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Sample records for images laboratory evaluation

  1. Evaluation of dispersivity coefficients by means of a laboratory image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citarella, Donato; Cupola, Fausto; Tanda, Maria Giovanna; Zanini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an innovative procedure that allows the estimation of longitudinal and transverse dispersivities in an experimental plume devised in a laboratory sandbox. The phenomenon of transport in porous media is studied using sodium fluorescein as tracer. The fluorescent excitation was achieved by using blue light and the concentration data were obtained through the processing of side wall images collected with a high resolution color digital camera. After a calibration process, the relationship between the luminosity of the emitted fluorescence and the fluorescein concentration was determined at each point of the sandbox. The relationships were used to describe the evolution of the transport process quantitatively throughout the entire domain. Some check tests were performed in order to verify the reliability of the experimental device. Numerical flow and transport models of the sandbox were developed and calibrated comparing computed and observed flow rates and breakthrough curves. The estimation of the dispersivity coefficients was carried out by analyzing the concentration field deduced from the images collected during the experiments; the dispersivity coefficients were evaluated in the domain zones where the tracer affected the porous medium under the hypothesis that the transport phenomenon is described by advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and by computing the differential components of the concentration by means of a numerical leap-frog scheme. The values determined agree with the ones referred in literature for similar media and with the coefficients obtained by calibrating the numerical model. Very interesting considerations have been made from the analysis of the performance of the methodology at different locations in the flow domain and phases of the plume evolution.

  2. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  3. QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES: LABORATORY EVALUATION OF INTRAORAL FILMS, FILTERS, COLLIMATORS, AND RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMBURUS José Roberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate density, radiographic contrast and dose of radiation exposure, the author analyzed 80 radiographs containing 640 optical density data of the images of a penetrometer, exposed to the radiation beam with combinations between D and E periapical films, aluminum and copper/aluminum filters, and circular or rectangular collimators. The data obtained were analyzed by ANOVA and allowed the following conclusions: 1 aluminum filtration resulted in improved image contrast; 2 the use of group D film and an aluminum filter produced improved image contrast quality; 3 the rectangular collimator contributed to the production of improved contrast and to the reduction of radiation exposure, but did not affect density; 4 the combination of copper/aluminum filter, E group film and rectangular collimation significantly reduced radiation exposure.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particul...

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particul...

  6. Product Evaluation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory offers the services of highly trained and experienced specialists that have a full complement of measuring equipment. It is equipped with two optical...

  7. Emergency Medicine Evaluation of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: History, Examination, Imaging and Laboratory Assessment, and Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Long, Drew; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-09-20

    Pneumonia is a common infection, accounting for approximately one million hospitalizations in the United States annually. This potentially life-threatening disease is commonly diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. To investigate emergency medicine evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia including history, physical examination, imaging, and the use of risk scores in patient assessment. Pneumonia is the number one cause of death from infectious disease. The condition is broken into several categories, the most common being community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis centers on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. However, all are unreliable when used alone, and misdiagnosis occurs in up to one-third of patients. Chest radiograph has a sensitivity of 46-77%, and biomarkers including white blood cell count, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein provide little benefit in diagnosis. Biomarkers may assist admitting teams, but require further study for use in the emergency department. Ultrasound has shown utility in correctly identifying pneumonia. Clinical gestalt demonstrates greater ability to diagnose pneumonia. Clinical scores including Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI); Confusion, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, age 65 score (CURB-65); and several others may be helpful for disposition, but should supplement, not replace, clinical judgment. Patient socioeconomic status must be considered in disposition decisions. The diagnosis of pneumonia requires clinical gestalt using a combination of history and physical examination. Chest radiograph may be negative, particularly in patients presenting early in disease course and elderly patients. Clinical scores can supplement clinical gestalt and assist in disposition when used appropriately. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards…

  9. Ultrasonic Evaluation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Larche, Michael R.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cinson, Anthony D.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasonic evaluation of materials for material characterization and flaw detection is as simple as manually moving a single-element probe across a speci-men and looking at an oscilloscope display in real time or as complex as automatically (under computer control) scanning a phased-array probe across a specimen and collecting encoded data for immediate or off-line data analyses. The reliability of the results in the second technique is greatly increased because of a higher density of measurements per scanned area and measurements that can be more precisely related to the specimen geometry. This chapter will briefly discuss applications of the collection of spatially encoded data and focus primarily on the off-line analyses in the form of data imaging. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved with as-sessing and advancing the reliability of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant components for over 35 years. Modern ultrasonic imaging techniques such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), phased-array (PA) technolo-gy and sound field mapping have undergone considerable improvements to effec-tively assess and better understand material constraints.

  10. Root distributions in a laboratory box evaluated using two different techniques (gravimetric and image processing and their impact on root water uptake simulated with HYDRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of plant roots in a soil profile (i.e. root density is needed when simulating root water uptake from soil. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating barley and wheat root densities in a sand-vermiculite substrate. Barley and wheat were planted in a flat laboratory box under greenhouse conditions. The box was always divided into two parts, where a single plant row and rows cross section (respectively was simulated. Roots were excavated at the end of the experiment and root densities were assessed using root zone image processing and by weighing. For this purpose, the entire area (width of 40 and height of 50 cm of each scenario was divided into 80 segments (area of 5×5 cm. Root density in each segment was expressed as a root percentage of the entire root cluster. Vertical root distributions (i.e. root density with respect to depth were also calculated as a sum of root densities in each 5 cm layer. Resulting vertical root densities, measured evaporation from the water table (used as the potential root water uptake, and the Feddes stress response function model were used for simulating substrate water regime and actual root water uptake for all scenarios using HYDRUS-1D. All scenarios were also simulated using HYDRUS-2D. One scenario (areal root density of barley sown in a single row, obtained using image analysis is presented in this paper (because most scenarios showed root water uptakes similar to results of 1D scenarios.

  11. Imaging Charged Dust in Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments with dust grains are described in this talk, which will include numerous images and videos from the experiments. In all the experiments, grains are immersed in plasma, and they are electrically charged. In the first experiment, grains are synthesized under conditions that simulate the outflow of carbon stars. These grains are grown in the gas phase with a carbon vapor. They grow by homogeneous nucleation, accretion, and coagulation. After growth, they are collected and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. These images reveal the grain morphology. In the second experiment, the structure and dynamics of the liquid or solid-phase centers of a star is simulated in the laboratory using charged grains (precision micron-size spheres) as proxies for protons. These grains are imaged by video microscopy, revealing how they self-organize, arranging themselves spatially in a crystalline-like lattice due to mutual Coulomb repulsion. Video microscopy allows tracking the motion of the microspheres and calculating their velocities. This measurement allows the experimenter to detect waves corresponding to random thermal motion, and from the properties of these waves one can measure the grain's charge. In the third experiment, sound waves in a cloud of charged dust are observed using high-speed video cameras. The compression and rarefaction of the dust-grain number density are easily observed in the video. Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  12. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  13. Laboratory medicine for molecular imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Almer, Gunter; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Reininghaus, Eva; Prassl, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are the main cause of life threatening clinical endpoints like myocardial infarction and stroke. To prevent these endpoints, the improved early diagnosis and treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic vascular lesions are essential. Although originally applied for anticancer treatment, recent advances have also showed the considerable potential of nanotechnology for atherosclerosis. Otherwise, one domain of laboratory medicine is the investigation of new biomarkers. Recent research activities have identified the usability of biomarker-targeted nanoparticles for molecular imaging and pharmacologic modification of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions leading to myocardial infarction or stroke. These investigations have established a new research interface between laboratory medicine, nanotechnology, cardiology/neurology, and radiology. In this review, we discuss inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms and biomarkers associated with a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Further, we will emphasize cardiovascular relevant functionalized nanoparticle biomarker constructs which were developed within the cooperation interface between Laboratory Medicine (anti-inflammatory biomarkers), Nano-Medicine (nanoparticle development), and Radiology (molecular imaging). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Evaluating the Writing Laboratory: A Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejorada, Ma. Flor E.; Fonacier, Elvira

    A model for evaluating a college second language writing instruction program is presented, based on experiences at the De La Salle University (Philippines) writing laboratory. The laboratory, a support unit of the university's language program, provides remedial instruction in composition and academic writing for referred students. The proposed…

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  16. SALE: Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.J.; Bush, W.J.; Dolan, C.A.

    1976-09-01

    The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program implements an industry-wide quality control and evaluation system aimed at identifying and reducing analytical chemical measurement errors. Samples of well-characterized materials are distributed to laboratory participants at periodic intervals for determination of uranium or plutonium concentration and isotopic distributions. The results of these determinations are statistically-evaluated, and each participant is informed of the accuracy and precision of his results in a timely manner. The SALE computer code which produces the report is designed to facilitate rapid transmission of this information in order that meaningful quality control will be provided. Various statistical techniques comprise the output of the SALE computer code. Assuming an unbalanced nested design, an analysis of variance is performed in subroutine NEST resulting in a test of significance for time and analyst effects. A trend test is performed in subroutine TREND. Microfilm plots are obtained from subroutine CUMPLT. Within-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in the main program or subroutine VAREST, and between-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in SBLV. Other statistical tests are also performed. Up to 1,500 pieces of data for each nuclear material sampled by 75 (or fewer) laboratories may be analyzed with this code. The input deck necessary to run the program is shown, and input parameters are discussed in detail. Printed output and microfilm plot output are described. Output from a typical SALE run is included as a sample problem.

  17. Fatigue Sensor Evaluation Program Laboratory Test Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Evaluation Program - laboratory Test Report, " by John Y. Kaufman, Design Engineer, and it was prepared for publication by Sue Bardsley, Technical Aid ...fatigue sensor as an aid to this purpose. The laboratory test effort was based on collection of data from six types of tests and thirty-three...34 ’: « •IIIS ......... li : « rtrtintr : •* M» c f M i H ::::::;:• ;:« ...j . .... ..:. •f’ ::.::::: ^::|:::: n» VH ft;; ** ViH ! * 1 - •• •-•• ; i

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Yorghi Khoury; Edmund Chada Baracat; Dolores Perovano Pardini; Mauro Abi Haidar; Eduardo Leme Alves da Motta; Geraldo Rodrigues de Lima

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI); and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, free testoster...

  19. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoub, B.D.; Lyons, S.F.; Crespi, M.; Chiu, M.N. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Virology); Lomnitzer, R. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Immunology)

    1983-01-08

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial therapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in a laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was found in one of them. In-house determination of antiviral activity and evaluation of the antiproliferative and NKC stimulation potential of interferon preparations are essential before rational clinical trials of this agent are carried out.

  20. Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, D; Houba, V J

    1999-03-01

    The paper describes three of the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL). These include the analyses of numerous compounds and elements and different parameters such as inorganic chemical composition, organic matter, polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides, some herbicides, heavy metals, particle size, and so on in soil, sediment, compost, manure, and sludge. One programme includes the analysis of inorganic chemical composition, nutritional values, and selected vitamins and amino acids in plant samples. Finally, the paper describes how the results are reported and statistically evaluated.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of various cold therapy modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, W C; Liddle, S; Waugh, T R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the potential of four modalities to cool soft tissue mass has been done under laboratory conditions using canines. The cooling of deep soft tissues within the thigh after application of various cooling devices was recorded over a 60-min exposure period. Under these circumstances, ice performed best, a frozen gel pack performed in a parallel but slightly less efficient manner. Two other modalities, an inflatable bladder filled with refrigerant gas and an endothermic chemical reaction, were least efficient in cooling.

  2. Introducing PLIA: Planetary Laboratory for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Hueso, R.; Barrado, N.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2005-08-01

    We present a graphical software tool developed under IDL software to navigate, process and analyze planetary images. The software has a complete Graphical User Interface and is cross-platform. It can also run under the IDL Virtual Machine without the need to own an IDL license. The set of tools included allow image navigation (orientation, centring and automatic limb determination), dynamical and photometric atmospheric measurements (winds and cloud albedos), cylindrical and polar projections, as well as image treatment under several procedures. Being written in IDL, it is modular and easy to modify and grow for adding new capabilities. We show several examples of the software capabilities with Galileo-Venus observations: Image navigation, photometrical corrections, wind profiles obtained by cloud tracking, cylindrical projections and cloud photometric measurements. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  3. Cardiovascular Imaging in the Electrophysiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Laura; Prat, Susanna; Sitges, Marta

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, rapid technological advances have allowed the development of new electrophysiological procedures that would not have been possible without the parallel development of imaging techniques used to plan and guide these procedures and monitor their outcomes. Ablation of atrial fibrillation is among the interventions with the greatest need for imaging support. Echocardiography allows the appropriate selection of patients and the detection of thrombi that would contraindicate the intervention; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are also essential in planning this procedure, by allowing a detailed anatomical study of the pulmonary veins. In addition, in cardiac resynchronization therapy, echocardiography plays a central role in both patient selection and, later, in device adjustment and in assessing the effectiveness of the technique. More recently, ablation of ventricular tachycardias has been established as a treatment option; this would not be possible without planning using an imaging study such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial scarring. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  “Rectification” of Greek literature Reproduction of a page of Ibn Sahl's manuscript showing his discovery of the law of refraction”, now known as Snell's law. [5] Some History of Arabic Optics 2 See [4]  Arabic military interest in optics (Caliphs... science. Vol 2. Mathematics and the physical sciences, Routledge, 1996 [5] image used: “Reproduction of a page of Ibn Sahl's manuscript showing his discovery of the law of refraction”, now known as Snell's law.”, image from http...

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yorghi Khoury

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO. PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI; and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were taken. RESULTS: All patients presented either oligomenorrhea (31 percent, periods of secondary amenorrhea (9 percent, or both alterations (60 percent. The majority of the patients were infertile (75.6 percent. The LH/FSH ratio was higher than 2:1 in 55 percent of the patients and higher than 3:1 in 26.2 percent. The ultrasonographic aspect of the ovaries was considered to be normal in 31 percent. CONCLUSION: The main clinical feature of the PCO is the irregularity of menses since menarche, and that the laboratory tests would be important to exclude other disorders such as hyperprolactinemia or hyperandrogenemia caused by late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  6. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily based on field comparison to other measurement methods to evaluate accuracy. While such studies are useful, the underlying reasons for disagreement among methods are not always clear. This study examines aspects of MARGA accuracy and precision specifically related to automated chromatography analysis. Using laboratory standards, analytical accuracy, precision, and method detection limits derived from the MARGA chromatography software are compared to an alternative software package (Chromeleon, Thermo Scientific Dionex). Field measurements are used to further evaluate instrument performance, including the MARGA’s use of an internal LiBr standard to control accuracy. Using gas/aerosol ratios and aerosol neutralization state as a case study, the impact of chromatography on measurement error is assessed. The new generation of on-line chromatography-based gas and particle measurement systems have many advantages, including simultaneous analysis of multiple pollutants. The Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA) is such an instrument that is used in North America, Europe, and Asia for atmospheric process studies as well as routine monitoring. While the instrument has been evaluat

  7. Laboratory apparatus to evaluate microalgae production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. S. Gris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of microalgae for energy purposes and CO2 biomitigation continues to present a number of challenges, including the optimization of culture conditions. The application of experimental designs for microalgae cultivation is difficult, since experiments involving such microorganisms generally last days or weeks. This work proposes a multipurpose laboratory apparatus for the optimization of microalgae experimental conditions that simultaneously enables the evaluation of variables such as temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and CO2 concentration in the aeration stream, as well as variables related to the concentration of culture media nutrients. A case study is also presented in which temperature, concentration of f/2 medium sodium nitrate and the effects of incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid content are evaluated. Experiments were carried out following central composite designs, in batch cultivation within an airlift photobioreactor apparatus. The best experimental result was obtained at 21 ºC, 119 mg/L NaNO3 and 137 µE.m-2.s-1, corresponding to 41.8% lipids and 211.9 mg.L-1 final lipid concentrations.

  8. Imaging and laboratory testing in acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Nova L; Jahnes, Katherine; Mills, Angela M

    2011-05-01

    When discussing which laboratory tests or imaging to order in the setting of acute abdominal pain, it is practical to organize information by disease process (eg, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis). Because studies on the accuracy of diagnostic tests are of necessity related to the presence or absence of specific diagnoses, and because clinicians frequently look to tests to help them rule in or rule out specific conditions, this article is organized by region of pain and common abdominal diagnoses. It focuses on the contributions that laboratory testing and imaging make in the emergency management of abdominal complaints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis for cutaneous tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Afsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB is still difficult to diagnose due to its varied clinical presentation and limitations of diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laboratory tests available for CTB. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six skin biopsy specimens belonging to clinically suspected cases of CTB were studied retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two portions, one part processed for histopathological evaluation and the other was used for microscopy and inoculation for the isolation of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was applied to 14 of 26 specimens to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC DNA. Results: Of the 26 biopsy specimens, 11 were confirmed as CTB by identification of MTBC in culture and/or histopathologic affirmation. Of these, four were lupus vulgaris, four were TB verrucosa cutis, one was scrofuloderma, one was primary inoculation TB, and one was periorifical CTB. Culture for mycobacteria was positive for five (45.45% specimens, while histopathologic affirmation was obtained in ten (90.90% specimens. Acid-fast Bacilli were not demonstrated in any of the specimens on microscopic examination. The PCR was found to be applied to six of the 11 specimens diagnosed as CTB and was positive in two specimens (33.3%, which were positive for growth in culture and histopathological correlation. Conclusion: The recovery rate of MTBC from biopsy specimens was found to be satisfactory for CTB with histopathological correlation, but the combination of culture with a rapid method, PCR, may improve the diagnostic rate.

  10. Inter-laboratory comparison of the in vivo comet assay including three image analysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Guérard, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase II) by James M. Sloan, David Flanagan, Daniel DeSchepper, Paul Touchet, and...21005-5066 ARL-TR-6627 September 2013 Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase II) James M. Sloan, David Flanagan, and...COVERED (From - To) October 2011–March 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase II) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  12. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  13. Evaluating Usability in a Distance Digital Systems Laboratory Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostaras, N.; Xenos, M.; Skodras, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the usability evaluation of a digital systems laboratory class offered to distance-learning students. It details the way in which students can participate remotely in such a laboratory, the methodology employed in the usability assessment of the laboratory infrastructure (hardware and software), and also outlines the main…

  14. Power source evaluation capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D.H.; Butler, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains one of the most comprehensive power source characterization facilities in the U.S. National Laboratory system. This paper describes the capabilities for evaluation of fuel cell technologies. The facility has a rechargeable battery test laboratory and a test area for performing nondestructive and functional computer-controlled testing of cells and batteries.

  15. Comparison of Laboratory Measurements for IR Imaging System Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-cai; XU Zong-chang; XIAO Shun-wang

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity and human performance are two important parameters for IR imaging system. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) and minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) can describe sensitivity and human performance of IR imaging system. So a lot of engineers apply themselves to studying the methods to measure NETD and MRTD for IR imaging system. The classical laboratory measurement methodologies for NETD and MRTD are introduced. And, two new approaches to three-dimensional (3-D) noise and MRTD/MRC are also portrayed, which can overcome some of the disadvantages existed in classical testing of NETD and MRTD. With the help of the new laboratory measurements, the disadvantages of the classical methods to measure NETD and MRTD can be solved.

  16. Pathology Laboratories Productivity Evaluation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKOĞLU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficiency criteria and automation in pathology laboratories have been set in a limited number of studies usually originated from the United States. A questionnaire has been prepared to determine the situation and define the criteria for adaptation in our country.Material and Method: The survey was sent to all pathology laboratories and, 302 responded. The survey questionned of pathology laboratories efficiencies, staff workloads, methods applied, devices used, and physical conditions. Work flow productivity was obtained by dividing the annual number of blocks to working hours multiplied by the number of technicians. The hospitals were categorized to 3 groups according to providing training or not and privacy, and to 4 groups according to the annual biopsy numbers. The data entered through the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program, analysis of distribution criteria, significance of the difference between means tests were used.Results: The annual biopsy numbers were significantly higher in education units, but below the limit of productivity levels for all laboratories. The device hardware and automation correlated with annual biopsy numbers. However, the laboratories of limited capacity have redundant automation. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining numbers were high. Liquid-based cytology techniques were used more significantly in private hospitals. Archiving times were not standard. A serious shortage of working space in service hospitals was noted. Work flow productivity in education units was at the border, and low in other units.Conclusion: All pathology laboratories in our country should define and improve their productivities. Formalizing of archiving times is very important for future malpractice lawsuits.

