, we observed that the migratory cells exhibit similar gene and miRNA attributes as those seen in B-ASCs of breast cancer patients. These findings are novel and suggest that in breast cancer, B-ASCs migrate to the proximity of tumor foci. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interplay between B-ASCs and breast TM will help in understanding the probable role of B-ASCs in breast cancer development, and could pave way for anticancer therapies.

  6. Microstrip Back-Cavity Hilbert Fractal Antenna for Experimental Detection of Breast Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a miniaturized microstrip back-cavity Hilbert Fractal Antenna specifically designed for breast cancer detection. This antenna is used to investigate on the possibility of detecting the presence of breast tumors by directly measuring the shift of the antenna resonance frequency. First, simulations are performed on a multi-layer breast model; then the proposed approach was applied for in vivo measurements on two different patients diagnosed with breas...

  7. The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0707 TITLE: The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and...3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on...Accomplishments: Specific Aim 1: To demonstrate that differences in normal breast epithelial hierarchy between African American and Caucasian

  8. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  9. A study of tumor heterogeneity in a case with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Haruka; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Hirotsu, Yosuke; Amemiya, Kenji; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Inoue, Masayuki; Oyama, Toshio; Omata, Masao

    2017-05-01

    Tumor heterogeneity has been suggested based on clinical and pathological findings. Several clinical findings can be explained by tumor evolution during progression and metastasis. We herein report a case of metastatic breast cancer indicated tumor heterogeneity by clinical findings and a genomic analysis. A 64-year-old woman with advanced breast cancer was treated with primary chemotherapy, to which primary tumor responded. After a 6 month treatment pause, lung, liver, and skin metastases developed and her serum tumor markers were elevated. None of those serum markers had been elevated before the treatment, despite the large tumor burden. Notably, there was discordance in the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) between the primary tumor and metastatic skin lesions, with the former being negative and the latter positive. A genomic analysis was performed by in-house Breast Cancer Panel, which consisted of 53 pre-selected genes. Twenty-three somatic mutations were found in primary breast tumor and 7 in the skin metastasis. None of these 30 genes matched. However, the cell-free (cf) DNA in the plasma taken at the time of skin metastasis contained 10 mutations, 7 from the primary lesion and 3 from the metastasis. These data indicate that the clonal changes or tumor heterogeneity was shown in two solid tumors by clinical and the result of a genomic analysis. Of particular interest was that cell-free DNA could be a powerful tool to look into these dynamic changes.

  10. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  11. Influence of the Tumor Microenvironment on Genomic Changes Conferring Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    addition, I generated multiple fluorescent labeling technique and a transgenic mouse that would be useful to examine heterogeneous primary tumor cells in...tumor cells to examine tumor hypoxia, I validated endogenous expression of Hif1α in murine breast cancer cells that ara available at our laboratory...This approach was expected to be an effective way to distinguish individual primary tumor cells from heterogeneous population if combined with

  12. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  13. Breast DCE-MRI Kinetic Heterogeneity Tumor Markers: Preliminary Associations With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmed; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Mies, Carolyn; DeMichele, Angela; Rosen, Mark; Davatzikos, Christos; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for women diagnosed with breast cancer, either before or early on in treatment, is critical to judicious patient selection and tailoring the treatment regimen. In this paper, we investigate the role of contrast agent kinetic heterogeneity features derived from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for predicting treatment response. We propose a set of kinetic statistic descriptors and present preliminary results showing the discriminatory capacity of the proposed descriptors for predicting complete and non-complete responders as assessed from pre-treatment imaging exams. The study population consisted of 15 participants: 8 complete responders and 7 non-complete responders. Using the proposed kinetic features, we trained a leave-one-out logistic regression classifier that performs with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.84 under the ROC. We compare the predictive value of our features against commonly used MRI features including kinetics of the characteristic kinetic curve (CKC), maximum peak enhancement (MPE), hotspot signal enhancement ratio (SER), and longest tumor diameter that give lower AUCs of 0.71, 0.66, 0.64, and 0.54, respectively. Our proposed kinetic statistics thus outperform the conventional kinetic descriptors as well as the classifier using a combination of all the conventional descriptors (i.e., CKC, MPE, SER, and longest diameter), which gives an AUC of 0.74. These findings suggest that heterogeneity-based DCE-MRI kinetic statistics could serve as potential imaging biomarkers for tumor characterization and could be used to improve candidate patient selection even before the start of the neoadjuvant treatment. PMID:26055172

  14. Breast DCE-MRI Kinetic Heterogeneity Tumor Markers: Preliminary Associations With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ashraf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for women diagnosed with breast cancer, either before or early on in treatment, is critical to judicious patient selection and tailoring the treatment regimen. In this paper, we investigate the role of contrast agent kinetic heterogeneity features derived from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging