WorldWideScience

Sample records for imaging applications part

  1. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  2. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 9. Application of neutron imaging to biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    For radiography, the use of neutrons as a complement to X-rays is especially suitable for biological research such as plant, wood, and medical application due to the enhanced sensitivity to light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. The present paper introduces applications of neutron CT to the humidity (water) distribution and its variation in the flowering plant as cut carnation, observation of water movement in refrigerated chrysanthemum leaves using very cold neutron and in cut leaves using deuterium oxide and ordinary water, measurement of water movement in sprouting cone and soy bean and growing ginseng in the soil, and other applications as to archaeological wood immersed in a restoration solution and to medical purposes. (S. Ohno)

  3. Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 2. The neurosurgeon's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbelt, A

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging, including multivoxel spectroscopy, tractography, functional MRI and positron emission spectroscopy, are being used by neurosurgeons to target aggressive areas in gliomas, and to help identify tumour boundaries, functional areas and tracts. Neuro-oncological surgeons need to understand these techniques to help maximise tumour resection, while minimising morbidity in an attempt to improve the quality of patient outcome. This article reviews the evidence for the practical use of multimodal imaging in modern glioma surgery. PMID:22433829

  4. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  6. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Applications part 5. Application of neutron imaging to fluid engineering-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Asano, Hitoshi; Umekawa, Hisashi; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of the neutron beam attenuation vary with elements constituting the object and it attenuates with hydrogen and a specific element greatly and penetrates most metal well. Normal liquid such as water, oil, the organic liquid includes a lot of hydrogen, and a neutron beam attenuates, but attenuation characteristics of the metal well used industrially such as iron, copper, aluminum are smaller than normal liquid. Because most machines are made of metal, and liquid behavior of the machine inside can be seen through neutron radiography, it is possible to be used as the X-rays of the machine. As an application of neutron radiography to the fluid engineering, fluid behavior in the metal pipe and container, especially two phase flow mingled with each phase of gas/liquid/solid, has been visible and measurable which is difficult to be performed by other methods, and in late years the industry use of neutron radiography attracts attention particularly. This serial course describes overviews of two-phase flow visualization and measurement and freezing/cooling machinery as the first example of recent application to the machinery. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 3. Application of neutron imaging in aircraft, space rocket, car and gunpowder industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    Neutron imaging is applied to nondestructive test. Four neutron imaging facilities are used in Japan. The application examples of industries are listed in the table: space rocket, aircraft, car, liquid metal, and works of art. Neutron imaging of transportation equipments are illustrated as an application to industry. X-ray radiography testing (XRT) image and neutron radiography testing (NRT) image of turbine blade of aircraft engine, honeycomb structure of aircraft, helicopter rotor blade, trigger tube, separation nut of space rocket, carburetor of car, BMW engine, fireworks and ammunitions are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Nuclear Medicine imaging of infection and inflammation Part 3: Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, G.; Croasdale, J.; Buscombe, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt localization of infection sites is essential for initiating appropriate therapeutic measures. There have been major advances in the management of patients suffering from infective and/or inflammatory disorders as a result of introduction of newer drugs with high sensitivity and specificity. However diagnosis of infection / inflammation still remains a major clinical problem. Although the typical signs of infection and inflammation are useful in localizing the pathology at superficial sites, infection and inflammation of internal structures are often difficult to localize without the aid of imaging procedures. Radionuclide imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of patho-physiological processes of infection and inflammation. A spectrum of radiopharmaceuticals and a number of imaging protocols have been used in clinical practice. However every method differs in its potential to gather information at the cellular and molecular level. This review addresses some of the applications of radionuclide infection imaging procedures in musculoskeletal system, lymphatic system, in immunocompromised patients and in patients suffering from fever of unknown origin. (author)

  9. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part I: endoscopic and direct vision imaging - techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Khoshnam, Mahta; Najmaei, Nima; Patel, Rajni V

    2014-09-01

    Intra-operative imaging is widely used to provide visual feedback to a clinician when he/she performs a procedure. In visual servoing, surgical instruments and parts of tissue/body are tracked by processing the acquired images. This information is then used within a control loop to manoeuvre a robotic manipulator during a procedure. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013 to provide a survey of the visual servoing applications in medical robotics. The focus is on medical applications where image-based tracking is used for closed-loop control of a robotic system. Detailed classification and comparative study of various contributions in visual servoing using endoscopic or direct visual images are presented and summarized in tables and diagrams. The main challenges in using visual servoing for medical robotic applications are identified and potential future directions are suggested. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  11. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in order to meet the higher demands on resolution in ultrasound imaging. It is shown that for the small time-bandwidth (TB) products available in ultrasound, the rectangular spectrum approximation is not valid, which reduces....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded...... excitation/compression scheme. The clinical images show a significant improvement in penetration depth and contrast, while they preserve both axial and lateral resolution. At the maximum acquisition depth of 15 cm, there is an improvement of more than 10 dB in the signal-to-noise ratio of the images...

  12. User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

  13. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Applications part 8. Application of neutron imaging to inspection of art objects and ancient artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Masuzawa, Fumitake

    2007-01-01

    Neutron radiography is an imaging technique which provides images similar to X-ray radiography and is often used to study ancient artifacts and art objects because the measurements are non-destructive. While metallic elements contained in ancient artifacts, namely gold, silver, mercury, copper, tin, lead, or iron, have X-ray mass attenuation coefficient much higher than light elements composing organic substances, for neutron attenuation the coefficient values are entirely opposite. The method is particularly useful for examination of the internal structure and composition of cultural object made of organic materials inside the metallic vessel. Here some of the research results using JAEA-JRR3M facility are presented: sutras in a cylindrical copper tube, the interior structure of Buddha statues, bone materials in metallic bottles, bronze mirrors, ancient jars and textiles. (S. Ohno)

  14. Contribution to automatic image recognition. Application to analysis of plain scenes of overlapping parts in robot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Shengbiao

    1987-01-01

    A method for object modeling and overlapped object automatic recognition is presented. Our work is composed of three essential parts: image processing, object modeling, and evaluation of the implementation of the stated concepts. In the first part, we present a method of edge encoding which is based on a re-sampling of the data encoded according to Freeman, this method generates an isotropic, homogenous and very precise representation. The second part relates to object modeling. This important step makes much easier the recognition work. The new method proposed characterizes a model with two groups of information: the description group containing the primitives, the discrimination group containing data packs, called 'transition vectors'. Based on this original method of information organization, a 'relative learning' is able to select, to ignore and to update the information concerning the objects already learned, according to the new information to be included into the data base. The recognition is a two-pass process: the first pass determines very efficiently the presence of objects by making use of each object's particularities, and this hypothesis is either confirmed or rejected by the following fine verification pass. The last part describes in detail the experimentation results. We demonstrate the robustness of the algorithms with images in both poor lighting and overlapping objects conditions. The system, named SOFIA, has been installed into an industrial vision system series and works in real time. (author) [fr

  15. Applications of optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  16. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  17. A decade of imaging surgeons' brain function (part II): A systematic review of applications for technical and nontechnical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hemel Narendra; Singh, Harsimrat; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging technologies enable assessment of operator brain function and can deepen our understanding of skills learning, ergonomic optima, and cognitive processes in surgeons. Although there has been a critical mass of data detailing surgeons' brain function, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. A systematic search of original neuroimaging studies assessing surgeons' brain function and published up until November 2016 was conducted using Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 3 feasibility studies, 14 studies exploring the neural correlates of technical skill acquisition, and the remainder investigating brain function in the context of intraoperative decision-making (n = 1), neurofeedback training (n = 1), robot-assisted technology (n = 5), and surgical teaching (n = 3). Early stages of learning open surgical tasks (knot-tying) are characterized by prefrontal cortical activation, which subsequently attenuates with deliberate practice. However, with complex laparoscopic skills (intracorporeal suturing), prefrontal cortical engagement requires substantial training, and attenuation occurs over a longer time course, after years of refinement. Neurofeedback and interventions that improve neural efficiency may enhance technical performance and skills learning. Imaging surgeons' brain function has identified neural signatures of expertise that might help inform objective assessment and selection processes. Interventions that improve neural efficiency may target skill-specific brain regions and augment surgical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  19. Application of the ROC method to assessment of image quality issues in mammography. Part 2. Comparative evaluation of image quality and radiation dose to thick body sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Saebel, M.

    2000-01-01

    For the experimental comparative assessment reported, the following radiation qualities were compared for radiation dose applied and image quality: molydenum anode, 30mum molybdenum filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; molybdenum anode, 25 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; tungsten anode, 50 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV. The results show that in the differentiated assessment according to the various radiation qualities, significant deviations in imaging quality of the different detail types are possible. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Store Image: Scale implementation Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel du Preez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the final in the three-part series regarding store image. The purposes of this article are to (1 implement the developed scale to assess whether it illustrates acceptable psychometric properties of reliability and validity, (2 assess the model fit of the developed scale and (3 formulate recommendations for future research. Results indicated that the Apparel Store Image Scale (ASIS show acceptable reliability and model fit. A refined definition of store image was proposed together with a Final Model of Apparel Store Image. Recommendations for future research are made.

  1. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  2. Imaging of spatial distributions of the millimeter wave intensity by using the Visible Continuum Radiation from a discharge in a Cs-Xe mixture. Part II: Demonstration of application capabilities of the technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, M. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Fedotov, A. E.; Tsvetkov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the second part of the review on a high-sensitive technique for time-resolved imaging and measurements of the 2D intensity profiles of millimeter-wave radiation by means of Visible Continuum Radiation emitted by the positive column of a medium-pressure Cs-Xe DC Discharge (VCRD method). The first part of the review was focused on the operating principles and fundamentals of this new technique [Plasma Phys. Rep. 43, 253 (2017)]. The second part of the review focuses on experiments demonstrating application of this imaging technique to measure the parameters of radiation at the output of moderate-power millimeter-wave sources. In particular, the output waveguide mode of a moderate-power W-band gyrotron with a pulsed magnetic field was identified and the relative powers of some spurious modes at the outputs of this gyrotron and a pulsed D-band orotron were evaluated. The paper also reviews applications of the VCRD technique for real-time imaging and nondestructive testing with a frame rate of higher than 10 fps by using millimeter waves. Shadow projection images of objects opaque and transparent for millimeter waves have been obtained using pulsed watt-scale millimeter waves for object illumination. Near video frame rate millimeter-wave shadowgraphy has been demonstrated. It is shown that this technique can be used for single-shot screening (including detection of concealed objects) and time-resolved imaging of time-dependent processes.

  3. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  4. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  5. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  6. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  7. Application of image editing software for forensic detection of image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of image editing software for forensic detection of image. ... The image editing software's available today is apt for creating visually compelling and sophisticated fake images, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications.

  9. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications

  10. Physics for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, Alesssandra; Rahal, Ghita

    2007-01-01

    The book introduces the fundamental aspects of digital imaging and covers four main themes: Ultrasound techniques and imaging applications; Magnetic resonance and MPJ in hospital; Digital imaging with X-rays; and Emission tomography (PET and SPECT). Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. choice of radioisotopes or contrast agents, optimisation of data acquisition and st

  11. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  12. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  13. Multimodal nanoparticle imaging agents: design and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents. These agents can be detected using a selection from radioisotope, magnetic resonance and optical imaging, among others. Nanoparticles offer great scope in this area as they lend themselves, via facile modification procedures, to act as multifunctional constructs. They have relevance as therapeutics and drug delivery agents that can be tracked by molecular imaging techniques with the particular development of applications in optically guided surgery and as radiosensitizers. There has been a huge amount of research work to produce nanoconstructs for imaging, and the parameters for successful clinical translation and validation of therapeutic applications are now becoming much better understood. It is an exciting time of progress for these agents as their potential is closer to being realized with translation into the clinic. The coming 5-10 years will be critical, as we will see if the predicted improvement in clinical outcomes becomes a reality. Some of the latest advances in combination modality agents are selected and the progression pathway to clinical trials analysed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  14. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  15. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  16. Wavelets: Applications to Image Compression-II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wavelets: Applications to Image Compression-II. Sachin P ... successful application of wavelets in image com- ... b) Soft threshold: In this case, all the coefficients x ..... [8] http://www.jpeg.org} Official site of the Joint Photographic Experts Group.

  17. Wavelets: Applications to Image Compression-I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    form (OWl). Digital imaging has had an enormous impact on ... Digital images have become an important source of in- ... media applications and is the focus of this article. ..... Theory and Applications, Pearson Education InC., Delhi, India, 2000.

  18. Calculation of null points in SPAIR, FLAIR, and STIR. Part 2. Application to pelvic diffusion-weighted imaging with SPAIR at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Miho; Kawano, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Katsuya; Kondo, Toshihiko; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Humihiro; Oda, Hideyuki; Kojima, Akihiro; Sato, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) requires adequate fat suppression because of its sensitivity to chemical shift artifacts, especially at 3 Tesla (T). We investigated the utility of calculating the inversion time of the null point (TI null ) in pelvic DWI with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) at 3 T for obtaining adequate fat suppression. Thirteen volunteers underwent pelvic SPAIR-DWI using various SPAIR inversion delay times (TI) at 5-ms intervals in the range of the calculated TI null ±25 ms. The degree of fat suppression was evaluated into 3 grades and was compared among the various SPAIR-TIs with the calculated TI null . In 65 cases of prostatic disease, we evaluated the ratio of adequate fat suppression obtained using the calculated TI null . We obtained adequate fat suppression in all 13 volunteers and in 61 (94%) of the 65 patients using the calculated TI null . Fat suppression was best when the calculated TI null was used (P null (P null increased. In conclusion, this method of calculating the TI null may be useful for obtaining adequate fat suppression for pelvic SPAIR-DWI at 3T. (author)

  19. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  20. Planning applications in image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of entheses. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, M. [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Milz, S. [AO Research Institute, Davos (Switzerland); Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego (United States)], E-mail: gbydder@ucsd.edu

    2008-06-15

    Entheses are the sites of attachment of a tendon, ligament, or joint capsule to bone. Many features of entheses are adapted to disperse stress and accommodate compressive and shear forces at, or near, boundaries between tendons or ligaments and bone. Of particular interest is calcified and uncalcified fibrocartilage, which has mechanical properties that differ from those of tensile regions of tendons or ligaments, and from bone. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequences can identify the specific tissue components of entheses and differentiate cortical bone, calcified fibrocartilage, uncalcified fibrocartilage, and fibrous connective tissue. Magic angle imaging can also differentiate tissues, such as fibrocartilage and tendon, which have different fibre orientations. Understanding the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of entheses involves consideration of tissue properties, fibre-to-field angle, magic angle effects, pulse sequences, and geometrical factors including fibre-to-section orientation and partial volume effects. New approaches using MR imaging, allow entheses to be visualised with much greater detail than previously possible, and this may help in biomechanical studies, diagnosis of disease including overuse syndromes and spondyloarthropathies, as well as monitoring tissue repair and healing.

  2. Commonsense in parts : Mining part-whole relations from theweb and image tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandon, Niket; Hariman, Charles; Urbani, Jacopo; Rohrbach, Anna; Rohrbach, Marcus; Weikum, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Commonsense knowledge about part-whole relations (e.g., screen partOf notebook) is important for interpreting user input in web search and question answering, or for object detection in images. Prior work on knowledge base construction has compiled part-whole assertions, but with substantial

  3. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, S.; Bonifazi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that combines the imaging properties of a digital camera with the spectroscopic properties of a spectrometer able to detect the spectral attributes of each pixel in an image. For these characteristics, HSI allows to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of the interactions of light with organic and/or inorganic materials. The results of this interaction are usually displayed as a spectral signature characterized by a sequence of energy values, in a pre-defined wavelength interval, for each of the investigated/collected wavelength. Following this approach, it is thus possible to collect, in a fast and reliable way, spectral information that are strictly linked to chemical-physical characteristics of the investigated materials and/or products. Considering that in an hyperspectral image the spectrum of each pixel can be analyzed, HSI can be considered as one of the best nondestructive technology allowing to perform the most accurate and detailed information extraction. HSI can be applied in different wavelength fields, the most common are the visible (VIS: 400-700 nm), the near infrared (NIR: 1000-1700 nm) and the short wave infrared (SWIR: 1000-2500 nm). It can be applied for inspections from micro- to macro-scale, up to remote sensing. HSI produces a large amount of information due to the great number of continuous collected spectral bands. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterized by lower costs, if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off-line and/or on-line analytical approaches. More and more applications have been thus developed and tested, in these last years, especially in food inspection, with a large range of investigated products, such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and cereals, but also in medicine and pharmaceutical sector, in cultural heritage, in material characterization and in

  5. Neutron imaging and applications a reference for the imaging community

    CERN Document Server

    McGreevy, Robert L; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2009-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the basics of neutron beam production in addition to the wide scope of techniques that enhance imaging application capabilities. This title features a section that describes imaging single grains in polycrystalline materials, neutron imaging of geological materials and other materials science and engineering areas.

  6. Applicability of compton imaging in nuclear decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.Lj.; Marinkovic, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities significant part of the activities is related to the radiological characterization, waste classification and management. For these purposes a relatively new imaging technique, based on information from the gamma radiation that undergoes Compton scattering, is applicable. Compton imaging systems have a number of advantages for nuclear waste characterization, such as identifying hot spots in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage, imaging large contaminated areas and objects etc. Compton imaging also has potential applications for monitoring of production, transport and storage of nuclear materials and components. This paper discusses some system design requirements and performance specifications for these applications. The advantages of Compton imaging are compared to competing imaging techniques. (author)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the osseous structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and can be used to evaluate the size, location, stability, and viability of the osteochondritis dissecans fragment. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early stress injury to the proximal ulna in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect radiographically occult fractures of the elbow in both children and adults. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in children to further evaluate elbow fractures which are detected on plain-film radiographs. (orig.)

  8. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  9. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  10. Application of phase contrast imaging to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Keiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji

    2005-01-01

    Phase contrast images were obtained experimentally by using a customized mammography unit with a nominal focal spot size of 100 μm and variable source-to-image distances of up to 1.5 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability and potential usefulness of phase contrast imaging for mammography. A mammography phantom (ACR156 RMI phantom) was imaged, and its visibility was examined. The optical density of the phantom images was adjusted to approximately 1.3 for both the contact and phase contrast images. Forty-one observers (18 medical doctors and 23 radiological technologists) participated in visual evaluation of the images. Results showed that, in comparison with the images of contact mammography, the phantom images of phase contrast imaging demonstrated statistically significantly superior visibility for fibers, clustered micro-calcifications, and masses. Therefore, phase contrast imaging obtained by using the customized mammography unit would be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy in mammography. (author)

  11. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part I: Classifications and radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are manifested mainly by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. By contrast with adults, children rarely present with sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Imaging and laboratory tests allow early diagnosis and treatment. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions and post-inflammatory complications. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presents classifications of juvenile spondyloarthropathies and discusses their radiographic presentation. Typical radiographic features of individual types of juvenile spondyloarthritis are listed (including ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis and arthritis in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases. The second part will describe changes visible on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging also visualizes early inflammatory changes in the axial skeleton and subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation.

  12. Advanced imaging in rheumatoid arthritis. Part 2: Erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, J.M.; O'Connor, P.J.; Grainger, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the synovium. We now recognise that conventional radiographic images show changes of rheumatoid arthritis late after irreversible joint damage has occured. With the advent of powerful disease-modifying drugs there is a need for early demonstration of rheumatoid arthritis and to monitor progress of the disease and response to therapy. Advanced imaging techniques such as ultrasound and MRI have focussed on the demonstration and quanitification of synovitis and erosions and allow early diagnosis of RA. The technology to quantify synovitis and erosions is developing rapidly and now allows change in disease activity to be assessed. However, problems undoubtedly exist in quantification techniques and this review serves to highlight them. Much of the literature on advanced imaging in RA appears in rheumatological journals and may not be familiar to radiologists. This review article aims to increase the awareness of radiologists to this field and to encourage them to participate and contribute to the ongoing development of these modalities. Without this collaboration it is unlikely that these modalities will reach their full potential in the field of rheumatological imaging. This review is in two parts. This first part addresses synovitis imaging. The second part will look at advanced imaging of erosions in RA. (orig.)

  13. Advanced imaging in rheumatoid arthritis. Part 1: Synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, J.M.; O'Connor, P.J.; Grainger, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the synovium. We now recognise that conventional radiographic images show changes of rheumatoid arthritis long after irreversible joint damage has occured. With the advent of powerful disease-modifying drugs, there is a need for early demonstration of rheumatoid arthritis and a need to monitor progress of the disease and response to therapy. Advanced imaging techniques such as ultrasound and MRI have focussed on the demonstration and quantification of synovitis and erosions and allow early diagnosis of RA. The technology to quantify synovitis and erosions is developing rapidly and now allows change in disease activity to be assessed. However, problems undoubtedly exist in quantification techniques, and this review serves to highlight them. Much of the literature on advanced imaging in RA appears in rheumatological journals and may not be familiar to radiologists. This review article aims to increase the awareness of radiologists about this field and to encourage them to participate and contribute to the ongoing development of these modalities. Without this collaboration, it is unlikely that these modalities will reach their full potential in the field of rheumatological imaging. This review is in two parts. The first part addresses synovitis imaging. The second part will look at advanced imaging of erosions in RA. (orig.)

  14. Fuzzy image processing and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ ""crisp"" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge.Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging,

  15. A Method of Poisson's Ration Imaging Within a Material Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention, longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to display the data.

  16. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  17. Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, MO Awoyemi, EA Ariyibi, JB Arubayi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 157-163. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  18. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for.... This part sets forth the requirements and conditions applicable to commercial mobile radio service providers. (h) Part 22. This part sets forth the requirements and conditions applicable to public mobile...

  19. Applications of locally orderless images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van B.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent work, J. J. Koenderink and A. J. Van Doorn considered a family of three intertwined scale-spaces coined the locally orderless image (LOI) (1999, J. Comput. Vision, 31 (2/3), 159–168). The LOI represents the image, observed at inner scale ó, as a local histogram with bin-width â, at each

  20. Laser imaging for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, John P.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Kermit, Eben L.; King, Richard A.; Spilman, Stanley D.; Benaron, David A.

    1995-03-01

    Medical optical imaging (MOI) uses light emitted into opaque tissues in order to determine the interior structure and chemical content. These optical techniques have been developed in an attempt to prospectively identify impending brain injuries before they become irreversible, thus allowing injury to be avoided or minimized. Optical imaging and spectroscopy center around the simple idea that light passes through the body in small amounts, and emerges bearing clues about tissues through which it passed. Images can be reconstructed from such data, and this is the basis of optical tomography. Over the past few years, techniques have been developed to allow construction of images from such optical data at the bedside. We have used a time-of-flight system reported earlier to monitor oxygenation and image hemorrhage in neonatal brain. This article summarizes the problems that we believe can be addressed by such techniques, and reports on some of our early results.

  1. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII.

  2. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  3. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  4. Imaging in hematology. Part 1: Ultrasonography and conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Applications of conventional ultrasonography techniques (B-mode or real time) in oncohematology are presented. The newer adaptations (in particular colour Doppler) provide incremental advantages that support their inclusion in the imaging techniques available to modern hematology. Conventional radiologic studies include chest and bone X-ray, gastrointestinal contrast examination and bipedal lymphangiography

  5. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts..., and treaties. This part also contains standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency... contains rules relating to commercial mobile radio services. (i) Part 20 which governs commercial mobile...

  6. Imaging gaseous detectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Covers the detector and imaging technology and their numerous applications in nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements Foreword from G. Charpak, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this invention.

  7. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanxi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science, The Robotics Institute; Jiang, Tianzi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Lab. of Pattern Recognition, Inst. of Automation; Zhang, Changshui (eds.) [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Automation

    2005-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  8. Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are a group of semiconducting nanomaterials with unique optical and electronic properties. They have distinct advantages over traditional fluorescent organic dyes in chemical and biological studies in terms of tunable emission spectra, signal brightness, photostability, and so forth. Currently, the major type of QDs is the heavy metal-containing II-IV, IV-VI, or III-V QDs. Silicon QDs and conjugated polymer dots have also been developed in order to lower the potential toxicity of the fluorescent probes for biological applications. Aqueous solubility is the common problem for all types of QDs when they are employed in the biological researches, such as in vitro and in vivo imaging. To circumvent this problem, ligand exchange and polymer coating are proven to be effective, besides synthesizing QDs in aqueous solutions directly. However, toxicity is another big concern especially for in vivo studies. Ligand protection and core/shell structure can partly solve this problem. With the rapid development of QDs research, new elements and new morphologies have been introduced to this area to fabricate more safe and efficient QDs for biological applications.

  9. Applications of VLSI circuits to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the application of advanced VLSI circuits to medical imaging is explored. The relationship of both general purpose signal processing chips and custom devices to medical imaging is discussed using examples of fabricated chips. In addition, advanced CAD tools for silicon compilation are presented. Devices built with these tools represent a possible alternative to custom devices and general purpose signal processors for the next generation of medical imaging systems

  10. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  11. Partly occupied Wannier functions: Construction and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a practical scheme to construct partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for a wide range of systems. We explain and demonstrate how the inclusion of selected unoccupied states in the definition of the WFs can improve both their localization and symmetry...

  12. Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takane; Suzuki, Kenji; Oba, Koichiro

    1991-06-01

    Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried out under natural sunlight or room illuminations and the image data have to be processed to produce useful two-dimensional quantitative data. A new photocathode has been developed to meet these requirements. It is specially made of RbTe on a sapphire window and its quantum efficiency is as high as 20% with the solar blindness of 10,000. The tube is specially designed to meet UV light optics and to minimize image distortion. It has an invertor type image intensifier tube structure and intensifies the incident UV light up to approximately 10,000 times. The distortion of the output image is suppressed less than 1.8%, because of a specially designed electron optic lens system. The device has shown excellent results in the observation of such objects as fingerprints and footprints in forensic investigations, the Cherenkov light produced by the spent fuels stored in a cooling water pool in the nuclear power station, and UV laser beam path in excimer laser experiments. Furthermore, many other applications of the UV light imaging will be expected in various fields such as semiconductors, cosmetics, and electrical power.

  13. CYCLODEXTRINS - FIELFS OF APPLICATION. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Duca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of potential and current applications of cyclodextrins as biologically active substances in medicine. The main applications described here include use of cyclodextrins as agents that form inclusion complexes with endogenous substances (membrane lipids, cellular cholesterol, agents that form inclusion complexes with exogenous substances with their man role as guest molecules (sugammadex, FBCx, agents that block endogenous and exogenous macromolecules (ion channels, anthrax toxin, α-hemolysin, and agents which activity is based on the chemical nature of them and of their derivatives (cyclodextrin polysulphate derivatives. The fi rst classifi cation for medically important biological activity of cyclodextrins has been proposed.

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  15. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  16. Technology with Supercritical Fluid. Part 2. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marongiu, B.; De Giorgi, M. R.; Porcedda, S.; Cadoni, E.