  17. Association Between Echocardiography Laboratory Accreditation and the Quality of Imaging and Reporting for Valvular Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Tsang, Michael Y; Ayoub, Chadi; Padang, Ratnasari; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Tucker, Stephen F; Cassidy, Cynthia S; Bremer, Merri; Kane, Garvan C; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-08-01

    It is presumed that echocardiographic laboratory accreditation leads to improved quality, but there are few data. We sought to compare the quality of echocardiographic examinations performed at accredited versus nonaccredited laboratories for the evaluation of valvular heart disease. We enrolled 335 consecutive valvular heart disease subjects who underwent echocardiography at our institution and an external accredited or nonaccredited institution within 6 months. Completeness and quality of echocardiographic reports and images were assessed by investigators blinded to the external laboratory accreditation status and echocardiographic results. Compared with nonaccredited laboratories, accredited sites more frequently reported patient sex (94% versus 78%; Pheart disease. Future quality improvement initiatives should highlight the importance of high-quality color Doppler imaging and echocardiographic quantification to improve the accuracy, reproducibility, and quality of echocardiographic studies for valvular heart disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  19. Traking of Laboratory Debris Flow Fronts with Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Kulisch, Helmut; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Scheidl, Christian; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2015-04-01

    Image analysis technique is applied to track the time evolution of rapid debris flow fronts and their velocities in laboratory experiments. These experiments are parts of the project avaflow.org that intends to develop a GIS-based open source computational tool to describe wide spectrum of rapid geophysical mass flows, including avalanches and real two-phase debris flows down complex natural slopes. The laboratory model consists of a large rectangular channel 1.4m wide and 10m long, with adjustable inclination and other flow configurations. The setup allows investigate different two phase material compositions including large fluid fractions. The large size enables to transfer the results to large-scale natural events providing increased measurement accuracy. The images are captured by a high speed camera, a standard digital camera. The fronts are tracked by the camera to obtain data in debris flow experiments. The reflectance analysis detects the debris front in every image frame; its presence changes the reflectance at a certain pixel location during the flow. The accuracy of the measurements was improved with a camera calibration procedure. As one of the great problems in imaging and analysis, the systematic distortions of the camera lens are contained in terms of radial and tangential parameters. The calibration procedure estimates the optimal values for these parameters. This allows us to obtain physically correct and undistorted image pixels. Then, we map the images onto a physical model geometry, which is the projective photogrammetry, in which the image coordinates are connected with the object space coordinates of the flow. Finally, the physical model geometry is rewritten in the direct linear transformation form, which allows for the conversion from one to another coordinate system. With our approach, the debris front position can then be estimated by combining the reflectance, calibration and the linear transformation. The consecutive debris front

  20. A Diagnostic Approach to Autoimmune Disorders: Laboratory Evaluation: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Shashi; Adams, Matthew; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    Pediatricians and other pediatric health care providers in primary care settings are often faced with the challenge of evaluating patients with suspected autoimmune disorders. The first and most important step in evaluating children with suspected autoimmune disorders is taking a detailed history and performing a thorough physical examination. This step helps narrow the diagnosis, and thus helps determine appropriate laboratory evaluations. The results of laboratory tests need to be interpreted within the clinical context. It is also important to recognize that the laboratory tests have different diagnostic values in children as compared to adults. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e265-e271.].

  1. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  2. WET STRENGTH PAPER REPULPING:LABORATORY EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Vikas Rajan; A.G. Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    The recycling of wet strength papers in a normal recycling mill is often troublesome due to the severe operating conditions required to defibre wet strength papers. The various methods are presented which will quickly allow mills to determine the most effective pulping aids to use when repulping wet strength papers. The repulping of wet strength paper with inorganic chemicals was investigated in the laboratory. The effects of major variables, that is,repulping time, pulp consistency, soaking time,temperature, and reactant concentration in the repulping stage were examined using Plackett-Burman design. The repulping time was the most crucial & influential process variable affecting repulping characteristic and formation related properties. The more significant repulping process variables affecting pulp yield were repulping time,soaking temperature and pulp consistency whereas for formation index and feature size, repulping time,pulp consistency, soaking temperature and time were the more important variables. The formation index is increased by an increase in repulping time, pulp consistency and soaking time whereas the feature size is decreased by an increase in repulping time,soaking temperature and pulp consistency. The formation index and the rejects were more sensitive to changes in process variables than were the feature size or the pulp yield. The pulp recycled from wet strength waste paper had good physical strength properties.

  3. Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry. Laboratory: A 3 Year ... The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3‑year period, but this did not correspond .... 11 number of errors they classified under the analytical errors,.

  4. Computer controlled evaluation of binary images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Th.E.; van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to computer controlled image processing and, in particular, to computer controlled evaluation of two dimensional, 2D, and three dimensional, 3D, binary images including sequences of images using a distance map.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in laboratory petrophysical core analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.; Holland, D. J.; Gladden, L. F.; Fordham, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-known technique in medical diagnosis and materials science. In the more specialized arena of laboratory-scale petrophysical rock core analysis, the role of MRI has undergone a substantial change in focus over the last three decades. Initially, alongside the continual drive to exploit higher magnetic field strengths in MRI applications for medicine and chemistry, the same trend was followed in core analysis. However, the spatial resolution achievable in heterogeneous porous media is inherently limited due to the magnetic susceptibility contrast between solid and fluid. As a result, imaging resolution at the length-scale of typical pore diameters is not practical and so MRI of core-plugs has often been viewed as an inappropriate use of expensive magnetic resonance facilities. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the use of MRI in laboratory-scale core analysis. The focus is now on acquiring data in the laboratory that are directly comparable to data obtained from magnetic resonance well-logging tools (i.e., a common physics of measurement). To maintain consistency with well-logging instrumentation, it is desirable to measure distributions of transverse (T2) relaxation time-the industry-standard metric in well-logging-at the laboratory-scale. These T2 distributions can be spatially resolved over the length of a core-plug. The use of low-field magnets in the laboratory environment is optimal for core analysis not only because the magnetic field strength is closer to that of well-logging tools, but also because the magnetic susceptibility contrast is minimized, allowing the acquisition of quantitative image voxel (or pixel) intensities that are directly scalable to liquid volume. Beyond simple determination of macroscopic rock heterogeneity, it is possible to utilize the spatial resolution for monitoring forced displacement of oil by water or chemical agents, determining capillary pressure curves, and estimating

  6. The Mars Science Laboratory Mars Hand Lens Imager (MSL MAHLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minitti, Michelle E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Msl Mastcam/Mahli/Mardi Team

    2007-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission, slated to begin Martian surface operations in 2010, seeks to explore the past and present habitability of a yet-to-be-selected site on Mars. Armed with a suite of instruments capable of spectral, chemical, mineralogical, organic and isotopic analyses, MSL will comprehensively study the Martian atmosphere and rocks and soils on the Martian surface. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), the "geologist's handlens" for MSL, supports habitability studies through aiding the selection of samples for in-depth analysis and placing such samples in a geologic and geomorphic context. More broadly, the goal of MAHLI is to examine the texture, morphology, structure, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of rocks, soils, frost and ice at the microscale. MAHLI will achieve this objective using capabilities new to Martian cameras including a CCD with a Bayer Pattern Filter coupled with a focusable lens. The Bayer Pattern Filter produces RGB color images akin to those taken by the standard commercial digital camera. Placement of MAHLI by the MSL Robotic Arm (RA) at a particular distance from the sample of interest and MAHLI's internal focus mechanism combine to achieve a desired image resolution. At its closest placement (22.5 mm), MAHLI has 9 µm/pixel resolution. In practice, RA placement may be sufficiently uncertain that 9 µm/pixel will not be achieved regularly; however, resolutions in the 12-15 µm/pixel range are expected for typical high resolution images. Depending on the target distance and its surface relief, the target may not be in focus over the entire image. For those cases, MAHLI acquires a series of images taken at a range of focus positions that bracket the location of best focus. MAHLI's onboard software is capable of merging this stack of images, into a single best-focus image. MAHLI can image in natural illumination but it also possesses four, white light emitting diodes (LED) for illumination of samples in shadow or at

  7. Seismic imaging in laboratory trough laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Daniel; Poydenot, Valier; Garambois, Stéphane; Diaz, Julien; Bordes, Clarisse; Rolando, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Mimic near-surface seismic field measurements at a small scale, in the laboratory, under a well-controlled environment, may lead to a better understanding of wave propagation in complex media such as in geological materials. Laboratory experiments can help in particular to constrain and refine theoretical and numerical modelling of physical phenomena occurring during seismic propagation, in order to make a better use of the complete set of measurements recorded in the field. We have developed a laser Doppler vibrometer (laser interferometry) platform designed to measure non-contact seismic displacements (or velocities) of a surface. This technology enables to measure displacements as small as a tenth of a nanometer on a wide range of frequencies, from a few tenths to a few megahertz. Our experimental set-up is particularly suited to provide high-density spatial and temporal records of displacements on the edge of any vibrating material. We will show in particular a study of MHz wave propagation (excited by piezoelectric transducers) in cylindrical cores of typical diameter size around 10 cm. The laser vibrometer measurements will be first validated in homogeneous materials cylinders by comparing the measurements to a direct numerical simulation. Special attention will be given to the comparison of experimental versus numerical amplitudes of displacements. In a second step, we will conduct the same type of study through heterogeneous carbonate cores, possibly fractured. Tomographic images of velocity in 2D slices of the carbonate core will be derived based upon on the time of first arrival. Preliminary attempts of tomographic attenuation maps will also be presented based on the amplitudes of first arrivals. Experimental records will be confronted to direct numerical simulations and tomographic images will be compared to x-ray scanner imaging of the cylindrical cores.

  8. Differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism: imaging versus laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Pecori Giraldi, Francesca; De Martin, Martina; Cattaneo, Agnese; Carzaniga, Chiara; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome often presents major difficulties. Diagnostic troubles are increased by suboptimal specificity of endocrine tests, the rarity of ectopic ACTH secretion and the frequent incidental discovery of pituitary adenomas. A 43-year-old female reported with mild signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism, and initial hormonal tests and results of pituitary imaging (7-mm adenoma) were suggestive for Cushing's disease. However, inadequate response to corticotrophin-releasing hormone and failure to suppress after 8 mg dexamethasone pointed towards an ectopic source. Total body CT scan visualized only a small, non-specific nodule in the right posterior costophrenic excavation. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling revealed an absent center:periphery ACTH gradient but octreoscan and (18)F-FDG-PET-CT failed to detect abnormal tracer accumulation. We weighed results of the laboratory with those of imaging and decided to remove the lung nodule. Pathology identified a typical, ACTH-staining carcinoid and the diagnosis was confirmed by postsurgical hypoadrenalism. In conclusion, imaging may prove unsatisfactory or even misleading for the etiologial diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome and should therefore be interpreted only in context with results of hormonal dynamic testing.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging for precise radiotherapy of small laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Ernst, Thomas Michael; Salamon, Johannes [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Jaeckel, Maria [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy of small laboratory animals (SLA) is often not as precisely applied as in humans. Here we describe the use of a dedicated SLA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for precise tumor volumetry, radiotherapy treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging in order to make the experiments more accurate. Different human cancer cells were injected at the lower trunk of pfp/rag2 and SCID mice to allow for local tumor growth. Data from cross sectional MRI scans were transferred to a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) for humans. Manual palpation of the tumor size was compared with calculated tumor size of the TPS and with tumor weight at necropsy. As a feasibility study MRI based treatment plans were calculated for a clinical 6 MV linear accelerator using a micro multileaf collimator (μMLC). In addition, diagnostic MRI scans were used to investigate animals which did clinical poorly during the study. MRI is superior in precise tumor volume definition whereas manual palpation underestimates their size. Cross sectional MRI allow for treatment planning so that conformal irradiation of mice with a clinical linear accelerator using a μMLC is in principle feasible. Several internal pathologies were detected during the experiment using the dedicated scanner. MRI is a key technology for precise radiotherapy of SLA. The scanning protocols provided are suited for tumor volumetry, treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging.

  10. Evaluation of a multiple goal revision of a physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Scott W.; Harper, Doug L.; Pauley, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the revision of the University Physics laboratory at Western Kentucky University. Multiple learning objectives were negotiated among faculty, and a curriculum was developed to address all of them. A full pilot was run in Spring 2012 with three experimental sections and two control sections. Data was collected using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, a self-efficacy survey, and performance on the laboratory final. Data from the pilot shows gains in conceptual understanding on certain topics, differences in a few laboratory skills, and improvement in technical writing ability as measured by both a writing sample and student perception.

  11. Distance measures for image segmentation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Fernando C.; Campilho, Aurélio C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of evaluation measures that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. Despite significant advances in image segmentation techniques, evaluation of these techniques thus far has been largely subjective. Typically, the effectiveness of a new algorithm is demonstrated only by the presentation of a few segmented images and is otherwise left to subjective evaluation by the reader. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for differ...

  12. Quality performance of laboratory testing in pharmacies: a collaborative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Martina; Miolo, Giorgia; Guiotto, Adriano; Marton, Silvia; Plebani, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The quality performance and the comparability between results of pharmacies point-of-care-testing (POCT) and institutional laboratories have been evaluated. Eight pharmacies participated in the project: a capillary specimen collected by the pharmacist and, simultaneously, a lithium-heparin sample drawn by a physician of laboratory medicine for the pharmacy customers (n=106) were analyzed in the pharmacy and in the laboratory, respectively. Glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, were measured using: Reflotron, n=5; Samsung, n=1; Cardiocheck PA, n=1; Cholestech LDX, n=1 and Cobas 8000. The POCT analytical performance only (phase 2) were evaluated testing, in pharmacies and in the laboratory, the lithium heparin samples from a female drawn fasting daily in a week, and a control sample containing high concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. For all parameters, except triglycerides, the slopes showed a satisfactory correlation. For triglycerides, a median value higher in POCT in comparison to the laboratory (1.627 mmol/L vs. 0.950 mmol/L) has been observed. The agreement in the subjects classification, demonstrates that for glucose, 70% of the subjects show concentrations below the POCT recommended level (5.8-6.1 mmol/L), while 56% are according to the laboratory limit (pharmacies and specific criticisms in the pre- and post-analytical phases.

  13. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  14. PROPILVEN LABORATORY EVALUATION ACCORDING TO ISO 17025:2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Fereira R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the procedures and methods used in the laboratory Propilven accordance with the provisions of ISO 17025:2005. Propilven, a petrochemicals company in Venezuela and in his laboratory determined the quality of the manufactured product (polypropylene, at all stages, so that the application of this technical standard will increase the confidence level of the results. The research was descriptive, with a non-experimental design, field, using as a data collection method, the interview, survey, observation and review of documents and records. Among the results, the standard currently stands, is in the process of standardization in the laboratory, with a degree of implementation of 50%. Additionally, among the recommendations made, are a series of steps to establish a quality management system based on this standard, which apply not only to this company but for any others who wish to demonstrate their competence to carry out tests and / or calibrations.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT...laboratory evaluations of automatic light obscuration particle counters to develop limits for aviation fuel cleanliness. The laboratory evaluations

  16. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  17. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.

  18. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  19. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of hyperlipemic and hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in a sample of hyperlipemic patients and evaluate clinical and laboratory factors indicative of thyropathy among them. METHODS: Fifty-one hyperlipemic patients, grouped according to an earlier or recent diagnosis of their thyroid function into euthyroid and hypothyroid, were evaluated with clinical and laboratory examinations of blood levels of free T4 and TSH (by radioimmunoassay. Patients were on average 46.8±11.7 years old, predominantly of the female sex (62.5%; 31% had a previous diagnosis of hypothyroidism and were under treatment with thyroxin. RESULTS: Fourteen three percent of patients analyzed had hypothyroidism, which had not been detected before. Differentiating attributes of the groups analyzed were: a predominance of females among the hypothyroid patients and a higher HDL serum concentration among those recently diagnosed. CONCLUSION: In the present study, new cases of hypothyroidism in hyperlipemic patients were a frequent occurrence, yet few clinical and laboratory data except tests evaluating free T4 and TSH in the blood indicated which patients had thyroid dysfunction.

  20. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrier Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.

  1. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the bioinsecticide Spinosad for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, R; Proietti, S; Di Luca, M; Cristofaro, M

    2006-03-01

    Spinosad, a naturally occurring product of the fermentation of the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is a highly effective bioinsecticide against a broad range of agriculturally important insect pests, and this agent has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. In this study the efficacy of a Spinosad-based product (Laser 4.8% emulsifiable concentrate) was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against laboratory-reared mosquito strains of 3 species of medical importance: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. Spinosad was particularly effective against larval Aedes and Culex, with a less marked activity against anophelines (24-h median lethal concentration = 0.0096, 0.0064, and 0.039 mg/liter, respectively), showing a persistence of the insecticide action of about 6 wk in laboratory containers. The activity of the Spinosad-based product against adult mosquitoes (toxicity by ingestion and a possible irritant or repellent effect on gravid females) also was evaluated. Results are discussed and compared with those available in the literature.

  3. Evaluation of image uniformity in diagnostic magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Akio [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan); Inoue, Hiroshi; Higashida, Mitsuji; Yamazaki, Masaru; Uto, Tomoyuki

    1997-12-01

    Image uniformity refers to the ability of the MR imaging system to produce a constant signal response throughout the scanned volume when the object being imaged has homogeneous MR characteristics. To facilitate the determination of image uniformity in diagnostic magnetic resonance images, reports such as the NEMA Standard and AAPM report have been issued. However, these methods of evaluation are impractical in cases such as the day-to-day quality control of the machine or comparisons between the different MR systems, because these methods affect the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and create problems by displaying nonuniformity locations. Therefore, we present a new method for evaluating uniformity, called the test segment method. The influence of SNR on the NEMA test and the segment method were examined. In addition, the results of the two methods were compared for certain nonuniformity conditions. Results showed that the segment method did not affect SNR and provided good display of nonuniformity. (author)

  4. Performance evaluation of image segmentation algorithms on microscopic image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Miroslav; Zitová, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In our paper, we present a performance evaluation of image segmentation algorithms on microscopic image data. In spite of the existence of many algorithms for image data partitioning, there is no universal and 'the best' method yet. Moreover, images of microscopic samples can be of various character and quality which can negatively influence the performance of image segmentation algorithms. Thus, the issue of selecting suitable method for a given set of image data is of big interest. We carried out a large number of experiments with a variety of segmentation methods to evaluate the behaviour of individual approaches on the testing set of microscopic images (cross-section images taken in three different modalities from the field of art restoration). The segmentation results were assessed by several indices used for measuring the output quality of image segmentation algorithms. In the end, the benefit of segmentation combination approach is studied and applicability of achieved results on another representatives of microscopic data category - biological samples - is shown.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of Brazilian Mesocyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B H; Cabral, C P; Sleigh, A C; Brown, M D; Ribeiro, Z M; Vasconcelos, A W

    1992-07-01

    In laboratory tests, four different strains of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Daday) collected in or near Fortaleza, Brazil, showed potential as biological control agents of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito larvae but were not as effective against Anopheles or Culex. In contrast, the larger M. longisetus (Thiebaud), collected at Fortaleza, killed 100% of Ae. aegypti and Anopheles farauti (Laveran) (No. 1) at larval densities of 200/liter and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) at 25/liter. In cage simulations with Ae. aegypti and Mesocyclops, both copepod species eliminated all immatures in earthenware pots by week 3. Owing to the lack of replacement, all Ae. aegypti adults subsequently died by week 8 or 9. Although both M. longisetus and M. aspericornis showed maximum reproductive potential at 25 degrees C, breeding occurred from 20 to 35 degrees C. Based on these laboratory evaluations, M. longisetus has been selected for field trials in rural villages in Ceará to control Ae. aegypti.

  6. Imaging Evaluation of the Entheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the advantage to use ultrasonography and MRI for detecting enthesitis for diagnosing and managing patients with spondyloarthritis. This paper describes the latest advances in the imaging of enthesitis. A research agenda has also been defined for answering un...