    1998-01-01

    The present article is based on a bibliographical analysis of the main applications of the supercritical fluid in various fields, as: extraction from solid matrices, division of liquid charges, chromatography HPLC with supercritical eluent, chemical and biochemical reactions in supercritical solvents etc [it

  17. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  18. Magnetic imaging and its applications to materials

    CERN Document Server

    De Graef, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Volume 36 provides an extensive introduction to magnetic imaging,including theory and practice, utilizing a wide range of magnetic sensitive imaging methods. It also illustrates the applications of these modern experimental techniques together with imaging calculations to today's advanced magnetic materials. This book is geared towards the upper-level undergraduate students and entry-level graduate students majoring in physics or materials science who are interested in magnetic structure and magnetic imaging. Researchers involved in studying magnetic materials should alsofind the book usef

  19. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  20. Pediatric Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jennifer N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: 1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pre-excitation, 3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25722754

  1. Computer applications in diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, S C

    1991-03-01

    This article has introduced the nature, generation, use, and future of digital imaging. As digital technology has transformed other aspects of our lives--has the reader tried to buy a conventional record album recently? almost all music store stock is now compact disks--it is sure to continue to transform medicine as well. Whether that transformation will be to our liking as physicians or a source of frustration and disappointment is dependent on understanding the issues involved.

  2. Stable image acquisition for mobile image processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Kai-Fabian; Fritze, Alexander; Gillich, Eugen; Mönks, Uwe; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Today, mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) are widespread and of high importance for their users. Their performance as well as versatility increases over time. This leads to the opportunity to use such devices for more specific tasks like image processing in an industrial context. For the analysis of images requirements like image quality (blur, illumination, etc.) as well as a defined relative position of the object to be inspected are crucial. Since mobile devices are handheld and used in constantly changing environments the challenge is to fulfill these requirements. We present an approach to overcome the obstacles and stabilize the image capturing process such that image analysis becomes significantly improved on mobile devices. Therefore, image processing methods are combined with sensor fusion concepts. The approach consists of three main parts. First, pose estimation methods are used to guide a user moving the device to a defined position. Second, the sensors data and the pose information are combined for relative motion estimation. Finally, the image capturing process is automated. It is triggered depending on the alignment of the device and the object as well as the image quality that can be achieved under consideration of motion and environmental effects.

  3. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  4. DIANE stationary neutron radiography system image quality and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, S.; Huet, J.; Tourneur, P. le

    1994-01-01

    The SODERN neutron radiography laboratory has operated since February 1993 using a sealed tube generator (GENIE 46). An experimental programme of characterization (dosimetry, spectroscopy) has confirmed the expected performances concerning: neutron flux intensity, neutron energy range, residual gamma flux. Results are given in a specific report [2]. This paper is devoted to the image performance reporting. ASTM and specific indicators have been used to test the image quality with various converters and films. The corresponding modulation transfer functions are to be determined from image processing. Some industrial applications have demonstrated the capabilities of the system: corrosion detection in aircraft parts, ammunitions filling testing, detection of polymer lacks in sandwich steel sheets, detection of moisture in a probe for geophysics, residual ceramic cores imaging in turbine blades. Various computerized electronic imaging systems will be tested to improve the industrial capabilities. (orig.)

  5. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  6. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are mainly manifested by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Early involvement of sacroiliac joints and spine is exceptionally rare in children; this usually happens in adulthood. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presented classifications and radiographic presentation of juvenile spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses changes seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease. Nevertheless, they are conducted for early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and identifying complications. This article presents a spectrum of inflammatory changes and discusses the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  8. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields.

  9. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopainsky, B

    1989-12-01

    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  10. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  11. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G

    2009-01-01

    Traditional broadband imaging involves the digital representation of a remote scene within a reduced colour space. Hyperspectral imaging exploits the full spectral dimension, which better reflects the continuous nature of actual spectra. Conventional techniques are all time-delayed whereby spatial or spectral scanning is required for hypercube generation. An innovative and patented technique developed at Heriot-Watt University offers significant potential as a snapshot sensor, to enable benefits for the wider public beyond aerospace imaging. This student-authored paper seeks to promote awareness of this field within the photonic community and its potential advantages for real-time practical applications.

  12. Application of image guidance in pituitary surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Danielle; Filho, Leo F. S. Ditzel; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Otto, Bradley A.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of pituitary pathologies has evolved along the years, adding safety and decreasing morbidity related to the procedure. Advances in the field of radiology, coupled with stereotactic technology and computer modeling, have culminated in the contemporary and widespread use of image guidance systems, as we know them today. Image guidance navigation has become a frequently used technology that provides continuous three-dimensional information for the accurate performance of neurosurgical procedures. We present a discussion about the application of image guidance in pituitary surgeries. Methods: Major indications for image guidance neuronavigation application in pituitary surgery are presented and demonstrated with illustrative cases. Limitations of this technology are also presented. Results: Patients presenting a history of previous transsphenoidal surgeries, anatomical variances of the sphenoid sinus, tumors with a close relation to the internal carotid arteries, and extrasellar tumors are the most important indications for image guidance in pituitary surgeries. The high cost of the equipment, increased time of surgery due to setup time, and registration and the need of specific training for the operating room personnel could be pointed as limitations of this technology. Conclusion: Intraoperative image guidance systems provide real-time images, increasing surgical accuracy and enabling safe, minimally invasive interventions. However, the use of intraoperative navigation is not a replacement for surgical experience and a systematic knowledge of regional anatomy. It must be recognized as a tool by which the neurosurgeon can reduce the risk associated with surgical approach and treatment of pituitary pathologies. PMID:22826819

  13. Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Lewis E.; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2018-06-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is a technique for measurement of blood oxygen saturation in vivo that can be applied using various imaging modalities to provide new insights into physiology and disease development. This tutorial aims to provide a thorough introduction to the theory and application of MSI oximetry for researchers new to the field, whilst also providing detailed information for more experienced researchers. The optical theory underlying two-wavelength oximetry, three-wavelength oximetry, pulse oximetry, and multispectral oximetry algorithms are described in detail. The varied challenges of applying MSI oximetry to in vivo applications are outlined and discussed, covering: the optical properties of blood and tissue, optical paths in blood vessels, tissue auto-fluorescence, oxygen diffusion, and common oximetry artefacts. Essential image processing techniques for MSI are discussed, in particular, image acquisition, image registration strategies, and blood vessel line profile fitting. Calibration and validation strategies for MSI are discussed, including comparison techniques, physiological interventions, and phantoms. The optical principles and unique imaging capabilities of various cutting-edge MSI oximetry techniques are discussed, including photoacoustic imaging, spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, and snapshot MSI.

  14. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  15. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations

  17. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunhee; Salamon, Noriko; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  18. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sunhee [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Salamon, Noriko [UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan [Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  20. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gabai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundus autofluorescence (FAF is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  1. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  2. 17 CFR 289.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CORPORATION ACT § 289.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation IFC) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the International Finance Corporation (“IFC”) pursuant to section 13(a) of the International Finance Corporation Act. ...

  3. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical imaging in clinical applications algorithmic and computer-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Hassanien, Aboul

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises of 21 selected chapters, including two overview chapters devoted to abdominal imaging in clinical applications supported computer aided diagnosis approaches as well as different techniques for solving the pectoral muscle extraction problem in the preprocessing part of the CAD systems for detecting breast cancer in its early stage using digital mammograms. The aim of this book is to stimulate further research in medical imaging applications based algorithmic and computer based approaches and utilize them in real-world clinical applications. The book is divided into four parts, Part-I: Clinical Applications of Medical Imaging, Part-II: Classification and clustering, Part-III: Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Tools and Case Studies and Part-IV: Bio-inspiring based Computer Aided diagnosis techniques. .

  5. Pharmaceutical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J Craig; Bowtell, Richard W; Mäder, Karsten; Melia, Colin D

    2005-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that provides internal images of materials and living organisms on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. It is non-invasive and non-destructive, and one of very few techniques that can observe internal events inside undisturbed specimens in situ. It is versatile, as a wide range of NMR modalities can be accessed, and 2D and 3D imaging can be undertaken. Despite widespread use and major advances in clinical MRI, it has seen limited application in the pharmaceutical sciences. In vitro studies have focussed on drug release mechanisms in polymeric delivery systems, but isolated studies of bioadhesion, tablet properties, and extrusion and mixing processes illustrate the wider potential. Perhaps the greatest potential however, lies in investigations of pharmaceuticals in vivo, where pilot human and animal studies have demonstrated we can obtain unique insights into the behaviour of gastrointestinal, topical, colloidal, and targeted drug delivery systems.

  6. Multimodal interaction in image and video applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sappa, Angel D

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Pattern Recognition (PR) and Computer Vision (CV) technologies have mainly focused on full automation, even though full automation often proves elusive or unnatural in many applications, where the technology is expected to assist rather than replace the human agents. However, not all the problems can be automatically solved being the human interaction the only way to tackle those applications. Recently, multimodal human interaction has become an important field of increasing interest in the research community. Advanced man-machine interfaces with high cognitive capabilities are a hot research topic that aims at solving challenging problems in image and video applications. Actually, the idea of computer interactive systems was already proposed on the early stages of computer science. Nowadays, the ubiquity of image sensors together with the ever-increasing computing performance has open new and challenging opportunities for research in multimodal human interaction. This book aims to show how existi...

  7. Application of FPGA's in Flexible Analogue Electronic Image Generator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kulla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usage of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays Xilinx as a part of our more complex workdedicated to design of flexible analogue electronic images generator for application in TV measurement technique or/and TV servicetechnique or/and education process. The FPGAs performs here the role of component colour R, G, B, synchronization and blanking signals source. These signals are next processed and amplified in other parts of the generator as NTSC/PAL source encoder and RF modulator. The main aim of this paper is to show the possibilities how with suitable development software use a FPGAs in analog TV technology.

  8. Imaging in hematology. Part 2: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic increase of the role of imaging in diagnosis of blood diseases occurred with the development of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At present CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is routinely employed in diagnostic and staging evaluation. The bone marrow may be imaged by one of several methods, including scintigraphy, CT and MRI. Nuclear imaging at diagnosis can clarify findings of uncertain significance on conventional staging and may be very useful in the setting of large masses to follow responses to therapy nad to evaluate the residual tumor in a large mass that has responded to treatment. Recent developments such as helical CT, single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) have continued to advance diagnosis and therapy

  9. Petri nets - part 1: concepts and application areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    2004-03-01

    There exist a number of models, languages, methods, and tools that support the specification and analysis of system requirements. One important class comprises graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. Due to the wide variety of applications, these methods are relevant also in research and applications outside the digital systems safety domain. The present report constitutes the first of three parts of a unified exposition of graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. The report provides an introduction to basic concepts of Petri nets and an overview of a wide variety of application areas. The second part of the trilogy will present a number of techniques and tools. The third part will focus on analysis. Petri nets have been proposed for a wide variety of applications, and new areas are considered as new challenges emerge from scientific, technological, and social developments. The wide variety of application areas reflects a broad interest in Petri nets, coming from diverse directions. Empirically, as well as theoretically, there are good reasons to claim that Petri nets are applicable for many different kinds of problems. What is common to the different applications and problems addressed is the need for a formalism that allows adequate representation of important system characteristics like concurrency, asyncronicity, distribution, parallelism, and non-determinism. Several of the references in the report discuss NPP-related applications, or applications with great potentials for technology transfer from other areas to the nuclear domain. (Author)

  10. Toward a unified view of radiological imaging systems. Part II: Noisy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    ''The imaging process is fundamentally a sampling process.'' This philosophy of Otto Schade, utilizing the concepts of sample number and sampling aperture, is applied to a systems analysis of radiographic imaging, including some aspects of vision. It leads to a simple modification of the Rose statistical model; this results in excellent fits to the Blackwell data on the detectability of disks as a function of contrast and size. It gives a straightforward prescription for calculating a signal-to-noise ratio, which is applicable to the detection of low-contrast detail in screen--film imaging, including the effects of magnification. The model lies between the optimistic extreme of the Rose model and the pessimistic extreme of the Morgan model. For high-contrast detail, the rules for the evaluation of noiseless images are recovered

  11. Ultrasonic sectional imaging for crack identification. Part 1. Confirmation test of essential factors for ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Since the first reports of inter-granular stress corrosion crack (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) pipe in the 1970s, nuclear power industry has focused considerable attention on service induced crack detection and sizing using ultrasonic examination. In recent years, phased array systems, those reconstruct high quality flaw images at real time are getting to apply for crack detection and sizing. But because the price of phased array systems are expensive for inspection vendors, field application of phased array systems are limited and reliable ultrasonic imaging systems with reasonable price are expected. This paper will discuss cost effective ultrasonic equipment with sectional image (B-scan) presentation as the simplified imaging system for assisting ultrasonic examination personnel. To develop the simplified B-scan imaging system, the frequency characteristics of IGSCC echoes and neighboring geometry echoes such as base-metal to weld interface and inner surface of a pipe are studied. The experimental study confirmed the reflectors have different frequency characteristics and 2MHz is suitable to visualize IGSCC and 5MHz and higher frequency are suitable to reconstruct geometry images. The other study is the amplifier selection for the imaging system. To reconstruct images of IGSCC and geometry echoes, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with linear amplifier has to adjust gain setting to the target. On the other hand, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with logarithmic amplifier can collect and display wider dynamic range on a screen and this wider dynamic range are effective to visualize IGSCC and geometry echoes on a B-scan presentation at a time. (author)

  12. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  13. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution...... related to the structural properties of the drug substance or formulation can be monitored. UV imaging is a non-intrusive and simple-to-operate analytical technique which holds potential for providing a mechanistic foundation for formulation development. This review aims to cover applications of UV...

  14. Extended SWIR imaging sensors for hyperspectral imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A.; Benecke, M.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.; Hübner, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Breiter, R.

    2016-05-01

    AIM has developed SWIR modules including FPAs based on liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown MCT usable in a wide range of hyperspectral imaging applications. Silicon read-out integrated circuits (ROIC) provide various integration and readout modes including specific functions for spectral imaging applications. An important advantage of MCT based detectors is the tunable band gap. The spectral sensitivity of MCT detectors can be engineered to cover the extended SWIR spectral region up to 2.5μm without compromising in performance. AIM developed the technology to extend the spectral sensitivity of its SWIR modules also into the VIS. This has been successfully demonstrated for 384x288 and 1024x256 FPAs with 24μm pitch. Results are presented in this paper. The FPAs are integrated into compact dewar cooler configurations using different types of coolers, like rotary coolers, AIM's long life split linear cooler MCC030 or extreme long life SF100 Pulse Tube cooler. The SWIR modules include command and control electronics (CCE) which allow easy interfacing using a digital standard interface. The development status and performance results of AIM's latest MCT SWIR modules suitable for hyperspectral systems and applications will be presented.

  15. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  16. Development of terahertz systems for imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maestrojuán Biurrun, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta tesis fue el estudio y desarrollo de tecnología, concretamente mezcladores armónicos, trabajando a frecuencias de milimétricas y sub-milimétricas con el fin de implementar sistemas para aplicaciones de imagen. The main goal of this thesis was the study and development of technology, specifically harmonic mixers, working at millimetre and submillimetre frequencies in other to implement systems for imaging applications. A couple of sub-harmonic...

  17. Application of particle imaging velocimetry in windtunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompenhans, J.; Reichmuth, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recently the instantaneous and nonintrusive measurement of the flow velocity in a large area of the flow field (two-dimensional plane) became possible by means of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Up to now PIV has mainly been used for model experiments at low flow velocities in order to test and to improve the measuring technique. The present aim is the application of PIV in large wind tunnels at high flow velocities. 7 references

  18. Algorithms for reconstructing images for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Crispim, V.R.

    1986-01-01

    Several algorithms for reconstructing objects from their projections are being studied in our Laboratory, for industrial applications. Such algorithms are useful locating the position and shape of different composition of materials in the object. A Comparative study of two algorithms is made. The two investigated algorithsm are: The MART (Multiplicative - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) and the Convolution Method. The comparison are carried out from the point view of the quality of the image reconstructed, number of views and cost. (Author) [pt

  19. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  20. Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukanen, A; Leivo, M M; Rautiainen, A; Grönholm, M; Toivanen, H; Grönberg, L; Helistö, P; Mäyrä, A; Aikio, M; Luukanen, A; Grossman, E N

    2012-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ∼ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

  1. Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ■ Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ■ Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ■ Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ■ Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ■ The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm." Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging: Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Fisher, C.F.; Fulmer, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior contrast, resolution, and multiplanar imaging capability, allowing excellent definition of soft-tissue and bone marrow abnormalities. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging has become a major diagnostic imaging method for the evaluation of many musculoskeletal disorders. The applications of magnetic resonance imaging for musculoskeletal diagnosis are summarized and examples of common clinical situations are given. General guidelines are suggested for the musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging

  3. Improved image alignment method in application to X-ray images and biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Chen, Hsiang-Chou

    2013-08-01

    Alignment of medical images is a vital component of a large number of applications throughout the clinical track of events; not only within clinical diagnostic settings, but prominently so in the area of planning, consummation and evaluation of surgical and radiotherapeutical procedures. However, image registration of medical images is challenging because of variations on data appearance, imaging artifacts and complex data deformation problems. Hence, the aim of this study is to develop a robust image alignment method for medical images. An improved image registration method is proposed, and the method is evaluated with two types of medical data, including biological microscopic tissue images and dental X-ray images and compared with five state-of-the-art image registration techniques. The experimental results show that the presented method consistently performs well on both types of medical images, achieving 88.44 and 88.93% averaged registration accuracies for biological tissue images and X-ray images, respectively, and outperforms the benchmark methods. Based on the Tukey's honestly significant difference test and Fisher's least square difference test tests, the presented method performs significantly better than all existing methods (P ≤ 0.001) for tissue image alignment, and for the X-ray image registration, the proposed method performs significantly better than the two benchmark b-spline approaches (P < 0.001). The software implementation of the presented method and the data used in this study are made publicly available for scientific communities to use (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/∼cweiwang/ImprovedImageRegistration/). cweiwang@mail.ntust.edu.tw.

  4. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  5. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  6. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  7. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  8. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  9. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B, Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report is part of the permit application for the WIPP facility. Appendices are presented on the following: the design validation final report; sampling of volatile organic compounds which may be emitted from waste binss, site supplementary roof support system, and studies on wind and tornado probabilities

  11. 19 CFR 210.1 - Applicability of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 210.1 Section 210.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE..., and 1337) and sections 2 and 1342(d)(1)(B) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, Pub...

  12. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of... benefits available under the trade laws identified in § 213.2(b) and the procedures to be followed and...

  13. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in a subsequent rule 3050.11 proceeding. (c) Analytical principle refers to a particular economic... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... analytical principle subsequently was accepted by the Commission in a final rule. (b) Accepted quantification...

  14. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation. Events occurring during drug dissolution and release, such as polymer swelling, drug precipitation/recrystallization, or solvent-mediated phase transitions related to the structural properties of the drug substance or formulation can be monitored. UV imaging is a non-intrusive and simple-to-operate analytical technique which holds potential for providing a mechanistic foundation for formulation development. This review aims to cover applications of UV imaging in the early and late phase pharmaceutical development with a special focus on the relation between structural properties and performance. Potential areas of future advancement and application are also discussed.

  15. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  16. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  17. Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, C.B.; Beek, A.M.; Van Rossum, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications. (author)

  18. Image processing in radiology. Current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Few fields have witnessed such impressive advances as image processing in radiology. The progress achieved has revolutionized diagnosis and greatly facilitated treatment selection and accurate planning of procedures. This book, written by leading experts from many countries, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of how to use 2D and 3D processing tools in clinical radiology. The first section covers a wide range of technical aspects in an informative way. This is followed by the main section, in which the principal clinical applications are described and discussed in depth. To complete the picture, a third section focuses on various special topics. The book will be invaluable to radiologists of any subspecialty who work with CT and MRI and would like to exploit the advantages of image processing techniques. It also addresses the needs of radiographers who cooperate with clinical radiologists and should improve their ability to generate the appropriate 2D and 3D processing. (orig.)

  19. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics (I part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aim of this review is to describe the recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnostics, particularly in oncology. Materials and methods: We reviewed scientific literature data searching for the current role of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques (SPECTand PET in oncology and summarized the main applications of these techniques. Results: Nuclear medicine techniques have a key role in oncology allowing early diagnosis of many tumours, an accurate staging of disease and evalutation of treatment response. Hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT imaging systems now provide metabolic and functional information from SPECTor PETcombined with the high spatial resolution and anatomic information of CT. The most frequent applications of SPECT/CT in oncology concern thyroid tumours, neuroendocrine tumours, bone metastases and lymph node mapping. Furthermore the evaluation of many tumours may benefit from PET/CT imaging. Discussion: The recent development of new radiopharmaceuticals and the growth of hybrid tomographic devices, such as SPECT/CT and PET/CT, now permits molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level to improve both the diagnosis and treatment of many tumours.

  20. Applications of digital image analysis capability in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital image analysis of LANDSAT imagery in water resource assessment is discussed. The data processing systems employed are described. The determination of urban land use conversion of agricultural land in two southwestern Idaho counties involving estimation and mapping of crop types and of irrigated land is described. The system was also applied to an inventory of irrigated cropland in the Snake River basin and establishment of a digital irrigation water source/service area data base for the basin. Application of the system to a determination of irrigation development in the Big Lost River basin as part of a hydrologic survey of the basin is also described.

  1. Application of XR imaging in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Gagova, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: For accurate and sure diagnosis in dentistry except anamnestic information (history taking) and clinical examination as an obligatory clinical examination must attend imaging investigation. For diagnosis of diseases of the teeth are used a number of imaging methods. The most widespread of them are segmental roentgenography, ortopamtomography Bitewing, as well as increasingly coming in use dental cone-beam computed tomography (3D CBCT). The aim is to introduce the types of radiographs and their benefits for prompt and proper treatment. Documentary method - a review and analysis of literature and Internet sources are made. Results and comments: Segmented radiography gives us information about the state of the tooth as a whole. Using this method gives an opportunity to visualize the crown, the neck and the root of the tooth. Ortopantomography gives a general view of the state of the maxilla and mandibula, the teeth, part of the maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints. Some or extra teeth, are discovered as well as dental disease conditions, bone abnormalities, cysts and others. Bitewing is used when caries is strongly suspected, though not visually, in cases of bone loss and others. The advantage of early and accurate diagnosis is to reduce future complications. Conclusion: good prevention and early detection of dental anomalies and pathologies is performed with the help of X-ray. The selection of the correct method for imaging, the proper use of X-ray machines and placing the required security means reducing the amount of radiation exposure to the patient

  2. Various dedicated imaging systems for routine nuclear medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Tamas Gyorke; Erno Mako; Laszlo Nagy; Jozsef Turak; Oszkar Partos

    2004-01-01

    The most essential problems of nuclear medical imaging are resolution, signal/noise ratio (S/N) and sensitivity. Nowadays, the vast majority of the Anger system gamma cameras in clinical application are using parallel projection. The main problem of this projection method is the highly dependence of the image quality on the distance from the collimator surface as well as any improvement in the resolution with the distance -i.e. reduction of image blur- significantly reduces sensitivity. The aim of our research and development work was to create imaging geometry, collimator and detector constructions optimized to particular organs (brain, heart, thyroid), where it is simultaneously possible to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Main concept of the imaging geometry construction is based on the size, location and shape of a particular organ. In case of brain SPECT imaging a multiple head (4 heads in cylinder symmetric approximation) arrangement with extra high intrinsic resolution (<2.5 mm) dedicated detector design provide feasible solution for routine clinical application. The imaging system was essentially designed for Tc-99m and I-123 isotopes. The application field can be easily extended for functional small animal research and new born baby studies. Very positive feedbacks were received from both technical (stability and reproducibility of the technical parameters) and clinical sides in the past 2 years routine applications. A unique, novel conception ultra compact dedicated dual head SPECT system has been created only for 2D, 3D nuclear cardiac applications for Tc-99m and T1-201 labeled radio-pharmaceuticals. The two rectangular detectors (with <2.6 mm intrinsic resolution) are mounted fix in 90 degree geometry and move inside the special formed gantry arrangement. The unique and unusual gantry is designed to keep the detector heads as close as possible to the patient, while the patient is not exposed by any moving part. This special construction also

  3. Application of Java technology in radiation image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weifeng; Li Zheng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of radiation image plays an important role in modern application of civil nuclear technology. The author analyzes the rationale of Java image processing technology which includes Java AWT, Java 2D and JAI. In order to demonstrate applicability of Java technology in field of image processing, examples of application of JAI technology in processing of radiation images of large container have been given

  4. Non-destructive evaluation utilizing imaging plates for field radiography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    The oil and gas industry has utilized film radiography for the evaluation of pipeline welds for many years. The world has evolved, and today people are easily sharing digital images as part of the information revolution. Computed radiography is ready to replace film radiography for portable outdoor use applications. Computed radiography technology adoption has been contingent upon achieving acceptable image quality and getting enough imaging plate use cycles to be profitable. Image quality is dependent upon shot conditions, imaging plate type, reader settings, and scatter control. Likewise, the number of achievable use cycles is dependent upon the imaging plate design for durability and the user's operating environment. This presentation reviews the basic principles of storage phosphor imaging plates. Usage criteria and guidelines for optimum image quality and maximized overall use cycles will be discussed for various imaging plate types. A comparison of film and computed radiography imaging plate technology will be presented.

  5. Application of charged particle activation for testing machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosimova, M.; Tendera, P.

    1985-01-01

    The results of application of the charge particle activation method to investigate machine part wear are presented. Study of radionuclide activity and yield has been carried out at the U-120M isochronous cyclotron by means of the method of iron foil piles from 20 to 100 μm in thick. Protons and deuterons have been used. Wear measurement is based on determination of wear particle activity in a butyric medium. An example of the results of a bench test of activated piston rings and cylinder liner of the engine for trucks is given. The method of surface activation is shown to be acceptable for studying machine part wear under the regular service conditions, especially on the stage of the primary investigations and development, when sampling structural materials and estimating different lubricating oil applicability

  6. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  7. Computational Phase Imaging for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan Huu

    laser comes at the expense of speckles, which degrades image quality. Therefore, solutions purely based on physical modeling and computations to remove these artifacts, using white-light illumination, are highly desirable. Here, using physical optics, we develop a theoretical model that accurately explains the effects of partial coherence on image information and phase information. The model is further combined with numerical processing to suppress the artifacts, and recover the correct phase information. The third topic is devoted to applying QPI to clinical applications. Traditionally, stained tissues are used in prostate cancer diagnosis instead. The reason is that tissue samples used in diagnosis are nearly transparent under bright field inspection if unstained. Contrast-enhanced microscopy techniques, e.g., phase contrast microscopy (PC) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), can render visibility of the untagged samples with high throughput. However, since these methods are intensity-based, the contrast of acquired images varies significantly from one imaging facility to another, preventing them from being used in diagnosis. Inheriting the merits of PC, SLIM produces phase maps, which measure the refractive index of label-free samples. However, the maps measured by SLIM are not affected by variation in imaging conditions, e.g., illumination, magnification, etc., allowing consistent imaging results when using SLIM across different clinical institutions. Here, we combine SLIM images with machine learning for automatic diagnosis results for prostate cancer. We focus on two diagnosis problems of automatic Gleason grading and cancer vs. non-cancer diagnosis. Finally, we introduce a new imaging modality, named Gradient Light Interference Microscopy (GLIM), which is able to image through optically thick samples using low spatial coherence illumination. The key benefit of GLIM comes from a large numerical aperture of the condenser, which is 0.55 NA

  8. Problems of fluorescent imaging and its solution using nanofluorophores. Part I: Advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.; Hadjidekov, G.; Zlateva, G.; Spasov, L.; Bakalova, R.

    2011-01-01

    The application of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in fast several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecules in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With development of novel bright fluorophores based on nano-technologies and fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. This review outlines the current status and future trends of fluorescent nanoparticles - quantum dots (QDs), as a new generation of fluorophores in experimental and pre-clinical fluorescent imaging diagnostic. Part 1 focuses on the advantages of quantum dots over conventional organic fluorophores and defines the major requirements to the 'perfect' fluorophore for fluorescent deep-tissue imaging diagnostic. The analysis is based on the limitations of fluorescent imaging in vivo and overcome by using quantum dots

  9. A special designed library for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, D.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Zoupas, V.; Yoldassis, N.; Spyropoulos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper deals with a sophisticated and flexible library of medical purpose image processing routines. It contains modules for simple as well as advanced gray or colour image processing. This library offers powerful features for medical image processing and analysis applications, thus providing the physician with a means of analyzing and estimating medical images in order to accomplish their diagnostic procedures

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  11. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, O.; Bernard, J.; Vermeersch, F.

    2007-01-01

    For a few years, the evolution of measuring equipment and of interpretation software have permitted to develop a new electrical resistivity technique called resistivity imaging where the equipment, which includes a large number of electrodes located along a line at the same time, carries out an automatic switching of these electrodes for acquiring profiling data. The apparent resistivity pseudo sections measured with such a technique are processed by an inversion software which gives interpreted resistivity and depth values for the anomalies detected along the profile. The multi-electrode resistivity technique consists in using a multi-core cable with as many conductors (24, 48, 72, 96) as electrodes plugged into the ground at a fixed spacing, every 5m for instance. In the resistivitymeter itself are located the relays which ensure the switching of those electrodes according to a sequence of readings predefined and stored in the internal memory of the equipment. The various combinations of transmitting (A,B) and receiving (M,N) pairs of electrodes construct the mixed sounding / profiling section, with a maximum investigation depth which mainly depends on the total length of the cable. The 2D resistivity images obtained with such a multi-electrode technique are used for studying the shallow stuctures of the underground located a few tens of metres down to about one hundred metres depth; these images supply an information which complements the one obtained with the more traditionnal Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique, which mainly aims at determining the depths of horizontal 1D structures from the surface down to several hundreds metres depths. Several examples are presented for various types of applications: groundwater (intrusion of salt water in fresh water), geotechnics (detection of a fault in a granitic area), environment (delineation of a waste disposal area) and archaeology (discovery of an ancient tomb)

  12. Novel Metal Clusters for Imaging Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2014-05-01

    During the past few years, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have received considerable attention in many fields due to their optical properties, photothermal effect and biocompatibility. AuNPs, particularly AuNCs and AuNRs, exhibit great potential in diagnostics and imaging. In the present study, AuNCs were used to selectively image and quantify intracellular antioxidants. It was reported by Chen et al. that the strong fluorescence of AuNCs is quenched by highly reactive oxygen species (hROS). Most of applications depend on fluorescence quenching, however, for our project we designed turn-on fluorescent sensors using AuNCs that sense antioxidants. In the presence of antioxidants, AuNCs fluorescence switch on, while in the absence of antioxidants their fluorescence immediately turn off due to hROS effect. AuNRs were also used for cellular imaging in which AuNRs were conjugated to Cy3-labelled molecular beacon (MB) DNA. Next, the previous complex was loaded in two different strains of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). MTB were used as a targeted delivery vehicle in which magnetosomes direct the movement of bacteria. The DNA sequence was specific to a certain sequence in mitochondria. The exposure of MTB to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) leads to the increase of temperature inside the bacteria, which destruct the cell wall, and hence, bacterial payload is released. When MD-DNA hybrid with the target sequence, AuNR and Cy3 separate from each other, the fluorescence of the Cy3 is restored.

  13. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen , Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.

  14. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  15. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    , and variants of these. The review covers both 2-D and 3-D velocity estimation and gives a historical perspective on the development along with a summary of various vector flow visualization algorithms. The current state-of-the-art is explained along with an overview of clinical studies conducted and methods......The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming...

  16. Figure detection and part label extraction from patent drawing images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available threshold. Many old patent images contain a lot of salt and pepper noise. A connected component algorithm is performed and if the number of very small components detected are more than 30% of the total number of components, a dilate and erode process...

  17. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno Né Lehmann, Thomas M; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein Né Fritzsche, Klaus H; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

  18. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  19. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  20. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  1. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-06-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was started in 2012. During its first year, the new Journal has published an impressive collection of cardiovascular studies utilizing all cardiovascular imaging modalities. We will summarize the most important studies from its first year in two articles. The present 'Part I' of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging.

  2. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  3. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  4. Application of Nanoparticles in Diagnostic Imaging via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ability to image quantitatively both morphological and physiological functions of the tissue, ... Several types of contrast media are used in medical imaging and they can ... which is still widely used to examine internal organs of the body and ...

  5. Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images ( l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

  6. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  7. Image enhancement technology research for army applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared

  8. Application of automatic image analysis in wood science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1982-01-01

    In this paper I describe an image analysis system and illustrate with examples the application of automatic quantitative measurement to wood science. Automatic image analysis, a powerful and relatively new technology, uses optical, video, electronic, and computer components to rapidly derive information from images with minimal operator interaction. Such instruments...

  9. Development of TMA-based imaging system for hyperspectral application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Wan; Yang, Seung-Uk; Kang, Myung-Seok; Kim, Ee-Eul

    2017-11-01

    Funded by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy of Korea, SI initiated the development of the prototype model of TMA-based electro-optical system as part of the national space research and development program. Its optical aperture diameter is 120 mm, the effective focal length is 462 mm, and its full field-of-view is 5.08 degrees. The dimension is of about 600 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm and the weight is less than 15 kg. To demonstrate its performance, hyper-spectral imaging based on linear spectral filter is selected for the application of the prototype. The spectral resolution will be less than 10 nm and the number of channels will be more than 40 in visible and nearinfrared region. In this paper, the progress made so far on the prototype development will be presented

  10. Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Yijin Ren

    2012-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years.Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines,particularly in the fields of orthodontics,maxillofacial surgery,plastic and reconstructive surgery,neurosurgery and forensic sciences.In most cases,3D facial imaging overcomes the limitations of traditional 2D methods and provides the clinician with more accurate information regarding the soft-tissues and the underlying skeleton.The aim of this study was to review the types of imaging methods used for facial imaging.It is important to realize the difference between the types of 3D imaging methods as application and indications thereof may differ.Since 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging will play an increasingly importanl role in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery,special emphasis should be placed on discussing CBCT applications in facial evaluations.

  11. Atherosclerosis and the vulnerable plaque - imaging. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, S.G.; Helft, G.; Zaman, A.G.; Fuster, V.; Badimon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    identification, these lesions would be undetected by stress testing/imaging techniques. Given the critical role that atherosclerotic lesion composition has been shown to play in the risk of both plaque rupture and subsequent thrombogenicity, and consequently an acute coronary event, new detection techniques need to be investigated to document atherosclerotic lesion composition. In this review, we will focus on the status of imaging modalities being investigated to help identify patients at risk of coronary events

  12. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  13. A special designed library for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymberopoulos, D; Kotsopoulos, S; Zoupas, V; Yoldassis, N [Departmeent of Electrical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras 26 110 Greece (Greece); Spyropoulos, C [School of Medicine, Regional University Hospital, University of Patras, Patras 26 110 Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with a sophisticated and flexible library of medical purpose image processing routines. It contains modules for simple as well as advanced gray or colour image processing. This library offers powerful features for medical image processing and analysis applications, thus providing the physician with a means of analyzing and estimating medical images in order to accomplish their diagnostic procedures. 6 refs, 1 figs.

  14. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  15. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis, tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis, and the spine (spondylitis. In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  19. Perceptual digital imaging methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lukac, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is a complex process requiring interaction between the receptors in the eye that sense the stimulus and the neural system and the brain that are responsible for communicating and interpreting the sensed visual information. This process involves several physical, neural, and cognitive phenomena whose understanding is essential to design effective and computationally efficient imaging solutions. Building on advances in computer vision, image and video processing, neuroscience, and information engineering, perceptual digital imaging greatly enhances the capabilities of tradition

  20. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  2. Application of stereo-imaging technology to medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-09-01

    There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices.

  3. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  4. Applications of stochastic geometry in image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Kendall, W.S.; Molchanov, I.S.

    2009-01-01

    A discussion is given of various stochastic geometry models (random fields, sequential object processes, polygonal field models) which can be used in intermediate and high-level image analysis. Two examples are presented of actual image analysis problems (motion tracking in video,

  5. Field application of feature-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucciardi, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more challenging ultrasonic inspection problems is bimetallic weld inspection or, in general, dissimilar metal welds. These types of welds involve complicated geometries and various mixtures of materials. Attempts to address this problem with imaging alone have fallen short of desired goals. The probable reason for this is the lack of information supplied by imaging systems, which are limited to amplitude and time displays. Having RF information available for analysis greatly enhances the information obtainable from dissimilar metal welds and, coupled with the spatial map generated by an imaging system, can significantly improve the reliability of dissimilar metal weld inspections. Ultra Image and TestPro are, respectively, an imaging system and a feature-based signal analysis system. The purpose of this project is to integrate these two systems to produce a feature-enhanced imaging system. This means that a software link is established between Ultra Image and the PC-based TestPro system so that the user of the combined system can perform all the usual imaging functions and also have available a wide variety of RF signal analysis functions. The analysis functions include waveform feature-based pattern recognition as well as artificial intelligence/expert system techniques

  6. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  7. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  8. Image acquisition system for traffic monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Glen; Corke, Peter I.; Dunn, Paul; Jensen, Murray; Macintyre, Ian B.; Mills, Dennis C.; Nguyen, Hao; Simons, Ben

    1995-03-01

    An imaging system for monitoring traffic on multilane highways is discussed. The system, named Safe-T-Cam, is capable of operating 24 hours per day in all but extreme weather conditions and can capture still images of vehicles traveling up to 160 km/hr. Systems operating at different remote locations are networked to allow transmission of images and data to a control center. A remote site facility comprises a vehicle detection and classification module (VCDM), an image acquisition module (IAM) and a license plate recognition module (LPRM). The remote site is connected to the central site by an ISDN communications network. The remote site system is discussed in this paper. The VCDM consists of a video camera, a specialized exposure control unit to maintain consistent image characteristics, and a 'real-time' image processing system that processes 50 images per second. The VCDM can detect and classify vehicles (e.g. cars from trucks). The vehicle class is used to determine what data should be recorded. The VCDM uses a vehicle tracking technique to allow optimum triggering of the high resolution camera of the IAM. The IAM camera combines the features necessary to operate consistently in the harsh environment encountered when imaging a vehicle 'head-on' in both day and night conditions. The image clarity obtained is ideally suited for automatic location and recognition of the vehicle license plate. This paper discusses the camera geometry, sensor characteristics and the image processing methods which permit consistent vehicle segmentation from a cluttered background allowing object oriented pattern recognition to be used for vehicle classification. The image capture of high resolution images and the image characteristics required for the LPRMs automatic reading of vehicle license plates, is also discussed. The results of field tests presented demonstrate that the vision based Safe-T-Cam system, currently installed on open highways, is capable of producing automatic

  9. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti; Pierard, Luc A; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-07-01

    The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Saraste, Antti; Pierard, Luc A; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-07-01

    The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. It has already gained an impressive impact factor of 3.669 during its first 2 years. In two articles, we will summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Interferometric Imaging and its Application to 4D Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2018-03-01

    This thesis describes new interferometric imaging methods for migration and waveform inversion. The key idea is to use reflection events from a known reference reflector to ”naturally redatum” the receivers and sources to the reference reflector. Here, ”natural redatuming” is a data-driven process where the redatuming Green’s functions are obtained from the data. Interferometric imaging eliminates the statics associated with the noisy overburden above the reference reflector. To mitigate the defocussing caused by overburden errors I first propose the use of interferometric least-squares migration (ILSM) to estimate the migration image. Here, a known reflector is used as the reference interface for ILSM, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference interface before imaging. Numerical results on synthetic and field data show that ILSM can significantly reduce the defocussing artifacts in the migration image. Next, I develop a waveform tomography approach for inverting the velocity model by mitigating the velocity errors in the overburden. Unresolved velocity errors in the overburden velocity model can cause conventional full-waveform inversion to get stuck in a local minimum. To resolve this problem, I present interferometric full-waveform inversion (IFWI), where conventional waveform tomography is reformulated so a velocity model is found that minimizes the objective function with an interferometric crosscorrelogram misfit. Numerical examples show that IFWI, compared to FWI, computes a significantly more accurate velocity model in the presence of a nearsurface with unknown velocity anomalies. I use IFWI and ILSM for 4D imaging where seismic data are recorded at different times over the same reservoir. To eliminate the time-varying effects of the near surface both data sets are virtually redatumed to a common reference interface before migration. This largely eliminates the overburden-induced statics errors in both data sets. Results with

  13. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology in 2017. Part 2 of 2: Myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Fadi G; AlJaroudi, Wael A

    2018-04-16

    In 2017, the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology published many high-quality articles. In this review, we will summarize a selection of these articles to provide a concise review of the main advancements that have recently occurred in the field. In the first article of this 2-part series, we focused on publications dealing with positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. This review will place emphasis on myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography summarizing advances in the field including prognosis, safety and tolerability, the impact of imaging on management, and the use of novel imaging protocols.

  14. Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

  15. Pixel Detectors for Particle Physics and Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, N

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

  16. Application of radionuclide imaging in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yumin; Yan Jue

    2011-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone. Excessive parathyroid hormone secretion may be due to problems in the glands themselves, or may be secondary HPT. The diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's medical history and biochemical tests. The best treatment nowadays is surgical removal of the overactive parathyroid glands or adenoma. The imaging methods for the preoperative localization diagnosis include radionuclide imaging,ultrasonography, CT, MRI, etc. This article was a summary of HPT radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  17. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of... towers. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio services. (h) Part 21. This part...

  18. Functional mesoporous silica nanoparticles for bio-imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Jaeyun

    2018-03-22

    Biomedical investigations using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have received significant attention because of their unique properties including controllable mesoporous structure, high specific surface area, large pore volume, and tunable particle size. These unique features make MSNs suitable for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy with unique advantages to encapsulate and load a variety of therapeutic agents, deliver these agents to the desired location, and release the drugs in a controlled manner. Among various clinical areas, nanomaterials-based bio-imaging techniques have advanced rapidly with the development of diverse functional nanoparticles. Due to the unique features of MSNs, an imaging agent supported by MSNs can be a promising system for developing targeted bio-imaging contrast agents with high structural stability and enhanced functionality that enable imaging of various modalities. Here, we review the recent achievements on the development of functional MSNs for bio-imaging applications, including optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound imaging, and multimodal imaging for early diagnosis. With further improvement in noninvasive bio-imaging techniques, the MSN-supported imaging agent systems are expected to contribute to clinical applications in the future. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 2: Multimodality imaging approach for assessment of complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouni, A.K.; Davis, W.; Mankad, K.; Rankine, J.; Davagnanam, I.

    2013-01-01

    Radiologists frequently encounter studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation, or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. It is important for the reporting radiologist to identify potential complications of commonly used spinal implants. Part 1 of this review examined both the surgical approaches used and the normal appearances of these spinal implants and bone grafting techniques. This second part of the review will focus on the multimodal imaging strategy adopted in the assessment of the instrumented spine and the demonstration of imaging findings of common postoperative complications.

  20. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Part of image background acting as pure noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Kheddache, S.; Grahn, A.; Bochud, F. O.; Verdun, F. R.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    There are several factors that influence the radiologist's ability to detect a specific structure/lesion in a radiograph. Three factors that are commonly known to be of major importance are the signal itself, the system noise and the projected anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the image background acts as pure noise for the detection of subtle lung nodules in five different regions of the chest. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study with five observers was conducted on two different sets of images, clinical chest X-ray images and images with a similar power spectrum as the clinical images but with a random phase spectrum, resulting in an image background containing pure noise. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrasts were added to the images. As a measure of the part of the image background that acts as pure noise, the ratio between the contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80 in the clinical images to that in the random-phase images was used. The ratio ranged from 0.40 (in the lateral pulmonary regions) to 0.83 (in the hilar regions) indicating that there was a large difference between different regions regarding to what extent the image background acted as pure noise; and that in the hilar regions the image background almost completely acted as pure noise for the detection of 10 mm nodules. (authors)

  1. Resistor mesh model of a spherical head: part 2: a review of applications to cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, N; Morucci, J P; Franceries, X; Celsis, P; Rigaud, B

    2005-11-01

    A resistor mesh model (RMM) has been validated with reference to the analytical model by consideration of a set of four dipoles close to the cortex. The application of the RMM to scalp potential interpolation was detailed in Part 1. Using the RMM and the same four dipoles, the different methods of cortical mapping were compared and have shown the potentiality of this RMM for obtaining current and potential cortical distributions. The lead-field matrices are well-adapted tools, but the use of a square matrix of high dimension does not permit the inverse solution to be improved in the presence of noise, as a regularisation technique is necessary with noisy data. With the RMM, the transfer matrix and the cortical imaging technique proved to be easy to implement. Further development of the RMM will include application to more realistic head models with more accurate conductivities.

  2. Development and application of high energy imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    1999-01-01

    High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is a new technology. The idea of positron imaging can be traced back to early 1950's. HEPI imaging is formed by positron emitter radionuclide produced by cyclotron, such as 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F, which are most abundant elements in human body. Clinical applications of HEPI have been witnessed rapidly in recent years. HEPI imaging can be obtained by both PET and SPECT, namely high energy collimation imaging, Mdecular Coincidence Detection (MCD) and positron emission tomography

  3. Multi-sensor image fusion and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Rick S

    2005-01-01

    Taking another lesson from nature, the latest advances in image processing technology seek to combine image data from several diverse types of sensors in order to obtain a more accurate view of the scene: very much the same as we rely on our five senses. Multi-Sensor Image Fusion and Its Applications is the first text dedicated to the theory and practice of the registration and fusion of image data, covering such approaches as statistical methods, color-related techniques, model-based methods, and visual information display strategies.After a review of state-of-the-art image fusion techniques,

  4. Gynecologic imaging: Current and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Common diagnostic challenges in gynecology and the role of imaging in their evaluation are reviewed. Etiologies of abnormal uterine bleeding identified on pelvic sonography and sonohysterography are presented. An algorithmic approach for characterizing an incidentally detected adnexal mass and use of magnetic resonance imaging for definitive diagnosis are discussed. Finally, the role of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of gynecological malignancies, and pitfalls associated with their use are examined.

  5. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, Corina; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties

  6. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part I. Performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications performed during the latter part of FY76 and FY76T by the Special Studies Group of the LLL Physics Department for the Office of Naval Research is reported. Smart water-traversing limbed remotely navigated vehicles are interesting because: they are the only viable small vehicle usable in high sea states; they are small and work on the ocean surface, they are much harder to detect than any other conventional craft; they have no human pilot, are capable of high-g evasion, and will continue to operate after direct hits that would have crippled a human crew; they have the prospect of providing surface platforms possessing unprecedented speed and maneuverability; unlike manned information-gathering craft, they impose almost no penalty for missions in excess of 10 hours (no need to rotate shifts of crewmen, no food/lavatory requirements, etc.) and, in their ''loitering mode'', waterbugs could perhaps perform their missions for days to weeks; they are cheap enough to use for one-way missions; they are mass-producible; they are inherently reliable--almost impossible to sink and, in the event of in-use failure, the vehicle will not be destroyed; they maximally exploit continuing technological asymmetries between the U.S. and its potential opponents; and they are economically highly cost-effective for a wide spectrum of Navy missions. (TFD)

  7. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandu, Corina, E-mail: csandu@vt.edu; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties.

  8. New amorphous-silicon image sensor for x-ray diagnostic medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfield, Richard L.; Hartney, Mark A.; Street, Robert A.; Apte, Raj B.

    1998-07-01

    This paper introduces new high-resolution amorphous Silicon (a-Si) image sensors specifically configured for demonstrating film-quality medical x-ray imaging capabilities. The devices utilizes an x-ray phosphor screen coupled to an array of a-Si photodiodes for detecting visible light, and a-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) for connecting the photodiodes to external readout electronics. We have developed imagers based on a pixel size of 127 micrometer X 127 micrometer with an approximately page-size imaging area of 244 mm X 195 mm, and array size of 1,536 data lines by 1,920 gate lines, for a total of 2.95 million pixels. More recently, we have developed a much larger imager based on the same pixel pattern, which covers an area of approximately 406 mm X 293 mm, with 2,304 data lines by 3,200 gate lines, for a total of nearly 7.4 million pixels. This is very likely to be the largest image sensor array and highest pixel count detector fabricated on a single substrate. Both imagers connect to a standard PC and are capable of taking an image in a few seconds. Through design rule optimization we have achieved a light sensitive area of 57% and optimized quantum efficiency for x-ray phosphor output in the green part of the spectrum, yielding an average quantum efficiency between 500 and 600 nm of approximately 70%. At the same time, we have managed to reduce extraneous leakage currents on these devices to a few fA per pixel, which allows for very high dynamic range to be achieved. We have characterized leakage currents as a function of photodiode bias, time and temperature to demonstrate high stability over these large sized arrays. At the electronics level, we have adopted a new generation of low noise, charge- sensitive amplifiers coupled to 12-bit A/D converters. Considerable attention was given to reducing electronic noise in order to demonstrate a large dynamic range (over 4,000:1) for medical imaging applications. Through a combination of low data lines capacitance

  9. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  10. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  11. Field Imaging Spectroscopy. Applications in Earthquake Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, D.; Minster, B.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fialko, Y.; Jussila, J.; Blom, R.

    2005-12-01

    Field Imaging Spectroscopy in the visible and infrared sections of the spectrum can be used as a technique to assist paleoseismological studies. Submeter range hyperspectral images of paleoseismic excavations can assist the analyisis and interpretation of the earthquake history of a site. They also provide an excellent platform for storage of the stratigraphic and structural information collected from such a site. At the present, most field data are collected descriptively. This greatly enhances the range of information that can be recorded in the field. The descriptions are documented on hand drawn field logs and/or photomosaics constructed from individual photographs. Recently developed portable hyperspectral sensors acquire high-quality spectroscopic information at high spatial resolution (pixel size ~ 0.5 mm at 50 cm) over frequencies ranging from the visible band to short wave infrared. The new data collection and interpretation methodology that we are developing (Field Imaging Spectroscopy) makes available, for the first time, a tool to quantitatively analyze paleoseismic and stratigraphic information. The reflectance spectra of each sub-millimeter portion of the material are stored in a 3-D matrix (hyperspectral cube) that can be analyzed by visual inspection, or by using a large variety of algorithms. The reflectance spectrum is related to the chemical composition and physical properties of the surface therefore hyperspectral images are capable of revealing subtle changes in texture, composition and weathering. For paleoseismic studies, we are primarily interested in distinguishing changes between layers at a given site (spectral stratigraphy) rather than the precise composition of the layers, although this is an added benefit. We have experimented with push-broom (panoramic) portable scanners, and acquired data form portions of fault exposures and cores. These images were processed using well-known imaging processing algorithms, and the results have being

  12. Processing Infrared Images For Fire Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John R.; Pratt, William K.

    1981-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service has used airborne infrared systems for forest fire detection and mapping for many years. The transfer of the images from plane to ground and the transposition of fire spots and perimeters to maps has been performed manually. A new system has been developed which uses digital image processing, transmission, and storage. Interactive graphics, high resolution color display, calculations, and computer model compatibility are featured in the system. Images are acquired by an IR line scanner and converted to 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit frames for transmission to the ground at a 1.544 M bit rate over a 14.7 GHZ carrier. Individual frames are received and stored, then transferred to a solid state memory to refresh the display at a conventional 30 frames per second rate. Line length and area calculations, false color assignment, X-Y scaling, and image enhancement are available. Fire spread can be calculated for display and fire perimeters plotted on maps. The performance requirements, basic system, and image processing will be described.

  13. The application of fuzzy-based methods to central nerve fiber imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf v.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of fuzzy logic methods within medical imaging. Technical advances have produced imaging techniques that can visualize structures and their functions in the living human body. The interpretation of these images plays a prominent role in diagnostic and therapeutic...... decisions, so physicians must deal with a variety of image processing methods and their applications.This paper describes three different sources of medical imagery that allow the visualization of nerve fibers in the human brain: (1) an algorithm for automatic segmentation of some parts of the thalamus....... Fuzzy logic methods were applied to analyze these pictures from low- to high-level image processing. The solutions presented here are motivated by problems of routine neuroanatomic research demonstrating fuzzy-based methods to be valuable tools in medical image processing....

  14. Multimodal imaging of bone metastases: From preclinical to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ellmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skeletal system are commonly observed in cancer patients, highly affecting the patients' quality of life. Imaging plays a major role in detection, follow-up, and molecular characterisation of metastatic disease. Thus, imaging techniques have been optimised and combined in a multimodal and multiparametric manner for assessment of complementary aspects in osseous metastases. This review summarises both application of the most relevant imaging techniques for bone metastasis in preclinical models and the clinical setting.

  15. Remote Sensing Image in the Application of Agricultural Tourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Fan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the processing technology of high resolution remote sensing image, the specific making process of tourism map and different remote sensing data in the key application of tourism planning and so on. Remote sensing extracts agricultural tourism planning information, improving the scientificalness and operability of agricultural tourism planning. Therefore remote sensing image in the application of agricultural tourism planning will be the inevitable trend of tourism development.

  16. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  17. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, van Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-01-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in

  18. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can ...

  19. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  20. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

  1. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...

  2. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

  3. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography

  4. Theory and Application of Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    for collecting RGB data and displaying image 11205 beadbits - 0: updown m 0 11210 rowx - 3: columnx m 22: vidthlx - 58: depthx - 6: forex - 15: backx...1 11220 VIEW PRINT 2 TO 24 11230 CALL box(rowx, columnx, widthlx, depthx, forex , backx) 11240 LOCATE rowx + 1, columnx + 1: INPUT ’Type Image...Filename " f$ 11242 IF f$ - " THEN forex - 0: backx - 0 11244 IF £0 - " THEN CALL box(rowx, columnx, widthlx, depthx, forex , backx) 11246 IF f$ - THEN

  5. Light field imaging and application analysis in THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Wu, Yaxiong; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    The light field includes the direction information and location information. Light field imaging can capture the whole light field by single exposure. The four-dimensional light field function model represented by two-plane parameter, which is proposed by Levoy, is adopted in the light field. Acquisition of light field is based on the microlens array, camera array and the mask. We calculate the dates of light-field to synthetize light field image. The processing techniques of light field data include technology of refocusing rendering, technology of synthetic aperture and technology of microscopic imaging. Introducing the technology of light field imaging into THz, the efficiency of 3D imaging is higher than that of conventional THz 3D imaging technology. The advantages compared with visible light field imaging include large depth of field, wide dynamic range and true three-dimensional. It has broad application prospects.

  6. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  7. 3D integration technologies for imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, Piet de

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of micro-electronic technologies under development today, and how they are impacting on the radiation detection and imaging of tomorrow. After a short introduction, the different enabling technologies will be discussed. Finally, a few examples of ongoing developments at IMEC on advanced detector systems will be given

  8. Thermoelectric infrared imager and automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Satou, Fuminori; Saito, Masanori; Kishi, Youichi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Makato

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes a newly developed thermoelectric infrared imager having a 48 X 32 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) and an experimental vehicle featuring a blind spot pedestrian warning system, which employs four infrared imagers. The imager measures 100 mm in width, 60 mm in height and 80 mm in depth, weighs 400 g, and has an overall field of view (FOV) of 40 deg X 20 deg. The power consumption of the imager is 3 W. The pedestrian detection program is stored in a CPU chip on a printed circuit board (PCB). The FPA provides high responsivity of 2,100 V/W, a time constant of 25 msec, and a low cost potential. Each element has external dimensions of 190 μm x 190 μm, and consists of six pairs of thermocouples and an Au-black absorber that is precisely patterned by low-pressure evaporation and lift-off technologies. The experimental vehicle is called the Nissan ASV-2 (Advanced Safety Vehicle-2), which incorporates a wide range of integrated technologies aimed at reducing traffic accidents. The blind spot pedestrian warning system alerts the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person's body. This system also prevents the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian.