  7. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2014-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Wang, C.; O'Brien, T. P.; Holuszko, M.J.; Ogilvie, L.M.; Stickel, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important game fish throughout much of North America. We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks during a 126-day experiment. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with the observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model significantly underestimated food consumption by walleye in the laboratory. The degree of underestimation appeared to depend on the feeding rate. For the tank with the lowest feeding rate (1.4% of walleye body weight per day), the agreement between the bioenergetics model prediction of cumulative consumption over the entire 126-day experiment and the observed cumulative consumption was remarkably close, as the prediction was within 0.1% of the observed cumulative consumption. Feeding rates in the other three tanks ranged from 1.6% to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day, and bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment ranged between 11 and 15% less than the observed cumulative consumption. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Signal and Image Processing Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Poyneer, L A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Carrano, C J; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V

    2009-06-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a large, multidisciplinary institution that conducts fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. Research programs at the Laboratory run the gamut from theoretical investigations, to modeling and simulation, to validation through experiment. Over the years, the Laboratory has developed a substantial research component in the areas of signal and image processing to support these activities. This paper surveys some of the current research in signal and image processing at the Laboratory. Of necessity, the paper does not delve deeply into any one research area, but an extensive citation list is provided for further study of the topics presented.

  10. Signal and Image Processing Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Poyneer, L A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Carrano, C J; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V

    2009-06-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a large, multidisciplinary institution that conducts fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. Research programs at the Laboratory run the gamut from theoretical investigations, to modeling and simulation, to validation through experiment. Over the years, the Laboratory has developed a substantial research component in the areas of signal and image processing to support these activities. This paper surveys some of the current research in signal and image processing at the Laboratory. Of necessity, the paper does not delve deeply into any one research area, but an extensive citation list is provided for further study of the topics presented.

  11. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  12. Laboratory device for the evaluation of selective vegetal fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the vineyard against diseases and pests may lead to pesticide residues in the wine. Traces of these active substances, even at concentrations below the legal limits, alarm the consumers and can compromise the potential to sale wines to some markets. A new oenological practice based on the use of selective vegetal fibres for the reduction of pesticide residues in wine is under evaluation by the International Organization of Vine and Wine. This technology, implemented on wine during filtration, is very effective for certain substances and impacts only little the wine quality. A laboratory pilot filtration device has been developed in order to confirm the efficiency of this treatment and its impact on the wine quality before its large-scale use in industrial conditions. This simple device is made of a peristaltic pump and a laboratory filter holder. Several wines with different fibre doses and filtration speeds can be rapidly tested, at bottle scale (75 cl. This pilot filtration device would be a quick and easy tool for the winemakers to evaluate the impact of a filtration on their wines using selective vegetal fibres in terms of efficiency to reduce the pesticide residues, chemical composition and of sensory quality.

  13. Evidence-based laboratory medicine - a guide for critical evaluation of in vitro laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) is an essential part of modern laboratory medicine practice. This review presents a guide for better understanding and implementing the EBLM process. The process of EBLM begins with development of a clinically relevant question. Tools for assisting in question formulation include the Patient Intervention Comparator and Outcome (PICO) or Case Assay Predicate and Outcome (CAPO) strategies. Locating evidence that addresses the question is performed using resources available on the internet. Systematic reviews that have objectively collated evidence addressing the question can be particularly useful. The evidence collected must be critically appraised using checklists developed for this purpose. Diagnostic performance of tests is frequently stated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and the diagnostic odds ratio. Evaluating 95% confidence limits is important for interpretation. Likelihood ratios for tests in disease states are also important for converting pre-test probabilities to post-test probabilities using Bayes Theorem. Tools such as Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and Fagan's diagram are important analytical and visual aids. Laboratorians must give thoughtful consideration into conveying information to clinicians in a useful format. Evidence-based guidelines and collaboration with clinicians are important for development of local care paths. Auditing the effectiveness of implemented care paths is an important part of quality management. In conclusion, effective use of EBLM can benefit patients by helping laboratorians provide the best-available information in the clinically relevant time frame. Presenting the information appropriately maximizes clinical application of the best evidence.

  14. Research on image scrambling degree evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jinyu; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Xiao

    2005-12-01

    This paper discussed the evaluation problem of image scrambling degree (ISD). Inspired by the evaluation method of image texture characteristics, three new metrics for assessing objectively the ISD were proposed. The first method utilized the performance of energy concentration of Walsh transformation (WT), which took into account the properties that a good ISD measurement method should be contented. The second method used angular second moment (ASM) of image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The third method combined the entropy of GLCM with image texture characteristic. Experimental results show that the proposed metrics are effective to assess the ISD, which correlates well with subjective assessment. Considering the computational complexity, the first evaluation method based on WT is remarkably superior to the method based on ASM and GLCM in terms of the time cost.

  15. Laboratory Simulations of Local Winds in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer via Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric boundary layer, under high pressure conditions and negligible geostrophic winds, problems associated with pollution are the most critical. In this situation local winds play a major role in the evaluation of the atmospheric dynamics at small scales and in dispersion processes. These winds originate as a result of nonuniform heating of the soil, either when it is homogeneous or in discontinuous terrain in the presence of sea and/or slopes. Depending on the source of the thermal gradient, local winds are classified into convective boundary layer, sea and land breezes, urban heat islands, and slope currents. Local winds have been analyzed by (i simple analytical models; (ii numerical models; (iii field measurements; (iv laboratory measurements through which it is impossible to completely create the necessary similarities, but the parameters that determine the phenomenon can be controlled and each single wind can be separately analyzed. The present paper presents a summary of laboratory simulations of local winds neglecting synoptic winds and the effects of Coriolis force. Image analysis techniques appear suitable to fully describe both the individual phenomenon and the superposition of more than one local wind. Results do agree with other laboratory studies and numerical experiments.

  16. Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M

    1999-06-01

    Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays

  17. Laboratory evaluation of the Boehringer Mannheim "Hitachi 705" automatic analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kineiko, R W; Floering, D A; Morrissey, M

    1983-04-01

    We evaluated a new multi-channel chemistry analyzer, the Hitachi 705 Automatic Analyzer, marketed by Boehringer Mannheim Diagnostics, Inc. The instrument is a computer-controlled discrete analyzer, which can be run in a combination profile mode and single-test mode. Sixteen different tests per sample may be performed at the rate of 180 tests per hour. The Hitachi 705 is especially suitable for use in hospitals that do not perform profile testing. Precision and linearity were excellent and the instrument was relatively trouble-free, with little operator attention required during operation. The Hitachi 705 was easily interfaced to our laboratory computer. We compared the performance of the instrument with that of the Du Pont aca; the two instruments compared favorably.

  18. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory correlates of sickle leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ubesie, Agozie; Madu, Kenechi Anthony; Okwor, Bismarck; Anigbo, Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    The exact mechanism for the occurrence of sickle leg ulcers (SLUs) has not been fully explained, although, popular opinion supports a multifactorial etio-pathogenetic process. Leg ulceration in sickle cell is a chronic and debilitating condition which is difficult to treat and may worsen the psychosocial impact of this illness. This study aims to evaluate the laboratory and clinical correlates of SLUs. One hundred sixty-seven patients who had been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (homozygous S) had their steady-state hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit, white cell count, platelet count, serum bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as frequency of crisis per annum evaluated with respect to their relationship to the occurrence of leg ulcers. They were aged 6-53 years (mean age 24.3 years), and prevalence of leg ulcer was found to be 2.75 per 1000 (2.54 per 1000 in females and 2.83 per 1000 in males). The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the serum AST levels in those with SLU (p = 0.029), though a positive correlation did not exist. Other predictors of disease severity found to have positive relationship with each other were the AST and total serum bilirubin 0.207 (p = 0.012); Hb and age 0.130 (p = 0.035); Hb and white cell count -0.159 (p = 0.010), white cell count and age -0.113 (p = 0.018). SLUs do not occur in patients with severe disease in sickle cell. The clinical and laboratory indicators of severe sickle cell disease do not correlate positively with the occurrence of SLU. Serum AST may have a relationship with leg ulceration in these patients. Environmental factors most likely play a major part in the etiopathogenesis of leg ulcer and this may require further studies in different sociocultural settings.

  19. Evaluation of a laboratory model of human head impact biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fidel; Shull, Peter B; Camarillo, David B

    2015-09-18

    This work describes methodology for evaluating laboratory models of head impact biomechanics. Using this methodology, we investigated: how closely does twin-wire drop testing model head rotation in American football impacts? Head rotation is believed to cause mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) but helmet safety standards only model head translations believed to cause severe TBI. It is unknown whether laboratory head impact models in safety standards, like twin-wire drop testing, reproduce six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) head impact biomechanics that may cause mTBI. We compared 6DOF measurements of 421 American football head impacts to twin-wire drop tests at impact sites and velocities weighted to represent typical field exposure. The highest rotational velocities produced by drop testing were the 74th percentile of non-injury field impacts. For a given translational acceleration level, drop testing underestimated field rotational acceleration by 46% and rotational velocity by 72%. Primary rotational acceleration frequencies were much larger in drop tests (~100 Hz) than field impacts (~10 Hz). Drop testing was physically unable to produce acceleration directions common in field impacts. Initial conditions of a single field impact were highly resolved in stereo high-speed video and reconstructed in a drop test. Reconstruction results reflected aggregate trends of lower amplitude rotational velocity and higher frequency rotational acceleration in drop testing, apparently due to twin-wire constraints and the absence of a neck. These results suggest twin-wire drop testing is limited in modeling head rotation during impact, and motivate continued evaluation of head impact models to ensure helmets are tested under conditions that may cause mTBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of co-added astronomical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasyrova, M.; Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The co-adding, averaging, or stacking of data are popular techniques to improve scientific outcomes in astronomy, especially in the case of extraction of very faint sources. These methods allow to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to decrease the point spread function width, which improves the accuracy of segmentation. This paper deals with a brief review of image co-adding algorithms and their evaluation regarding improving the qualitative parameters of the image data.

  1. Nanosecond image-shuttering studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Noel, B. W.; Gobby, P. L.; Aeby, I.; Detch, J. L.

    Experimental results comparing gated imaging capabilities of proximity-focused microchannel-plate intensifiers and electrostatically-focused silicon-intensified-target vidicons are presented. Previous response data obtained from several standard and modified versions of both image sensors are summarized. Current efforts on: (1) sector gating of segmented photocathodes; (2) pre-pulsing of photocathodes with infrared light to increase conductivity; and (3) gate pulse injection techniques are discussed. Segmented photocathodes increased gating speed by simultaneous turn-on individual sectors whereas preliminary analyses indicate no improvements from infrared illumination.

  2. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  3. Image Inpainting Methods Evaluation and Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Vreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the upgrowing of digital processing of images and film archiving, the need for assisted or unsupervised restoration required the development of a series of methods and techniques. Among them, image inpainting is maybe the most impressive and useful. Based on partial derivative equations or texture synthesis, many other hybrid techniques have been proposed recently. The need for an analytical comparison, beside the visual one, urged us to perform the studies shown in the present paper. Starting with an overview of the domain, an evaluation of the five methods was performed using a common benchmark and measuring the PSNR. Conclusions regarding the performance of the investigated algorithms have been presented, categorizing them in function of the restored image structure. Based on these experiments, we have proposed an adaptation of Oliveira’s and Hadhoud’s algorithms, which are performing well on images with natural defects.

  4. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  5. Evaluations of science laboratory data: The role of computer-presented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmias, Rafi; Linn, Marcia C.

    The present study examines how students currently evaluate information acquired in the science laboratory, especially computer-presented information. We examine the effect of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory and of an explicit instruction on students' critical evaluation skills. Finally we contrast the activities in a science laboratory with current thinking about epistemology in the philosophy of science.

  6. Evaluation for Uncertain Image Classification and Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Arnaud; Arnold-Bos, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Each year, numerous segmentation and classification algorithms are invented or reused to solve problems where machine vision is needed. Generally, the efficiency of these algorithms is compared against the results given by one or many human experts. However, in many situations, the location of the real boundaries of the objects as well as their classes are not known with certainty by the human experts. Furthermore, only one aspect of the segmentation and classification problem is generally evaluated. In this paper we present a new evaluation method for classification and segmentation of image, where we take into account both the classification and segmentation results as well as the level of certainty given by the experts. As a concrete example of our method, we evaluate an automatic seabed characterization algorithm based on sonar images.

  7. Thermal numerical simulator for laboratory evaluation of steamflood oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.

    1991-04-01

    A thermal numerical simulator running on an IBM AT compatible personal computer is described. The simulator was designed to assist laboratory design and evaluation of steamflood oil recovery. An overview of the historical evolution of numerical thermal simulation, NIPER's approach to solving these problems with a desk top computer, the derivation of equations and a description of approaches used to solve these equations, and verification of the simulator using published data sets and sensitivity analysis are presented. The developed model is a three-phase, two-dimensional multicomponent simulator capable of being run in one or two dimensions. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by pressure- and temperature-dependent vapor-liquid equilibria. Gravity and capillary pressure phenomena were included. Energy is transferred by conduction, convection, vaporization and condensation. The model employs a block centered grid system with a five-point discretization scheme. Both areal and vertical cross-sectional simulations are possible. A sequential solution technique is employed to solve the finite difference equations. The study clearly indicated the importance of heat loss, injected steam quality, and injection rate to the process. Dependence of overall recovery on oil volatility and viscosity is emphasized. The process is very sensitive to relative permeability values. Time-step sensitivity runs indicted that the current version is time-step sensitive and exhibits conditional stability. 75 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of Cardiac Toxicity Biomarkers in Rats from Different Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuri; Chini, Naseem; Fairchild, David G; Engle, Steven K; Reagan, William J; Summers, Sandra D; Mirsalis, Jon C

    2016-12-01

    There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO). MNX caused increased heart-to-body weight ratios and prominent elevations in NT-proANP and NT-proBNP concentrations detected at 24-hr postdose without elevation in troponins, Myl3, or FABP3 and with no abnormal histopathological findings. ISO caused ventricular leukocyte infiltration, myocyte fibrosis, and necrosis with increased concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, and Myl3. These results reinforce the advantages of a multimarker strategy in elucidating the underlying cause of cardiac insult and detecting myocardial tissue damage at 24-hr posttreatment. The interlaboratory and interplatform comparison analyses also showed that the data obtained from different laboratories and platforms are highly correlated and reproducible, making these biomarkers widely applicable in preclinical studies.

  9. Image quality evaluation of light field photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiliang; Yuan, Yan; Xiangli, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Light field photography captures 4D radiance information of a scene. Digital refocusing and digital correction of aberrations could be done after the photograph is taken. However, capturing 4D light field is costly and tradeoffs between different image quality metrics should be made and evaluated. This paper explores the effects of light field photography on image quality by quantitatively evaluating some basic criteria for an imaging system. A simulation approach was first developed by ray-tracing a designed light field camera. A standard testing chart followed by ISO 12233 was provided as the input scene. A sequence of light field raw images were acquired and processed by light field rendering methods afterwards. Through-focus visual resolution and MTF were calculated and analyzed. As a comparison, the same tests were taken for the same main lens system as the results of conventional photography. An experimental light field system was built up and its performance was tested. This work helps better understanding the pros and cons of light field photography in contrast with conventional imaging methods and perceiving the way to optimize the joint digital-optical design of the system.

  10. Evaluation of Peer Teaching in a Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Shelley L.; Schmittgen, Janet; Allan, Carolyn R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the training of first-year students in technical skills by students in the second year of a laboratory course. The authors conclude that peer teaching is a very useful teaching method for reinforcing technical skills and providing better instructor-student ratios in the laboratory. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory (VPEL) program was created to simulate the test design, data collection, and analysis phases of selected exercise physiology laboratories. The VPEL program consists of four modules: (1) cardiovascular, (2) maximal O[subscript 2] consumption [Vo[subscript 2max], (3) lactate and ventilatory thresholds,…

  12. MR imaging evaluation of perianal fistulas: spectrum of imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel Criado, Jaime; del Salto, Laura García; Rivas, Patricia Fraga; del Hoyo, Luis Felipe Aguilera; Velasco, Leticia Gutiérrez; de las Vacas, M Isabel Díez Pérez; Marco Sanz, Ana G; Paradela, Marcos Manzano; Moreno, Eduardo Fraile

    2012-01-01

    Perianal fistulization is an inflammatory condition that affects the region around the anal canal, causing significant morbidity and often requiring repeated surgical treatments due to its high tendency to recur. To adopt the best surgical strategy and avoid recurrences, it is necessary to obtain precise radiologic information about the location of the fistulous track and the affected pelvic structures. Until recently, imaging techniques played a limited role in evaluation of perianal fistulas. However, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging now provides more precise information on the anatomy of the anal canal, the anal sphincter complex, and the relationships of the fistula to the pelvic floor structures and the plane of the levator ani muscle. MR imaging allows precise definition of the fistulous track and identification of secondary fistulas or abscesses. It provides accurate information for appropriate surgical treatment, decreasing the incidence of recurrence and allowing side effects such as fecal incontinence to be avoided. Radiologists should be familiar with the anatomic and pathologic findings of perianal fistulas and classify them using the St James's University Hospital MR imaging-based grading system.

  13. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  14. [Concordance among analysts from Latin-American laboratories for rice grain appearance determination using a gallery of digital images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Manuel; Graterol, Eduardo; Alezones, Jesús; Criollo, Beisy; Castillo, Dámaso; Kuri, Victoria; Oviedo, Norman; Moquete, Cesar; Romero, Marbella; Hanley, Zaida; Taylor, Margie

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of rice grain is a key aspect in quality determination. Mainly, this analysis is performed by expert analysts through visual observation; however, due to the subjective nature of the analysis, the results may vary among analysts. In order to evaluate the concordance between analysts from Latin-American rice quality laboratories for rice grain appearance through digital images, an inter-laboratory test was performed with ten analysts and images of 90 grains captured with a high resolution scanner. Rice grains were classified in four categories including translucent, chalky, white belly, and damaged grain. Data was categorized using statistic parameters like mode and its frequency, the relative concordance, and the reproducibility parameter kappa. Additionally, a referential image gallery of typical grain for each category was constructed based on mode frequency. Results showed a Kappa value of 0.49, corresponding to a moderate reproducibility, attributable to subjectivity in the visual analysis of grain images. These results reveal the need for standardize the evaluation criteria among analysts to improve the confidence of the determination of rice grain appearance.

  15. Evaluation of annoyance from low frequency noise under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the annoyance of low frequency noise (LFN at levels normally prevailing at workplaces in control rooms and office-like areas. Two different laboratory experiments were carried out. The first experiment included 55 young volunteers and the second one comprised 70 older volunteers, categorized in terms of sensitivity to noise. The subjects listened to noise samples with different spectra, including LFNs at sound pressure level (SPL of 45-67 dBA, and evaluated annoyance using a 100-score graphical rating scale. The subjective ratings of annoyance were compared to different noise metrics. In both the experiments, there were no differences in annoyance assessments between females and males. A significant influence of individual sensitivity to noise on annoyance rating was observed for some LFNs. Annoyance of LFN was not rated higher than annoyance from broadband noises without or with less prominent low frequencies at similar A-weighted SPLs. In both the experiments, median annoyance rating of LFN highly correlated with A-weighted SPL (L Aeq,T , low frequency A-weighted SPL (L LFAeq,T and C-weighted SPL (L Ceq,T . However, it is only the two latter noise metrics (i.e. L LFAeq,T and L Ceq,T which seem to be reliable predictors of annoyance exclusively from LFN. The young and older participants assessed similar annoyance from LFN at similar L LFAeq,T or L Ceq,T levels. Generally, over half of the subjects were predicted to be highly annoyed by LFN at the low frequency A-weighted SPL or C-weighted SPL above 62 and 83 dB, respectively.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of a physiologic sampling pump (PSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-I Brandon; Groves, William A; Freivalds, Andris; Lee, Larry; Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James E; Harper, Martin

    2010-07-08

    Recently, physiologic sampling pumps (PSPs), which can adjust their sampling rates in proportion to wearers' minute ventilation (V[combining dot above](E)), have been proposed to better estimate exposure to airborne contaminants in the workplace. A laboratory evaluation was conducted to compare the performance of a new PSP with a traditional sampling pump (TSP) in an exposure chamber. Fifteen subjects (aged 19-36 years) performed two replicate sessions of step-tests for correlated and uncorrelated exposure scenarios on four separate days. When exposed to a scenario in which subject V[combining dot above](E) is highly correlated with m-xylene concentration over the sampling period (r = 0.93), the PSP-measured time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations are higher than TSP-measured concentrations (average ratio of PSP to TSP = 1.18). The ratio of PSP- and TSP-measured TWA concentrations for the uncorrelated scenario (r = 0.02) is closer to one, as expected, with an average value of 0.94. The test results of the linear mixed model further indicate that the performance of the PSP is unaffected by the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of the wearer. Potential differences in exposure estimates resulting from the use of the two instruments were examined in light of various schemes which can potentially occur in the field. With the capability of estimating the total volume of air inhaled over the sampling period with improved accuracy, PSPs show promise in reducing the inherent uncertainty in current risk assessment approaches that entail constant-flow (TSP) sampling approaches.