  9. Clinical applications of single photon emission tomography in neuromedicine. Part 1. Neuro-oncology, epilepsy, movement disorders, cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Gruenwald, F.; Kuwert, T.; Tatsch, K.; Sabri, O.; Benkert, O.; Fahlbusch, R.; Gruender, G.; Herzholz, K.; Weiller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography is, because of its availability and the relatively low costs, the functional imaging modality currently most widely used for clinical applications in the brain. Beside the application of radiopharmaceuticals for the assessment of regional cerebral blood flow there is an increasing clinical use of more selective SPECT-radiopharmaceuticals, like amino acid analogs or receptor ligands. This article gives in its first part a critical review of the clinical applications of SPECT in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, basal ganglia disorders and cerebrovascular disease. (orig.) [de

  10. Machine Learning in Radiology: Applications Beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Paras; Prater, Adam B; Hutson, R Kent; Andriole, Kathy P; Dreyer, Keith J; Morey, Jose; Prevedello, Luciano M; Clark, Toshi J; Geis, J Raymond; Itri, Jason N; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Much attention has been given to machine learning and its perceived impact in radiology, particularly in light of recent success with image classification in international competitions. However, machine learning is likely to impact radiology outside of image interpretation long before a fully functional "machine radiologist" is implemented in practice. Here, we describe an overview of machine learning, its application to radiology and other domains, and many cases of use that do not involve image interpretation. We hope that better understanding of these potential applications will help radiology practices prepare for the future and realize performance improvement and efficiency gains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal...

  12. Integrating Web Services into Map Image Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tu, Shengru

    2003-01-01

    Web services have been opening a wide avenue for software integration. In this paper, we have reported our experiments with three applications that are built by utilizing and providing web services for Geographic Information Systems (GIS...

  13. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiographic systems part 1: a novel method for image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kam L; Ireland, Timothy A; Bernardo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study in benchmarking the performance of fixed digital radiographic general X-ray systems. This paper concentrates on reporting findings related to quantitative analysis techniques used to establish comparative image quality metrics. A systematic technical comparison of the evaluated systems is presented in part two of this study. A novel quantitative image quality analysis method is presented with technical considerations addressed for peer review. The novel method was applied to seven general radiographic systems with four different makes of radiographic image receptor (12 image receptors in total). For the System Modulation Transfer Function (sMTF), the use of grid was found to reduce veiling glare and decrease roll-off. The major contributor in sMTF degradation was found to be focal spot blurring. For the System Normalised Noise Power Spectrum (sNNPS), it was found that all systems examined had similar sNNPS responses. A mathematical model is presented to explain how the use of stationary grid may cause a difference between horizontal and vertical sNNPS responses.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements

  15. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  16. Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The developments in broad-beam ion source technology described in the companion paper (Part I) have stimulated a rapid expansion in applications to materials processing. These applications are reviewed here, beginning with a summary of sputtering mechanisms. Next, etching applications are described, including microfabrication and reactive ion beam etching. The developing area of surface layer applications is summarized, and related to the existing fields of oxidation and implantation. Next, deposition applications are reviewed, including ion-beam sputter deposition and the emerging technique of ion-assisted vapor deposition. Many of these applications have been stimulated by the development of high current ion sources operating in the energy range of tens of hundreds of eV. It is in this energy range that ion-activated chemical etching is efficient, self-limiting compound layers can be grown, and the physical properties of vapor-deposited films can be modified. In each of these areas, broad ion beam technology provides a link between other large area plasma processes and surface analytical techniques using ion beams

  17. Nanotechnology in Glycomics: Applications in Diagnostics, Therapy, Imaging, and Separation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosekova, Erika; Filip, Jaroslav; Bertok, Tomas; Both, Peter; Kasak, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This review comprehensively covers the most recent achievements (from 2013) in the successful integration of nanomaterials in the field of glycomics. The first part of the paper addresses the beneficial properties of nanomaterials for the construction of biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and protocols for the detection of various analytes, including viruses and whole cells, together with their key characteristics. The second part of the review focuses on the application of nanomaterials integrated with glycans for various biomedical applications, that is, vaccines against viral and bacterial infections and cancer cells, as therapeutic agents, for in vivo imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and for selective drug delivery. The final part of the review describes various ways in which glycan enrichment can be effectively done using nanomaterials, molecularly imprinted polymers with polymer thickness controlled at the nanoscale, with a subsequent analysis of glycans by mass spectrometry. A short section describing an active glycoprofiling by microengines (microrockets) is covered as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Applications of magnetic resonance image segmentation in neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Laarne, Paeivi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Laasonen, Erkki; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    1999-05-01

    After the introduction of digital imagin devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical modes, 3D visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In this research project several PC based software were developed in order to segment medical images, to visualize raw and segmented images in 3D, and to produce EEG brain maps in which MR images and EEG signals were integrated. The software package was tested and validated in numerous clinical research projects in hospital environment.

  19. Image feature detectors and descriptors foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hassaballah, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a selection of high-quality chapters that cover both theoretical concepts and practical applications of image feature detectors and descriptors. It serves as reference for researchers and practitioners by featuring survey chapters and research contributions on image feature detectors and descriptors. Additionally, it emphasizes several keywords in both theoretical and practical aspects of image feature extraction. The keywords include acceleration of feature detection and extraction, hardware implantations, image segmentation, evolutionary algorithm, ordinal measures, as well as visual speech recognition. .

  20. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipala, V.; Lo Presti, D.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Bucciolini, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Randazzo, N.; Stancampiano, C.; Tesi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  1. Liposomes - experiment of magnetic resonance imaging application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.

    1987-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical research effort with liposomes has been involved with the investigation of their use as drug carriers to particular target organs. Recently there has been a growing interest in liposomes not only as carrier of drugs but as a tool for the introduction of various substances into the human body. In this study, liposome delivery of nitroxyl radicals as NMR contrast agent for improved tissue imaging is experimented in rats [fr

  2. X-ray imaging for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  3. Translational Radiomics: Defining the Strategy Pipeline and Considerations for Application-Part 2: From Clinical Implementation to Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Faiq; Franc, Benjamin; Allen, Erastus; Sala, Evis; Awan, Omer; Hendrata, Kenneth; Halabi, Safwan; Mohiuddin, Sohaib; Malik, Sana; Hadley, Dexter; Shrestha, Rasu

    2018-03-01

    Enterprise imaging has channeled various technological innovations to the field of clinical radiology, ranging from advanced imaging equipment and postacquisition iterative reconstruction tools to image analysis and computer-aided detection tools. More recently, the advancement in the field of quantitative image analysis coupled with machine learning-based data analytics, classification, and integration has ushered in the era of radiomics, a paradigm shift that holds tremendous potential in clinical decision support as well as drug discovery. However, there are important issues to consider to incorporate radiomics into a clinically applicable system and a commercially viable solution. In this two-part series, we offer insights into the development of the translational pipeline for radiomics from methodology to clinical implementation (Part 1) and from that point to enterprise development (Part 2). In Part 2 of this two-part series, we study the components of the strategy pipeline, from clinical implementation to building enterprise solutions. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  5. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

  7. Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

  8. Image processing applications: From particle physics to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Citraro, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Giannetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded system for extremely efficient real-time pattern recognition execution, enabling technological advancements with both scientific and social impact. It is a compact, fast, low consumption processing unit (PU) based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the full custom associative memory chip. The PU has been developed for real time tracking in particle physics experiments, but delivers flexible features for potential application in a wide range of fields. It has been proposed to be used in accelerated pattern matching execution for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (biomedical applications), in real time detection of space debris trails in astronomical images (space applications) and in brain emulation for image processing (cognitive image processing). We illustrate the potentiality of the PU for the new applications.

  9. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications Imaging, Targeting, and Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book clearly demonstrates the progression of nanoparticle therapeutics from basic research to applications. Unlike other books covering nanoparticles used in medical applications, Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications presents the medical challenges that can be reduced or even overcome by recent advances in nanoscale drug delivery. Each chapter highlights recent progress in the design and engineering of select multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy.

  10. Parallelism and Scalability in an Image Processing Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Karlsson, Sven

    2008-01-01

    parallel programs. This paper investigates parallelism and scalability of an embedded image processing application. The major challenges faced when parallelizing the application were to extract enough parallelism from the application and to reduce load imbalance. The application has limited immediately......The recent trends in processor architecture show that parallel processing is moving into new areas of computing in the form of many-core desktop processors and multi-processor system-on-chip. This means that parallel processing is required in application areas that traditionally have not used...

  11. Parallelism and Scalability in an Image Processing Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Karlsson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    parallel programs. This paper investigates parallelism and scalability of an embedded image processing application. The major challenges faced when parallelizing the application were to extract enough parallelism from the application and to reduce load imbalance. The application has limited immediately......The recent trends in processor architecture show that parallel processing is moving into new areas of computing in the form of many-core desktop processors and multi-processor system-on-chips. This means that parallel processing is required in application areas that traditionally have not used...

  12. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  13. Contribution to the study of integrated system design in digital imaging. Application to digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, M.

    1987-02-01

    In the first part of this work, we describe the hardware and software used to design integrated systems able to acquire, memorize, process and visualize 1024 x 1024 x 8 bits images. In the second part, we present and analyse the first realised prototype system which is a digital radiology one. After a technical and economical digital radiology study, we present the angiographic and tomographic results. In the third part, we indicate possible evolution of this system and we show how the adopted structure and developed hardware allow applications in various fields [fr

  14. Application of optical character recognition in thermal image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. T.; Sim, K. S.; Tso, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the reliability of the thermal imager compared to other devices that are used in preventive maintenance. Several case studies are used to facilitate the comparisons. When any device is found to perform unsatisfactorily where there is a suspected fault, its short-fall is determined so that the other devices may compensate, if possible. This study discovered that the thermal imager is not suitable or efficient enough for systems that happen to have little contrast in temperature between its parts or small but important parts that have their heat signatures obscured by those from other parts. The thermal imager is also found to be useful for preliminary examinations of certain systems, after which other more economical devices are suitable substitutes for further examinations. The findings of this research will be useful to the design and planning of preventive maintenance routines for industrial benefits.

  15. A Versatile Image Processor For Digital Diagnostic Imaging And Its Application In Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.; Alexandru, R.; Applegate, R.; Giordano, T.; Kamiya, K.; Kresina, R.

    1986-06-01

    In a digital diagnostic imaging department, the majority of operations for handling and processing of images can be grouped into a small set of basic operations, such as image data buffering and storage, image processing and analysis, image display, image data transmission and image data compression. These operations occur in almost all nodes of the diagnostic imaging communications network of the department. An image processor architecture was developed in which each of these functions has been mapped into hardware and software modules. The modular approach has advantages in terms of economics, service, expandability and upgradeability. The architectural design is based on the principles of hierarchical functionality, distributed and parallel processing and aims at real time response. Parallel processing and real time response is facilitated in part by a dual bus system: a VME control bus and a high speed image data bus, consisting of 8 independent parallel 16-bit busses, capable of handling combined up to 144 MBytes/sec. The presented image processor is versatile enough to meet the video rate processing needs of digital subtraction angiography, the large pixel matrix processing requirements of static projection radiography, or the broad range of manipulation and display needs of a multi-modality diagnostic work station. Several hardware modules are described in detail. For illustrating the capabilities of the image processor, processed 2000 x 2000 pixel computed radiographs are shown and estimated computation times for executing the processing opera-tions are presented.

  16. CAD in breast imaging. Application in mammography and MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Hermann, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD-systems) are evaluated in different parts of diagnostic imaging. In breast imaging double reading which is time- and cost spending is necessary. Therefore a lot of studies evaluated the use of CAD-systems in mammography. However the rate of false-positives is too high to implement CAD-systems as double reader in routine work. In the future, improvements in this technique could perhaps change the performance of CAD-systems. (orig.)

  17. Clinical application of MR susceptibility weighted imaging in cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wenzhen; Qi Jianpin; Shen Hao; Wang Chengyuan; Xia Liming; Hu Junwu; Feng Dingyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinical application value of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in cerebrovascular diseases. Method: Twenty-three patients with cerebrovascular disease were investigated, including 7 cases of cavernoma, 4 of venous hemangioma, 3 of small AVM, 1 of Sturge-Weber Syndrome, 2 of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and 6 of chronic cerebral infarction. All patients underwent standard Mill and SWI, and most of them also underwent enhanced T 1 WI and MRA. The corrected phase (CP) values were obtained at the lesions and control areas. Results: The average CP values of the lesions and the control areas were -0.112±0.032 and -0.013±0.004, respectively (t=2.167, P 2 WI. The cavemoma could be differentiated from the hemorrhage within lesions. Moreover, multiple microcavernomas were detected on SWI. In 4 cases of venous hemangioma, SWI detected spider-like lesions with more hair-thin pulp veins adjacent to the dilated draining vein than contrast MRI. In 3 cases of small AVM, SWI was more advantageous than MRA in clearly detecting the small feeding artery. In 1 case of Sturge-Weber Syndrome, SWI demonstrated large areas of calcification and the abnormal vessels on the cerebral surface and the deep part of the cerebrum at the same time. In 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the deep draining veins and superficial venous rete were generally dilated and winding, and the hemorrhagic lesions could be detected earlier than conventional MR images in one case. In 6 eases of cerebral infarction, old hemorrhage was clearly displayed within the lesions. Conclusion: SWI has more predominant advantages than conventional MRI and MRA in detecting the low-flow cerebral vascular malformations, identifying microbleeds and cerebral infarction accompanying hemorrhage, and the dilation of cerebral deep or superficial veins in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Moreover, SWI can show the phase contrast between the lesions and the control areas. (authors)

  18. Some computer applications and digital image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowinger, T.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of digital image processing are applied to problems in nuclear medicine imaging. The symmetry properties of central nervous system lesions are exploited in an attempt to determine the three-dimensional radioisotope density distribution within the lesions. An algorithm developed by astronomers at the end of the 19th century to determine the distribution of matter in globular clusters is applied to tumors. This algorithm permits the emission-computed-tomographic reconstruction of spherical lesions from a single view. The three-dimensional radioisotope distribution derived by the application of the algorithm can be used to characterize the lesions. The applicability to nuclear medicine images of ten edge detection methods in general usage in digital image processing were evaluated. A general model of image formation by scintillation cameras is developed. The model assumes that objects to be imaged are composed of a finite set of points. The validity of the model has been verified by its ability to duplicate experimental results. Practical applications of this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of radipharmaceuticals under clinical situations and the study of image processing algorithms

  19. High speed global shutter image sensors for professional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Meynants, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Global shutter imagers expand the use to miscellaneous applications, such as machine vision, 3D imaging, medical imaging, space etc. to eliminate motion artifacts in rolling shutter imagers. A low noise global shutter pixel requires more than one non-light sensitive memory to reduce the read noise. But larger memory area reduces the fill-factor of the pixels. Modern micro-lenses technology can compensate this fill-factor loss. Backside illumination (BSI) is another popular technique to improve the pixel fill-factor. But some pixel architecture may not reach sufficient shutter efficiency with backside illumination. Non-light sensitive memory elements make the fabrication with BSI possible. Machine vision like fast inspection system, medical imaging like 3D medical or scientific applications always ask for high frame rate global shutter image sensors. Thanks to the CMOS technology, fast Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be integrated on chip. Dual correlated double sampling (CDS) on chip ADC with high interface digital data rate reduces the read noise and makes more on-chip operation control. As a result, a global shutter imager with digital interface is a very popular solution for applications with high performance and high frame rate requirements. In this paper we will review the global shutter architectures developed in CMOSIS, discuss their optimization process and compare their performances after fabrication.

  20. Elastic models application for thorax image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Prado, Lorena S; Diaz, E Andres Valdez; Romo, Raul

    2007-01-01

    This work consist of the implementation and evaluation of elastic alignment algorithms of biomedical images, which were taken at thorax level and simulated with the 4D NCAT digital phantom. Radial Basis Functions spatial transformations (RBF), a kind of spline, which allows carrying out not only global rigid deformations but also local elastic ones were applied, using a point-matching method. The applied functions were: Thin Plate Spline (TPS), Multiquadric (MQ) Gaussian and B-Spline, which were evaluated and compared by means of calculating the Target Registration Error and similarity measures between the registered images (the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD) and correlation coefficient (CC)). In order to value the user incurred error in the point-matching and segmentation tasks, two algorithms were also designed that calculate the Fiduciary Localization Error. TPS and MQ were demonstrated to have better performance than the others. It was proved RBF represent an adequate model for approximating the thorax deformable behaviour. Validation algorithms showed the user error was not significant

  1. Application of lectins to tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Jay, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro binding of 125 I-lectins to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and in vivo uptake of 125 I-lectins in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. In in vitro binding assays, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA), pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and concanavalia agglutinin (Con A) showed a high affinity for EAT cells. The in vivo biodistribution of 125 I-lectins showed 125 I-PSA to be significantly taken up into EST tissues 24 h postinjection. After IV injection of 125 I-PSA, uptake of the radioactivity into the tumor tissues reached a maximum at 6 h, and thereafter decreased. Rapid disappearance of the radioactivity from blood and its excretion into kidney soon after injection of 125 I-PSA were observed. When compared with the biodistribution of 67 Ga-citrate in EST bearing mice 24 h postinjection, tumor to liver (T/B), tumor to muscle (T/M), and tumor to blood (T/B) ratios were superior for 125 I-PSA. At 6 h postinjection, the T/B-ratio of 125 I-PSA was 2.5, and this value may be sufficient to enable discernable diagnostic images. Our results suggest that PSA might be a useful tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  2. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices

  3. 31 CFR 203.8 - Application of part and procedural instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND THE TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM General Information § 203.8 Application of part and procedural... account balance, SDI account balance, or a TIO account balance under this part. By accepting or...

  4. Simulation of deposed dose and application of image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadi, A.; Fahli, A.

    1994-01-01

    In gamma radiation processing, the photons from radioactive isotopes, are absorbed in matter where they lost a part or the whole energy they process. On every point P of the material irradiated, the absorbed dose (D) is the deposed energy in the volume (dV) (centred in P) per the mass (Dm) of this volume. The radiations effects on every point of material it directly depend on the locally deposed energy. For technical applications it very important to know how the dose is deposed in irradiated material. Because of the random aspect of each process who may released in material ( Photoelectric effect, Compton diffusion and pair production (e sup +, e sup -..) and the arbitrary geometries can be treated, we use in this work, the Monte Carlo simulation, to describe the phenomenon and reproduce it at all in computer during the irradiation processing for photons with energies above a few KeV to a several MeV in any element compound or mixture. The rate dose is then calculated at every point P(x,y,z,) and restored as real data file in first time,and transformed to bytes data file and finally shown as a digital image in high resolution 16 colors allowing an analysis of the dose variation in material 2 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  5. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  6. Image reconstruction. Application to transverse axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, Florent.

    1977-09-01

    A method of computerized tridimensional image reconstruction from their projection, especially in the computerized transverse axial tomography is suggested. First, the different techniques actually developped and presented in the literature are analyzed. Then, the equipment used is briefly described. The reconstruction algorithm developped is presented. This algorithm is based on the convolution method, well adapted to the real conditions of exploitation. It is an extension of SHEPP and LOGAN's algorithm. A correction of the self absorption and of the detector's response is proposed. Finally, the first results obtained which are satisfactory are given. The simplicity of the method which does not need a too long computation time makes possible the implementation of the algorithm on a mini-computer [fr

  7. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwatban, Adnan Z.W.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  8. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwatban, Adnan Z W

    2002-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  9. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  10. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine

  11. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography--part 2: image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Teresa; Koch, Maximilian; Ale, Angelique; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Arridge, Simon

    2016-02-21

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. We propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. Furthermore, structural information can be incorporated into the image reconstruction with PAD-WT to improve image quality and resolution. In this case, the weights used to average voxels in the image are calculated using the structural image, instead of the fluorescence image. The regularisation strength depends on both structural and fluorescence images, which guarantees that the method can preserve fluorescence information even when it is not structurally visible in the anatomical images. In part 1, we tested the method using a denoising problem. Here, we use simulated and in vivo mouse fDOT data to assess the algorithm performance. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides high quality and noise free images, superior to those obtained using AD.

  12. Applications of evolutionary computation in image processing and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the use of efficient Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms for solving diverse real-world image processing and pattern recognition problems. It provides an overview of the different aspects of evolutionary methods in order to enable the reader in reaching a global understanding of the field and, in conducting studies on specific evolutionary techniques that are related to applications in image processing and pattern recognition. It explains the basic ideas of the proposed applications in a way that can also be understood by readers outside of the field. Image processing and pattern recognition practitioners who are not evolutionary computation researchers will appreciate the discussed techniques beyond simple theoretical tools since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise on such areas. On the other hand, members of the evolutionary computation community can learn the way in which image processing and pattern recognition problems can be translated into an...

  13. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  14. Cervical cancer. Application of MR imaging in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of application of MRI in arrangement of brachytherapy of cervical cancer, a method was proposed to see the radiation doses in surrounding tissues by superimposing the dose distribution pattern of the radiation source on the MR image. The applicator for the source was filled with water to get its T2-weighted image and was inserted in the patients. The MRI apparatus was Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5T) with phased array coil. T2-weighted sagittal and coronary images were taken by turbospin echo and HASTE methods. The section thickness was 5 mm. The dose distribution pattern was superimposed on the frontal and lateral images by Siemens Mevaplan to see the doses in surrounding tissues. In 4 patients, it was possible to estimate the radiation dose in the posterior wall of bladder, anterior wall of rectum and urinary duct. The method is promising for arranging brachytherapy of cervical cancer. (K.H.)

  15. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuPing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional online shopping platform (OSP, which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers’ experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  16. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  17. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  18. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  19. The role of brand image congruity in Iranian consumers’ demand for auto parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary issues in handling demands for auto parts in the world is to build a mutual trust between consumers and vendors. When people trust a brand, they purchase more easily and it is possible to develop market. In Iran, there is a growing interest in demand for auto parts and each year, tens of millions of auto parts are getting sold. This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect the effects of brand image on demand for auto parts. Using a sample of 202 randomly selected people who buy/sell auto parts in city of Tehran, Iran, the study determines three variables including brand strength, brand attributes and consumer trust through the implementation of structural equation modeling.

  20. Application of proton radiography to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Martin, R.L.; Moffett, D.R.; Colton, E.

    1977-12-01

    The use of charged particles for radiographic applications has been considered for some time, but progress has been impeded by the cost and availability of suitable accelerators. However, recent developments in technology could overcome these problems. A review is presented of the physical principles leading to an improvement in mass resolution per unit of absorbed dose for charged particle radiography relative to x-ray radiography. The quantitative comparisons between x-ray and proton radiographs presented here confirm this advantage. The implications of proton radiography on cancer detection, as well as future plans for developing a proton tomographic system, are discussed

  1. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  2. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Imaging in Biomedicine: Gene Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, M.; Peñuelas, I.

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy constitutes a promising option for efficient and targeted treatment of several inherited disorders. Imaging techniques using ionizing radiation as PET or SPECT are used for non-invasive monitoring of the distribution and kinetics of vector-mediated gene expression. In this review the main reporter gene/reporter probe strategies are summarized, as well as the contribution of preclinical models to the development of this new imaging modality previously to its application in clinical arena. [es

  3. Advances in the Application of Image Processing Fruit Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang , Chengjun; Hua , Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the perspective of actual production, the paper presents the advances in the application of image processing fruit grading from several aspects, such as processing precision and processing speed of image processing technology. Furthermore, the different algorithms about detecting size, shape, color and defects are combined effectively to reduce the complexity of each algorithm and achieve a balance between the processing precision and processing speed are keys to au...

  4. Oncological applications of 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin

    2000-01-01

    Considering normal distribution of 18 F-FDG in human body, 18 F-FDG imaging using PET can be applied to brain tumors, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, lung cancer and head and neck cancer. The author briefly focuses on application of 18 F-FDG PET imaging to breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, musculoskeletal neoplasms, endocrine neoplasms, genitourinary neoplasms, esophageal and gastric carcinomas

  5. Cross-relaxation imaging:methods, challenges and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stikov, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    An overview of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) is given, with focus on cross relaxation imaging (CRI) as a fast method for quantifying the proportion of protons bound to complex macromolecules in tissue. The procedure for generating CRI maps is outlined, showing examples in the human brain and knee, and discussing the caveats and challenges in generating precise and accurate CRI maps. Finally, several applications of CRI for imaging tissue microstructure are presented.(Author)

  6. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards

  8. On the applicability of numerical image mapping for PIV image analysis near curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masullo, Alessandro; Theunissen, Raf

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the general suitability of image mapping for particle image velocimetry (PIV) applications. Image mapping can improve PIV measurement accuracy by eliminating overlap between the PIV interrogation windows and an interface, as illustrated by some examples in the literature. Image mapping transforms the PIV images using a curvilinear interface-fitted mesh prior to performing the PIV cross correlation. However, degrading effects due to particle image deformation and the Jacobian transformation inherent in the mapping along curvilinear grid lines have never been deeply investigated. Here, the implementation of image mapping from mesh generation to image resampling is presented in detail, and related error sources are analysed. Systematic comparison with standard PIV approaches shows that image mapping is effective only in a very limited set of flow conditions and geometries, and depends strongly on a priori knowledge of the boundary shape and streamlines. In particular, with strongly curved geometries or streamlines that are not parallel to the interface, the image-mapping approach is easily outperformed by more traditional image analysis methodologies invoking suitable spatial relocation of the obtained displacement vector. (paper)

  9. FPGA implementation of image dehazing algorithm for real time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Balasubramanian, R.

    2017-09-01

    Weather degradation such as haze, fog, mist, etc. severely reduces the effective range of visual surveillance. This degradation is a spatially varying phenomena, which makes this problem non trivial. Dehazing is an essential preprocessing stage in applications such as long range imaging, border security, intelligent transportation system, etc. However, these applications require low latency of the preprocessing block. In this work, single image dark channel prior algorithm is modified and implemented for fast processing with comparable visual quality of the restored image/video. Although conventional single image dark channel prior algorithm is computationally expensive, it yields impressive results. Moreover, a two stage image dehazing architecture is introduced, wherein, dark channel and airlight are estimated in the first stage. Whereas, transmission map and intensity restoration are computed in the next stages. The algorithm is implemented using Xilinx Vivado software and validated by using Xilinx zc702 development board, which contains an Artix7 equivalent Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and ARM Cortex A9 dual core processor. Additionally, high definition multimedia interface (HDMI) has been incorporated for video feed and display purposes. The results show that the dehazing algorithm attains 29 frames per second for the image resolution of 1920x1080 which is suitable of real time applications. The design utilizes 9 18K_BRAM, 97 DSP_48, 6508 FFs and 8159 LUTs.