  17. New Mexicans` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Winter, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    This report uses survey data to profile New Mexico residents` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The survey results are the responses of a representative, stratified random sample of 992 New Mexico households to a set of questions asked in October, 1992. The data allow statistical inference to the general population`s responses to the same set of questions at the time the survey was administered. The results provide an overview of New Mexico residents` current images and perceptions of the Laboratory. The sample margin of error is plus or minus 3.5% at the 95% confidence level.

  18. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process.

  19. Postoperative Spondylodiscitis and Epidural Abscess Becoming Visible on Magnetic Resonance Imaging before Positive Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Pourbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post operative disc space infection is relatively uncommon. The incidence of postoperative disc space infection is 0.21%-3.6% in association with all vertebral surgical procedures. Surgery causes a variety of neuroendocrine and metabolic responses which generally results in immunosupression. Clinical results of immunosupression include delayed wound healing and septic complications. In this article, we report magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case with spondylodiscitis and spinal epidural abscess in which the imaging findings were apparent before the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings laboratory findings become positive. She has a history of surgery due to lumbar herniated disc a month. She was complaining of back and left leg pain. We performed contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging showed post operative changes at level L5 and S1. There was contrast enhancement at the level of the surgical gap in the posterior paravertebral muscles. MR imaging may help to differentiate postoperative spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess from early postoperative changes even before the laboratory tests appearing positive. In our case, surgery induced immunosupression may cause the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings being within normal limits at the beginning. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 97-101

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda, E-mail: ferbraggion@yahoo.com.br [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Teixeira, Sara Reis [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Volpe, Gustavo Jardim [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Divisão de Cardiologia - Universidade Johns Hopkins, Baltimore (United States); Trad, Henrique Simão [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, André [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility.

  1. X-ray phase imaging with a laboratory source using selective reflection from a mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Paganin, David M

    2013-04-22

    A novel approach for hard x-ray phase contrast imaging with a laboratory source is reported. The technique is based on total external reflection from the edge of a mirror, aligned to intercept only half of the incident beam. The mirror edge thus produces two beams. The refraction x-rays undergo when interacting with a sample placed before the mirror, causes relative intensity variations between direct and reflected beams. Quantitative phase contrast and pure absorption imaging are demonstrated using this method.

  2. Comparison of image deconvolution algorithms on simulated and laboratory infrared images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We compare Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Entropy, Accelerated Lucy-Richardson, Weighted Goodness of Fit, and Pixon reconstructions of simple scenes as a function of signal-to-noise ratio for simulated images with randomly generated noise. Reconstruction results of infrared images taken with the TAISIR (Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed) are also discussed.

  3. Recent developments in digital image processing at the Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the computer-aided digital image processing techniques recently developed. Special attention is given to mapping and mosaicking techniques and to preliminary developments in range determination from stereo image pairs. The discussed image processing utilization areas include space, biomedical, and robotic applications.

  4. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mallard

    Full Text Available 1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY1996 midyear self-evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    As stated in our mission, the Laboratory is concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Our intent for fiscal year l996 is to focus our efforts on the critical outcomes necessary for us to meet DOE`s needs. Six Critical Outcomes were established and substantial progress has been made against five of those outcomes during the first half of the fiscal year. A summary of progress and key issues is provided. The Critical Outcomes are: Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Environmental Management; Scientific Excellence and Productivity; ES&H/Conduct of Operations; Leadership; and Economic Development. The Laboratory has also made a significant commitment to the implementation of a fully integrated self-assessment program. Efforts during the first half of the fiscal year have been focused on developing an approach for the overall program and implementation in selected organizations. The approach is holistic and focuses assessment on activities important to the successful completion of our critical outcomes. Progress towards full implementation of the integrated assessment program is meeting expectations in general, but significant effort still needs to be applied to obtain effective implementation across the Laboratory and to ensure integration with the business planning process.

  6. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  7. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  8. Evaluation of controlled-drift detectors in X-ray spectroscopic imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Andrea; Guazzoni, Chiara; Ozkan, Cigdem; Vedani, Giorgio; Hartmann, Robert; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar

    2009-06-01

    A detector that looks promising for advanced imaging modalities--such as X-ray absorption contrast imaging, X-ray fluorescence imaging, and diffraction-enhanced imaging--is the controlled-drift detector (CDD). The CDD is a novel two-dimensional X-ray imager with energy resolving capability of spectroscopic quality. It is built on a fully depleted silicon wafer and features fast readout while being operated at or near room temperature. The use of CDDs in the aforementioned applications allows translating these techniques from synchrotron-based experiments to laboratory-size experiments using polychromatic X-ray generators. We have built a dedicated and versatile detection module based on a 36 mm2 CDD chip featuring pixels of 180 x 180 microm 2, and we evaluated the system performance in different X-ray imaging applications both with synchrotron-based experiments and in the laboratory environment.

  9. Making Microscopy Motivating, Memorable, & Manageable for Undergraduate Students with Digital Imaging Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Andrea; Bachman. Beverly; Josway, Sarah; North, Brittany; Tsuchiya, Mirian T.N.

    2013-01-01

    Microscopy and precise observation are essential skills that are challenging to teach effectively to large numbers of undergraduate biology students. We implemented student-driven digital imaging assignments for microscopy in a large enrollment laboratory for organismal biology. We detail how we promoted student engagement with the material and…

  10. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon at Regional Scale by Combining Multi-Spectral Images with Laboratory Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Adhikari, Kabindra

    2015-01-01

    results by separately modeling uplands and wetlands. A total of 328 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed for SOC. Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT5), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (Landsat 8) images, laboratory Vis-NIR and other ancillary environmental data including terrain...

  11. Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialpi, Michele [Department of Radiology, ' Santissima Annunziata' Hospital, Via Bruno 1, I-74100 Taranto (Italy)]. E-mail: michelescialpi@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Volterrani, Luca [Institute of Radiology, University of Siena, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Lupattelli, Luciano [Institute of Radiology, University of Perugia, I-06122 Perugia (Italy); Ragozzino, Alfonso [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Stefania [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rotondo, Antonio [Section of Radiology, Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Second University, I-80138 Naples (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    The role of several imaging techniques in patients submitted to pancreatic surgery with special emphasis to single-slice helical computed tomography (CT) and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) was reviewed. Several surgical options may be performed such as Whipple procedure, distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Ultrasound examination may be used to detect peritoneal fluid in the early post-operative period as well as lesion recurrence in long-term follow-up. Radiological gastrointestinal studies has a major role in evaluation of intestinal functionality. In spite of the advent of other imaging modalities, CT is the most effective after pancreatic surgery. On post-operative CT, the most common findings were small fluid peritoneal or pancreatic collections, stranding of the mesenteric fat with perivascular cuffing, reactive adenopathy and pneumobilia. In addition, CT may demonstrate early (leakage of anastomosis, pancreatico-jejunal fistula, haemorrage, acute pancreatitis of the remnant pancreas, peritonitis), and late (chronic fistula, abscess, aneurysms, anastomotic bilio-digestive stenosis, perianastomotic ulcers, biloma, and intra-abdominal bleeding) surgical complications. In the follow-up evaluation, CT may show tumor recurrence, liver and lymph nodes metastasis. Magnetic resonance may be used as alternative imaging modality to CT, when renal insufficiency or contrast sensitivity prevents the use of iodinated i.v. contrast material or when the biliary tree study is primarily requested. The knowledge of the type of surgical procedures, the proper identification of the anastomoses as well as the normal post-operative imaging appearances are essential for an accurate detection of the complications and recurrent disease.

  12. Imaging dose evaluations on image guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun Boong; KIm, Ki Hwan; Kim, Il Hwan; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Han, Su Chul; Kang, Jin Mook; Kim, Jin Ho [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Evaluating absorbed dose related to 2D and 3D imaging confirmation devices. According to the radiographic projection conditions, absorbed doses are measured that 3 glass dosimeters attached to the centers of 0°, 90°, 180°and 270° in the head, thorax and abdomen each with Rando phantom are used in field size 26.6×20, 15×15. In the same way, absorbed doses are measured for width 16 cm and 10 cm of CBCT each. OBI(version 1.5) system and calibrated glass dosimeters are used for the measurement. AP projection for 2D imaging check, In 0° absorbed doses measured in the head were 1.44±0.26 mGy with the field size 26.6×20, 1.17±0.02 mGy with the field size 15×15. With the same method, absorbed doses in the thorax were 3.08±0.86 mGy to 0.57±0.02 mGy by reducing field size. In the abdomen, absorbed dose were reduced 8.19±0.54 mGy to 4.19±0.09 mGy. Finally according to the field size, absorbed doses has decreased by average 5-12%. With Lateral projection, absorbed doses showed average 5-8% decrease. CBCT for 3D imaging check, CBDI in the head were 4.39±0.11 mGy to 3.99±0.13 mGy by reducing the width 16 cm to 10 cm. In the same way in thorax the absorbed dose were reduced 34.88±0.93(10.48±0.09) mGy to 31.01±0.3(9.30±0.09) mGy and 35.99±1.86 mGy to 32.27±1.35 mGy in the abdomen. With variation of width 16 cm and 10 cm, they showed 8-11% decrease. By means of reducing 2D field size, absorbed dose were decreased average 5-12% in 3D width size 8-11%. So that it is necessary for radiation therapists to recognize systematical management for absorbed dose for Imaging confirmation. and also for frequent CBCT, it is considered whether or not prescribed dose for RT refer to imaging dose.

  13. Requirements for dynamical differential phase contrast x-ray imaging with a laboratory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macindoe, David; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Irvine, Sarah C.; Fouras, Andreas; Morgan, Kaye S.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray phase contrast enables weakly-attenuating structures to be imaged, with bright synchrotron sources adding the ability to capture time sequences and analyse sample dynamics. Here, we describe the translation of dynamical differential phase contrast imaging from the synchrotron to a compact x-ray source, in order to achieve this kind of time sequence imaging in the laboratory. We formulate broadly-applicable set-up guidelines for the single-grid, single-exposure imaging technique using a divergent source, exploring the experimental factors that restrict set-up size, imaging sensitivity and sample size. Experimental images are presented using the single-grid phase contrast technique with a steel attenuation grid and a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, enabling exposure times as short as 0.5 s for dynamic imaging. Differential phase contrast images were retrieved from phantoms, incorporating noise filtering to improve the low-count images encountered when imaging dynamics using short exposures.

  14. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of In-Place Asphalt Recycling Technologies for Small Airfield Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recommendation of materials, equipment and process for in-place asphalt recycling Part I Laboratory Evaluation RAP Material Characterization • Binder...laboratory testing based upon their chemical properties and costs. Reclaimed asphalt pavement ( RAP ) material was obtained from both test sites for...Part I of this study was to conduct laboratory testing to:  characterize the reclaimed asphalt pavement ( RAP ) from the test sites,  evaluate how

  15. Evaluation of Neonatal Hemolytic Jaundice: Clinical and Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet Papazovska Cherepnalkovski

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory profile in ABO/Rh isoimmunisation cases depicts hemolytic mechanism of jaundice. These cases carry a significant risk for early and severe hyperbilirubinemia and are eligible for neurodevelopmental follow-up. Hematological parameters and blood grouping are simple diagnostic methods that assist the etiological diagnosis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  16. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2012-06-30

    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  17. Inter-laboratory evaluation of instrument platforms and experimental workflows for quantitative accuracy and reproducibility assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Tamura-Wells, Jessica; Albar, Juan Pablo; Aloria, Kerman; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Araujo, Gabriel D T; Arizmendi, Jesus M.; Blanco, Francisco J.; Canals, Francesc; Cho, Jin Young; Colomé-Calls, Núria; Corrales, Fernando J.; Domont, Gilberto; Espadas, Guadalupe; Fernandez-Puente, Patricia; Gil, Concha; Haynes, Paul A.; Hernáez, Maria Luisa; Kim, Jin Young; Kopylov, Arthur; Marcilla, Miguel; McKay, Mathew J.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Molloy, Mark P.; Ohlund, Leanne B.; Paik, Young Ki; Paradela, Alberto; Raftery, Mark; Sabidó, Eduard; Sleno, Lekha; Wilffert, Daniel; Wolters, Justina C.; Yoo, Jong Shin; Zgoda, Victor; Parker, Carol E.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2015-01-01

    The reproducibility of plasma protein quantitation between laboratories and between instrument types was examined in a large-scale international study involving 16 laboratories and 19 LC-MS/MS platforms, using two kits designed to evaluate instrument performance and one kit designed to evaluate the

  18. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  19. Propagator based formalism for optimizing in-line phase contrast imaging in laboratory X-ray setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Andreas; Zabler, Simon; Ebensperger, Thomas; Fella, Christian; Hanke, Randolf

    2016-09-01

    We derive a propagator based formalism for optimizing phase contrast imaging in laboratory setups as well as in synchrotron setups. We confirm based on five different setups the well known existence of an optimum position for the sample in terms of phase contrast by measuring two types of fibers and evaluating the fringe contrast. Furthermore, we demonstrate for these setups a correlation of our formula and the fringe contrast. Hence, an estimate of this optimum position is given by our formalism which only depends on the source size, the detector blurring, and the total distance between source and detector.

  20. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  1. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  2. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Steven M; Buck, Joseph R; Buell, Walter F; Dickinson, Richard P; Kozlowski, David A; Marechal, Nicholas J; Wright, Timothy J

    2005-12-10

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  3. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS in the microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernandes Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of microorganisms by the clinical microbiology laboratory is of crucial importance for optimal patients’ management and treatment. In general, bacterial identification by conventional methods requires 18-24 hours for colony isolation and at least 24 additional hours for species identification. New technologies in microbiology have focused on the rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections, since they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  4. Evaluation of Neonatal Hemolytic Jaundice: Clinical and Laboratory Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Anet Papazovska Cherepnalkovski; Vjekoslav Krzelj; Beti Zafirovska-Ivanovska; Todor Gruev; Josko Markic; Natasa Aluloska; Nikolina Zdraveska; Katica Piperkovska

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice that occurs in ABO or Rhesus issoimunisation has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity. AIM: Aim of our study was to investigate clinical and laboratory parameters associated with hemolytic jaundice due to Rh and ABO incompatibility and compare results with the group of unspecific jaundice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred sixty seven (167) neonatal hyperbilirubinemia cas...

  5. Evaluation of continued storage of samples at the 325 Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides identification of potential Program users for samples that are archived at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities, establishes cost releated to packaging and transportation of these samples to 222-S, for continued storage at 325 facilities, disposal and transfer costs. The report provides a recommendation to dispose of 20 samples, transfer 99 samples to PNNL and to continue storage of the remaining samples at PNNL`s 325 facility.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

    2005-09-01

    A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

  7. Hypereosinophilic syndrome: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging manifestations in patients with hepatic involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi Beom; Lee, Jong Min; Sung, Yeong Soon; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyungpook Natioanl University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwoa [Dongkang general Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) commonly involves liver and spleen but only a few literature has reported the imaging features. In this article, we present the imaging features of the liver and spleen in HES patients together with clinical and laboratory features. This study included 5 HES patients with hepatic involvement. Extensive laboratory tests including multiple hematologic, serologic, parasitological, and immunologic examinations were performed. Imaging studies included CT, ultrasound (US)of upper abdomen and hepatosplenic scintigraphy. All patients were periodically examined by laboratory and imaging studies for 4 to 24 months. The common clinical presentations were weakness, mild fever, and dry cough. All patients revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia of 40 to 80% and benign eosinophilic hyperplasia of the bone marrow. The percutaneous biopsy of the hepatic focal lesions performed in 2 patients showed numerous benigin eosinophilic infiltrates and one of them revealed combined calibration necrosis of hepatocytes. All cases revealed hepatomegaly with multiple focal lesions on at least on of CT, US, or scintigraphy. These findings completely disappeared in 2 to 6 months following medication of corticosteroid or antihistamines. The HES involved the liver and CT, US, or scintigraphic studies showed hepatic multifocal lesions with hepatomegaly. Differential diagnosis of these findings should include metastatic disease, lymphoma, leukemia, candidiasis or other opportunistic infections.

  8. Evaluating Commercial Scanners for Astronomical Image Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, R. J.

    2009-08-01

    Many organizations have been interested in understanding if commercially available scanners are adequate for scientifically useful digitization. These scanners range in price from a few hundred to a few tens of thousands of dollars (USD), often with little apparent difference in performance specifications. This paper describes why the underlying technology used in flatbed scanners tends to effectively limit resolutions to the 600-1200 dots per inch (dpi) range and how the overall system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) can be used to evaluate the quality of the digitized data for the small feature sizes found in astronomical images. Two scanners, the Epson V750 flatbed scanner and the Nikon Cool Scan 9000ED film strip scanner, are evaluated through their Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF). The MTF of the Harvard DASCH scanner is also shown for comparison. The particular goal of this evaluation was to understand if the scanners could be used for digitizing spectral plates at the University of Toronto. The plates of primary interest were about 15 mm (5/8 inch) wide by 180 mm (7~inches) long and ˜50 mm x 80 mm (2 x 3 inches). The results of the MTF work show that the Epson scanner, despite claims of high resolution, is of limited value for scientific imaging of feature sizes below about 50 μm and therefore not a good candidate for digitizing the spectral plates and problematic for scanning direct plates. The Nikon scanner is better and, except for some frustrating limitations in its software, its performance seems to hold promise as a digitizer for spectral plates in the University of Toronto collection.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Based on Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Patil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT is used for fusion of two different images and for image compression. Image fusion deals with creating an image by combining portions from other images to obtain an image in which all of the objects are in focus. Two multi focus images are used for image fusion. Different fusion algorithms are used and their performance is evaluated using evaluation metrics such as PSNR, SSIM, Spatial Frequency, Quality Index, Structural Content, Mean Absolute Error. Fusion performance is not good while using the algorithms with block size less than 64x64 and also the block size of 512x512. Contrast, amplitude and energy based image fusion algorithms performed well. The fused images are comparable with the reference image. Only the image size is considered but blurring percentage is not considered. These algorithms are very simple and might be suitable for real time applications

  10. Image Theory's Compatibility Test and Evaluations of the Status Quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond; Bissell; Beach

    1998-01-01

    The research on image theory's concept of progress decisions about either (1) the acceptability of the status quo vis a desired state or (2) the acceptability of movement toward a desired state has been limited to the laboratory. To demonstrate the feasibility of research on nonlaboratory, job-related progress decisions and to develop methods for doing it with minimal intrusion on participant work time, two experiments examined evaluations of the status quo vis a desired state in the context of three organizations: a controller's office, a pretrial services office, and a chain of fast food restaurants. Experiment 1 used fairly elaborate, time consuming methods in the controller's office and pretrial services office to measure the compatibility between participants' images of desirable supervision and their images of current supervision as well as their satisfaction with both supervision and with the organization. In both cases, as compatibility decreased, satisfaction decreased, but satisfaction with the organization appeared to derive from satisfaction with supervision rather than directly from compatibility. Experiment 2 measured the same concepts in the fast food chain using simple, single-item methods, obtaining roughly the same results as Experiment 1, except that it also demonstrated that hope for change can mitigate the effects of incompatibility on satisfaction. These results provide evidence for the role of compatibility in decision making and for the feasibility of using simple methods of measuring compatibility, acceptability, and hope in nonlaboratory research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. "Nuts and Bolts" of Laboratory Evaluation of Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Henriette; Veszeli, Nóra; Kajdácsi, Erika; Cervenak, László; Varga, Lilian

    2016-10-01

    Angioedema, as a distinct disease entity, often becomes a clinical challenge for physicians, because it may cause a life-threatening condition, whereas prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostics may not be available. Although the bedside diagnosis needs to be established based on clinical symptoms and signs, family history, and the therapeutic response, later, laboratory tests are available. Currently, only for five out of the nine different types of angioedema can be diagnosed by laboratory testing, and these occur only in a minority of the patient population. Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency type I can be diagnosed by the low C1-INH function and concentration, whereas in type II, C1-INH function is low, but its concentration is normal or even elevated. C1q concentration is normal in both forms. Acquired angioedema with C1-INH deficiency type I is characterized by the low C1-INH function and concentration; however, C1q concentration is also low, and autoantibodies against C1-INH cannot be detected. Complement profile of acquired angioedema with C1-INH deficiency type II is similar to that of type I, but in this form, autoantibodies against C1-INH are present. Hereditary angioedema due to a mutation of the coagulation factor XII can be diagnosed exclusively by mutation analysis of FXII gene. Diagnostic metrics are not available for idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema, idiopathic non-histaminergic acquired angioedema, acquired angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and hereditary angioedema of unknown origin; these angioedemas can be diagnosed by medical and family history, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic response and by excluding the forms previously described. Several potential biomarkers of angioedema are used to date only in research. In the future, they could be utilized into the clinical practice to improve the differential diagnosis, therapy, as well as the prognosis of angioedema.

  12. X-ray computed tomography system for laboratory small-object imaging: Enhanced tomography solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, F; Yahiaoui, M L; Boussahoul, F

    2015-07-01

    A portable X-ray tomography system has been installed and actually being tested at our medical imaging laboratory. This tomography system employs a combination of scintillator screen and CCD camera as image detector. The limit of spatial resolution of 290 μm of this imaging system is determined by the establishment of its modulation transfer function (MTF). In this work, we present attempts to address some issues such as limited resolution and low contrast through the development of affordable post-acquisition solutions based on the application of super-resolution method (projection onto convex sets, POCS) to create new projections set enabling the reconstruction of an improved 3D image in terms of contrast, resolution and noise. In addition to small-object examination, this tomography system is used for hands-on training activities involving students and scientists.

  13. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  14. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL FOR MEDICAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASI KUMAR. M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Content-based image retrieval (CBIR technology benefits not only large image collections management, but also helps clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Digital images are found in X-Rays, MRI, CT which are used for diagnosing and planning treatment schedules. Thus, visual information management is challenging as the data quantity available is huge. Currently, available medical databases utilization is limited image retrieval issues. Archived digital medical images retrieval is always challenging and this is being researched more as images are of great importance in patient diagnosis, therapy, medical reference, and medical training. In this paper, an image matching scheme using Discrete Sine Transform for relevant feature extraction is presented. The efficiency of different algorithm for classifying the features to retrieve medical images is investigated.

  16. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  17. Primary toxicological evaluation of nitroxoline on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskiv G.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxoline is an effective antibacterial agent that is industrially produced by chemical and pharmaceutical enterprises in Ukraine. Parameters of its toxicity are determined under conditions of acute and subchronic toxicological experiments on 3 kinds of laboratory animals, by administering the drug orally and by application onto the skin and mucous membranes. The duration of acute experiment was 14 days, subchronical - 24 days. It was found that median lethal dose (DL50 for white female rats is 980 (852:1127 mg/kg, of white male rats – 835 mg/kg, white male mice– 660 mg/kg, by this parameter the drug can be attributed to 3 class of hazard – moderately hazardous substance. Average effective time of death (ET50 for albino rats is 28 hours. Species sensitivity of laboratory animals to nitroxoline is slightly expressed. The death of the animals starts on the first day after the injection and is recorded during three days of the experiment. In application on intact skin, locally-irritant and skin-resorptive effects are absent. After contact with the mucous membrane of the eye the drug causes weak irritant effect. Nitroxoline has a moderate cumulative activity.

  18. Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (ptests (p≤.001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency.

  19. Fuzzy Index to Evaluate Edge Detection in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ornelas, Felicitas; Mendoza, Olivia; Melin, Patricia; Castro, Juan R.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Antonio; Castillo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    In literature, we can find different metrics to evaluate the detected edges in digital images, like Pratt's figure of merit (FOM), Jaccard’s index (JI) and Dice’s coefficient (DC). These metrics compare two images, the first one is the reference edges image, and the second one is the detected edges image. It is important to mention that all existing metrics must binarize images before their evaluation. Binarization step causes information to be lost because an incomplete image is being evaluated. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy index (FI) for edge evaluation that does not use a binarization step. In order to process all detected edges, images are represented in their fuzzy form and all calculations are made with fuzzy sets operators and fuzzy Euclidean distance between both images. Our proposed index is compared to the most used metrics using synthetic images, with good results. PMID:26115362

  20. The Image and Data Archive at the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Karen L; Neu, Scott C; Toga, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    The LONI Image and Data Archive (IDA)(1) is a repository for sharing and long-term preservation of neuroimaging and biomedical research data. Originally designed to archive strictly medical image files, the IDA has evolved over the last ten years and now encompasses the storage and dissemination of neuroimaging, clinical, biospecimen, and genetic data. In this article, we report upon the genesis of the IDA and how it currently securely manages data and protects data ownership. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.; M.-L. Buddensiek; C. M. Krawczyk

    2012-01-01

    With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezo-electric transducers used here the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox mo...

  2. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Krawczyk; Buddensiek, M.-L.; Oncken, O.; Kukowski, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale str...

  3. Fast imaging of laboratory core floods using 3D compressed sensing RARE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskill, N P; Bush, I; Sederman, A J; Mantle, M D; Benning, M; Anger, B C; Appel, M; Gladden, L F

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the fluid distributions within the rock is essential to enable the unambiguous interpretation of core flooding data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to image fluid saturation in rock cores; however, conventional acquisition strategies are typically too slow to capture the dynamic nature of the displacement processes that are of interest. Using Compressed Sensing (CS), it is possible to reconstruct a near-perfect image from significantly fewer measurements than was previously thought necessary, and this can result in a significant reduction in the image acquisition times. In the present study, a method using the Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) pulse sequence with CS to provide 3D images of the fluid saturation in rock core samples during laboratory core floods is demonstrated. An objective method using image quality metrics for the determination of the most suitable regularisation functional to be used in the CS reconstructions is reported. It is shown that for the present application, Total Variation outperforms the Haar and Daubechies3 wavelet families in terms of the agreement of their respective CS reconstructions with a fully-sampled reference image. Using the CS-RARE approach, 3D images of the fluid saturation in the rock core have been acquired in 16min. The CS-RARE technique has been applied to image the residual water saturation in the rock during a water-water displacement core flood. With a flow rate corresponding to an interstitial velocity of vi=1.89±0.03ftday(-1), 0.1 pore volumes were injected over the course of each image acquisition, a four-fold reduction when compared to a fully-sampled RARE acquisition. Finally, the 3D CS-RARE technique has been used to image the drainage of dodecane into the water-saturated rock in which the dynamics of the coalescence of discrete clusters of the non-wetting phase are clearly observed. The enhancement in the temporal resolution that has

  4. Fast imaging of laboratory core floods using 3D compressed sensing RARE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskill, N. P.; Bush, I.; Sederman, A. J.; Mantle, M. D.; Benning, M.; Anger, B. C.; Appel, M.; Gladden, L. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the fluid distributions within the rock is essential to enable the unambiguous interpretation of core flooding data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to image fluid saturation in rock cores; however, conventional acquisition strategies are typically too slow to capture the dynamic nature of the displacement processes that are of interest. Using Compressed Sensing (CS), it is possible to reconstruct a near-perfect image from significantly fewer measurements than was previously thought necessary, and this can result in a significant reduction in the image acquisition times. In the present study, a method using the Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) pulse sequence with CS to provide 3D images of the fluid saturation in rock core samples during laboratory core floods is demonstrated. An objective method using image quality metrics for the determination of the most suitable regularisation functional to be used in the CS reconstructions is reported. It is shown that for the present application, Total Variation outperforms the Haar and Daubechies3 wavelet families in terms of the agreement of their respective CS reconstructions with a fully-sampled reference image. Using the CS-RARE approach, 3D images of the fluid saturation in the rock core have been acquired in 16 min. The CS-RARE technique has been applied to image the residual water saturation in the rock during a water-water displacement core flood. With a flow rate corresponding to an interstitial velocity of vi = 1.89 ± 0.03 ft day-1, 0.1 pore volumes were injected over the course of each image acquisition, a four-fold reduction when compared to a fully-sampled RARE acquisition. Finally, the 3D CS-RARE technique has been used to image the drainage of dodecane into the water-saturated rock in which the dynamics of the coalescence of discrete clusters of the non-wetting phase are clearly observed. The enhancement in the temporal resolution

  5. Computer-based laboratory simulation: evaluations of student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrie S. Edward

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experimentation in engineering is an essential part of the three main components in an engineer's formation. The theoretical constructs and models are imparted in lectures and tutorials. Workshop hands-on activity allows the student to acquire an understanding of the interaction of design and manufacture, and the constraints both impose. Characteristics of plant are investigated through experiment, and this aids the learner's understanding of the limitation of models in predicting performance. The learner also gains an appreciation of the nature of errors and of the construction of plant. But while the oil industry has brought prosperity to the North- East, it has also brought unique educational demands: the working arrangements place severe restrictions on part-time student attendance. Technicians work a block of two to four weeks offshore, followed by a similar period of leave. Different companies have different arrangements, and shift-change days.

  6. New developments of X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Matsuno, Tsuyoshi; Takimoto, Yuki; Yamanashi, Masaki; Kometani, Noritsugu; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kato, Shuichi; Yamada, Takashi; Shoji, Takashi; Kawahara, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established analytical technique with a long research history. Many applications have been reported in various fields, such as in the environmental, archeological, biological, and forensic sciences as well as in industry. This is because XRF has a unique advantage of being a nondestructive analytical tool with good precision for quantitative analysis. Recent advances in XRF analysis have been realized by the development of new x-ray optics and x-ray detectors. Advanced x-ray focusing optics enables the making of a micro x-ray beam, leading to micro-XRF analysis and XRF imaging. A confocal micro-XRF technique has been applied for the visualization of elemental distributions inside the samples. This technique was applied for liquid samples and for monitoring chemical reactions such as the metal corrosion of steel samples in the NaCl solutions. In addition, a principal component analysis was applied for reducing the background intensity in XRF spectra obtained during XRF mapping, leading to improved spatial resolution of confocal micro-XRF images. In parallel, the authors have proposed a wavelength dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) imaging spectrometer for a fast elemental imaging. A new two dimensional x-ray detector, the Pilatus detector was applied for WD-XRF imaging. Fast XRF imaging in 1 s or even less was demonstrated for Euro coins and industrial samples. In this review paper, these recent advances in laboratory-based XRF imaging, especially in a laboratory setting, will be introduced.

  7. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  8. Improving image quality in laboratory x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, F.; Marschner, M.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Noël, P.; Herzen, J.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2017-03-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast (gbPC) is known to provide significant benefits for biomedical imaging. To investigate these benefits, a high-sensitivity gbPC micro-CT setup for small (≍ 5 cm) biological samples has been constructed. Unfortunately, high differential-phase sensitivity leads to an increased magnitude of data processing artifacts, limiting the quality of tomographic reconstructions. Most importantly, processing of phase-stepping data with incorrect stepping positions can introduce artifacts resembling Moiré fringes to the projections. Additionally, the focal spot size of the X-ray source limits resolution of tomograms. Here we present a set of algorithms to minimize artifacts, increase resolution and improve visual impression of projections and tomograms from the examined setup. We assessed two algorithms for artifact reduction: Firstly, a correction algorithm exploiting correlations of the artifacts and differential-phase data was developed and tested. Artifacts were reliably removed without compromising image data. Secondly, we implemented a new algorithm for flatfield selection, which was shown to exclude flat-fields with strong artifacts. Both procedures successfully improved image quality of projections and tomograms. Deconvolution of all projections of a CT scan can minimize blurring introduced by the finite size of the X-ray source focal spot. Application of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to gbPC-CT projections resulted in an improved resolution of phase-contrast tomograms. Additionally, we found that nearest-neighbor interpolation of projections can improve the visual impression of very small features in phase-contrast tomograms. In conclusion, we achieved an increase in image resolution and quality for the investigated setup, which may lead to an improved detection of very small sample features, thereby maximizing the setup's utility.

  9. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  10. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of geosynthetic fabric containers for contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Young, H.; Ochola, C.

    1999-07-01

    There exist various methods to determine the filtration properties of geotextiles, and most of these methods are based on the Apparent Opening Size (AOS) or O{sub 95} value as designated by ASTM D-4751 ``Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile''. The ability of a geotextile to function as an effective filter is dependent on the granularity of the medium being filtered, hydraulic conditions, and the configuration of the pore spaces within the geotextile. Current methods to determine the AOS do not take into consideration the various strains that the geotextiles may experience in the field, and are therefore based on static conditions or under no strain which may not be representative of what happens to a geotextile when in use. The utilization of GFC's to reduce the movement of contaminated sediments have necessitated the investigation of the migration of fines through various geotextile configurations used to construct the GFCs, and to determine the amount of total suspended solids that would be released. This laboratory study investigates the migration of fines and contaminants through GFCs. Contaminated dredges sediment was characterized for the physical and chemical properties. Hanging bag tests, barge simulation tests, fabric analysis strain tests, and pressure filtration tests with varying strain were conducted on the contaminated sediment and GFC configurations to determine the amount of total suspended solids that would be released to the water column.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the CIP 10 personal dust sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A; Tomb, T

    1988-06-01

    The "capteur individuel de poussiere" CIP 10 personal dust sampler--developed by the Centre d'Etudes et Recherches de Charbonnages de France (CERCHAR) research organization--is a small, quiet, lightweight unit which samples at a flow rate of 10 L/min. It is a three-stage sampler, using two stages to remove nonrespirable dust particles and one stage to collect the respirable fraction. Airflow through the sampler is induced by the third stage, which is a rotating collector cup that contains a fine grade sponge. Laboratory tests were conducted in a dust chamber using aerosols of Arizona road dust, coal dust and silica dust. Aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were compared to those measured with the coal mine dust personal sampler unit used in the United States. The results of this study showed that aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were linearly related to those obtained with the coal mine dust personal sampler. The relationship, however, was dependent on preselector configuration and aerosol characteristics. The collection medium allows some small particles (less than 3 microns) to pass through the sampler without being collected. As much as 13% (by weight) of the aerosol that penetrated through the preseparating stages was exhausted from the sampler.

  15. A new laboratory method for evaluating formation damage in fractured carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Yan; Yan Jienian; Zou Shengli; Wang Shuqi; Lu Rende

    2008-01-01

    Natural carbonate core samples with artificial fractures are often used to evaluate the damage of fractured carbonate formations in the laboratory. It is shown that the most frequent error for evaluation results directly from the random width characterized by the artificial fractures. To solve this problem,a series of simulated fractured core samples made of stainless steel with a given width of fracture were prepared. The relative error for the width of artificial fracture decreased to 1%. The width of natural and artificial fractures in carbonate reservoirs can be estimated by image log data. A series of tests for formation damage were conducted by using the stainless steel simulated core samples flushed with different drilling fluids, such as the suifonate/polymer drill-in fluid and the solids-free drill-in fluid with or without ideal packing bridging materials. Based on the experimental results using this kind of simulated cores, a novel approach to the damage control of fractured carbonate reservoirs was presented. The effective temporary plugging ring on the end face of the simulated core sample can be observed clearly.The experimental results also show that the stainless steel simulated cores made it possible to visualize the solids and filtrate invasion.

  16. Neutron Imaging at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Application to Biological Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Cekanova, Maria [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bilheux, Jean-Christophe [ORNL; Bailey, William Barton [ORNL; Keener, Wylie S [ORNL; Davis, Larry E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD) has recently installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. The CG-1D beamline supports a broad range of user research spanning from engineering to material research, energy storage, additive manufacturing, vehicle technologies, archaeology, biology, and plant physiology. The beamline performance (spatial resolution, field of view, etc.) and its utilization for biological research are presented. The NScD is also considering a proposal to build the VENUS imaging beamline (beam port 10) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Unlike CG-1D which provides cold neutrons, VENUS will offer a broad range of neutron wavelengths, from epithermal to cold, and enhanced contrast mechanisms. This new capability will also enable the imaging of thicker biological samples than is currently available at CG-1D. A brief overview of the VENUS capability for biological research is discussed.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  18. X-ray tube-based diffraction enhanced imaging prototype images of full-thickness breast specimens: reader study evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, L. S.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. J.; Koomen, M.; Kuzmiak, C.; Pavic, D.; Livasy, C. A.; Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Cole, E. B.; Zhong, Z.; Pisano, E. D.

    2009-02-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted and scattered or refracted x-rays. This leads to image blurring and contrast reduction, hindering the early detection of small or otherwise occult cancers. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for dramatically increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging due to monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. Our laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) utilizing a readily available Tungsten xray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60keV. To demonstrate the clinical utility of our DEI-PR, we acquired images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens on synchrotron-based DEI, DEI-PR and digital mammography systems. A reader study was designed to allow unbiased assessment of system performance when analyzing three systems with dissimilar imaging parameters and requiring analysis of images unfamiliar to radiologists. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and histopathology correlation after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. Preliminary data analysis suggests that our DEI system performed roughly equivalently with the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  19. Comparison of laboratory grating-based and speckle-tracking x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romell, J.; Zhou, T.; Zdora, M.; Sala, S.; Koch, F. J.; Hertz, H. M.; Burvall, A.

    2017-06-01

    Phase-contrast imaging with x-rays is a developing field for imaging weakly absorbing materials. In this work, two phase-contrast imaging methods, grating- and speckle-based imaging, that measure the derivative of the phase shift, have been implemented with a laboratory source and compared experimentally. It was found that for the same dose conditions, the speckle-tracking differential phase-contrast images have considerably higher contrast-to-noise ratio than the grating-based images, but at the cost of lower resolution. Grating-based imaging performs better in terms of resolution, but would require longer exposure times, mainly due to absorption in the grating interferometer.

  20. Sheehan syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Yusuf; Colak, Ramis

    2005-06-01

    Sheehan syndrome (SS) or post-partum pituitary necrosis is a pituitary insufficiency secondary to excessive post-partum blood losses. SS is a very significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries although it is a rarity in developed countries in which obstetrical care has been improved. In this study, we reviewed 20 cases retrospectively who were diagnosed as SS in our clinic. The patients aged 40 to 65 years with a mean age of 51.12 +/- 9.44 years (mean +/- SD). Time to make a definitive diagnosis of the disease ranged between 5 and 25 years with a mean of 16.35 +/- 4.74 years. Three of our patient (15%) had a previous diagnosis of SS. Three patients (15%) were referred to emergency service for hypoglycemia, three patients (15%) for hypothyroidism and one patient (5%) for hyponatremia. Dynamic examination of the pituitary revealed GH, Prolactin, FSH, TSH and ACTH insufficiency in all of the patients. One of our patients had a sufficient LH response to LHRH challenge. All of the patients were imaged with pituitary MRI. Eleven patients had empty sella and 9 patients had partial empty sella. SS is still a common problem in our country, especially in rural areas. Considering the duration of disease, important delays occur in diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  1. Evaluation of Graininess for Digital Halftone Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru Kitakubo

    2004-01-01

    Some results of image recognition tests are given, in which a testee looks at an image and tell if he/she can recognize a certain figure in it or not. When studying digital halftoning process, it is important to discuss the resolution of the human eye, or eye and brain, from the viewpoint of image recognition.

  2. The Reproducibility of Changes in Diagnostic Figures of Merit Across Laboratory and Clinical Imaging Reader Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Frank W; Abbey, Craig K

    2017-06-27

    In this paper we examine which comparisons of reading performance between diagnostic imaging systems made in controlled retrospective laboratory studies may be representative of what we observe in later clinical studies. The change in a meaningful diagnostic figure of merit between two diagnostic modalities should be qualitatively or quantitatively comparable across all kinds of studies. In this meta-study we examine the reproducibility of relative measures of sensitivity, false positive fraction (FPF), area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and expected utility across laboratory and observational clinical studies for several different breast imaging modalities, including screen film mammography, digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and ultrasound. Across studies of all types, the changes in the FPFs yielded very small probabilities of having a common mean value. The probabilities of relative sensitivity being the same across ultrasound and tomosynthesis studies were low. No evidence was found for different mean values of relative area under the ROC curve or relative expected utility within any of the study sets. The comparison demonstrates that the ratios of areas under the ROC curve and expected utilities are reproducible across laboratory and clinical studies, whereas sensitivity and FPF are not. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  4. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  5. Complementary role of cardiovascular imaging and laboratory indices in early detection of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L; Dimitroulas, T; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Kolovou, G

    2017-03-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented in >50% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, due to a complex interplay between traditional risk factors and SLE-related factors. Various processes, such as coronary artery disease, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, vasculitis, valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, account for CVD complications in SLE. Methods Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography (echo), nuclear techniques, cardiac computed tomography (CT), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterization (CCa) can detect CVD in SLE at an early stage. ECG and echo are the cornerstones of CVD evaluation in SLE. The routine use of cardiac CT and nuclear techniques is limited by radiation exposure and use of iodinated contrast agents. Additionally, nuclear techniques are also limited by low spatial resolution that does not allow detection of sub-endocardial and sub-epicardial lesions. CCa gives definitive information about coronary artery anatomy and pulmonary artery pressure and offers the possibility of interventional therapy. However, it carries the risk of invasive instrumentation. Recently, CMR was proved of great value in the evaluation of cardiac function and the detection of myocardial inflammation, stress-rest perfusion defects and fibrosis. Results An algorithm for CVD evaluation in SLE includes clinical, laboratory, ECG and echo assessment as well as CMR evaluation in patients with inconclusive findings, persistent cardiac symptoms despite normal standard evaluation, new onset of life-threatening arrhythmia/heart failure and/or as a tool to select SLE patients for CCa. Conclusions A non-invasive approach including clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluation is key for early CVD detection in SLE.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  7. Measurements at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory in Support of MARA and the TIR Imager on the JAXA Hayabusa II Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Grott, M.; Knollenberg, J.; Okada, T.; Kührt, E.