  10. Dissimilarity Application in Digitized Mammographic Images Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Bottigli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this work is the development of an automatic classification system which could be useful for radiologists in the investigation of breast cancer. The software has been designed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 collaboration. In the traditional way of learning from examples of objects the classifiers are built in a feature space. However, an alternative ways can be found by constructing decision rules on dissimilarity (distance representations. In such a recognition process a new object is described by its distances to (a subset of the training samples. The use of the dissimilarities is especially of interest when features are difficult to obtain or when they have a little discriminative power. In the automatic classification system the suspicious regions with high probability to include a lesion are extracted from the image as regions of interest (ROIs. Each ROI is characterized by some features extracted from co-occurrence matrix containing spatial statistics information on ROI pixel grey tones. A dissimilarity representation of these features is made before the classification. A feed-forward neural network is employed to distinguish pathological records, from non-pathological ones by the new features. The results obtained in terms of sensitivity and specificity will be presented.

  11. Novel plasmonic polarimeter for biomedical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Alec; Chen, Borui; Cartwright, Alexander; Thomay, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Using polarized light in medical imaging is a valuable tool for diagnostic purposes since light traveling through scattering tissues such as skin, blood, or cartilage may be subject to changes in polarization. We present a new detection scheme and sensor that allows for directly measuring the polarization of light electronically using a plasmonic sensor. The sensor we fabricated consists of a plasmonic nano-grating that is embedded in a Wheatstone circuit. Using resistive losses induced by optically excited plasmons has shown promise as a CMOScompatible plasmonic light detector. Since the plasmonic response is sensitive to polarization with respect to the grating orientation, measuring the resistance change under incident light supplies a direct electronic measure of the polarization of light without polarization optics. Increased electron scattering introduced by plasmons in an applied current results in a measurable decrease in electrical conductance of a grating, allowing a purely electronic readout of a plasmonic excitation. Accordingly, because of its plasmonic nature, such a detector is dependent on both the wavelength and polarization of incident light with a response time limited by the surface plasmon lifetime.

  12. Synchrotrons and their applications in medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Australasia's first synchrotron is being built on the campus of Monash University near Melbourne. Is it of any relevance to the medical imaging and radiation therapy communities? The answer is an unequivocal yes. Synchrotrons overcome many of the problems with conventional X-ray sources and as a result make it possible to demonstrate extraordinary advances in both X-ray imaging and indeed in radio-therapy. Synchrotron imaging offers us a window into what is possible and the results are spectacular. Specific examples include lung images that reveal alveolar structure and computed tomography of single cells. For therapy treatments are being pioneered that seem to be effective on high grade gliomas. An overview of the status of medical applications using synchrotrons will be given and the proposed Australian medical imaging and therapy facilities will be described and some of the proposed research highlighted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Imaging with electromagnetic spectrum applications in food and agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Jayasuriya, Hemantha

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates how imaging techniques, applying different frequency bands from the electromagnetic spectrum, are used in scientific research. Illustrated with numerous examples this book is structured according to the different radiation bands: From Gamma-rays over UV and IR to radio frequencies. In order to ensure a clear understanding of the processing methodologies, the text is enriched with descriptions of how digital images are formed, acquired, processed and how to extract information from them. A special emphasis is given to the application of imaging techniques in food and agriculture research.

  14. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong ZHANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.

  15. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March 28... Competitive Practices Act of 1974 (49 U.S.C. 1517). Executive Order 12138, “Creating a National Women's... National Program for Women's Business Enterprise,” (May 18, 1979) 3 CFR 1979 Comp., p. 393. Sec. 403(b...

  17. Neutron beam applications - A development of real-time imaging processing for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whoi Yul; Lee, Sang Yup; Choi, Min Seok; Hwang, Sun Kyu; Han, Il Ho; Jang, Jae Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This research is sponsored and supported by KAERI as a part of {sup A}pplication of Neutron Radiography Beam.{sup M}ain theme of the research is to develop a non-destructive inspection system for the task of studying the real-time behaviour of dynamic motion using neutron beam with the aid of a special purpose real-time image processing system that allows to capture an image of internal structure of a specimen. Currently, most off-the-shelf image processing programs designed for visible light or X-ray are not adequate for the applications that require neutron beam generated by the experimental nuclear reactor. In addition, study of dynamic motion of a specimen is severely constrained by such image processing systems. In this research, a special image processing system suited for such application is developed which not only supplements the commercial image processing system but allows to use neutron beam directly in the system for the study. 18 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. Development and application of PET-MRI image fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jianhua; Zhao Jinhua; Qiao Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and growing in popularity of PET-CT scanner brings us the convenience and cognizes the advantages such as diagnosis, staging, curative effect evaluation and prognosis for malignant tumor. And the PET-MRI installing maybe a new upsurge when the machine gradually mature, because of the MRI examination without the radiation exposure and with the higher soft tissue resolution. This paper summarized the developing course of image fusion technology and some researches of clinical application about PET-MRI at present, in order to help people to understand the functions and know its wide application of the upcoming new instrument, mainly focuses the application on the central nervous system and some soft tissue lesions. And before PET-MRI popularization, people can still carry out some researches of various image fusion and clinical application on the current equipment. (authors)

  19. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications of Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosky, Brian Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Laser flare can often be a major issue in particle image velocimetry (PIV) involving solid boundaries in a flow or a gas-liquid interface. The use of fluorescent light from dye-doped particles has been demonstrated in water applications, but reproducing the technique in an airflow is more difficult due to particle size constraints and safety concerns. The following thesis is formatted in a hybrid manuscript style, including a full paper presenting the applications of fluorescent Kiton R...

  20. Imbibition of wheat seeds: Application of image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Jakub; Blahovec, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    Image analysis is widely used for monitoring seeds during germination, and it is often the final phase of germination that is subjected to the greatest attention. However, the initial phase of germination (the so-called imbibition) also exhibits interesting behaviour. This work shows that image analysis has significant potential in the imbibition. Herein, a total of 120 seeds were analysed during germination tests, and information about seed size and shape was stored and analysed. It was found that the imbibition can be divided into two newly defined parts. The first one (`abrupt imbibition') consists mainly of the swelling of the seed embryo part and lasts approximately one hour. The second one, referred to as `main imbibition', consists mainly of spatial expansion caused by imbibition in the other parts of the seed. The results presented are supported by the development of seed cross area and shape parameters, and by direct observation.

  1. Single-pixel imaging by Hadamard transform and its application for hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Kyuki; Taguchi, Hiroki; Iwata, Tetsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report on comparisons of single-pixel imagings using Hadamard Transform (HT) and the ghost imaging (GI) in the view point of the visibility under weak light conditions. For comparing the two methods, we have discussed about qualities of images based on experimental results and numerical analysis. To detect images by the TH method, we have illuminated the Hadamard-pattern mask and calculated by orthogonal transform. On the other hand, the GH method can detect images by illuminating random patterns and a correlation measurement. For comparing two methods under weak light intensity, we have controlled illuminated intensities of a DMD projector about 0.1 in signal-to-noise ratio. Though a process speed of the HT image was faster then an image via the GI, the GI method has an advantage of detection under weak light condition. An essential difference between the HT and the GI method is discussed about reconstruction process. Finally, we also show a typical application of the single-pixel imaging such as hyperspectral images by using dual-optical frequency combs. An optical setup consists of two fiber lasers, spatial light modulated for generating patten illumination, and a single pixel detector. We are successful to detect hyperspectrul images in a range from 1545 to 1555 nm at 0.01nm resolution.

  2. Technical Note: Deformable image registration on partially matched images for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Deshan; Goddu, S. Murty; Lu Wei; Pechenaya, Olga L.; Wu Yu; Deasy, Joseph O.; El Naqa, Issam; Low, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    In radiation therapy applications, deformable image registrations (DIRs) are often carried out between two images that only partially match. Image mismatching could present as superior-inferior coverage differences, field-of-view (FOV) cutoffs, or motion crossing the image boundaries. In this study, the authors propose a method to improve the existing DIR algorithms so that DIR can be carried out in such situations. The basic idea is to extend the image volumes and define the extension voxels (outside the FOV or outside the original image volume) as NaN (not-a-number) values that are transparent to all floating-point computations in the DIR algorithms. Registrations are then carried out with one additional rule that NaN voxels can match any voxels. In this way, the matched sections of the images are registered properly, and the mismatched sections of the images are registered to NaN voxels. This method makes it possible to perform DIR on partially matched images that otherwise are difficult to register. It may also improve DIR accuracy, especially near or in the mismatched image regions.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws

  4. Metal matrix composites. Part 1. Types, properties, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edil da Costa, C.; Velasco Lopez, F.; Torralba Castello, M.

    2000-01-01

    An overview on the state of the art of metal matrix composites used in the automotive and aerospace industries is made. These materials usually are based on light alloys (Al, Ti and Mg) and reinforced with fibres or particles. In this review, it is presented a general scope on the different MMCs families, about their properties and their main applications. (Author) 61 refs

  5. Connected Lighting System Interoperability Study Part 1: Application Programming Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidon, Clement [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    First in a series of studies that focuses on interoperability as realized by the use of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), explores the diversity of such interfaces in several connected lighting systems; characterizes the extent of interoperability that they provide; and illustrates challenges, limitations, and tradeoffs that were encountered during this exploration.

  6. Opportunities and applications of medical imaging and image processing techniques for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Samuel Moon Ho; Cho, Jung Ho; Son, Sang Rock; Sung, Je Jonng; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Lee, Jeong Soon

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) of structures strives to extract all relevant data regarding the state of the structure without altering its form or properties. The success enjoyed by imaging and image processing technologies in the field of modem medicine forecasts similar success of image processing related techniques both in research and practice of NDT. In this paper, we focus on two particular instances of such applications: a modern vision technique for 3-D profile and shape measurement, and ultrasonic imaging with rendering for 3-D visualization. Ultrasonic imaging of 3-D structures for nondestructive evaluation purposes must provide readily recognizable 3-D images with enough details to clearly show various faults that may or may not be present. As a step towards Improving conspicuity and thus detection of faults, we propose a pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging technique to generate a 3-D image of the 3-D object under evaluation through strategic scanning and processing of the pulse-echo data. This three-dimensional processing and display improves conspicuity of faults and in addition, provides manipulation capabilities, such as pan and rotation of the 3-D structure. As a second application, we consider an image based three-dimensional shape determination system. The shape, and thus the three-dimensional coordinate information of the 3-D object, is determined solely from captured images of the 3-D object from a prescribed set of viewpoints. The approach is based on the shape from silhouette (SFS) technique and the efficacy of the SFS method is tested using a sample data set. This system may be used to visualize the 3-D object efficiently, or to quickly generate initial CAD data for reverse engineering purposes. The proposed system potentially may be used in three dimensional design applications such as 3-D animation and 3-D games.

  7. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard L; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-11-01

    The European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging, created in 2012, has become a reference for publishing multimodality cardiovascular imaging scientific and review papers. The impressive 2014 impact factor of 4.105 confirms the important position of our journal. In this part, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year, with specific emphasis on cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, valvular heart diseases, and heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Fractal-Based Image Analysis In Radiological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S. B.; Vernazza, G.; Viviani, R.

    1987-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of a study aimed to assess the actual effectiveness of fractal theory and to define its limitations in the area of medical image analysis for texture description, in particular, in radiological applications. A general analysis to select appropriate parameters (mask size, tolerance on fractal dimension estimation, etc.) has been performed on synthetically generated images of known fractal dimensions. Moreover, we analyzed some radiological images of human organs in which pathological areas can be observed. Input images were subdivided into blocks of 6x6 pixels; then, for each block, the fractal dimension was computed in order to create fractal images whose intensity was related to the D value, i.e., texture behaviour. Results revealed that the fractal images could point out the differences between normal and pathological tissues. By applying histogram-splitting segmentation to the fractal images, pathological areas were isolated. Two different techniques (i.e., the method developed by Pentland and the "blanket" method) were employed to obtain fractal dimension values, and the results were compared; in both cases, the appropriateness of the fractal description of the original images was verified.

  9. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  10. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  11. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid- 90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  12. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  13. Use of the image by nuclear magnetic resonance (nucleography) in obstetrical aspects. Part 2. Emprego da imagem por ressonancia magnetica nuclear (nucleografia) em obstetricia. Parte 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacreta, O [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1987-10-01

    In the first part of this paper the author presented the physical principles on magnetic resonance imaging. The author describes now the obstetrical aspects of nucleography, showing how the maternal and the fetal organs are depicted. The clinical significance of the images is presented. (author).

  14. Gene therapy imaging in patients for oncological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penuelas, Ivan; Haberkorn, Uwe; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2005-01-01

    Thus far, traditional methods for evaluating gene transfer and expression have been shown to be of limited value in the clinical arena. Consequently there is a real need to develop new methods that could be repeatedly and safely performed in patients for such purposes. Molecular imaging techniques for gene expression monitoring have been developed and successfully used in animal models, but their sensitivity and reproducibility need to be tested and validated in human studies. In this review, we present the current status of gene therapy-based anticancer strategies and show how molecular imaging, and more specifically radionuclide-based approaches, can be used in gene therapy procedures for oncological applications in humans. The basis of gene expression imaging is described and specific uses of these non-invasive procedures for gene therapy monitoring illustrated. Molecular imaging of transgene expression in humans and evaluation of response to gene-based therapeutic procedures are considered. The advantages of molecular imaging for whole-body monitoring of transgene expression as a way to permit measurement of important parameters in both target and non-target organs are also analyzed. The relevance of this technology for evaluation of the necessary vector dose and how it can be used to improve vector design are also examined. Finally, the advantages of designing a gene therapy-based clinical trial with imaging fully integrated from the very beginning are discussed and future perspectives for the development of these applications outlined. (orig.)

  15. Wavelet-based compression of pathological images for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang W.; Jiang, Jianfei; Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Xue G.; Yu, Lun

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of wavelet-based coding techniques as applied to the compression of pathological images for application in an Internet-based telemedicine system. We first study how well suited the wavelet-based coding is as it applies to the compression of pathological images, since these images often contain fine textures that are often critical to the diagnosis of potential diseases. We compare the wavelet-based compression with the DCT-based JPEG compression in the DICOM standard for medical imaging applications. Both objective and subjective measures have been studied in the evaluation of compression performance. These studies are performed in close collaboration with expert pathologists who have conducted the evaluation of the compressed pathological images and communication engineers and information scientists who designed the proposed telemedicine system. These performance evaluations have shown that the wavelet-based coding is suitable for the compression of various pathological images and can be integrated well with the Internet-based telemedicine systems. A prototype of the proposed telemedicine system has been developed in which the wavelet-based coding is adopted for the compression to achieve bandwidth efficient transmission and therefore speed up the communications between the remote terminal and the central server of the telemedicine system.

  16. A possible application of magnetic resonance imaging for pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Joanna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

    2011-03-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive method, the experiment can be conducted in situ and allows the studying of the sample and the different processes in vitro or in vivo. 1D, 2D or 3D imaging can be undertaken. MRI is nowadays most widely used in medicine as a clinical diagnostic tool, but has still seen limited application in the food and pharmaceutical sciences. The different imaging pulse sequences of MRI allow to image the processes that take place in a wide scale range from ms (dissolution of compact tablets) to hours (hydration of drug delivery systems) for mobile as well as for rigid spins, usually protons. The paper gives examples of MRI application of in vitro imaging of pharmaceutical dosage based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose which have focused on water-penetration, diffusion, polymer swelling, and drug release, characterized with respect to other physical parameters such as pH and the molecular weight of polymer. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as a model drug. NMR imaging of density distributions and fast kinetics of the dissolution behavior of compact tablets is presented for paracetamol tablets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-01-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied

  18. Euler and applications of quantum mechanics. Paradox IH. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVASYSHIN Henrich Stepanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By some estimation, thirty percent of the gross national product of the USA depends on the applications of quantum mechanics in one or another form. Different aspects of the development of quantum theory are considered. Based on the residual stresses and relaxation of the stresses in the details of arbitrary forms the analysis of technological option of the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox interpretation is performed by the method of shaped coordination grid. The option refers to the mystery of measurement of two particles which are located far from each other but at the same time which quantum states are interconnected. The paper also regards the application of involute with variable evolute to increase working capacity of interfaces in free wheels, gearing and ribbon and rack mechanisms.

  19. Perspectives on Imaging: Advanced Applications. Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)

  20. Application of an image processing software for quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeslavsky, E.; Bergmann, R.; Kretzschmar, M.; Wenzel, U.

    1993-01-01

    The present communication deals with the utilization of an image processing device for quantitative whole-body autoradiography, cell counting and also for interpretation of chromatograms. It is shown that the system parameters allow an adequate and precise determination of optical density values. Also shown are the main error sources limiting the applicability of the system. (orig.)

  1. Hexabundles: imaging fibre arrays for low-light astronomical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julie; Robertson, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an imaging fibre bundle (“hexabundle”) that is suitable for low-light applications in astronomy. The most successful survey instruments at optical-infrared wavelengths today have obtained data on up to a million celestial sources using hundreds of multimode fibre...

  2. RFID Demystified: Part 2. Applications within the supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, Richard D.; Delgardo, Tiago

    2004-01-01

    In our previous article we discussed the technology, benefits and barriers to implementations of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). In this article we discuss where this technology can be applied. Essentially, it is argued that RFID systems help companies to cut costs, improve customer service, reduce labour, increase accuracy and improve supply chain throughput. RFID systems applications can be used by different industry sectors like the military, retail, industrial, life sciences, logis...

  3. Design and applications of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, G.S.; Umesh Kumar; Datta, S.S.; Rao, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomographic imaging is an advanced technique for nondestructive testing (NDT) and examination. For the first time in India a computed aided tomography system has been indigenously developed in BARC for testing industrial components and was successfully demonstrated. The system in addition to Computed Tomography (CT) can also perform Digital Radiography (DR) to serve as a powerful tool for NDT applications. It has wider applications in the fields of nuclear, space and allied fields. The authors have developed a computed industrial tomographic imaging system with Cesium 137 gamma radiation source for nondestructive examination of engineering and industrial specimens. This presentation highlights the design and development of a prototype system and its software for image reconstruction, simulation and display. The paper also describes results obtained with several tests specimens, current development and possibility of using neutrons as well as high energy x-rays in computed tomography. (author)

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains a site and facility description of WIPP; procedures for waste analysis and characterization, testing, monitoring, inspection, and training; hazard prevention, safety and security plans; plans for closure; and a discussion of other applicable laws. Also included are maps, photographs, and diagrams of the facilities and surrounding areas. 180 refs., 75 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Kuan eLin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging Processing (DIP requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and digital imaging processing service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1 automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI to RAW formats; (2 speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3 display high level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle- layer database, a stand-alone DIP server and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data a multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  6. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  7. Real-time image mosaicing for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewke, Kevin E; Camarillo, David B; Jobst, Christopher A; Salisbury, J Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a robotically-assisted image mosaicing system for medical applications. The processing occurs in real-time due to a fast initial image alignment provided by robotic position sensing. Near-field imaging, defined by relatively large camera motion, requires translations as well as pan and tilt orientations to be measured. To capture these measurements we use 5-d.o.f. sensing along with a hand-eye calibration to account for sensor offset. This sensor-based approach speeds up the mosaicing, eliminates cumulative errors, and readily handles arbitrary camera motions. Our results have produced visually satisfactory mosaics on a dental model but can be extended to other medical images.

  8. Fast imaging applications in the Nuclear Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of fast imaging employ both streak cameras and fast framing techniques. Image intensifier tubes are gated to provide fast two-dimensional shutters of 2 to 3 ns duration with shatter ratios of greater than 10 6 and resolution greater than 10 4 pixels. Shutters of less than 1 ns have been achieved with experimental tubes. Characterization data demonstrate the importance of tube and pulser design. Streak cameras are used to simultaneously record temporal and intensity information from up to 200 spatial points. Streak cameras are combined with remote readout for downhole uses and are coupled to fiber optic cables for uphole uses. Optical wavelength multiplexing is being studied as a means of compressing additional image data onto optical fibers. Performance data demonstrate trade-offs between image resolution and system sensitivity

  9. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  10. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs have been extensively investigated because of their unique shape memory behaviour, i.e. their ability to recover their original shape they had before deformation. Shape memory effect is related to the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Austenite to martensite phase transformation can be obtained by mechanical (loading and thermal methods (heating and cooling. Depending on thermomechanical conditions, SMAs demonstrate several thermomechanical phenomena, such as pseudoelasticity, superelasticity, shape memory effect (one-way and two-way and rubber-like behaviour. Numerous alloys show shape memory effect (NiTi-based alloys, Cu-based alloys, Fe-based alloys etc.. Nitinol (NiTi is the most popular and the most commonly used SMA due to its superior thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties. NiTi alloys have greater shape memory strain and excellent corrosion resistance compared to Cu – based alloys. However, they are very costly. On the other hand, copper-based alloys (CuZn and CuAl based alloys are much less expensive, easier to manufacture and have a wider range of potential transformation temperatures. The characteristic transformation temperatures of martensitic transformation of CuAlNi alloys can lie between −200 and 200 °C, and these temperatures depend on Al and Ni content. Among the Cu – based SMAs, the most frequently applied are CuZnAl and CuAlNi alloys. Although CuZnAl alloys with better mechanical properties are the most popular among the Cu-based SMAs, they lack sufficient thermal stability, while CuAlNi shape memory alloys, in spite of their better thermal stability, have found only limited applications due to insufficient formability owing to the brittle γ2 precipitates. The most important disadvantage of polycrystalline CuAlNi alloys is a small reversible deformation (one-way shape memory effect: up to 4 %; two-way shape memory effect: only approximately 1.5 % due to intergranular

  11. A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Christoph M.

    2010-02-01

    The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

  12. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains Appendices B1, C1, and C2. These appendices describe the surface hydrology of the area, provide a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes to be placed in WIPP, and outline a waste analysis plan which gives an overview of the total waste inventory planned for WIPP. 34 refs., 107 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 4, contains Appendices C3, C4, and D1--D10. These appendices cover information on environmental impacts, site characterization, geology and hydrology of the area, monitoring of the environment, compatibility of waste forms and containers, and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC)

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 5, contains Appendices E1, H1, I1--3, K1, K2, and L1. These appendices cover a RCRA ground water monitoring waiver, a list of job titles, the operational closure plan, the waste retrieval plan for wastes placed during the test phase, and listings of agreements between WIPP, DOE, and various state and federal agencies. 91 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility

  19. Gamma Camera with Image Amplifier: Application in Nuclear Medicine; Camera Gamma a Amplificateur d'Image: Application en Medecine Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Vernejoul, P. de; Desgrez, A. [CEA, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Lequais, J.; Roux, G.; Lansiart, A. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1969-05-15

    cardiac haemodynamics as well as pulmonary ventilation. (author) [French] La camera decrite comprend une optique constituee par une grille de plomb collimatrice a 649 canaux cylindriques de 130 mm de longueur et 5,5 mm de diametre, un detecteur constitue par une mosaieque de 700 cristaux de Nal(Tl) d'un diametre utile de 5, 5 mm et d'une longueur de 20 mm avec une distance entre les axes de 7,5 mm, et un dispositif d'amplification de lumiere constitue par un premier amplificateur d'image n Ring-Operator 9463 de la Compagnie francaise Thomson-Houston dont la photocathode est en contact optique avec le detecteur et qui est lui-meme couple optiquement a un deuxieme amplificateur a grand gain de lumiere P829A de English Electric Valve. Suivant un principe expose pour la premiere fois durant la precedente conference organisee par l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique sur l'exploration medicale (scanning) ce deuxieme amplificateur peut etre egalement utilise comme un obturateur electronique dont l'ouverture est commandee par un photomultiplicateur selectionnant la lumiere ayant pour origine la source radioactive examinee. Ce dispositif elimine tres efficacement le bruit de fond du premier tube amplificateur. Sur le plan des applications la camera est utilisee sous deux regimes de fonctionnement: d'une part,en mettant en jeu le dispositif d'obturation electronique dont la cadence d'ouverture et de fermeture peut atteindre 10 kHz, le bruit de fond est pratiquement elimine et il est possible de realiser avec des doses traceuses de radioelements conventionnels des images d'organes tels que la thyroiede, le foie, le rein, etc. en des temps de pose tres courts par rapport a la scintigraphie habituelle; d'autre part,en utilisant des radioelements a demi-vie effective tres courte a de tres hautes activites, de l'ordre de plusieurs millicuries Inverted-Question-Mark il n'est plus necessaire de mettre en jeu la suppression du bruit de fond et sa frequence de repetition limitee a

  20. Quantitative depth resolved microcirculation imaging with optical coherence tomography angiography (Part ΙΙ): Microvascular network imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanrong

    2017-04-17

    In this work, we review the main phenomena that have been explored in OCT angiography to image the vessels of the microcirculation within living tissues with the emphasis on how the different processing algorithms were derived to circumvent specific limitations. Parameters are then discussed that can quantitatively describe the depth-resolved microvascular network for possible clinic diagnosis applications. Finally,future directions in continuing OCT development are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell; Knutsen, Bjoern Helge; Roeislien, Jo; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR) (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy

  2. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  3. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI: practicality and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus; Zhang, Hui

    2017-11-29

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging techniques of this type are just starting to make the transition from the technical research domain to wide application in biomedical studies. We focus here on the practicalities of both implementing such techniques and using them in applications. Specifically, the article summarizes the relevant aspects of brain microanatomy and the range of diffusion-weighted MR measurements that provide sensitivity to them. It then reviews the evolution of mathematical and computational models that relate the diffusion MR signal to brain tissue microstructure, as well as the expanding areas of application. Next we focus on practicalities of designing a working microstructure imaging technique: model selection, experiment design, parameter estimation, validation, and the pipeline of development of this class of technique. The article concludes with some future perspectives on opportunities in this topic and expectations on how the field will evolve in the short-to-medium term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2013-01-01

    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology.

  5. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Hyperspectral Images for Geosciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Pizzolante, Raffaele

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral images are acquired through air-borne or space-borne special cameras (sensors) that collect information coming from the electromagnetic spectrum of the observed terrains. Hyperspectral remote sensing and hyperspectral images are used for a wide range of purposes: originally, they were developed for mining applications and for geology because of the capability of this kind of images to correctly identify various types of underground minerals by analysing the reflected spectrums, but their usage has spread in other application fields, such as ecology, military and surveillance, historical research and even archaeology. The large amount of data obtained by the hyperspectral sensors, the fact that these images are acquired at a high cost by air-borne sensors and that they are generally transmitted to a base, makes it necessary to provide an efficient and secure transmission protocol. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that allows secure and efficient transmission of hyperspectral images, by combining a reversible invisible watermarking scheme, used in conjunction with digital signature techniques, and a state-of-art predictive-based lossless compression algorithm.

  6. Open-source software platform for medical image segmentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, R.; D'Amato, J. P.; del Fresno, M.

    2017-11-01

    Segmenting 2D and 3D images is a crucial and challenging problem in medical image analysis. Although several image segmentation algorithms have been proposed for different applications, no universal method currently exists. Moreover, their use is usually limited when detection of complex and multiple adjacent objects of interest is needed. In addition, the continually increasing volumes of medical imaging scans require more efficient segmentation software design and highly usable applications. In this context, we present an extension of our previous segmentation framework which allows the combination of existing explicit deformable models in an efficient and transparent way, handling simultaneously different segmentation strategies and interacting with a graphic user interface (GUI). We present the object-oriented design and the general architecture which consist of two layers: the GUI at the top layer, and the processing core filters at the bottom layer. We apply the framework for segmenting different real-case medical image scenarios on public available datasets including bladder and prostate segmentation from 2D MRI, and heart segmentation in 3D CT. Our experiments on these concrete problems show that this framework facilitates complex and multi-object segmentation goals while providing a fast prototyping open-source segmentation tool.

  7. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  8. Application of content-based image compression to telepathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Margaret J.; Ducksbury, Paul G.; Callagy, Grace

    2002-05-01

    Telepathology is a means of practicing pathology at a distance, viewing images on a computer display rather than directly through a microscope. Without compression, images take too long to transmit to a remote location and are very expensive to store for future examination. However, to date the use of compressed images in pathology remains controversial. This is because commercial image compression algorithms such as JPEG achieve data compression without knowledge of the diagnostic content. Often images are lossily compressed at the expense of corrupting informative content. None of the currently available lossy compression techniques are concerned with what information has been preserved and what data has been discarded. Their sole objective is to compress and transmit the images as fast as possible. By contrast, this paper presents a novel image compression technique, which exploits knowledge of the slide diagnostic content. This 'content based' approach combines visually lossless and lossy compression techniques, judiciously applying each in the appropriate context across an image so as to maintain 'diagnostic' information while still maximising the possible compression. Standard compression algorithms, e.g. wavelets, can still be used, but their use in a context sensitive manner can offer high compression ratios and preservation of diagnostically important information. When compared with lossless compression the novel content-based approach can potentially provide the same degree of information with a smaller amount of data. When compared with lossy compression it can provide more information for a given amount of compression. The precise gain in the compression performance depends on the application (e.g. database archive or second opinion consultation) and the diagnostic content of the images.

  9. High speed electronic imaging application in aeroballistic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.R.; Parker, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Physical and temporal restrictions imposed by modern aeroballistics have pushed imaging technology to the point where special photoconductive surfaces and high-speed support electronics are dictated. Specifications for these devices can be formulated by a methodical analysis of critical parameters and how they interact. In terms of system theory, system transfer functions and state equations can be used in optimal coupling of devices to maximize system performance. Application of these methods to electronic imaging at the Eglin Aeroballistics Research Facility is described in this report. 7 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  10. Potential Applications of PET/MR Imaging in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Nkoulou, René

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in hybrid PET/MR imaging have opened new perspectives for cardiovascular applications. Although cardiac MR imaging has gained wider adoption for routine clinical applications, PET images remain the reference in many applications for which objective analysis of metabolic and physiologic parameters is needed. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases-more specifically, coronary artery disease-the use of quantitative and measurable parameters in a reproducible way is essential for the management of therapeutic decisions and patient follow-up. Functional MR images and dynamic assessment of myocardial perfusion from transit of intravascular contrast medium can provide useful criteria for identifying areas of decreased myocardial perfusion or for assessing tissue viability from late contrast enhancement of scar tissue. PET images, however, will provide more quantitative data on true tissue perfusion and metabolism. Quantitative myocardial flow can also lead to accurate assessment of coronary flow reserve. The combination of both modalities will therefore provide complementary data that can be expected to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnostic procedures. But the true potential of hybrid PET/MR imaging may reside in applications beyond the domain of coronary artery disease. The combination of both modalities in assessment of other cardiac diseases such as inflammation and of other systemic diseases can also be envisioned. It is also predicted that the 2 modalities combined could help characterize atherosclerotic plaques and differentiate plaques with a high risk of rupture from stable plaques. In the future, the development of new tracers will also open new perspectives in evaluating myocardial remodeling and in assessing the kinetics of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction. New tracers will also provide new means for evaluating alterations in cardiac innervation, angiogenesis, and even the assessment of reporter gene technologies

  11. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  12. FRACTAL IMAGE FEATURE VECTORS WITH APPLICATIONS IN FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of fatigue fracture surface (caused by constant cycle loading is strictly related to crack growth rate. This relation may be expressed, among other methods, by means of fractal analysis. Fractal dimension as a single numerical value is not sufficient. Two types of fractal feature vectors are discussed: multifractal and multiparametric. For analysis of images, the box-counting method for 3D is applied with respect to the non-homogeneity of dimensions (two in space, one in brightness. Examples of application are shown: images of several fracture surfaces are analyzed and related to crack growth rate.

  13. Industrial application of thermal image processing and thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingxue

    2001-09-01

    Industrial application of infrared thermography is virtually boundless as it can be used in any situations where there are temperature differences. This technology has particularly been widely used in automotive industry for process evaluation and system design. In this work, thermal image processing technique will be introduced to quantitatively calculate the heat stored in a warm/hot object and consequently, a thermal control system will be proposed to accurately and actively manage the thermal distribution within the object in accordance with the heat calculated from the thermal images.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in schizophrenia Part II: Clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róg Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids are compounds belonging to the group of essential fatty acids (EFAs. The history of the discovery of EFAs dates back to the 1930s of the twentieth century, however, growing interest in ω-3 EFAs in the context of mental health has been observed since the year 2000. In view of their multidirectional action, these compounds are a promising form of adjunctive therapy of many illnesses, including psychiatric disorders. The present article aims to review the literature on the clinical applicability of ω-3 EFAs in treating schizophrenia. We present the results of preclinical studies in this area and the mechanisms of ω-3 EFAs action discussed by the authors. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the possibility of using ω-3 EFAs in schizophrenia are characterized in detail. The results of the tests are not clear, which may result from the methodological diversity of interventions made. Ω-3 EFAs seem to be a promising form of adjunctive therapy of schizophrenia. Further research is needed, which will allow for defining groups of patients in which intervention will bring the expected results.

  15. Skin Sterility After Application of a Vapocoolant Spray Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Karolina; Lyahn, Hwang; Richards, Bryson; Schleicher, William; Bassiri Gharb, Bahar; Procop, Gary; Tuohy, Marion; Zins, James

    2015-08-01

    Refrigerant sprays have been used for pain relief at the time of minor office procedures. However, their sterility remains in question. This study investigates the microbiologic effect of this vapocoolant when sprayed after 70 % isopropyl alcohol skin preparation. In 50 healthy volunteers, three skin culture samples were collected: Group 1 prior to alcohol application; Group 2 after preparation with alcohol, and Group 3 after preparation with alcohol followed with vapocoolant spray. Samples were cultured in a blinded fashion and analyzed after 5 days of incubation. Gram staining was performed when cultures were positive. Bacterial growth was found in 98 % of samples prior to any skin preparation. This was reduced to 54 % after alcohol use (Group 2). Spraying with the skin refrigerant further reduced bacterial growth to 46 % (Group 3). The results showed a significant reduction in the number of positive bacterial cultures following skin preparation with alcohol and when alcohol prep was followed by vapocoolant spray (p < 0.001) compared to initial cultures. No statistical difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.74). The use of the vapocoolant spray does not compromise the sterility of the skin following alcohol prep. Both 70 % isopropyl alcohol antiseptic preparation and skin preparation followed by vapocoolant spray significantly reduce skin colonization when compared to unprepared skin (p < 0.001).

  16. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

    2007-01-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) Facility will provide synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes one of the BMIT beamlines: the bend magnet (BM) beamline 05B1-1. It plays a complementary role to the insertion device (ID) beamline 051D-2 and allows either monochromatic or filtered white beam to be used in the experimental hutch. The monochromatic spectral range will span 8-40 keV, and the beam is more than 200 mm wide in the experimental hutch for imaging studies of small and medium-size animals (up to sheep size). The experimental hutch will have a positioning system that will allow imaging (computed tomography and planar imaging) as well as radiation therapy applications with both filtered white and monochromatic X-ray beams and will handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different focal plane detectors (cameras) will be available with resolutions ranging from 10 to 150 μm

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Hhhhhh... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 1 to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 Citation Subject Applicable to subpart HHHHHH Explanation § 63.1(a)(1)-(12) General Applicability Yes § 63...

  18. The clinical application of the digital imaging in urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuelong; Xie Sumin; Zhang Li; Li Huayu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of the digital imaging in the urography. Methods: In total 112 patients underwent digital urography, including intravenous pyelography (IVP) in 38 cases and retrograde pyelography in 74 cases. Results: the entire urinary tract was better shown on digital imaging, which was accurate in locating the obstruction of urinary tract and helped the qualitative diagnosis. Digital urography was especially valuable in detecting urinary calculus. In 38 cases of IVP, the results were normal in 5 patients, renal stone in 12, ureteral stone in 13, ureteral stenosis in 6 and nephroblastom in 2. In the 74 cases of retrograde pyelography, benign ureteral stenosis was found in 31 patients, ureteral stone in 27, ureteral polyp in 2, urethral stone in 8 and benign urethral stenosis in 6. Conclusion: Digital imaging technique is of big value in the diagnosis of urinary tract lesions

  19. Application of Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction to Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuqun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new application of super-resolution image reconstruction to digital holography which is a technique for three-dimensional information recording and reconstruction. Digital holography has suffered from the low resolution of CCD sensors, which significantly limits the size of objects that can be recorded. The existing solution to this problem is to use optics to bandlimit the object to be recorded, which can cause the loss of details. Here super-resolution image reconstruction is proposed to be applied in enhancing the spatial resolution of digital holograms. By introducing a global camera translation before sampling, a high-resolution hologram can be reconstructed from a set of undersampled hologram images. This permits the recording of larger objects and reduces the distance between the object and the hologram. Practical results from real and simulated holograms are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  20. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  1. Quantum dots in imaging, drug delivery and sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matea, Cristian T; Mocan, Teodora; Tabaran, Flaviu; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Puia, Cosmin; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as nanoscale semiconductor crystals, are nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties such as bright and intensive fluorescence. Since most conventional organic label dyes do not offer the near-infrared (>650 nm) emission possibility, QDs, with their tunable optical properties, have gained a lot of interest. They possess characteristics such as good chemical and photo-stability, high quantum yield and size-tunable light emission. Different types of QDs can be excited with the same light wavelength, and their narrow emission bands can be detected simultaneously for multiple assays. There is an increasing interest in the development of nano-theranostics platforms for simultaneous sensing, imaging and therapy. QDs have great potential for such applications, with notable results already published in the fields of sensors, drug delivery and biomedical imaging. This review summarizes the latest developments available in literature regarding the use of QDs for medical applications.

  2. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  3. Tensor valuations and their applications in stochastic geometry and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiderlen, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to give an up-to-date introduction to tensor valuations and their applications. Starting with classical results concerning scalar-valued valuations on the families of convex bodies and convex polytopes, it proceeds to the modern theory of tensor valuations. Product and Fourier-type transforms are introduced and various integral formulae are derived. New and well-known results are presented, together with generalizations in several directions, including extensions to the non-Euclidean setting and to non-convex sets. A variety of applications of tensor valuations to models in stochastic geometry, to local stereology and to imaging are also discussed.

  4. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Reinecke, T.; Zaehringer, M.; Smekal, U. v.; Winnekendonk, G.; Lackner, K.; Coburger, S.; Lehmacher, W.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part I of this study aims to collect characteristic epidemiological data and to assess structural quality. Materials and methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. Two university radiologists documented the pertinent test data from the submitted images and written records. Independently of each other, five university radiologists anonymously reviewed the image quality of each examination using structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 920 patients gave their informed consent and participated. Questionnaires from 787 patients, 852 GPs and 611 radiologists or other interpreting physicians as well as the complete survey data from 530 examinations were available. Of 1503 examinations, conventional radiography made up 52%, sonography 17%, computed tomography (CT) 13% and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 5%. Most indications involved the musculoskeletal (37%) and respiratory systems (24%). Physicians without board certification in radiology interpreted 1% of the CT examinations, 26% of the radiographic examinations and 71% of the sonographic examinations. Of the 174 self-referrals, 1% involved CT, 33% conventional radiography and 66% sonography. Written reports were available for 95% of all 469 examinations performed by radiologists and 74% of all 127 examinations conducted by non-radiologists. Only 44% of the 23 sonographic studies were self-referrals by the patient's GP. On average, the radiographic techniques were acceptable in terms of diagnostic information and radiation hygiene. Conventional radiographs were better exposed

  5. Method of image segmentation using a neural network. Application to MR imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, E.; Gautherie, M.

    1992-01-01

    An original method of numerical images segmentation has been developed. This method is based on pixel clustering using a formal neural network configurated by supervised learning of pre-classified examples. The method has been applied to series of MR images of brain tumors (gliomas) with a view to proceed with a 3D-extraction of the tumor volume. This study is part of a project on cancer thermotherapy including the development of a scan-focused ultrasound system of tumor heating and a 3D-numerical thermal model

  6. Parts-based stereoscopic image assessment by learning binocular manifold color visual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyong; Yu, Mei; Luo, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-11-01

    Existing stereoscopic image quality assessment (SIQA) methods are mostly based on the luminance information, in which color information is not sufficiently considered. Actually, color is part of the important factors that affect human visual perception, and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and manifold learning are in line with human visual perception. We propose an SIQA method based on learning binocular manifold color visual properties. To be more specific, in the training phase, a feature detector is created based on NMF with manifold regularization by considering color information, which not only allows parts-based manifold representation of an image, but also manifests localized color visual properties. In the quality estimation phase, visually important regions are selected by considering different human visual attention, and feature vectors are extracted by using the feature detector. Then the feature similarity index is calculated and the parts-based manifold color feature energy (PMCFE) for each view is defined based on the color feature vectors. The final quality score is obtained by considering a binocular combination based on PMCFE. The experimental results on LIVE I and LIVE Π 3-D IQA databases demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve much higher consistency with subjective evaluations than the state-of-the-art SIQA methods.

  7. Thermoluminescence dosimetry and its applications in medicine. Part 2: history and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, T.

    1995-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has been available for dosimetry of ionising radiation for nearly 100 years. The variety of materials and their different physical forms allow the determination of different radiation qualities over a wide range of absorbed dose. This makes TL dosimeters useful in radiation protection where dose levels of μ Gy are monitored as well as in radiotherapy where doses up to several Gray are to be measured. The major advantages of TL detectors are their small physical size and that no cables or auxiliary equipment is required during the dose assessment. TLD is considered to be a good method for point dose measurements in phantoms as well as for in vivo dosimetry on patients during radiotherapy treatment. As an integrative dosimetric technique, it can be applied to personal dosimetry and it lends itself to the determination of dose distributions due to multiple or moving radiation sources (e.g. conformal and dynamic radiotherapy, computed tomography). In addition, TL dosimeters are easy to transport, and they can be mailed. This makes them well suited for intercomparison of doses delivered in different institutions. The present article aims at describing the various applications TLD has found in medicine by taking into consideration the physics and practice of TLD measurements which have been discussed in the first part of this review. 198 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, F; Crépeault, B; Duchesne, S

    2012-01-01

    This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

  9. The image of the airport through mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Florido-Benítez

    2016-01-01

    The image airports project via their applications (apps) affects -- directly or indirectly-- passengers’ satisfaction. Today, airports are competing to attract more airlines and passengers to improve commercial revenues. Airport apps (as mobile marketing tools) are offering a broad range of opportunities to both passengers and airports. Apps are the best solution if airports want to improve the passenger experience as well as differentiate themselves from their competitors. The results of thi...

  10. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects

  11. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects.

  12. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Antonio; Vilanova, Joan C.

    2014-01-01

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  13. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Antonio [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; MRI Health Time Group, Jaen (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Univ. (Spain). Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta. Caterina; Hygino da Cruz, L. Celso Jr. (ed.) [CDPI and IRM, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Rossi, Santiago E. [Centro de Diagnostico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  14. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, P.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  15. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  16. A review of image quality assessment methods with application to computational photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, Henri

    2015-12-01

    Image quality assessment has been of major importance for several domains of the industry of image as for instance restoration or communication and coding. New application fields are opening today with the increase of embedded power in the camera and the emergence of computational photography: automatic tuning, image selection, image fusion, image data-base building, etc. We review the literature of image quality evaluation. We pay attention to the very different underlying hypotheses and results of the existing methods to approach the problem. We explain why they differ and for which applications they may be beneficial. We also underline their limits, especially for a possible use in the novel domain of computational photography. Being developed to address different objectives, they propose answers on different aspects, which make them sometimes complementary. However, they all remain limited in their capability to challenge the human expert, the said or unsaid ultimate goal. We consider the methods which are based on retrieving the parameters of a signal, mostly in spectral analysis; then we explore the more global methods to qualify the image quality in terms of noticeable defects or degradation as popular in the compression domain; in a third field the image acquisition process is considered as a channel between the source and the receiver, allowing to use the tools of the information theory and to qualify the system in terms of entropy and information capacity. However, these different approaches hardly attack the most difficult part of the task which is to measure the quality of the photography in terms of aesthetic properties. To help in addressing this problem, in between Philosophy, Biology and Psychology, we propose a brief review of the literature which addresses the problematic of qualifying Beauty, present the attempts to adapt these concepts to visual patterns and initiate a reflection on what could be done in the field of photography.

  17. Review and comparison of geometric distortion correction schemes in MR images used in stereotactic radiosurgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, E. P.; Dellios, D.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.

    2017-11-01

    In Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), MR-images are widely used for target localization and delineation in order to take advantage of the superior soft tissue contrast they exhibit. However, spatial dose delivery accuracy may be deteriorated due to geometric distortions which are partly attributed to static magnetic field inhomogeneity and patient/object-induced chemical shift and susceptibility related artifacts, known as sequence-dependent distortions. Several post-imaging sequence-dependent distortion correction schemes have been proposed which mainly employ the reversal of read gradient polarity. The scope of this work is to review, evaluate and compare the efficacy of two proposed correction approaches. A specially designed phantom which incorporates 947 control points (CPs) for distortion detection was utilized. The phantom was MR scanned at 1.5T using the head coil and the clinically employed pulse sequence for SRS treatment planning. An additional scan was performed with identical imaging parameters except for reversal of read gradient polarity. In-house MATLAB routines were developed for implementation of the signal integration and average-image distortion correction techniques. The mean CP locations of the two MR scans were regarded as the reference CP distribution. Residual distortion was assessed by comparing the corrected CP locations with corresponding reference positions. Mean absolute distortion on frequency encoding direction was reduced from 0.34mm (original images) to 0.15mm and 0.14mm following application of signal integration and average-image methods, respectively. However, a maximum residual distortion of 0.7mm was still observed for both techniques. The signal integration method relies on the accuracy of edge detection and requires 3-4 hours of post-imaging computational time. The average-image technique is a more efficient (processing time of the order of seconds) and easier to implement method to improve geometric accuracy in such

  18. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang [Dept. of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  19. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang

    1998-01-01

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  20. Dilemma of diagnosing thoracic sarcoidosis in tuberculosis endemic regions: An imaging-based approach. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu S Bhalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multi-systemic disorder of unknown etiology, although commonly believed to be immune-mediated. Histologically, it is characterized by noncaseating granuloma which contrasts against the caseating granuloma seen in tuberculosis (TB, an infectious disease that closely mimics sarcoidosis, both clinically as well as radiologically. In TB-endemic regions, the overlapping clinico-radiological manifestations create significant diagnostic dilemma, especially since the management options are markedly different in the two entities. Part 1 of this review aims to summarize the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of sarcoidosis, encompassing both typical and atypical manifestations, in an attempt to distinguish between the two disease entities.

  1. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source - part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1-4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6-9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20-100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to -7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT, described

  2. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

    2015-01-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  3. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  4. Nitroxide radicals as contrast substances for magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In last ten years, there is a significant progress in the selective and localized detection of redox-active compounds in the cells, tissues, and intact organisms. This progress is due to the development of new synthetic and genetically encoded redox-sensitive contrast substances, as well as due to the improvement of the techniques for their imaging: fluorescent, chemiluminescent, magnetic resonance, nuclear, ultrasonic. One of the most attractive redox-sensitive contrast substances are cyclic (stable) nitroxide radicals. They can be visualized and analyzed in vitro and in vivo by a variety of magnetic resonance techniques - electron-paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI). This review describes the merits and demerits of the nitroxide-enhanced EPR and MRI and the perspectives for their application in biomedical studies and clinical practice. The article is intended for a wide range of readers - from students to specialists in the field. Key words: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Overhauser-Enhanced MRI (O MRI). Nitroxide

  5. The Combined ASTER MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL Part 1: Methodology and High Spectral Resolution Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eva Borbas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA MEaSUREs (Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity project, the Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-Madison and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL developed a global monthly mean emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR. This new Combined ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Emissivity over Land (CAMEL ESDR was produced by merging two current state-of-the-art emissivity datasets: the UW-Madison MODIS Infrared emissivity dataset (UW BF and the JPL ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Version 4 (GEDv4. The dataset includes monthly global records of emissivity and related uncertainties at 13 hinge points between 3.6–14.3 µm, as well as principal component analysis (PCA coefficients at 5-km resolution for the years 2000 through 2016. A high spectral resolution (HSR algorithm is provided for HSR applications. This paper describes the 13 hinge-points combination methodology and the high spectral resolutions algorithm, as well as reports the current status of the dataset.

  6. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 4290.1940 Integration of this... extent applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart D of 7 CFR part 1900 and RD...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending...

  8. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  9. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  10. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-01-01

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  12. Imaging by forward propagating the data: Theory and application

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Akbar

    2013-02-27

    The forward (modelled) wavefield for conventional reverse time migration (RTM) is computed by extrapolating the wavefield from an estimated source wavelet. In the typical case of a smooth subsurface velocity, this wavefield lacks the components, including surface reflections, necessary to image multiples in the observed data. We, instead, introduce the concept of forward propagating the recorded data, including direct arrivals, as part of RTM. We analyse the influence of the main components of the data on the imaging process, which include direct arrivals, primaries and surface-related multiples. In our RTM methodology, this implies correlating the forward extrapolated recorded data wavefield with its reversely extrapolated version prior to applying the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition. The interaction of the data components with each other in the cross-correlation process will image primaries and multiples, as well as introduce cross-talk artefact terms. However, some of these artefacts are present in conventional RTM implementation and they tend to be relatively weak. In fact, for the surface seismic experiment, forward propagating the direct arrivals is almost equivalent to forward propagating a source and it tends to contribute the majority of the data imaging energy. In addition, primaries and multiples recorded in the data become multiples of one higher order. Forward propagating the recorded data to recreate the source will relieve us from the requirement of estimating the source function. It will also include near-surface information necessary to improve the image in areas with near-surface complexity. Data from a simple synthetic layered model, as well as the Marmousi model, are used to demonstrate some of these features. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  13. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In this paper, we investigate compact and efficient food image recognition methods, namely low-level and mid-level approaches. Considering the real application scenario where only limited and noisy data are available, we first proposed a superpixel based Linear Distance Coding (LDC framework where distinctive low-level food image features are extracted to improve performance. On a challenging small food image dataset where only 12 training images are available per category, our framework has shown superior performance in both accuracy and robustness. In addition, to better model deformable food part distribution, we extend LDC’s feature-to-class distance idea and propose a mid-level superpixel food parts-to-class distance mining framework. The proposed framework show superior performance on a benchmark food image datasets compared to other low-level and mid-level approaches in the literature.

  14. 12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part? 516.5 Section 516.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.5 Do the same procedures apply to all...

  15. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products- Part 1: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...

  16. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  17. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  18. Autonomous control systems: applications to remote sensing and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2001-11-01

    One of the main challenges of any control (or image processing) paradigm is being able to handle complex systems under unforeseen uncertainties. A system may be called complex here if its dimension (order) is too high and its model (if available) is nonlinear, interconnected, and information on the system is uncertain such that classical techniques cannot easily handle the problem. Examples of complex systems are power networks, space robotic colonies, national air traffic control system, and integrated manufacturing plant, the Hubble Telescope, the International Space Station, etc. Soft computing, a consortia of methodologies such as fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms and genetic programming, has proven to be powerful tools for adding autonomy and semi-autonomy to many complex systems. For such systems the size of soft computing control architecture will be nearly infinite. In this paper new paradigms using soft computing approaches are utilized to design autonomous controllers and image enhancers for a number of application areas. These applications are satellite array formations for synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and enhancement of analog and digital images.

  19. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part I: etiopathogenesis, classifications and radiographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis is one of the spondyloarthritis. It is a disease of clinical heterogenicity, which may affect peripheral joints, as well as axial spine, with presence of inflammatory lesions in soft tissue, in a form of dactylitis and enthesopathy. Plain radiography remains the basic imaging modality for PsA diagnosis, although early inflammatory changes affecting soft tissue and bone marrow cannot be detected with its use, or the image is indistinctive. Typical radiographic features of PsA occur in an advanced disease, mainly within the synovial joints, but also in fibrocartilaginous joints, such as sacroiliac joints, and additionally in entheses of tendons and ligaments. Moll and Wright classified PsA into 5 subtypes: asymmetric oligoarthritis, symmetric polyarthritis, arthritis mutilans, distal interphalangeal arthritis of the hands and feet and spinal column involvement. In this part of the paper we discuss radiographic features of the disease. The next one will address magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.

  1. Application of image processing methods to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, R.; Odet, C.; Tuncer, T.; Bodson, F.; Varcin, E.

    1985-01-01

    This study was carried out with the financial support of the Commission of the European Communities as part of the CECA research program comprising of IRSID, INSA de Lyon and the Framatome and Creusot Loire companies. Its purpose was to evaluate the possibility of using digital enhancement of radiographic images to improve defect visibility in industrial radiography, thereby providing assistance in defect detection and a method for automatic analysis of radiographs. This paper provides full results obtained from work on digital processing of radiographs showing real and artificial defects. Furthermore, work on simulated automatic defect detection is also presented. 2 refs

  2. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2001-12-01

    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  3. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  4. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

    1992-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm.

  5. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian sparse image reconstruction with application to MRFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigeon, Nicolas; Hero, Alfred O; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical Bayesian model to reconstruct sparse images when the observations are obtained from linear transformations and corrupted by an additive white Gaussian noise. Our hierarchical Bayes model is well suited to such naturally sparse image applications as it seamlessly accounts for properties such as sparsity and positivity of the image via appropriate Bayes priors. We propose a prior that is based on a weighted mixture of a positive exponential distribution and a mass at zero. The prior has hyperparameters that are tuned automatically by marginalization over the hierarchical Bayesian model. To overcome the complexity of the posterior distribution, a Gibbs sampling strategy is proposed. The Gibbs samples can be used to estimate the image to be recovered, e.g., by maximizing the estimated posterior distribution. In our fully Bayesian approach, the posteriors of all the parameters are available. Thus, our algorithm provides more information than other previously proposed sparse reconstruction methods that only give a point estimate. The performance of the proposed hierarchical Bayesian sparse reconstruction method is illustrated on synthetic data and real data collected from a tobacco virus sample using a prototype MRFM instrument.