    2012-03-01

    At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR we perform measurements on analog materials to explore the possibility of mineralogical studies with the thermal infrared imager and the radiometer MARA (MAscot RAdiometer) on MASCOT.

  8. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation; Sacroiliite: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Clinicas da Imagem e Multimagem, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: cmontandon@terra.com.br

    2007-01-15

    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  9. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon at Regional Scale by Combining Multi-Spectral Images with Laboratory Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Adhikari, Kabindra; Knadel, Maria; Grunwald, Sabine; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2015-01-01

    There is a great challenge in combining soil proximal spectra and remote sensing spectra to improve the accuracy of soil organic carbon (SOC) models. This is primarily because mixing of spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The first objective of this study was to integrate information of SOC derived from visible near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR) spectra in the laboratory with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of topsoil SOC in the Skjern river catchment, Denmark. The second objective was to improve SOC prediction results by separately modeling uplands and wetlands. A total of 328 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed for SOC. Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT5), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (Landsat 8) images, laboratory Vis-NIR and other ancillary environmental data including terrain parameters and soil maps were compiled to predict topsoil SOC using Cubist regression and Bayesian kriging. The results showed that the model developed from RS data, ancillary environmental data and laboratory spectral data yielded a lower root mean square error (RMSE) (2.8%) and higher R2 (0.59) than the model developed from only RS data and ancillary environmental data (RMSE: 3.6%, R2: 0.46). Plant-available water (PAW) was the most important predictor for all the models because of its close relationship with soil organic matter content. Moreover, vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), were very important predictors in SOC spatial models. Furthermore, the 'upland model' was able to more accurately predict SOC compared with the 'upland & wetland model'. However, the separately calibrated 'upland and wetland model' did not improve the prediction accuracy for wetland sites, since it was not possible to adequately discriminate the vegetation in the RS summer images. We conclude that laboratory Vis

  10. Evaluating color and shape invariant image indexing for consumer photography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Th. Gevers; A.W.M. Smeulders

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, indexing is used as a common framework to represent, index and retrieve images on the basis of color and shape invariants.To evaluate the use of color and shape invariants for the purpose of image retrieval, experiments have been conducted on a database consisting of 500 images of mul

  11. Evaluation of Elementary School Computer Laboratories with Respect to Ergonomic Principles: Eskisehir Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül ULUUYSAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the computer laboratories according to appropriateness of the ergonomic principles in the primary schools. US-OSHA Ergonomic Evaluation Checklist was used and 30 different elementary schools’ computer laboratories were evaluated in Eskişehir. The results were examined according to the dimensions of position while working, sitting position, input devices, place of monitors, working areas and general. Research results showed that computer labs have adequate technical equipment but the deficiencies in the dimensions of position while working and sitting positions were found to be significant. According to the research results some suggestions are offered to improve computer labs’.

  12. IRDIS, the dual-band imager camera of SPHERE: testing the performances in laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, A; Moutou, C; Mesa, D; Gratton, R; Langlois, M; Beuzit, J -L; Costille, A; Desidera, S; Dolhen, K; Gry, C; Madec, F; Mignant, D Le; Mouillet, D; Sauvage, J -F

    2013-01-01

    Next year the second generation instrument SPHERE will begin science operations at the Very Large Telecope (ESO). This instrument will be dedicated to the search for exoplanets through the direct imaging techniques, with the new generation extreme adaptive optics. In this poster, we present the performances of one of the focal instruments, the Infra-Red Dual-beam Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS). All the results have been obtained with tests in laboratory, simulating the observing conditions in Paranal. We tested several configurations using the sub-system Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) in parallel and simulating long coronographic exposures on a star, calibrating instrumental ghosts, checking the performance of the adaptive optics system and reducing data with the consortium pipeline. The contrast one can reach with IRDIS is of the order of 2\\times 10^{-6}$ at 0.5 arcsec separation from the central star.

  13. Laboratory coded aperture imaging experiments: radial hole coded masks and depth-sensitive CZT detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Zhang, M; Bellm, E C; Yousef, A; Noss, J; Grindlay, J E; Narita, T

    2004-01-01

    The proposed black-hole finder mission EXIST will consist of multiple wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescopes. The high science goals set for the mission require innovations in telescope design. In particular, wide energy band coverage and fine angular resolution require relatively thick coded masks and thick detectors compared to their pixel size, which may introduce mask self-collimation and depth-induced image blurring with conventional design approaches. Previously we proposed relatively simple solutions to these potential problems: radial hole for mask selfcollimation and cathode depth sensing detector for image blurring. We have now performed laboratory experiments to explore the potential of these two techniques. The experimental results show that the radial hole mask greatly alleviates mask self-collimation and a ~1 mm resolution depth-sensitive detector scheme can be relatively easily achieved for the large scale required for EXIST.

  14. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Franken, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human scene recognition performance was tested with images of night-time outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3–5 mm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  15. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; IJspeert, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Human perceptual performance was tested with images of nighttime outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3-5 μm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  16. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Franken, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human scene recognition performance was tested with images of night-time outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3–5 mm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  17. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Russell; Keith, Lauren; Bartos, Christopher; St Claire, Marisa; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Holbrook, Michael R; Janosko, Krisztina; Barr, Jason; Pusl, Daniela; Bollinger, Laura; Wada, Jiro; Coe, Linda; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lentz, Margaret R

    2016-10-03

    Medical imaging using animal models for human diseases has been utilized for decades; however, until recently, medical imaging of diseases induced by high-consequence pathogens has not been possible. In 2014, the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick opened an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) facility to assess the clinical course and pathology of infectious diseases in experimentally infected animals. Multiple imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography are available to researchers for these evaluations. The focus of this article is to describe the workflow for safely obtaining a CT image of a live guinea pig in an ABSL-4 facility. These procedures include animal handling, anesthesia, and preparing and monitoring the animal until recovery from sedation. We will also discuss preparing the imaging equipment, performing quality checks, communication methods from "hot side" (containing pathogens) to "cold side," and moving the animal from the holding room to the imaging suite.

  18. A Laboratory Demonstration of the Capability to Image an Earth-like Extrasolar Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, John T.; Wesley, A. Traub

    2007-01-01

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 times 10-10 times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 times 10-10 times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 times 10-10. This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star.

  19. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  20. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  1. Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate CFT proficiency of European laboratories for diagnosis of glanders in equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroucau, K; Colaneri, C; Jaÿ, M; Corde, Y; Drapeau, A; Durand, B; Zientara, S; Beck, C

    2016-06-18

    To evaluate the routine complement fixation test (CFT) used to detect Burkholderia mallei antibodies in equine sera, an interlaboratory proficiency test was held with 24 European laboratories, including 22 National Reference Laboratories for glanders. The panels sent to participants were composed of sera with or without B mallei antibodies. This study confirmed the reliability of CFT and highlighted its intralaboratory reproducibility. However, the sensitivity of glanders serodiagnosis and laboratory proficiency may be improved by standardising critical reagents, including antigens, and by developing a standard B mallei serum.

  2. In-vivo evaluation of convex array synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an in-vivo study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging in comparison to conventional imaging, evaluating whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo, and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial...... resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition was performed using our research scanner RASMUS and a 5.5 MHz convex array transducer. STA imaging was acquired using circular wave emulation by 33-element subapertures and a 20 us linear FM signal as excitation pulse. For conventional imaging a 64...... element aperture was used in transmit and receive with a 1.5 cycle sinusoid excitation pulse. Conventional and STA images were acquired interleaved ensuring that the exact same anatomical location was scanned. Image sequences were recorded in real-time and processed off-line. Seven male volunteers were...

  3. Evaluation of a laboratory system intended for use in physicians' offices. I. Reliability of results produced by trained laboratory technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, R; Goitein, R K; Baer, D M

    1987-07-17

    The accuracy and precision of the Kodak DT-60 tabletop chemistry analyzer were evaluated in the clinical laboratory at the Portland (Ore) Veterans Administration Medical Center, and its operational throughout and cost were estimated. All DT-60 tests that were studied exhibited clinically acceptable precision and, except for the glucose method, accuracy. The accuracy of the glucose method was indeterminate with the available data. Throughput under field conditions was found to be less than half of the manufacturer's claim. The estimated supply cost per test could vary from $1.20 to $5.49 per test, depending on the test type and the number of assays expected to be performed daily. The instrument seems to be accurate, precise, and generally reliable when operated by professional medical technologists.

  4. Performance evaluation methodology for historical document image binarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntirogiannis, Konstantinos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis

    2013-02-01

    Document image binarization is of great importance in the document image analysis and recognition pipeline since it affects further stages of the recognition process. The evaluation of a binarization method aids in studying its algorithmic behavior, as well as verifying its effectiveness, by providing qualitative and quantitative indication of its performance. This paper addresses a pixel-based binarization evaluation methodology for historical handwritten/machine-printed document images. In the proposed evaluation scheme, the recall and precision evaluation measures are properly modified using a weighting scheme that diminishes any potential evaluation bias. Additional performance metrics of the proposed evaluation scheme consist of the percentage rates of broken and missed text, false alarms, background noise, character enlargement, and merging. Several experiments conducted in comparison with other pixel-based evaluation measures demonstrate the validity of the proposed evaluation scheme.

  5. Prior image constrained compressed sensing: a quantitative performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault Lauzier, Pascal; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-03-01

    The appeal of compressed sensing (CS) in the context of medical imaging is undeniable. In MRI, it could enable shorter acquisition times while in CT, it has the potential to reduce the ionizing radiation dose imparted to patients. However, images reconstructed using a CS-based approach often show an unusual texture and a potential loss in spatial resolution. The prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm has been shown to enable accurate image reconstruction at lower levels of sampling. This study systematically evaluates an implementation of PICCS applied to myocardial perfusion imaging with respect to two parameters of its objective function. The prior image parameter α was shown here to yield an optimal image quality in the range 0.4 to 0.5. A quantitative evaluation in terms of temporal resolution, spatial resolution, noise level, noise texture, and reconstruction accuracy was performed.

  6. Damage Degree Evaluation of Earthquake Area Using UAV Aerial Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system and its aerial image analysis method are developed to evaluate the damage degree of earthquake area. Both the single-rotor and the six-rotor UAVs are used to capture the visible light image of ground targets. Five types of typical ground targets are considered for the damage degree evaluation: the building, the road, the mountain, the riverway, and the vegetation. When implementing the image analysis, first the Image Quality Evaluation Metrics (IQEMs, that is, the image contrast, the image blur, and the image noise, are used to assess the imaging definition. Second, once the image quality is qualified, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM texture feature, the Tamura texture feature, and the Gabor wavelet texture feature are computed. Third, the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier is employed to evaluate the damage degree. Finally, a new damage degree evaluation (DDE index is defined to assess the damage intensity of earthquake. Many experiment results have verified the correctness of proposed system and method.

  7. Evaluation of the Use of Remote Laboratories for Secondary School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David; Newcombe, Peter; Stumpers, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experimentation is generally considered central to science-based education. Allowing students to "experience" science through various forms of carefully designed practical work, including experimentation, is often claimed to support their learning and motivate their engagement while fulfilling specific curriculum requirements. However, logistical constraints (most especially related to funding) place significant limitations on the ability of schools to provide and maintain high-quality science laboratory experiences and equipment. One potential solution that has recently been the subject of growing interest is the use of remotely accessible laboratories to either supplant, or more commonly to supplement, conventional hands-on laboratories. Remote laboratories allow students and teachers to use high-speed networks, coupled with cameras, sensors, and controllers, to carry out experiments on real physical laboratory apparatus that is located remotely from the student. Research has shown that when used appropriately this can bring a range of potential benefits, including the ability to share resources across multiple institutions, support access to facilities that would otherwise be inaccessible for cost or technical reasons, and provide augmentation of the experimental experience. Whilst there has been considerable work on evaluating the use of remote laboratories within tertiary education, consideration of their role within secondary school science education is much more limited. This paper describes trials of the use of remote laboratories within secondary schools, reporting on the student and teacher reactions to their interactions with the laboratories. The paper concludes that remote laboratories can be highly beneficial, but considerable care must be taken to ensure that their design and delivery address a number of critical issues identified in this paper.

  8. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  9. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.;

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning...

  10. Quantitative image quality evaluation for cardiac CT reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Balhorn, William; Okerlund, Darin R.

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining image quality in the presence of motion is always desirable and challenging in clinical Cardiac CT imaging. Different image-reconstruction algorithms are available on current commercial CT systems that attempt to achieve this goal. It is widely accepted that image-quality assessment should be task-based and involve specific tasks, observers, and associated figures of merits. In this work, we developed an observer model that performed the task of estimating the percentage of plaque in a vessel from CT images. We compared task performance of Cardiac CT image data reconstructed using a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm and the SnapShot Freeze (SSF) algorithm, each at default and optimal reconstruction cardiac phases. The purpose of this work is to design an approach for quantitative image-quality evaluation of temporal resolution for Cardiac CT systems. To simulate heart motion, a moving coronary type phantom synchronized with an ECG signal was used. Three different percentage plaques embedded in a 3 mm vessel phantom were imaged multiple times under motion free, 60 bpm, and 80 bpm heart rates. Static (motion free) images of this phantom were taken as reference images for image template generation. Independent ROIs from the 60 bpm and 80 bpm images were generated by vessel tracking. The observer performed estimation tasks using these ROIs. Ensemble mean square error (EMSE) was used as the figure of merit. Results suggest that the quality of SSF images is superior to the quality of FBP images in higher heart-rate scans.

  11. GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  12. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E. [FUMEC, Av. Alfonso Pena 3880, CEP 30130-009 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: juliae@fumec.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Medical images are important for diagnosis purposes as they are related to patients medical history and pathology. Breast cancer represents a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its early detection is the most effective method of reducing mortality. In a way to identify small structures with low density differences, a high image quality is required with the use of low doses of radiation. The analysis of the quality of the obtained image from a mammogram is performed from an image of a simulated breast and this is a fundamental key point for a program of quality control of mammography equipment s. In a control program of mammographic equipment s, besides the analysis of the quality of mammographic images, each element of the chain which composes the formation of the image is also analyzed: X-rays equipment s, radiographic films, and operating conditions. This control allows that an effective and efficient exam can be provided to the population and is within the standards of quality required for the early detection of breast cancer. However, according to the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography of Minas Gerais, Brazil, only 40% of the mammographies have provided a simulated image with a minimum level of quality, thus reinforcing the need for monitoring the images. The reduction of the morbidity and mortality indexes, with optimization and assurance of access to diagnosis and breast cancer treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, may be the result of a mammographic exam which has a final image with good quality and which automatic evaluation is not subjective. The reason is that one has to consider the hypothesis that humans are subjective when performing the image analysis and that the evaluation of the image can be executed by a computer with objectivity. In 2007, in order to maintain the standard quality needed to mammography, the State Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais, Brazil, established a Program of Monthly Monitoring the

  13. PVOL: The Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory. An online database of the Outer Planets images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, A.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Hueso, R.

    2005-08-01

    The collaboration between amateurs astronomers and the professional community has been fruitful on many areas of astronomy. The development of the Internet has allowed a better than ever capability of sharing information worldwide and access to other observers data. For many years now the International Jupiter Watch (IJW) Atmospheric discipline has coordinated observational efforts for long-term studies of the atmosphere of Jupiter. The International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) has extended its labours to the four Outer Planets. Here we present the Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory (PVOL), a website database where we integer IJW and IOPW images. At PVOL observers can submit their data and professionals can search for images under a wide variety of useful criteria such as date and time, filters used, observer, or central meridian longitude. PVOL is aimed to grow as an organized easy to use database of amateur images of the Outer Planets. The PVOL web address is located at http://www.pvol.ehu.es/ and coexists with the traditional IOPW site: http://www.ehu.es/iopw/ Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  14. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mírian L A F; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray μCT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumbá (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based μCT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  15. High-speed electronic imaging applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.L.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    An overview is presented of high-speed imaging technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. High-speed imaging is used by Los Alamos primarily in the underground testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first camera system developed, which is still the ``work horse`` of this application, uses focus projection scan (FPS) vidicon imaging technology operating at an effective pixel readout rate of approximately 40 Mpixels/s. In an effort to take advantage of charge-coupled devices (CCD) technology, a CCD camera is under development that currently operates at approximately 25 Mpixels/s, but, with an improved CCD sensor, has the prospect of operating at 70-100 Mpixel/s. A possible application of the technology to the detection of military ordnance is discussed. Also, a flexible test station is described that has been assembled for testing CCDs at high pixel readout rates. The station can operate at clock rates of up to 100 MHz and can accommodate a wide variety of single and multiport sensors.

  16. In-laboratory diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging for articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleman, Carol; Fogarty, Daniel; Reinhart, Benjamin; Tzvetkov, Tochko; Li, Jun; Nesch, Ivan

    2010-07-01

    The loss of articular cartilage characteristic of osteoarthritis can only be diagnosed by joint space narrowing when conventional radiography is used. This is due to the lack of X-ray contrast of soft tissues. Whereas conventional radiography harnesses the X-ray attenuation properties of tissues, Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI), a novel radiographic technique, allows the visualization of soft tissues simultaneous with calcified tissues by virtue of its ability to not only harness X-ray attenuation but also the X-ray refraction from tissue boundaries. Previously, DEI was dependent upon synchrotron X-rays, but more recently, the development of nonsynchrotron DEI units has been explored. These developments serve to elaborate the full potential of radiography. Here, we tested the potential of an in-laboratory DEI system, called Diffraction-Enhanced X-ray Imaging (DEXI), to render images of articular cartilage displaying varying degrees of degradation, ex vivo. DEXI allowed visualization of even early stages of cartilage degeneration such as surface fibrillation. This may be of eventual clinical significance for the diagnosis of early stages of degeneration, or at the very least, to visualize soft tissue degeneration simultaneous with bone changes.

  17. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  18. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  19. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  20. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  1. Role of imaging in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: how much is too much?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Haas; Erika Rubesova; Dorsey Bass

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is a lifelong condition with waxing and waning disease course that requires reassessment of disease status as well as screening for complications throughout a patient’s lifetime. Laboratory testing, endoscopic assessment, and fecal biomarkers are often used in the initial diagnosis and ongoing monitoring of a patient with IBD. Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis and evaluation of IBD. Different imaging modalities can be used over the course of a patient’s lifetime, from the initial screening and diagnosis of IBD, to determining the extent of intestinal involvement, monitoring for disease activity, and evaluating for complications of uncontrolled IBD. The various imaging modalities available to the provider each have a unique set of risks and benefits when considering cost, radiation exposure, need for anesthesia, and image quality. In this article we review the imaging techniques available for the evaluation of IBD including fluoroscopic small bowel follow-through, computed tomography enterography, magnetic resonance enterography, and transabdominal ultrasound with particular focus on the judicious use of imaging and the risks and benefits of each option. We also review the risks of ionizing radiation, strategies to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, and current imaging guidelines among pediatric and adult patient with IBD.

  2. Evaluation of Fingerprint Images Captured by Optical Fingerprint Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Kuwayama, Kiyoaki; Umezaki, Taizo

    In this paper, we propose the way to evaluate fingerprint image-quality and how to discriminate remnants from captured images. First, we investigate evaluating fingerprint image-quality. Fingerprint image-quality can be digitized using the "measure" we proposed. We simulate using the dataset consists of 1425 fingerprint images captured from 57 people in Feb, which contains a lot of faded images. In the simulation using all our database, recognition rate is 95.6% while type II error is 0.01%. Recognition rate is improved to 98.1%, with rejecting 3.7% faded images evaluated by our measure from the database. Recognition rate is improved to 99.6%, rejecting 14.2% faded images. And we investigate the way to apply the measure of image-quality to fingerprint verification device with customer’s satisfaction in real world. Next we propose the way to discriminate between remnants and fingerprint images captured from optical scanner by using frequency analysis. We can perfectly prevent the fingerprint verification device from malfunctioning caused by remnant, when strong flashlight or direct sunlight slant in optical scanner in real world.