  7. Applications of wavelets in morphometric analysis of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Tao, Xiaodong; Shen, Dinggang

    2003-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of medical images is playing an increasingly important role in understanding brain structure and function, as well as in understanding the way in which these change during development, aging and pathology. This paper presents three wavelet-based methods with related applications in morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. The first method handles cases where very limited datasets are available for the training of statistical shape models in the deformable segmentation. The method is capable of capturing a larger range of shape variability than the standard active shape models (ASMs) can, by using the elegant spatial-frequency decomposition of the shape contours provided by wavelet transforms. The second method addresses the difficulty of finding correspondences in anatomical images, which is a key step in shape analysis and deformable registration. The detection of anatomical correspondences is completed by using wavelet-based attribute vectors as morphological signatures of voxels. The third method uses wavelets to characterize the morphological measurements obtained from all voxels in a brain image, and the entire set of wavelet coefficients is further used to build a brain classifier. Since the classification scheme operates in a very-high-dimensional space, it can determine subtle population differences with complex spatial patterns. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  8. Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

  9. Prewarping techniques in imaging: applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawala, Amyn; Milanfar, Peyman

    2005-03-01

    In all imaging systems, the underlying process introduces undesirable distortions that cause the output signal to be a warped version of the input. When the input to such systems can be controlled, pre-warping techniques can be employed which consist of systematically modifying the input such that it cancels out (or compensates for) the process losses. In this paper, we focus on the mask (reticle) design problem for 'optical micro-lithography', a process similar to photographic printing used for transferring binary circuit patterns onto silicon wafers. We use a pixel-based mask representation and model the above process as a cascade of convolution (aerial image formation) and thresholding (high-contrast recording) operations. The pre-distorted mask is obtained by minimizing the norm of the difference between the 'desired' output image and the 'reproduced' output image. We employ the regularization framework to ensure that the resulting masks are close-to-binary as well as simple and easy to fabricate. Finally, we provide insight into two additional applications of pre-warping techniques. First is 'e-beam lithography', used for fabricating nano-scale structures, and second is 'electronic visual prosthesis' which aims at providing limited vision to the blind by using a prosthetic retinally implanted chip capable of electrically stimulating the retinal neuron cells.

  10. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: Part 4 - Ethical issues in clinical and social applications of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kira; Shook, John R; Darragh, Martina; Giordano, James

    2017-05-31

    As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity. To complete a systematic survey of the literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). A Python code was used to eliminate duplications in the final bibliography. When taken with Parts 1-3, this bibliography aims to provide a listing of international peerreviewed papers, books, and book chapters published from 2002 through 2016. While seeking to be as comprehensive as possible, it may be that some works were inadvertently and unintentionally not included. We therefore invite commentary from the field to afford completeness and contribute to this bibliography as a participatory work-in-progress.

  11. System overview and applications of a panoramic imaging perimeter sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and potential applications of a 360-degree scanning, multi-spectral intrusion detection sensor. This moderate-resolution, true panoramic imaging sensor is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters. This Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) simultaneously uses three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) along with advanced data processing methods to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection, tracking, and immediate visual assessment. The images from the infrared and visible detector sets and the radar range data are updated as the sensors rotate once per second. The radar provides range data with one-meter resolution. This sensor has been designed for easy use and rapid deployment to cover wide areas beyond or in place of typical perimeters, and tactical applications around fixed or temporary high-value assets. AES prototypes are in development. Applications discussed in this paper include replacements, augmentations, or new installations at fixed sites where topological features, atmospheric conditions, environmental restrictions, ecological regulations, and archaeological features limit the use of conventional security components and systems

  12. The application of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangjian; Yu Fei; Li Kai; Zhou Jing

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) science and technology is gaining increasing attention in the biomedical field. Compared with traditional medical diagnosis methods using infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-rays or ultrasound, THz radiation has low energy, high spatial resolution, a broad spectral range, and is a reliable means of imaging for the human body. Terahertz waves have strong penetration and high fingerprint specificity, so they can play an important role in drug detection and identification. This paper reviews the special techniques based on conventional THz time-domain setups in disease detection and drug identification. With regard to the biomedical fields, we focus on the application of THz radiation in studies of skin tissue, gene expression, cells, cancer imaging, the quantitative analysis of drugs, and so on. We also present an overview of the future challenges and prospects of THz research in medicine. (authors)

  13. Turbulent structure of concentration plumes through application of video imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabberdt, W.F.; Martin, C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoydysh, W.G.; Holynskyj, O. [Environmental Science & Services Corp., Long Island City, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Turbulent flows and dispersion in the presence of building wakes and terrain-induced local circulations are particularly difficult to simulate with numerical models or measure with conventional fluid modeling and ambient measurement techniques. The problem stems from the complexity of the kinematics and the difficulty in making representative concentration measurements. New laboratory video imaging techniques are able to overcome many of these limitations and are being applied to study a range of difficult problems. Here the authors apply {open_quotes}tomographic{close_quotes} video imaging techniques to the study of the turbulent structure of an ideal elevated plume and the relationship of short-period peak concentrations to long-period average values. A companion paper extends application of the technique to characterization of turbulent plume-concentration fields in the wake of a complex building configuration.

  14. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  15. Multi-target molecular imaging and its progress in research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2011-01-01

    Multi-target molecular imaging (MMI) is an important field of research in molecular imaging. It includes multi-tracer multi-target molecular imaging(MTMI), fusion-molecule multi-target imaging (FMMI), coupling-molecule multi-target imaging (CMMI), and multi-target multifunctional molecular imaging(MMMI). In this paper,imaging modes of MMI are reviewed, and potential applications of positron emission tomography MMI in near future are discussed. (author)

  16. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell

    2007-01-01

    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...

  17. Image once, print thrice? Three-dimensional printing of replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Timothy M; Wormer, Blair A; Miller, John D; Giovinco, Nicholas A; Al Kassis, Salam; Armstrong, David G

    2018-02-01

    The last 20 years has seen an exponential increase in 3D printing as it pertains to the medical industry and more specifically surgery. Previous reviews in this domain have chosen to focus on applications within a specific field. To our knowledge, none have evaluated the broad applications of patient-specific or digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) derived applications of this technology. We searched PUBMED and CINAHL from April 2012 to April 2017. 261 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Proportions of articles reviewed: DICOM (5%), CT (38%), MRI (20%), Ultrasonography (28%), and Bio-printing (9%). There is level IV evidence to support the use of 3D printing for education, pre-operative planning, simulation and implantation. In order to make this technology widely applicable, it will require automation of DICOM to standard tessellation language to implant. Advances in knowledge: Recent lapses in intellectual property and greater familiarity with rapid prototyping in medicine has set the stage for the next generation of custom implants, simulators and autografts. Radiologists may be able to help establish reimbursable procedural terminology.

  18. Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results.

  19. Coherent Raman scattering: Applications in imaging and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng

    In this thesis, I discuss the theory, implementation and applications of coherent Raman scattering to imaging and sensing. A time domain interferometric method has been developed to collect high resolution shot-noise-limited Raman spectra over the Raman fingerprint regime and completely remove the electronic background signal in coherent Raman scattering. Compared with other existing coherent Raman microscopy methods, this time domain approach is proved to be simpler and more robust in rejecting background signal. We apply this method to image polymers and biological samples and demonstrate that the same setup can be used to collect two photon fluorescence and self phase modulation signals. A signal to noise ratio analysis is performed to show that this time domain method has a comparable signal to noise ratio to spectral domain methods, which we confirm experimentally. The coherent Raman method is also compared with spontaneous Raman scattering. The conditions under which coherent methods provide signal enhancement are discussed and experiments are performed to compare coherent Raman scattering with spontaneous Raman scattering under typical biological imaging conditions. A critical power, above which coherent Raman scattering is more sensitive than spontaneous Raman scattering, is experimentally determined to be ˜1mW in samples of high molecule concentration with a 75MHz laser system. This finding is contrary to claims that coherent methods provide many orders of magnitude enhancement under comparable conditions. In addition to the far field applications, I also discuss the combination of our time domain coherent Raman method with near field enhancement to explore the possibility of sensing and near field imaging. We report the first direct time-resolved coherent Raman measurement performed on a nanostructured substrate for molecule sensing. The preliminary results demonstrate that sub 20 fs pulses can be used to obtain coherent Raman spectra from a small number

  20. Scaling images using their background ratio. An application in statistical comparisons of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemis, A; Binnie, D; Bailey, D L; Flower, M A; Ott, R J

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of two medical images often requires image scaling as a pre-processing step. This is usually done with the scaling-to-the-mean or scaling-to-the-maximum techniques which, under certain circumstances, in quantitative applications may contribute a significant amount of bias. In this paper, we present a simple scaling method which assumes only that the most predominant values in the corresponding images belong to their background structure. The ratio of the two images to be compared is calculated and its frequency histogram is plotted. The scaling factor is given by the position of the peak in this histogram which belongs to the background structure. The method was tested against the traditional scaling-to-the-mean technique on simulated planar gamma-camera images which were compared using pixelwise statistical parametric tests. Both sensitivity and specificity for each condition were measured over a range of different contrasts and sizes of inhomogeneity for the two scaling techniques. The new method was found to preserve sensitivity in all cases while the traditional technique resulted in significant degradation of sensitivity in certain cases

  1. Scaling images using their background ratio. An application in statistical comparisons of images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemis, A; Binnie, D; Bailey, D L; Flower, M A; Ott, R J

    2003-06-07

    Comparison of two medical images often requires image scaling as a pre-processing step. This is usually done with the scaling-to-the-mean or scaling-to-the-maximum techniques which, under certain circumstances, in quantitative applications may contribute a significant amount of bias. In this paper, we present a simple scaling method which assumes only that the most predominant values in the corresponding images belong to their background structure. The ratio of the two images to be compared is calculated and its frequency histogram is plotted. The scaling factor is given by the position of the peak in this histogram which belongs to the background structure. The method was tested against the traditional scaling-to-the-mean technique on simulated planar gamma-camera images which were compared using pixelwise statistical parametric tests. Both sensitivity and specificity for each condition were measured over a range of different contrasts and sizes of inhomogeneity for the two scaling techniques. The new method was found to preserve sensitivity in all cases while the traditional technique resulted in significant degradation of sensitivity in certain cases.

  2. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiography systems. Part 2: system performance metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kam L; Bernardo, Michael; Ireland, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    This is part two of a two-part study in benchmarking system performance of fixed digital radiographic systems. The study compares the system performance of seven fixed digital radiography systems based on quantitative metrics like modulation transfer function (sMTF), normalised noise power spectrum (sNNPS), detective quantum efficiency (sDQE) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). It was found that the most efficient image receptors (greatest sDQE) were not necessarily operating at the lowest ESAK. In part one of this study, sMTF is shown to depend on system configuration while sNNPS is shown to be relatively consistent across systems. Systems are ranked on their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (sDQE) and their ESAK. Systems using the same equipment configuration do not necessarily have the same system performance. This implies radiographic practice at the site will have an impact on the overall system performance. In general, systems are more dose efficient at low dose settings.

  3. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  4. Applications of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Pingping; Tian Yueqin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, acute coronary syndrome(ACS) has been getting more and more attentions. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can make a quick accurate diagnosis for patients with acute chest pain who cann't be diagnosed by conventional methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of MPI are relatively high. Besides, MPI can be applicated in the detection of ischemic and infarct size and degree, the risk stratification and the assessment of prognosis of the patients with ACS, and the appraisal of the effect of strategies. (authors)

  5. The application of magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular joint pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmedov, E.T.; Qahramanov, E.T.

    2007-01-01

    The diseases and damages of temporomandibular joint have compleceted diagnostic unlike other bone-joint pathologies. In 2005 for the first time in history it was implemented the magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics of patients with with temporomandibular joints pathology. The current researches are in place till today. Being the golden standart the application of magnetic resonance tomography has a great role in differential diagnostics of the chronic arthritis, sclerosanse, deformanse arthrosis and arthrosis with internal derancement. This method guaranteed the correct valuation of the bone, disc and muscle structures of the joint and therefore brought full clearance into the problem

  6. Application of object modeling technique to medical image retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Fumiaki; Abe, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of discussions on the object-oriented analysis methodology, which is one of the object-oriented paradigms. In particular, we considered application of the object modeling technique (OMT) to the analysis of a medical image retrieval system. The object-oriented methodology places emphasis on the construction of an abstract model from real-world entities. The effectiveness of and future improvements to OMT are discussed from the standpoint of the system's expandability. These discussions have elucidated that the methodology is sufficiently well-organized and practical to be applied to commercial products, provided that it is applied to the appropriate problem domain. (author)

  7. Si and gaas pixel detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of digital radiographic equipment in the morphological imaging field is becoming the more and more diffuse, the research of new and more performing devices from public institutions and industrial companies is in constant progress. Most of these devices are based on solid-state detectors as X-ray sensors. Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed in the high energy physics environment, have been then proposed as digital detector for medical imaging applications. In this paper a digital single photon counting device, based on silicon and GaAs pixel detector, is presented. The detector is a thin slab of semiconductor crystal where an array of 64 by 64 square pixels, 170- m side, has been built on one side. The data read-out is performed by a VLSI integrated circuit named Photon Counting Chip (PCC), developed within the MEDIPIX collaboration. Each chip cell geometrically matches the sensor pixel. It contains a charge preamplifier, a threshold comparator and a 15 bits pseudo-random counter and it is coupled to the detector by means of bump bonding. Most important advantages of such system, with respect to a traditional X-rays film/screen device, are the wider linear dynamic range (3x104) and the higher performance in terms of MTF and DQE. Besides the single photon counting architecture allows to detect image contrasts lower than 3%. Electronics read-out performance as well as imaging capabilities of the digital device will be presented. Images of mammographic phantoms acquired with a standard Mammographic tube will be compared with radiographs obtained with traditional film/screen systems

  8. Digital image processing for real-time neutron radiography and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Shigenori

    1989-01-01

    The present paper describes several digital image processing approaches for the real-time neutron radiography (neutron television-NTV), such as image integration, adaptive smoothing and image enhancement, which have beneficial effects on image improvements, and also describes how to use these techniques for applications. Details invisible in direct images of NTV are able to be revealed by digital image processing, such as reversed image, gray level correction, gray scale transformation, contoured image, subtraction technique, pseudo color display and so on. For real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively. (author)

  9. Image Finder Mobile Application Based on Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays taking photos via mobile phone has become a very important part of everyone’s life. Almost each and every person who has a smart phone also has thousands of photos in their mobile device. At times it becomes very difficult to find a particular photo from thousands of photos, and it takes time. This research was done to come up with an innovative solution that could solve this problem. The solution will allow the user to find the required photo by simply drawing a sketch on the objects in the required picture, for example a tree or car, etc. Two types of supervised Artificial Neural Networks are used for this purpose; one is trained to identify the handmade sketches and other is trained to identify the images. The proposed approach introduces a mechanism to relate the sketches with the images by matching them after training. The experimentation results for testing the trained neural networks reached 100% for the sketches, and 84% for the images of two objects as a case study.

  10. Particle image velocimetry new developments and recent applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willert, Christian E

    2008-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive optical measurement technique which allows capturing several thousand velocity vectors within large flow fields instantaneously. Today, the PIV technique has spread widely and differentiated into many distinct applications, from micro flows over combustion to supersonic flows for both industrial needs and research. Over the past decade the measurement technique and the hard- and software have been improved continuously so that PIV has become a reliable and accurate method for "real life" investigations. Nevertheless there is still an ongoing process of improvements and extensions of the PIV technique towards 3D, time resolution, higher accuracy, measurements under harsh conditions and micro- and macroscales. This book gives a synopsis of the main results achieved during the EC-funded network PivNet 2 as well as a survey of the state-of-the-art of scientific research using PIV techniques in different fields of application.

  11. Microwave imaging for plasma diagnostics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Important plasma parameters were measured to clarify the physics issues such as stability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Recent advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technology together with computer technology have enabled the development of advanced diagnostics for visualization of 2D and 3D structures of plasmas. Microwave/millimeter-wave imaging is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. We report here on the representative microwave diagnostics and their industrial applications as well as application to magnetically-confined plasmas. (author)

  12. Applications of image processing and visualization in the evaluation of murder and assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Boxwala, Aziz; Stotts, David; Smith, John; Soltys, Mitchell; Symon, James; Cullip, Tim; Wagner, Glenn

    1994-09-01

    Recent advances in image processing and visualization are of increasing use in the investigation of violent crime. The Digital Image Processing Laboratory at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in collaboration with groups at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are actively exploring visualization applications including image processing of trauma images, 3D visualization, forensic database management and telemedicine. Examples of recent applications are presented. Future directions of effort include interactive consultation and image manipulation tools for forensic data exploration.

  13. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  14. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: the application of advanced image processing and analysis to clinical and preclinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Jeffrey William

    2013-02-01

    The importance of medical imaging for clinical decision making has been steadily increasing over the last four decades. Recently, there has also been an emphasis on medical imaging for preclinical decision making, i.e., for use in pharamaceutical and medical device development. There is also a drive towards quantification of imaging findings by using quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and reproducibility of imaged characteristics used for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. An important component of the discovery, characterization, validation and application of quantitative imaging biomarkers is the extraction of information and meaning from images through image processing and subsequent analysis. However, many advanced image processing and analysis methods are not applied directly to questions of clinical interest, i.e., for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making, which is a consideration that should be closely linked to the development of such algorithms. This article is meant to address these concerns. First, quantitative imaging biomarkers are introduced by providing definitions and concepts. Then, potential applications of advanced image processing and analysis to areas of quantitative imaging biomarker research are described; specifically, research into osteoarthritis (OA), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer is presented. Then, challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker research are discussed. Finally, a conceptual framework for integrating clinical and preclinical considerations into the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers and their computer-assisted methods of extraction is presented.

  15. Soft power as part of China's strategy for national image cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Signe

    In recent years soft power has become a key issue at the highest political level in China, focusing especially on cultural soft power. This is reflected in important political documents, such as five year plans, plenum meeting summaries, as well as speeches by Hu Jintao and other politicians...... at the highest level. This interest in soft power is generally seen as part of an important foreign policy shift, and the huge amounts of money spent by the government on cultural diplomacy testify to the importance attached to it. Understanding what might be the goal of China’s soft power strategy is however...... difficult. The question can be analysed from various perspectives focusing on the use of power, the peaceful development discourse, or national image cultivation, and finding a straight forward answer is therefore difficult. If we go deeper and see the soft power discourse in the context of the worries...

  16. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Strobel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Dosimetry application to chemical ferrous gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Ch.

    2000-10-01

    MRI dosimetry is based on the determination of relaxation parameters (T1, T2). Chemical detectors whose NMR properties are sensitive to irradiation are used. Difficulties in absolute relaxation times measure limit the use of this technique. The aim of this work first consists in the development of a quantitative method to determine T, relaxation time on irradiated ferrous gels. So, we can study processes and parameters which affect the technique sensibility. The method sensitivity first depends on imaging instrumentation. Quantitative MRI method used is able to eliminate variable imager factors. The study of instrumental parameters (coil, sequence parameters) permits to define an imaging protocol which is a function of the considered application (volume size, spatial resolution and accuracy). The method sensitivity depends on the detector sensibility too. The best composition of ferrous gel has been determined. Dose distributions are obtained in three minutes. Comparison between MRI results and conventional dosimetry methods (specially ionisation chamber and films) shows a deviation of about 5% for single irradiation with energy fields in the range of 300 keV to 25 MeV. So, the proposed method forms a suitable technique for 3D dosimetry. (author)

  18. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  19. Design and Applications of a Multimodality Image Data Warehouse Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen T.C.; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A.; Dillon, William P.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications—namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains. PMID:11971885

  20. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-01-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied

  1. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-09-18

    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  2. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haakil Lee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT or positron emission (PET scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H including carbon (13C or phosphorus (31P. In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region ofinterest (ROI or voxel or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI. Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism.

  5. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Automatic metal parts inspection: Use of thermographic images and anomaly detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussat, M. S.; Guillaume, M.; Caulier, Y.; Spinnler, K.

    2013-11-01

    A fully-automatic approach based on the use of induction thermography and detection algorithms is proposed to inspect industrial metallic parts containing different surface and sub-surface anomalies such as open cracks, open and closed notches with different sizes and depths. A practical experimental setup is developed, where lock-in and pulsed thermography (LT and PT, respectively) techniques are used to establish a dataset of thermal images for three different mockups. Data cubes are constructed by stacking up the temporal sequence of thermogram images. After the reduction of the data space dimension by means of denoising and dimensionality reduction methods; anomaly detection algorithms are applied on the reduced data cubes. The dimensions of the reduced data spaces are automatically calculated with arbitrary criterion. The results show that, when reduced data cubes are used, the anomaly detection algorithms originally developed for hyperspectral data, the well-known Reed and Xiaoli Yu detector (RX) and the regularized adaptive RX (RARX), give good detection performances for both surface and sub-surface defects in a non-supervised way.

  8. Endoluminal MR imaging of the rectum and anus: technique, applications, and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stoker (Jacob); E. Rociu (Elena); A.W. Zwamborn; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); J.S. Lameris

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAnorectal diseases (e.g., fecal incontinence, perianal and anovaginal fistulas, anorectal tumors) require imaging for proper case management. Endoluminal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important part of diagnostic work-up in such cases.

  9. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  10. Development and application of efficient portal imaging solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.C.J. de

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the theoretical derivation and clinical application of methods to measure and improve patient setup in radiotherapy by means of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). The focus is on methods that (1) are simple to implement and (2) add minimal workload. First, the relation between setup errors and treatment planning margins is quantified in a population-statistics approach. A major result is that systematic errors (recurring each treatment fraction) require about three times larger margins than random errors (fluctuating from fraction to fraction). Therefore, the emphasis is on reduction of systematic setup errors using off-line correction protocols. The new no action level (NAL) protocol, aimed at significant reduction of systematic errors using a small number of imaged fractions, is proposed and investigated in detail. It is demonstrated that the NAL protocol provides final distributions of residue systematic errors at least as good as the most widely applied comparable protocol, the shrinking action level (SAL) protocol, but uses only 3 imaged fractions per patient instead of the 8-10 required by SAL. The efficacy of NAL is demonstrated retrospectively on a database of measured setup errors involving 600 patients with weekly set-up measurements and prospectively in a group of 30 patients. The general properties of NAL are investigated using both analytical and Monte Carlo calculations. As an add-on to NAL, a correction verification (COVER) protocol has been developed using computer simulations combined with a risk analysis. With COVER, a single additional imaged fraction per patient is sufficient to reduce the detrimental effect of possible systematic mistakes in the execution of setup corrections to negligible levels. The high accuracy achieved with off-line setup corrections (yielding SDs of systematic errors ∼1 mm) is demonstrated in clinical studies involving 60 lung cancer patients and 31 head-and-neck patients. Furthermore

  11. Parametric techniques for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 1): T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Palazón, R J; Ortiz Pérez, J T; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Solé Arqués, M

    2016-01-01

    The development of myocardial fibrosis is a common process in the appearance of ventricular dysfunction in many heart diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to accurately evaluate the structure and function of the heart, and its role in the macroscopic characterization of myocardial fibrosis by late enhancement techniques has been widely validated clinically. Recent studies have demonstrated that T1-mapping techniques can quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis and the expansion of the myocardial extracellular space in absolute terms. However, further studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of this technique in the early detection of tissue remodeling at a time when implementing early treatment would improve a patient's prognosis. This article reviews the state of the art for T1 mapping of the myocardium, its clinical applications, and its limitations. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Parametric methods for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 2): T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Palazón, R J; Solé Arqués, M; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Ortiz Pérez, J T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered the reference technique for characterizing myocardial tissue; for example, T2-weighted sequences make it possible to evaluate areas of edema or myocardial inflammation. However, traditional sequences have many limitations and provide only qualitative information. Moreover, traditional sequences depend on the reference to remote myocardium or skeletal muscle, which limits their ability to detect and quantify diffuse myocardial damage. Recently developed magnetic resonance myocardial mapping techniques enable quantitative assessment of parameters indicative of edema. These techniques have proven better than traditional sequences both in acute cardiomyopathy and in acute ischemic heart disease. This article synthesizes current developments in T2 mapping as well as their clinical applications and limitations. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of finite element method in mechanical design of automotive parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Suohai

    2017-09-01

    As an effective numerical analysis method, finite element method (FEM) has been widely used in mechanical design and other fields. In this paper, the development of FEM is introduced firstly, then the specific steps of FEM applications are illustrated and the difficulties of FEM are summarized in detail. Finally, applications of FEM in automobile components such as automobile wheel, steel plate spring, body frame, shaft parts and so on are summarized, compared with related research experiments.

  14. Algorithms and programming tools for image processing on the MPP, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.

    1986-01-01

    A number of algorithms were developed for image warping and pyramid image filtering. Techniques were investigated for the parallel processing of a large number of independent irregular shaped regions on the MPP. In addition some utilities for dealing with very long vectors and for sorting were developed. Documentation pages for the algorithms which are available for distribution are given. The performance of the MPP for a number of basic data manipulations was determined. From these results it is possible to predict the efficiency of the MPP for a number of algorithms and applications. The Parallel Pascal development system, which is a portable programming environment for the MPP, was improved and better documentation including a tutorial was written. This environment allows programs for the MPP to be developed on any conventional computer system; it consists of a set of system programs and a library of general purpose Parallel Pascal functions. The algorithms were tested on the MPP and a presentation on the development system was made to the MPP users group. The UNIX version of the Parallel Pascal System was distributed to a number of new sites.

  15. Image applications for coastal resource planning: Elkhorn Slough Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sharp, Gary D.; VanCoops, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the utility of digital spectral imagery at two levels of resolution for large scale, accurate, auto-classification of land cover along the Central California Coast. Although remote sensing technology offers obvious advantages over on-the-ground mapping, there are substantial trade-offs that must be made between resolving power and costs. Higher resolution images can theoretically be used to identify smaller habitat patches, but they usually require more scenes to cover a given area and processing these images is computationally intense requiring much more computer time and memory. Lower resolution images can cover much larger areas, are less costly to store, process, and manipulate, but due to their larger pixel size can lack the resolving power of the denser images. This lack of resolving power can be critical in regions such as the Central California Coast where important habitat change often occurs on a scale of 10 meters. Our approach has been to compare vegetation and habitat classification results from two aircraft-based spectral scenes covering the same study area but at different levels of resolution with a previously produced ground-truthed land cover base map of the area. Both of the spectral images used for this project were of significantly higher resolution than the satellite-based LandSat scenes used in the C-CAP program. The lower reaches of the Elkhorn Slough watershed was chosen as an ideal study site because it encompasses a suite of important vegetation types and habitat loss processes characteristic of the central coast region. Dramatic habitat alterations have and are occurring within the Elkhorn Slough drainage area, including erosion and sedimentation, land use conversion, wetland loss, and incremental loss due to development and encroachnnent by agriculture. Additonally, much attention has already been focused on the Elkhorn Slough due to its status as a National Marine Education and Research

  16. Neutron and Gamma Imaging for National Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornback, Donald

    2017-09-01

    The Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22) possesses, in part, the mission to develop technologies in support of nuclear security efforts in coordination with other U.S. government entities, such as the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security. DNN R&D has long supported research in nuclear detection at national labs, universities, and through the small business innovation research (SBIR) program. Research topics supported include advanced detector materials and electronics, detection algorithm development, and advanced gamma/neutron detection systems. Neutron and gamma imaging, defined as the directional detection of radiation as opposed to radiography, provides advanced detection capabilities for the NNSA mission in areas of emergency response, international safeguards, and nuclear arms control treaty monitoring and verification. A technical and programmatic overview of efforts in this field of research will be summarized.