  3. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties. METHODS: Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof

  4. MR imaging evaluation of suprascapular nerve entrapment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, T.; Walter, F.; Roland, J.; Blum, A. [Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Hopital Central, Nancy (France); Chapuis, D. [Centre de Reeducation Fonctionnelle, Hospitalor, Forbach (France); Mole, D. [Clinique de Traumatologie et d' Orthopedie, Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of muscular edema, atrophy, and fatty changes in the diagnosis of suprascapular nerve entrapment (SSNE), and to confirm muscular edema as the most significant sign of neuropathy. A retrospective study of 18 patients with suprascapular nerve entrapment was performed. All patients underwent electromyographic studies and MR imaging with a 1.5-T Echo Speed system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis.). The diagnosis of muscle edema was reached when muscles presented a high signal on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) fat-suppressed images. Muscular trophicity and fatty changes were analyzed on a sagittal oblique cut using SE T1-weighted images. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using kappa test, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed, together with negative and positive predictive value of each criterion. The topographic diagnosis was correct as edema affected the infraspinatus muscle alone when the suprascapular nerve was entrapped at the spinoglenoid notch. Both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were affected when nerve was compressed at the suprascapular notch. Sensitivity and specificity of muscular edema were, respectively, 94.5 and 100%. Muscular atrophy sensitivity and specificity were 81 and 80%, respectively. Fatty changes sensitivity and specificity were 25 and 96%, respectively. Muscular edema seems to be a more sensitive sign of SSNE than muscle atrophy and fatty changes when compared with EMG results. Magnetic resonance imaging can reach a positive, topographic, and etiologic diagnosis of SSNE. (orig.)

  5. [Evaluation of the Malaria Evaluation Program in the national laboratory network in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marisol; Mendoza, Nohora

    2002-06-01

    In 1995, the Parasitology Group--National Reference Laboratory--at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) started a national malaria diagnosis program with the Public Health Laboratory Network which included training, indirect quality control, external quality control, technical assistance, advisory, reference and counter-reference, together with an annual review of the program. The purpose of this study was to carry out a three year (1997-1999) analysis of the program. In the indirect quality control program, average positive and negative concordances of 98% and 97%, respectively, and a kappa index of 0.95 were obtained by the state public health laboratories. In the external quality control program, an average concordance of 74.2% was obtained with an 89.2% participation of the registered laboratories. At the municipal level, the indirect quality control had an average concordance of 91.4% in positivity, 92.5% concordance in negativity, and a kappa index of 0.84. On the other hand, indirect quality control has been scarcely implemented by the state public health laboratories in the municipalities under their jurisdiction. In general, the program shows a good performance, despite some economic and conflict-related difficulties in the country, because people responsible at all levels for the Malaria Program have permanently carried out all other activities of the network, either according to annual programming or upon request. However, it is important to improve its coverage and the participation in its activities.

  6. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  7. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography for high-resolution lung imaging with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, Martin, E-mail: mkrenke@gwdg.de; Töpperwien, Mareike; Salditt, Tim, E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institute for X-Ray Physics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Dullin, Christian [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Alves, Frauke [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We have performed high-resolution phase-contrast tomography on whole mice with a laboratory setup. Enabled by a high-brilliance liquid-metal-jet source, we show the feasibility of propagation-based phase contrast in local tomography even in the presence of strongly absorbing surrounding tissue as it is the case in small animal imaging of the lung. We demonstrate the technique by reconstructions of the mouse lung for two different fields of view, covering the whole organ, and a zoom to the local finer structure of terminal airways and alveoli. With a resolution of a few micrometers and the wide availability of the technique, studies of larger biological samples at the cellular level become possible.

  8. Quality Evaluation of Zirconium Dioxide Frameworks Produced in Five Dental Laboratories from Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Esther; Brägger, Urs; Scherrer, Susanne S; Keller, Andrea; Wittneben, Julia G; Hicklin, Stefan P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare quality as well as economic aspects of CAD/CAM high strength ceramic three-unit FDP frameworks ordered from dental laboratories located in emerging countries and Switzerland. The master casts of six cases were sent to five dental laboratories located in Thailand (Bangkok), China (Peking and Shenzhen), Turkey (Izmir), and Switzerland (Bern). Each laboratory was using a different CAD/CAM system. The clinical fit of the frameworks was qualitatively assessed, and the thickness of the framework material, the connector height, the width, and the diameter were evaluated using a measuring sensor. The analysis of the internal fit of the frameworks was performed by means of a replica technique, whereas the inner and outer surfaces of the frameworks were evaluated for traces of postprocessing and damage to the intaglio surface with light and electronic microscopes. Groups (dental laboratories and cases) were compared for statistically significant differences using Mann-Whitney U-tests after Bonferroni correction. An acceptable clinical fit was found at 97.9% of the margins produced in laboratory E, 87.5% in B, 93.7% in C, 79.2% in A, and 62.5% in D. The mean framework thicknesses were not statistically significantly different for the premolar regions; however, for the molar area 4/8 of the evaluated sites were statistically significantly different. Circumference, surface, and width of the connectors produced in the different laboratories were statistically significantly different but not the height. There were great differences in the designs for the pontic and connector regions, and some of the frameworks would not be recommended for clinical use. Traces of heavy postprocessing were found in frameworks from some of the laboratories. The prices per framework ranged from US$177 to US$896. By ordering laboratory work in developing countries, a considerable price reduction was obtained compared to the price level in Switzerland

  9. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  10. Evaluation of a Modified Keller Method in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Lance E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a modified Keller plan for teaching a biochemistry laboratory course and evaluates the method's effectiveness by comparing results of students using Keller plan (N=17) to students receiving traditional instruction (N=16). Results suggest the modified Keller plan is a successful instructional method for the course. (Author/SK)

  11. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test ... method, which could be used for qualitative identification of residues in ... particular commonly utilised in lactating animals (Mandell ... boiled in a waterbath for 10 min before being used in Nutrient agar ... Adulterated samples as well as normal control samples were.

  12. Evaluation of the Regional Educational Laboratories. Final Report. NCEE 2015-4008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carison, Elaine; Bitterman, Amy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lee, Hyunshik; Gutmann, Babette; Wills, Kerri; Sinclair, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This report is the second from the congressionally-mandated evaluation of the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) program authorized by the Education Sciences Reform Act (P.L. 107-279). For this report, 8 (out of 24) impact study reports produced by the RELs under their 2006-2011 contracts and published by IES were rated by expert panels for…

  13. Subjective Evaluation of Clothing Comfort and Their Correlation with Laboratory Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽英; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A series of polyester, cotton, and polyester/cotton blend fabrics were evaluated in a subjective wear.Subjective trial data were correlated with the results of in-house laboratory tests with the regression methods. Experimental results indicate that clothingcomfort assessment by human perception provides a sound basis for comparison of apparel garments under combined microclimates and human-activity levels of normal.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of ceramic coatings for diesel exhaust valves. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharnweber, D H; Vukovich, D T

    1980-11-01

    Diesel engine exhaust valves coated with zirconia and calcium silicate ceramic coating systems, developed by the Central Institute for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway, were laboratory fixture tested to assess bond strength and structural integrity under representative mechanical and thermal stress conditions. The results indicate the zirconia coating systems are worthy of additional evaluation in a medium or high speed industrial/utility diesel engine.

  15. Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.; Mourou, M.; Whitaker, J. F.; Duling, I. N.; Williamson, S. L.; Menu, M.; Mourou, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The feasibility of applying time-domain, terahertz spectroscopic imaging to the evaluation of underdrawings and paint layers embedded within wall paintings is demonstrated. Metallic and dielectric paint patterns and a graphite drawing are resolved through both paint and plaster overlayers using a pulsed-terahertz reflectometer and imaging system. We calculated the bulk refractive indices of four common pigments and used them to confirm color domains in a terahertz-beam spectral image of a painting.

  16. Bottom-up laboratory testing of the DKIST Visible Broadband Imager (VBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferayorni, Andrew; Beard, Andrew; Cole, Wes; Gregory, Scott; Wöeger, Friedrich

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is a 4-meter solar observatory under construction at Haleakala, Hawaii [1]. The Visible Broadband Imager (VBI) is a first light instrument that will record images at the highest possible spatial and temporal resolution of the DKIST at a number of scientifically important wavelengths [2]. The VBI is a pathfinder for DKIST instrumentation and a test bed for developing processes and procedures in the areas of unit, systems integration, and user acceptance testing. These test procedures have been developed and repeatedly executed during VBI construction in the lab as part of a "test early and test often" philosophy aimed at identifying and resolving issues early thus saving cost during integration test and commissioning on summit. The VBI team recently completed a bottom up end-to-end system test of the instrument in the lab that allowed the instrument's functionality, performance, and usability to be validated against documented system requirements. The bottom up testing approach includes four levels of testing, each introducing another layer in the control hierarchy that is tested before moving to the next level. First the instrument mechanisms are tested for positioning accuracy and repeatability using a laboratory position-sensing detector (PSD). Second the real-time motion controls are used to drive the mechanisms to verify speed and timing synchronization requirements are being met. Next the high-level software is introduced and the instrument is driven through a series of end-to-end tests that exercise the mechanisms, cameras, and simulated data processing. Finally, user acceptance testing is performed on operational and engineering use cases through the use of the instrument engineering graphical user interface (GUI). In this paper we present the VBI bottom up test plan, procedures, example test cases and tools used, as well as results from test execution in the laboratory. We will also discuss the benefits realized

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  18. Cirrhosis: CT and MR imaging evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancatelli, Giuseppe [Sezione di Radiologia, Ospedale Specializzato in Gastroenterologia, ' Saverio de Bellis' -IRCCS, 70013 Castellana Grotte (Bari) (Italy) and Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy) and Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]. E-mail: gbranca@yahoo.com; Federle, Michael P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ambrosini, Roberta [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Lagalla, Roberto [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Carriero, Alessandro [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Midiri, Massimo [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Vilgrain, Valerie [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Beaujon, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92118 Clichy (France)

    2007-01-15

    In this article, we present the CT and MR imaging characteristics of the cirrhotic liver. We describe the altered liver morphology in different forms of viral, alcoholic and autoimmune end-stage liver disease. We present the spectrum of imaging findings in portal hypertension, such as splenomegaly, ascites and varices. We describe the patchy and lacelike patterns of fibrosis, along with the focal confluent form. The process of hepatocarcinogenesis is detailed, from regenerative to dysplastic nodules to overt hepatocellular carcinoma. Different types of non-neoplastic focal liver lesions occurring in the cirrhotic liver are discussed, including arterially enhancing nodules, hemangiomas and peribiliary cysts. We show different conditions causing liver morphology changes that can mimic cirrhosis, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis, 'pseudo-cirrhosis' due to breast metastases treated with chemotherapy, Budd-Chiari syndrome, sarcoidosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein.

  19. Performance indicators for the statistical evaluation of digital image classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Urso, G.; Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical procedure is proposed to evaluate the algorithms for the numerical classification of images. The approach is based on the derivation of performance indicators from measurements of signature separability and thresholding analysis. Although these measurements are not new in image process

  20. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  1. Role of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging in evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging in evaluation of brain lesions. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... SWI detects the signal loss created by disturbance of a homogeneous magnetic field; these ...

  2. Signal and image processing systems performance evaluation, simulation, and modeling; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Hatem N.; Bazakos, Michael E.

    The various aspects of the evaluation and modeling problems in algorithms, sensors, and systems are addressed. Consideration is given to a generic modular imaging IR signal processor, real-time architecture based on the image-processing module family, application of the Proto Ware simulation testbed to the design and evaluation of advanced avionics, development of a fire-and-forget imaging infrared seeker missile simulation, an adaptive morphological filter for image processing, laboratory development of a nonlinear optical tracking filter, a dynamic end-to-end model testbed for IR detection algorithms, wind tunnel model aircraft attitude and motion analysis, an information-theoretic approach to optimal quantization, parametric analysis of target/decoy performance, neural networks for automated target recognition parameters adaptation, performance evaluation of a texture-based segmentation algorithm, evaluation of image tracker algorithms, and multisensor fusion methodologies. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  3. Digital management and regulatory submission of medical images from clinical trials: role and benefits of the core laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William L.; Conklin, James J.

    1995-10-01

    Medical images (angiography, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, x ray) play an increasingly important role in the clinical development and regulatory review process for pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Since medical images are increasingly acquired and archived digitally, or are readily digitized from film, they can be visualized, processed and analyzed in a variety of ways using digital image processing and display technology. Moreover, with image-based data management and data visualization tools, medical images can be electronically organized and submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for review. The collection, processing, analysis, archival, and submission of medical images in a digital format versus an analog (film-based) format presents both challenges and opportunities for the clinical and regulatory information management specialist. The medical imaging 'core laboratory' is an important resource for clinical trials and regulatory submissions involving medical imaging data. Use of digital imaging technology within a core laboratory can increase efficiency and decrease overall costs in the image data management and regulatory review process.

  4. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  5. Image Information Mining System Evaluation Using Information-Theoretic Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Datcu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the exponential increase of multimedia and remote sensing image archives, the fast expansion of the world wide web, and the high diversity of users have yielded concepts and systems for successful content-based image retrieval and image information mining. Image data information systems require both database and visual capabilities, but there is a gap between these systems. Database systems usually do not deal with multidimensional pictorial structures and vision systems do not provide database query functions. In terms of these points, the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems became a focus of research interest. One can find several system evaluation approaches in literature, however, only few of them go beyond precision-recall graphs and do not allow a detailed evaluation of an interactive image retrieval system. Apart from the existing evaluation methodologies, we aim at the overall validation of our knowledge-driven content-based image information mining system. In this paper, an evaluation approach is demonstrated that is based on information-theoretic quantities to determine the information flow between system levels of different semantic abstraction and to analyze human-computer interactions.

  6. Image Information Mining System Evaluation Using Information-Theoretic Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschiel, Herbert; Datcu, Mihai

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade, the exponential increase of multimedia and remote sensing image archives, the fast expansion of the world wide web, and the high diversity of users have yielded concepts and systems for successful content-based image retrieval and image information mining. Image data information systems require both database and visual capabilities, but there is a gap between these systems. Database systems usually do not deal with multidimensional pictorial structures and vision systems do not provide database query functions. In terms of these points, the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems became a focus of research interest. One can find several system evaluation approaches in literature, however, only few of them go beyond precision-recall graphs and do not allow a detailed evaluation of an interactive image retrieval system. Apart from the existing evaluation methodologies, we aim at the overall validation of our knowledge-driven content-based image information mining system. In this paper, an evaluation approach is demonstrated that is based on information-theoretic quantities to determine the information flow between system levels of different semantic abstraction and to analyze human-computer interactions.

  7. Laboratory evaluations to optimize outcomes of antioxidant nutrition therapy in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy (MNT guidelines acknowledge the need to identify deficiencies of antioxidant vitamins. However, the guidelines contain that such identification is difficult. Thus, there is evidence that available clinical laboratory tests for antioxidant vitamins C and E are not in perspective in clinical practice. Coenzyme-Q 10 and glutathione tests are also available in research laboratories. These indices are invaluable tools for discrete recommendation and monitoring of antioxidant nutrition therapies. This commentary addresses biomarker insight to what the MNT guidelines consider difficult. The importance and limits of the various dietary antioxidants is overviewed. It puts in perspective how clinical laboratory monitoring of vitamins C and E levels can be used to optimize the outcomes of dietary evaluations for diabetes management. Insight to how to interpret the laboratory results is presented. The importance of this commentary is hinged on the premise that the outcome of dietary therapy can be counter-productive when laboratory evaluation or limitations of the antioxidant nutrients are undermined. (Nwose EU.

  8. Laboratory evaluations to optimize outcomes of antioxidant nutrition therapy in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy (MNT guidelines acknowledge the need to identify deficiencies of antioxidant vitamins. However, the guidelines contain that such identification is difficult. Thus, there is evidence that available clinical laboratory tests for antioxidant vitamins C and E are not in perspective in clinical practice. Coenzyme-Q10 and glutathione tests are also available in research laboratories. These indices are invaluable tools for discrete recommendation and monitoring of antioxidant nutrition therapies. This commentary addresses biomarker insight to what the MNT guidelines consider difficult. The importance and limits of the various dietary antioxidants is overviewed. It puts in perspective how clinical laboratory monitoring of vitamins C and E levels can be used to optimize the outcomes of dietary evaluations for diabetes management. Insight to how to interpret the laboratory results is presented. The importance of this commentary is hinged on the premise that the outcome of dietary therapy can be counter-productive when laboratory evaluation or limitations of the antioxidant nutrients are undermined.

  9. DATA SYNTHESIS AND METHOD EVALUATION FOR BRAIN IMAGING GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create...

  10. Cost evaluation of clinical laboratory in Taiwan's National Health System by using activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin-Guang; Chen, Shao-Fen; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Shih, Po-Wen; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2016-11-01

    To cope with the government's policies to reduce medical costs, Taiwan's healthcare service providers are striving to survive by pursuing profit maximization through cost control. This article aimed to present the results of cost evaluation using activity-based costing performed in the laboratory in order to throw light on the differences between costs and the payment system of National Health Insurance (NHI). This study analyzed the data of costs and income of the clinical laboratory. Direct costs belong to their respective sections of the department. The department's shared costs, including public expenses and administrative assigned costs, were allocated to the department's respective sections. A simple regression equation was created to predict profit and loss, and evaluate the department's break-even point, fixed cost, and contribution margin ratio. In clinical chemistry and seroimmunology sections, the cost per test was lower than the NHI payment and their major laboratory tests had revenues with the profitability ratio of 8.7%, while the other sections had a higher cost per test than the NHI payment and their major tests were in deficit. The study found a simple linear regression model as follows: "Balance=-84,995+0.543×income (R2=0.544)". In order to avoid deficit, laboratories are suggested to increase test volumes, enhance laboratory test specialization, and become marginal scale. A hospital could integrate with regional medical institutions through alliances or OEM methods to increase volumes to reach marginal scale and reduce laboratory costs, enhancing the level and quality of laboratory medicine.

  11. Poor quality of early evaluations of magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.S.; Chalmers, T.C.; McCally, M.; Berrier, J.; Sacks, H.S.

    1988-06-10

    To study the quality of early research on the clinical efficacy of diagnostic imaging with magnetic resonance, they assessed 54 evaluations published in the first four years after introduction of this modality using ten commonly accepted criteria of research methodology. The terms sensitivity, specificity, false-positive or false-negative, accuracy, and predictive values were used infrequently. 19% of the evaluations used three terms appropriately, 48% used one or two terms, and 33% used none. Data were presented appropriately for one or more of the five terms in 59% of evaluations. A gold standard comparison with the results of an independent procedure, such as surgical or autopsy findings, was presented in 22% of evaluations. Results of another imaging procedure were described in 63% of evaluations. Only one evaluation clearly described a prospective study design, although 11 evaluations apparently were planned in advance. Not one evaluation contained an appropriate statistical analysis of the distributions of quantitative readings, blinded image readers to diagnosis or other test results, measured observer error, or randomized the order of magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging procedures. The authors concludes that health care professionals paying for expensive innovative diagnostic technology should demand better research on diagnostic efficacy.

  12. Laboratory air-entraining breaking waves: Imaging visible foam signatures to estimate energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    Oceanic air-entraining breaking waves fundamentally influence weather and climate through bubble-mediated ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and influence marine engineering design by impacting statistics of wave heights, crest heights, and wave loading. However, estimating individual breaking wave energy dissipation in the field remains a fundamental problem. Using laboratory experiments, we introduce a new method to estimate energy dissipation by individual breaking waves using above-water images of evolving foam. The data show the volume of the breaking wave two-phase flow integrated in time during active breaking scales linearly with wave energy dissipated. To determine the volume time-integral, above-water images of surface foam provide the breaking wave timescale and horizontal extent of the submerged bubble plume, and the foam decay time provides an estimate of the bubble plume penetration depth. We anticipate that this novel remote sensing method will improve predictions of air-sea exchanges, validate models of wave energy dissipation, and inform ocean engineering design.