  17. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  18. MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Part 2. Effect of flip angle on MR imaging with FLASH sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Maya; Sasano, Takashi; Higano, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shoki; Kurihara, Noriko

    1998-01-01

    In our previous study on MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), fast low angle shot (FLASH) showed the highest image contrast between disc and surrounding TMJ tissues compared with those of 4 other sequences (i,e., fast imaging with steady precession (FISP), conventional T1-weighted spin echo (SE) and fast spin echo (FSE, TR/TE/ETL: 1100/12/3, 3000/15/7)). Furthermore, FLASH also received a high score on visual evaluation including the position and contour of the disc, and the border between the disc and surrounding tissues. Therefore, we concluded that FLASH was the most suitable sequence for evaluating the TMJ disc. However, the image contrast and signal intensity on MR imaging with gradient echo pulse sequence are affected by flip angle. Consequently, in this report, to find the most suitable flip angle for MR scanning of the TMJ using a FLASH sequence (TR/TE: 450/11), ten TMJs of 5 volunteers were experimentally imaged with various flip angles from 10 degrees to 70 degrees at an interval of 10 degrees between 10 to 70. The image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the disc and surrounding tissues were compared. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of phantoms was also calculated using the same imaging parameters. Visual evaluation including position and contour of the disc, and the border between the disc and surrounding tissues, was also performed by 4 radiologists. As the flip angle increased, imaging contrast decreased while SNR increased. Images with flip angles between 30 and 60 degrees demonstrated high CNR. On visual evaluation, images using flip angles between 30 and 50 degrees received high scores. In conclusion, FLASH sequence with a flip angle between 30 and 50 degrees was considered most suitable for evaluating the TMJ disc based on the results of visual assessment and analysis of three major components of image diagnostic quality: image contrast, CNR and SNR. (author)

  19. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  20. Solar occultation images analysis using Zernike polynomials ­— an ALTIUS imaging spectrometer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Fussen, Didier; Loodts, Nicolas; Neefs, Eddy

    The ALTIUS (Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere) instrument is a major project of the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) in Brussels, Belgium. It has been designed to profit from the benefits of the limb scattering ge-ometry (vertical resolution, global coverage,...), while providing better accuracy on the tangent height knowledge than classical "knee" methods used by scanning spectrometers. The optical concept is based on 3 AOTF's (UV-Vis-NIR) responsible for the instantaneous spectral filtering of the incoming image (complete FOV larger than 100km x 100km at tangent point), ranging from 250nm to 1800nm, with a moderate resolution of a few nm and a typical acquisition time of 1-10s per image. While the primary goal of the instrument is the measurement of ozone with a good vertical resolution, the ability to record full images of the limb can lead to other applications, like solar occultations. With a pixel FOV of 200rad, the full high-sun image is formed of 45x45 pixels, which is sufficient for pattern recognition using moments analysis for instance. The Zernike polynomials form a complete othogonal set of functions over the unit circle. It is well suited for images showing circular shape. Any such image can then be decomposed into a finite set of weighted polynomials, the weighting is called the moments. Due to atmospheric refraction, the sun shape is modified during apparent sunsets and sunrises. The sun appears more flattened which leads to a modification of its zernike moment description. A link between the pressure or the temperature profile (equivalent to air density through the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic equation) and the Zernike moments of a given image can then be made and used to retrieve these atmospheric parameters, with the advantage that the whole sun is used and not only central or edge pixels. Some retrievals will be performed for different conditions and the feasibility of the method

  1. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section 86.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 62 - Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application B Appendix B to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY... Media and Communications; 03—Education; 04—Business and Commercial; 05—Banking and Financial; 06...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as a...

  4. 40 CFR 91.603 - Applicability of part 91, subpart F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of part 91, subpart F. 91.603 Section 91.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... best of (Company Name) knowledge, true and accurate. I am aware of the penalties associated with...

  5. 22 CFR 63.2 - Applicability of this part under special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of this part under special circumstances. 63.2 Section 63.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63...

  6. 17 CFR 403.1 - Application of part to registered brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered brokers and dealers. 403.1 Section 403.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE... SECURITIES AND BALANCES § 403.1 Application of part to registered brokers and dealers. With respect to their activities in government securities, compliance by registered brokers or dealers with § 240.8c-1 of this...

  7. 17 CFR 404.1 - Application of part to registered brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered brokers and dealers. 404.1 Section 404.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE... PRESERVATION OF RECORDS § 404.1 Application of part to registered brokers and dealers. Compliance by a registered broker or dealer with § 240.17a-3 of this title (pertaining to records to be made), § 240.17a-4 of...

  8. Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Milagro

    The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide

  9. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Bailo, Elena; Dieing, Thomas; Abramczyk, Halina

    2012-08-21

    The applications of spectroscopic methods in cancer detection open new possibilities in early stage diagnostics. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging represent novel and rapidly developing tools in cancer diagnosis. In the study described in this paper Raman spectroscopy has been employed to examine noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues of the same patient. The most significant differences between noncancerous and cancerous tissues were found in regions characteristic for the vibrations of carotenoids, lipids and proteins. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids in the differentiation between the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues. Comparison of Raman spectra of the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues with the spectra of oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids has been presented. The role of sample preparation in the determination of cancer markers is also discussed in this study.

  10. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  11. Application of multimedia image technology in engineering report demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lili, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of global economic integration, people’s strong desire for a wide range of global exchanges and interactions has been promoted, and there are more unprecedented convenient means for people to know the world and even to transform the world. At this stage, we realize that the traditional mode of work has become difficult to adapt to the changing trends of the world and informatization, multimedia, science and technology have become the mainstream of the times. Therefore, this paper will mainly analyze the present situation of the project report demonstration system and the key points of the work and put forward with pertinence specific application strategy of the integration with multimedia image technology.

  12. Efficient and compact hyperspectral imager for space-borne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades Hyperspectral Imager (HI) have become irreplaceable space-borne instruments for an increasing number of applications. A number of HIs are now operative onboard (e.g. CHRIS on PROBA), others are going to be launched (e.g. PRISMA, EnMAP, HyspIRI), many others are at the breadboard level. The researchers goal is to realize HI with high spatial and spectral resolution, having low weight and contained dimensions. The most common HI technique is based on the use of a dispersive mean (a grating or a prism) or on the use of band pass filters (tunable or linear variable). These approaches have the advantages of allowing compact devices. Another approach is based on the use of interferometer based spectrometers (Michelson or Sagnac type). The advantage of the latter is a very high efficiency in light collection because of the well-known Felgett and Jaquinot principles.

  13. Applications of three-dimensional image correlation in conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Herk, M.; Gilhuijs, K.; Kwa, S.; Lebesque, J.; Muller, S.; De Munck, J.; Touw, A.; Kooy, H.

    1995-01-01

    The development of techniques for the registration of CT, MRI and SPECT creates new possibilities for improved target volume definition and quantitative image analysis. The discussed technique is based on chamfer matching and is suitable for automatic 3-D matching of CT with CT, CT with MRI, CT with SPECT and MRI with SPECT. By integrating CT with MRI, the diagnostic qualities of MRI are combined with the geometric accuracy of the planning CT. Significant differences in the delineation of the target volume for brain, head and neck and prostate tumors have been demonstrated when using integrated CT and MRI compared with using CT alone. In addition, integration of the planning CT with pre-operative scans improves knowledge of possible tumor extents. By first matching scans based on the bony anatomy and subsequently matching on an organ of study, relative motion of the organ is quantified accurately. In a study with 42 CT scans of 11 patients, magnitude and causes of prostate motion have been analysed. The most important motion of the prostate is a forward-backward rotation around a point near the apex caused by rectal volume difference. Significant correlations were also found between motion of the legs and the prostate. By integrating functional images made before and after radiotherapy with the planning CT, the relation between local change of lung function and delivered dose has been quantified accurately. The technique of chamfer matching is a convenient and more accurate alternative for the use of external markers in a CT/SPECT lung damage study. Also, damage visible in diagnostic scans can be related to radiation dose, thereby improving follow-up diagnostics. It can be concluded that 3-D image integration plays an important role in assessing and improving the accuracy of radiotherapy and is therefore indispensable for conformal therapy. However, user-friendly implementation of these techniques remains to be done to facilitate clinical application on a large

  14. Applications of three-dimensional image correlation in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Herk, M; Gilhuijs, K; Kwa, S; Lebesque, J; Muller, S; De Munck, J; Touw, A [Nederlands Kanker Inst. ` Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis` , Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, H [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The development of techniques for the registration of CT, MRI and SPECT creates new possibilities for improved target volume definition and quantitative image analysis. The discussed technique is based on chamfer matching and is suitable for automatic 3-D matching of CT with CT, CT with MRI, CT with SPECT and MRI with SPECT. By integrating CT with MRI, the diagnostic qualities of MRI are combined with the geometric accuracy of the planning CT. Significant differences in the delineation of the target volume for brain, head and neck and prostate tumors were demonstrated when using integrated CT and MRI compared with using CT alone. In addition, integration of the planning CT with pre-operative scans improves knowledge of possible tumor extents. By first matching scans based on the bony anatomy and subsequently matching on an organ of study, relative motion of the organ is quantified accurately. In a study with 42 CT scans of 11 patients, magnitude and causes of prostate motion were analysed. The most important motion of the prostate is a forward-backward rotation around a point near the apex caused by rectal volume difference. Significant correlations were also found between motion of the legs and the prostate. By integrating functional images made before and after radiotherapy with the planning CT, the relation between local change of lung function and delivered dose has been quantified accurately. The technique of chamfer matching is a convenient and more accurate alternative for the use of external markers in a CT/SPECT lung damage study. Also, damage visible in diagnostic scans can be related to radiation dose, thereby improving follow-up diagnostics. It can be concluded that 3-D image integration plays an important role in assessing and improving the accuracy of radiotherapy and is therefore indispensable for conformal therapy. However, user-friendly implementation of these techniques remains to be done to facilitate clinical application on a large scale.

  15. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.M.L

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs.

  16. The clinical application of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Tang Mingdeng; Lin Duanyu; Ni Leichun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphoma. Methods: 71 cases of patients were diagnosed by pathology as malignant lymphoma, among whom there were 8 cases of Hodgkin disease (HL) and 63 cases of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). The examinations were performed from 2.5 to 6 hours later after the intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MDP (555-925 MBq). Results: 31 cases were bone-infiltrating lesions, including 3 cases of HL and 28 cases of NHL. The total number of the focus was 103, except 2 cases of bone lack, including 35 foci in vertebral column (34.65%), 30 foci in limb and joint (29.70%), 14 foci in rib (13.86%), 13 foci in elvis (12.0%), 5 foci in skull (4.95%) and 4 foci in sternum (3.96%). Conclusion: The nuclide bone imaging has a high value in the clinical stage, therapeutic observation and prognosis of bone-infiltrating malignant lymphoma. (authors)

  17. Fluorine-18-labelled molecules: synthesis and application in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Perrio, C.; Barre, L.; Lasne, M.C.; Le Bars, D.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the more powerful available techniques for medical imaging. It relies on the use of molecules labelled with a positron emitter (β + ). Among those emitters, fluorine-18, available from a cyclotron, is a radionuclide of choice because of its relatively long-half-life (109.8 min) and the relatively low energy of the emitted-positron. The electrophilic form of fluorine-18 ([ 18 F]F 2 or reagents derived from [ 18 F]F 2 ) is mainly used for hydrogen or metal substitutions on aromatic or vinylic carbons. The presence of the stable isotope (fluorine-19) in the radiotracers limits their use in medical imaging. The nucleophilic form of fluorine-18 (alkaline mono-fluoride, K[ 18 F]F, the most used), obtained from irradiation of enriched water, is widely used in aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic substitutions for the synthesis of radiotracers with high specific radioactivity. Some examples of radio-fluorinated tracers used in PET are presented, as well as some of their in vivo applications in human. (authors)

  18. High performance graphics processors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwasser, S.M.; Reynolds, R.A.; Talton, D.A.; Walsh, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a family of high- performance graphics processors with special hardware for interactive visualization of 3D human anatomy. The basic architecture expands to multiple parallel processors, each processor using pipelined arithmetic and logical units for high-speed rendering of Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. User-selectable display alternatives include multiple 2D axial slices, reformatted images in sagittal or coronal planes and shaded 3D views. Special facilities support applications requiring color-coded display of multiple datasets (such as radiation therapy planning), or dynamic replay of time- varying volumetric data (such as cine-CT or gated MR studies of the beating heart). The current implementation is a single processor system which generates reformatted images in true real time (30 frames per second), and shaded 3D views in a few seconds per frame. It accepts full scale medical datasets in their native formats, so that minimal preprocessing delay exists between data acquisition and display

  19. Imaging monitoring techniques applications in the transient gratings detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-ming

    2009-07-01

    Experimental studies of Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in iodine vapor at atmospheric pressure and 0℃ and 25℃ are reported. The Laser-induced grating (LIG) studies are carried out by generating the thermal grating using a pulsed, narrow bandwidth, dye laser .A new image processing system for detecting forward DFWM spectroscopy on iodine vapor is reported. This system is composed of CCD camera, imaging processing card and the related software. With the help of the detecting system, phase matching can be easily achieved in the optical arrangement by crossing the two pumps and the probe as diagonals linking opposite corners of a rectangular box ,and providing a way to position the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) . Also it is practical to know the effect of the pointing stability on the optical path by monitoring facula changing with the laser beam pointing and disturbs of the environment. Finally the effects of Photostability of dye laser on the ration of signal to noise in DFWM using forward geometries have been investigated in iodine vapor. This system makes it feasible that the potential application of FG-DFWM is used as a diagnostic tool in combustion research and environment monitoring.

  20. Injection moulding of plastic parts with laser textured surfaces with optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Estany, J.; García-Granada, A. A.; Corull-Massana, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to manufacture micro and nanotextured surfaces on plastic injection moulds with the aim of replicating them and obtaining plastic parts with optical applications. Different patterns are manufactured with nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in order to obtain three different optical applications: (i) homogeneous light diffusion (ii) 1D light directionality and (iii) 2D light directionality. Induction heating is used in the injections in order to improve the textures degree of replication. The steel mould and the plastic parts are analyzed with a confocal/focus variation microscope and with a surface roughness tester. A mock-up and a luminance camera are used to evaluate the homogeneity and luminance of the homogeneous light diffusion application in comparison with the current industrial solutions.

  1. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  2. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 1 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, D C; Webb, H

    1982-01-01

    A projection operator onto a closed convex set in Hilbert space is one of the few examples of a nonlinear map that can be defined in simple abstract terms. Moreover, it minimizes distance and is nonexpansive, and therefore shares two of the more important properties of ordinary linear orthogonal projections onto closed linear manifolds. In this paper, we exploit the properties of these operators to develop several iterative algorithms for image restoration from partial data which permit any number of nonlinear constraints of a certain type to be subsumed automatically. Their common conceptual basis is as follows. Every known property of an original image f is envisaged as restricting it to lie in a well-defined closed convex set. Thus, m such properties place f in the intersection E(0) = E(i) of the corresponding closed convex sets E(1),E(2),...EE(m). Given only the projection operators PE(i) onto the individual E(i)'s, i = 1 --> m, we restore f by recursive means. Clearly, in this approach, the realization of the P(i)'s in a Hilbert space setting is one of the major synthesis problems. Section I describes the geometrical significance of the three main theorems in considerable detail, and most of the underlying ideas are illustrated with the aid of simple diagrams. Section II presents rules for the numerical implementation of 11 specific projection operators which are found to occur frequently in many signal-processing applications, and the Appendix contains proofs of all the major results.

  3. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  4. Image processing using pulse-coupled neural networks applications in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblad, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Image processing algorithms based on the mammalian visual cortex are powerful tools for extraction information and manipulating images. This book reviews the neural theory and translates them into digital models. Applications are given in areas of image recognition, foveation, image fusion and information extraction. The third edition reflects renewed international interest in pulse image processing with updated sections presenting several newly developed applications. This edition also introduces a suite of Python scripts that assist readers in replicating results presented in the text and to further develop their own applications.

  5. [Application of Imaging Mass Spectrometry for Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) can reveal the distribution of biomolecules on tissue sections. In this process, the biomolecules are directly ionized within tissue sections using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and then their distribution is visualized by pseudo-color based on the relative signal intensity. The biomolecules, such as fatty acids, phospholipids, glycolipids, peptides, proteins, and neurotransmitters, have been analyzed at a spatial resolution of 5 μm. A special instrument for IMS analysis was developed by Shimadzu. The IMS analysis does not require the labeling of biomolecules and is capable of analyzing all the ionized biomolecules. Interest in this method has expanded to many research fields, including biology, agriculture, medicine, and pharmacology. The technique is especially relevant to the drug discovery process. As practiced currently, drug discovery is expensive and time consuming, requiring the preparation of probes for each drug and its metabolites, followed by systematic probe tracking in animal models. The IMS technique is expected to overcome these drawbacks by revealing the distribution of drugs and their metabolites using only a single analysis. In this symposium, I introduced the methodology and applications of IMS and discussed the feasibility of its application to drug discovery in the near future.

  6. DAE-BRNS workshop on applications of image processing in plant sciences and agriculture: lecture notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Images form important data and information in biological sciences. Until recently photography was the only method to reproduce and report such data. It is difficult to quantify or treat the photographic data mathematically. Digital image processing and image analysis technology based on recent advances in microelectronics and computers circumvents these problems associated with traditional photography. WIPSA (Workshop on Applications of Image Processing in Plant Sciences and Agriculture) will feature topics on the basic aspects of computers, imaging hardware and software as well advanced aspects such as colour image processing, high performance computing, neural networks, 3-D imaging and virtual reality. Imaging done using ultrasound, thermal, x-rays and γ rays, neutron radiography and the film-less phosphor-imager technology will also be discussed. Additionally application of image processing/analysis in plant sciences, medicine and satellite imagery are discussed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Building an outpatient imaging center: A case study at genesis healthcare system, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In the second of 2 parts, this article will focus on process improvement projects utilizing a case study at Genesis HealthCare System located in Zanesville, OH. Operational efficiency is a key step in developing a freestanding diagnostic imaging center. The process improvement projects began with an Expert Improvement Session (EIS) on the scheduling process. An EIS session is a facilitated meeting that can last anywhere from 3 hours to 2 days. Its intention is to take a group of people involved with the problem or operational process and work to understand current failures or breakdowns in the process. Recommendations are jointly developed to overcome any current deficiencies, and a work plan is structured to create ownership over the changes. A total of 11 EIS sessions occurred over the course of this project, covering 5 sections: Scheduling/telephone call process, Pre-registration, Verification/pre-certification, MRI throughput, CT throughput. Following is a single example of a project focused on the process improvement efforts. All of the process improvement projects utilized a quasi methodology of "DMAIC" (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control).

  8. Imaging of systemic lupus erythematosus. Part I: CNS, cardiovascular, and thoracic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Y.P.; Naidoo, P.; Ngian, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that has a relapsing and remitting course. It has a wide range of non-specific symptoms with various organ manifestations. In 1982, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published the revised criteria for the classification of SLE. The diagnosis of SLE may be made if four or more of the 11 ACR criteria are present, either serially or simultaneously, during any interval of observation. Whilst the diagnosis of SLE is based on clinical and laboratory features, with no universally accepted radiological diagnostic criteria, imaging is nonetheless useful for diagnosing specific organ manifestations, monitoring disease progression, and identifying complications secondary to immunosuppressive therapy. In this review, we describe the spectrum of radiological findings of SLE in various organ systems and compile a list of organ manifestations including the most frequently occurring diseases as well as the rare but not-to-be-missed diseases. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool in an endeavour to assist clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. This pictorial review presents the various radiological findings of CNS, cardiovascular and thoracic manifestation of SLE. The gastrointestinal, renal and musculoskeletal systems will be covered in part II.

  9. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second.

  10. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Brian J.; Maisto, Pietro; Lowe, K. Todd; Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Tiemsin, Patsy I.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene latex sphere particles are widely used to seed flows for velocimetry techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). These particles may be doped with fluorescent dyes such that signals spectrally shifted from the incident laser wavelength may be detected via Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An attractive application of the LIF signal is achieving velocimetry in the presence of strong interference from laser scatter, opening up new research possibilities very near solid surfaces or at liquid/gas interfaces. Additionally, LIF signals can be used to tag different fluid streams to study mixing. While fluorescence-based PIV has been performed by many researchers for particles dispersed in water flows, the current work is among the first in applying the technique to micron-scale particles dispersed in a gas. A key requirement for such an application is addressing potential health hazards from fluorescent dyes; successful doping of Kiton Red 620 (KR620) has enabled the use of this relatively safe dye for fluorescence PIV for the first time. In this paper, basic applications proving the concept of PIV using the LIF signal from KR620-doped particles are exhibited for a free jet and a twophase flow apparatus. Results indicate that while the fluorescence PIV techniques are roughly 2 orders of magnitude weaker than Mie scattering, they provide a viable method for obtaining data in flow regions previously inaccessible via standard PIV. These techniques have the potential to also complement Mie scattering signals, for example in multi-stream and/or multi-phase experiments.

  11. Application and Analysis of Wavelet Transform in Image Edge Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang gao[1

    2016-01-01

    For the image processing technology, technicians have been looking for a convenient and simple detection method for a long time, especially for the innovation research on image edge detection technology. Because there are a lot of original information at the edge during image processing, thus, we can get the real image data in terms of the data acquisition. The usage of edge is often in the case of some irregular geometric objects, and we determine the contour of the image by combining with signal transmitted data. At the present stage, there are different algorithms in image edge detection, however, different types of algorithms have divergent disadvantages so It is diffi cult to detect the image changes in a reasonable range. We try to use wavelet transformation in image edge detection, making full use of the wave with the high resolution characteristics, and combining multiple images, in order to improve the accuracy of image edge detection.

  12. Part-body hyperthermia with a radiofrequency multiantenna applicator under online control in 1,5 T MR-tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, P.; Gellermann, J.; Faehling, H.; Wlodarczyk, W.; Felix, R.; Seebass, M.; Turner, P.; Nadobny, J.; Rau, B.; Hildebrandt, B.; Schlag, P.M.; Oppelt, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is the integration of a multiantenna applicator for part-body hyperthermia (BSD 2000/3D) in a 1.5 T MR-tomograph (Siemens Magnetom Symphony) in order to perform noninvasive MR monitoring in real time to increase safety and effectiveness of heat treatments. The positioning unit is mechanically coupled to the MR gantry from the back side and the body coil is utilised for imaging. For that purpose, the hyperthermia antenna system (100 MHz, 1.500 W) and the MR receiver(63.9 MHs) have to be decoupled in terms of high frequency (filter) and electromagnetically (emc). The processing of MR data sets is performed in a hyperthermia planning system. A simultaneous operation of radiofrequency hyperthermia and MR system is possible at clinically relevant power levels. MR imaging is used for tumor diagnostics (standard spin echo sequences), for hyperthermia planning (T1-weighted gradient echo sequences in equal- and opposed-phase techniques), and for temperature measurements according to the proton resonance frequency method (PRF method, phase evaluation registration using a gradient echo sequence with long echo time). In 33 patients with advanced pelvic and abdominal tumors we performed 150 heat sessions under MR monitoring. For 70% of these patients a visualisation of temperature sensitive data during treatment was possible. The evaluated difference images represent a superposition of real temperature increase and a (temperature-induced) perfusion elevation. The hybrid approach renders development of part body hyperthermia possible as an MR-controlled intervention in radiology. (orig.) [de

  13. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 2: Soybean Fibres Properties and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein fibres (SPF, which is a protein based botanic fibre, has various beneficialproperties such as softness, brightness, smoothness, drape, UV and bacterial resistance. These fibers areused in production of various yarn blends, woven, knit and nonwoven fabrics to manufature apperal andhome textiles such as t-shirts, bedding, sweater and baby dress due to these superior properties. This review,about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and itsenviromental effects had been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areasof SPF have been described.

  14. Application of Image Texture Analysis for Evaluation of X-Ray Images of Fungal-Infected Maize Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orina, Irene; Manley, Marena; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of image texture analysis to evaluate X-ray images of fungal-infected maize kernels was investigated. X-ray images of maize kernels infected with Fusarium verticillioides and control kernels were acquired using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. After image acquisition...... developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and accuracies of 67 and 73% were achieved using first-order statistical features and GLCM extracted features, respectively. This work provides information on the possible application of image texture as method for analysing X-ray images......., homogeneity and contrast) were extracted from the side, front and top views of each kernel and used as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA). The first-order statistical image features gave a better separation of the control from infected kernels on day 8 post-inoculation. Classification models were...

  15. Application of low bitrate image coding to surveillance of electric power facilities. Part 1. Proposal of low bitrate coding for surveillance of electric power facilities and examination of facilities region extraction method; Denryoku setsubi kanshi eno tei rate fugoka hoshiki no tekiyo. 1. Setsubi kanshiyo fugoka hoshiki no teian to setsubi ryoiki chushutsuho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H.; Ishino, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Current status of low bitrate image coding has been investigated, and a low bitrate coding suitable for the surveillance of electric power facilities has been proposed, to extract its problems to be solved. For the conventional image coding, the waveform coding has been used by which the images are processed as signals. While, for the MPEG-4, a coding method with considering the image information has been proposed. For these coding methods, however, image information lacks details primarily, when lowering the bitrate. Accordingly, these methods can not be applied when the details in the images are important, such as in the case of surveillance of facilities. Then, the coding method has been proposed by expanding the partially detailed coding, and by separating constituent images of facilities, such as power cables and steel towers, designated by operators. It is the special feature of this method that the method can easily respond to the low bitrate and the detailed information can be conserved by using the structure extraction coding for the designated partial image which is generally processed by the low bitrate waveform coding. 29 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  17. Endoluminal MR imaging of the rectum and anus: technique, applications, and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.; Zwamborn, A. W.; Schouten, W. R.; Laméris, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Anorectal diseases (e.g., fecal incontinence, perianal and anovaginal fistulas, anorectal tumors) require imaging for proper case management. Endoluminal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important part of diagnostic work-up in such cases. Optimal endoluminal MR imaging requires careful

  18. Synchrotron radiation and x-ray topography. Part II. Examples of some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Synchrotron x-radiation topography is a powerful tool for studying defects in ''bulk'' metals and alloys. The general features of this technique, including both advantages and disadvantages, have been discussed in Part I of this review. This second report concentrates on some applications of the white beam topography method to studies of flow and fracture of materials and indicates fruitful areas for possible future application. Research investigations on cleavage surfaces of some bcc and hcp metals and alloys are reviewed and contrasted to other more usual methods of studying the morphology of the resulting microstructures

  19. Statistics Refresher for Molecular Imaging Technologists, Part 2: Accuracy of Interpretation, Significance, and Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mary Beth

    2018-06-01

    This article is the second part of a continuing education series reviewing basic statistics that nuclear medicine and molecular imaging technologists should understand. In this article, the statistics for evaluating interpretation accuracy, significance, and variance are discussed. Throughout the article, actual statistics are pulled from the published literature. We begin by explaining 2 methods for quantifying interpretive accuracy: interreader and intrareader reliability. Agreement among readers can be expressed simply as a percentage. However, the Cohen κ-statistic is a more robust measure of agreement that accounts for chance. The higher the κ-statistic is, the higher is the agreement between readers. When 3 or more readers are being compared, the Fleiss κ-statistic is used. Significance testing determines whether the difference between 2 conditions or interventions is meaningful. Statistical significance is usually expressed using a number called a probability ( P ) value. Calculation of P value is beyond the scope of this review. However, knowing how to interpret P values is important for understanding the scientific literature. Generally, a P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant and indicates that the results of the experiment are due to more than just chance. Variance, standard deviation (SD), confidence interval, and standard error (SE) explain the dispersion of data around a mean of a sample drawn from a population. SD is commonly reported in the literature. A small SD indicates that there is not much variation in the sample data. Many biologic measurements fall into what is referred to as a normal distribution taking the shape of a bell curve. In a normal distribution, 68% of the data will fall within 1 SD, 95% will fall within 2 SDs, and 99.7% will fall within 3 SDs. Confidence interval defines the range of possible values within which the population parameter is likely to lie and gives an idea of the precision of the statistic being

  20. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...