  13. [Imaging in the evaluation of headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacowry Pala, K; Platon, A; Delémont, C

    2013-09-25

    Headache is a common complaint in primary care medicine. Most of the time, they are primary and benign headaches, with no need for further investigations; nevertheless, in the presence of red flags, a brain imaging is warranted. The diagnostic approach depends upon the most likely suspected cause and the degree of emergency. In those situations, a head CT scan without and with contrast is the exam of choice in most patients, because it is helpful for identifying intracranial lesions or bleeding. The MRI, more sensible, is preferred in the ambulatory setting for investigation and follow-up of intracranial tumoral or infectious diseases.

  14. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments - laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Buddensiek, M.-L.; Oncken, O.; Kukowski, N.

    2012-10-01

    With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezo-electric transducers used here the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads). Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0-1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and being applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of very good quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and fault traces from shear zones. Since these can be regarded in sandbox models as zones of decompaction, they behave as reflectors and can be imaged. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here improves the quality with respect to S/N-ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth penetration in glass bead layers thereby amounts to 5 cm. Thus, the presented mini-seismic device is

  15. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kukowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezo-electric transducers used here the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads. Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0–1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and being applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of very good quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and fault traces from shear zones. Since these can be regarded in sandbox models as zones of decompaction, they behave as reflectors and can be imaged. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here improves the quality with respect to S/N-ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth penetration in glass bead layers thereby amounts to 5 cm. Thus, the presented mini

  16. Usability evaluation of Laboratory and Radiology Information Systems integrated into a hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Eslami, Saeid; Khajouei, Reza

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the usability of widely used laboratory and radiology information systems. Three usability experts independently evaluated the user interfaces of Laboratory and Radiology Information Systems using heuristic evaluation method. They applied Nielsen's heuristics to identify and classify usability problems and Nielsen's severity rating to judge their severity. Overall, 116 unique heuristic violations were identified as usability problems. In terms of severity, 67 % of problems were rated as major and catastrophic. Among 10 heuristics, "consistency and standards" was violated most frequently. Moreover, mean severity of problems concerning "error prevention" and "help and documentation" heuristics was higher than of the others. Despite widespread use of specific healthcare information systems, they suffer from usability problems. Improving the usability of systems by following existing design standards and principles from the early phased of system development life cycle is recommended. Especially, it is recommended that the designers design systems that inhibit the initiation of erroneous actions and provide sufficient guidance to users.

  17. Numerical evaluation of image parameters of ETR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed a method to handle the image quality test-tool precisely. This test-tool is important to evaluate the quality of the medical images for pre-treatment planning phase. But the achieved images are estimated by naked eyes, which does not provide the precise result. Our main goal is to get the desired image parameters numerically. This numerical estimation overcomes the limitation of naked eye observation. Hence, it enhances the pre-treatment planning. The ETR-1 test-tool is considered here. The contrast, the low contrast details and line-pairs (lp/mm were estimated.

  18. 76 FR 70456 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Sandia National Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... class of employees from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be included in the... evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Sandia National Laboratory. Location: Albuquerque, New Mexico....

  19. Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantoms in Akita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kiyohiko [Akita Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Watarai, Jiro; Miura, Mamoru

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantom in Akita Prefecture. The Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation disease in Akita was established in July, 1997. To improve myocardial spect imaging in Akita Prefecture, we first visually evaluated two acrlic defect (2 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness aqcliel and 1 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness) images of long axis and short axis of myocardial phantoms, using 14 SPECT Cameras. These defect images of myocardial phantom were evaluated by four cardiologists and twelve radiologists between August and December, 1996. Secondly, we measured the FWHM of four line sources (anterior, lateral, inferior, and septum positions in the short axis of myocardial phantom) using quantitative analysis by myocardial phantom between April and July, 1997. The results were reported at the 4th and 5th meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation Disease in Akita. In conclusion, about 70% of myocardial spect images were of good or normal quality, whereas about 30% of the images were evaluated as of bad quality. To improve the myocardial spect images, we recognized that the basic performance of the SPECT cameras need be investigated. (author)

  20. Image segmentation evaluation for very-large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.; Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of modern machine learning methods and fully automated image analysis there is a need for very large image datasets having documented segmentations for both computer algorithm training and evaluation. Current approaches of visual inspection and manual markings do not scale well to big data. We present a new approach that depends on fully automated algorithm outcomes for segmentation documentation, requires no manual marking, and provides quantitative evaluation for computer algorithms. The documentation of new image segmentations and new algorithm outcomes are achieved by visual inspection. The burden of visual inspection on large datasets is minimized by (a) customized visualizations for rapid review and (b) reducing the number of cases to be reviewed through analysis of quantitative segmentation evaluation. This method has been applied to a dataset of 7,440 whole-lung CT images for 6 different segmentation algorithms designed to fully automatically facilitate the measurement of a number of very important quantitative image biomarkers. The results indicate that we could achieve 93% to 99% successful segmentation for these algorithms on this relatively large image database. The presented evaluation method may be scaled to much larger image databases.

  1. Upper airway imaging and its role in preoperative airway evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish G Sutagatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (USG is well-known as a fast, safe, and noninvasive technique. Its application for imaging of the airway is now gaining momentum. The upper airway has a complex anatomy, and its assessment forms a vital part of every preanesthetic evaluation. Ultrasound (US imaging can help in upper airway assessment in the preoperative period. There are various approaches to upper airway USG. The technique has its own advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. This simple yet challenging imaging technique is all set to become an important part of routine preoperative airway evaluation. This article reviews the various approaches to upper airway US imaging, interpretation of the images, limitations, and disadvantages of the technique and its varied clinical applications in the preoperative period. The scientific material presented here was hand searched from textbooks and journals, electronically from PubMed, and Google scholar using text words.

  2. Relevance Feedback in Conceptual Image Retrieval: A User Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The Visual Object Information Retrieval (VOIR) system described in this paper implements an image retrieval approach that combines two layers, the conceptual and the visual layer. It uses terms from a textual thesaurus to represent the conceptual information and also works with image regions, the visual information. The terms are related with the image regions through a weighted association enabling the execution of concept-level queries. VOIR uses region-based relevance feedback to improve the quality of the results in each query session and to discover new associations between text and image. This paper describes a user-centred and task-oriented comparative evaluation of VOIR which was undertaken considering three distinct versions of VOIR: a full-fledge version; one supporting relevance feedback only at image level; and a third version not supporting relevance feedback at all. The evaluation performed showed the usefulness of region based relevance feedback in the context of VOIR prototype.

  3. Innovative Hyperspectral Imaging-Based Techniques for Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New, non-destructive sensing techniques for fast and more effective quality assessment of fruits and vegetables are needed to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for better, more consistent and safer food products. Over the past 15 years, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a new generation of sensing technology for non-destructive food quality and safety evaluation, because it integrates the major features of imaging and spectroscopy, thus enabling the acquisition of both spectral and spatial information from an object simultaneously. This paper first provides a brief overview of hyperspectral imaging configurations and common sensing modes used for food quality and safety evaluation. The paper is, however, focused on the three innovative hyperspectral imaging-based techniques or sensing platforms, i.e., spectral scattering, integrated reflectance and transmittance, and spatially-resolved spectroscopy, which have been developed in our laboratory for property and quality evaluation of fruits, vegetables and other food products. The basic principle and instrumentation of each technique are described, followed by the mathematical methods for processing and extracting critical information from the acquired data. Applications of these techniques for property and quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables are then presented. Finally, concluding remarks are given on future research needs to move forward these hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 4th Quarter 2013; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  5. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Cumulative; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  6. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  7. Evaluation of a laboratory test to detect resistance to closantel in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J B; Fitzgibbon, C C; Barchia, I

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate a laboratory test for closantel resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Field isolates of H contortus, known to be resistant to closantel, were tested in the assay. In addition, mixtures of closantel-susceptible and closantel-resistant laboratory reference strains were tested to develop a method of predicting the proportion of resistant worms in a sample from the field. The assay correctly identified as resistant all of the closantel-resistant field isolates of H contortus. It also identified one isolate with an in vivo efficacy of 98% as having emerging resistance. Testing of the mixtures of laboratory reference strains revealed that an isolate would be classified as resistant when it consists of about 25% or more resistant worms. Test samples that are not fully susceptible yet contain less than 25% resistant worms may be classified as emerging resistance. The in vitro migration assay is a sensitive method of detecting closantel resistance in H contortus.

  8. Pitch evaluation of gratings based on a digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yancong; Jia, Wei; Wei, Chunlong; Yu, Junjie; Li, Shubin; Li, Yanyang; Li, Minkang; Qiu, Jucheng; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhou, Changhe

    2016-04-01

    The digital image correlation (DIC) technique used for metrological grating evaluation is presented in this paper. A CCD camera is used to acquire the grating image, and the DIC technique together with the peak-position detection method is used to evaluate the grating pitches. The theoretical analysis and simulations are performed to confirm that the performance of our technique is as accurate as the Fourier transform (FT) technique, and is capable of noise resistance. As an example, the uniformity of the grating fabricated in our laboratory is measured using this method. The experimental results show that this grating has a peak-to-valley uniformity of 48 nm during a long range of 35 mm, and our technique has a higher repeatability than the FT technique in our measurement strategy. This work should be of great significance for the evaluation of metrological grating for optical encoders.

  9. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  10. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500...... from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and a methodology for clinical image quality evaluation for guiding the development of new and improved imaging. The system is based on a BK-Medical 2202 Pro......Focus scanner equipped with a UA2227 research interface, connected to a PC through X64-CL Express camera link. Data acquisition features subject data recording, loading/saving of exact scanner settings (for later experiment reproducibility), free access to all system parameters for beamformation...

  11. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of on-site urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Sten; Tusic, Marinela; Olsson, Robert; Franzen, Lisa; Hulten, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Products for on-site urine drug testing offer the possibility to perform screening for drugs of abuse directly at the point-of-care. This is a well-established routine in emergency and dependency clinics but further evaluation of performance is needed due to inherent limitations with the available products. Urine drug testing by an on-site product was compared with routine laboratory methods. First, on-site testing was performed at the laboratory in addition to the routine method. Second, the on-site testing was performed at a dependency clinic and urine samples were subsequently sent to the laboratory for additional analytical investigation. The on-site testing products did not perform with assigned cut-off levels. The subjective reading between the presence of a spot (i.e. negative test result) being present or no spot (positive result) was difficult in 3.2% of the cases, and occurred for all parameters. The tests performed more accurately in drug negative samples (specificity 96%) but less accurately for detecting positives (sensitivity 79%). Of all incorrect results by the on-site test the proportion of false negatives was 42%. The overall agreement between on-site and laboratory testing was 95% in the laboratory study and 98% in the clinical study. Although a high degree of agreement was observed between on-site and routine laboratory urine drug testing, the performance of on-site testing was not acceptable due to significant number of false negative results. The limited sensitivity of on-site testing compared to laboratory testing reduces the applicability of these tests.

  12. Evaluating the clinical teaching of medical imaging students at Curtin University of Technology, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohiy, H M; Davidson, R

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of the clinical, tutorial-based component of teaching and the clinical assessment method in the Bachelor of Medical Imaging Science at Curtin University of Technology (CUT), Perth, Western Australia. In mid-2006, second- and third-year students enrolled in CUT's Medical Imaging Science degree were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) evaluation program and clinical teaching. Thirty-three of 57 students answered questions about demographics and their opinions of the laboratory sessions, clinical placements and the OSCEs. Seventy-six per cent of students were satisfied with their laboratory sessions and clinical placements. Sixty-four percent of respondents indicated that the OSCE was not an objective evaluation, but 82% of students felt the OSCE was an effective test of their radiography skills and knowledge, and believed that they were able to evaluate and care for a patient during the OSCE. Overall, the surveyed students believed that the practical skills explored in laboratory sessions helped improve clinical training outcomes; however, only 33% of the students were satisfied that the OSCE was an appropriate assessment of their clinical training in hospitals.

  13. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  14. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments - laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Buddensiek, M.-L.; Oncken, O.; Kukowski, N.

    2013-02-01

    With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first 2-D experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads). Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0-1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and is applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of high quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and indications of the fault traces from shear zones. Since these were artificially introduced in our test models, they can be regarded as zones of disturbance rather than tectonic shear zones characterized by decompaction. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here, improves the quality with respect to S / N ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth penetration in glass

  15. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Krawczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first 2-D experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads. Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0–1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and is applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of high quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and indications of the fault traces from shear zones. Since these were artificially introduced in our test models, they can be regarded as zones of disturbance rather than tectonic shear zones characterized by decompaction. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here, improves the quality with respect to S / N ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth

  16. Laboratory Demonstration of High Contrast Imaging in Multi-Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Sirbu, Dan; Thomas, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    We show laboratory results advancing the technology readiness of a method to directly image planets and disks in multi-star systems such as Alpha Centauri. This method works with almost any coronagraph (or external occulter with a DM) and requires little or no change to existing and mature hardware. Because of the ubiquity of multistar systems, this method potentially multiplies the science yield of many missions and concepts such as WFIRST, Exo-C/S, HabEx, LUVOIR, and potentially enables the detection of Earth-like planets (if they exist) around our nearest neighbor star, Alpha Centauri, with a small and low-cost space telescope such as ACESat.We identified two main challenges associated with double-star (or multi-star) systems and methods to solve them. “Multi-Star Wavefront Control” (MSWC) enables the independent suppression of starlight from more than one star, and Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control (SNWC) enables extending MSWC to the case where star separation is beyond the Nyquist limit of the deformable mirror (DM).Our lab demonstrations were conducted at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) laboratory and proved the basic principles of both MSWC and SNWC. They involved a 32x32 deformable mirror but no coronagraph for simplicity. We used MSWC to suppress starlight independently from two stars by at least an order of magnitude, in monochromatic as well as broadband light as broad as 50%. We also used SNWC to suppress starlight at separations as far as 100 λ/D from the star, surpassing the Nyquist limit of the DM.

  17. Development and evaluation of an interactive electronic laboratory manual for cooperative learning of medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Kirkley, Debbie L; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual includes guided instruction for students to navigate virtual slides, exercises for students to monitor learning, and cases to provide clinical relevance. At the end of the laboratory activities, student groups can generate a laboratory report that may be used to provide formative feedback. The instructional value of the manual was evaluated by a questionnaire containing both closed-ended and open-ended items. Closed-ended items using a five-point Likert-scale assessed the format and navigation, instructional contents, group process, and learning process. Open-ended items assessed student's perception on the effectiveness of the manual in facilitating their learning. After implementation for two consecutive years, student evaluation of the manual was highly positive and indicated that it facilitated their learning by reinforcing and clarifying classroom sessions, improved their understanding, facilitated active and cooperative learning, and supported self-monitoring of their learning. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. CT imaging vs. traditional radiographic imaging for evaluating Harris Lines in tibiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first to systematically investigate computer tomography (CT) images vs. ordinary flat plane radiography for evaluating Harris Lines (HL) on tibiae. Harris Lines are traditionally investigated using radiographic images and recorded as either present or absent, or by counting...

  19. InAsSb Hybrid Imager Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, J. P.

    1980-05-01

    Current research on infrared hybrid focal planes is directed toward devices in which detection occurs in a p-n junction formed in an intrinsic narrow energy bandgap semiconductor, and signal processing is accomplished in a Si CCD multiplexer which is electrically interfaced to the detector array. A hybrid array such as this, where the detector format is a 32 x 32 matrix, has been fabricated. The active material is backside-illuminated InAsSb which has been planar processed and fully passivated. The cutoff wavelength is 4.0 μm at the operating temperature of 77K. The CCD is four phase with a two level polysilicon gate structure. The signal input is via direct injection with an option for dc suppression. Operation of the focal plane in a staring mode that uses dc suppression is discussed. Data derived from the video output is presented; this includes responsivity and detectivity. Off focal plane non-uniformity compensation is also discussed. Displays of thermal images utilizing processed data from the hybrid focal plane array will be shown.

  20. Metal artifact reduction and image quality evaluation of lumbar spine CT images using metal sinogram segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewlek, Titipong; Koolpiruck, Diew; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak; Mongkolsuk, Manus; Thammakittiphan, Sastrawut; Tritrakarn, Siri-on; Chiewvit, Pipat

    2015-01-01

    Metal artifacts often appear in the images of computed tomography (CT) imaging. In the case of lumbar spine CT images, artifacts disturb the images of critical organs. These artifacts can affect the diagnosis, treatment, and follow up care of the patient. One approach to metal artifact reduction is the sinogram completion method. A mixed-variable thresholding (MixVT) technique to identify the suitable metal sinogram is proposed. This technique consists of four steps: 1) identify the metal objects in the image by using k-mean clustering with the soft cluster assignment, 2) transform the image by separating it into two sinograms, one of which is the sinogram of the metal object, with the surrounding tissue shown in the second sinogram. The boundary of the metal sinogram is then found by the MixVT technique, 3) estimate the new value of the missing data in the metal sinogram by linear interpolation from the surrounding tissue sinogram, 4) reconstruct a modified sinogram by using filtered back-projection and complete the image by adding back the image of the metal object into the reconstructed image to form the complete image. The quantitative and clinical image quality evaluation of our proposed technique demonstrated a significant improvement in image clarity and detail, which enhances the effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Evaluation of a new reconstruction algorithm for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Maria; Hauke, Christian; Horn, Florian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging might open up entirely new opportunities in medical imaging. However, transferring the interferometer technique from laboratory setups to conventional imaging systems the necessary rigidity of the system is difficult to achieve. Therefore, vibrations or distortions of the system lead to inaccuracies within the phase-stepping procedure. Given insufficient stability of the phase-step positions, up to now, artifacts in phase-contrast images occur, which lower the image quality. This is a problem with regard to the intended use of phase-contrast imaging in clinical routine as for example tiny structures of the human anatomy cannot be observed. In this contribution we evaluate an algorithm proposed by Vargas et.al.1 and applied to X-ray imaging by Pelzer et.al. that enables us to reconstruct a differential phase-contrast image without the knowledge of the specific phase-step positions. This method was tested in comparison to the standard reconstruction by Fourier analysis. The quality of phase-contrast images remains stable, even if the phase-step positions are completely unknown and not uniformly distributed. To also achieve attenuation and dark-field images the proposed algorithm has been combined with a further algorithm of Vargas et al.3 Using this algorithm, the phase-step positions can be reconstructed. With the help of the proper phase-step positions it is possible to get information about the phase, the amplitude and the offset of the measured data. We evaluated this algorithm concerning the measurement of thick objects which show a high absorbency.

  2. Guidelines of the Office International des Epizooties for laboratory quality evaluation, for international reference standards for antibody assays and for laboratory proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Three guidelines, adopted by the International Committee of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), have been combined for publication in a single document. The Guidelines for evaluating laboratory quality (adopted in 1995) form part of the OIE Guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services. General requirements for equipment, staffing and management of laboratories are outlined. The guidelines for international reference standards for antibody assays (adopted in 1998) provide general rules governing the preparation of immune sera by OIE Reference Laboratories. A data sheet should accompany each preparation dispatched from the laboratory, and details are given of the information to be contained in the data sheet. The guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the OIE Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Guidelines on the proficiency of laboratory testing (adopted in 1996) describe how the operation of a laboratory can be assessed by inter-laboratory testing, and by voluntary participation in an accreditation (quality assurance) audit, operated by an independent authority. Criteria for assessing serological testing are provided.

  3. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  4. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  5. Inter-laboratory evaluation of instrument platforms and experimental workflows for quantitative accuracy and reproducibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Percy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproducibility of plasma protein quantitation between laboratories and between instrument types was examined in a large-scale international study involving 16 laboratories and 19 LC–MS/MS platforms, using two kits designed to evaluate instrument performance and one kit designed to evaluate the entire bottom-up workflow. There was little effect of instrument type on the quality of the results, demonstrating the robustness of LC/MRM-MS with isotopically labeled standards. Technician skill was a factor, as errors in sample preparation and sub-optimal LC–MS performance were evident. This highlights the importance of proper training and routine quality control before quantitation is done on patient samples.

  6. Radiation exposure of cardiac sonographers working in an academic noninvasive cardiovascular imaging laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Michael R; Orsinelli, Maryellen H; Orsinelli, David A

    2017-09-24

    Exposure to workplace radiation among cardiac sonographers has been felt to be low, and patient-related sources have been considered negligible. Sonographers may be exposed to radiation from patient emitted sources as well as external sources in interventional laboratories. This study quantified radiation exposure to cardiac sonographers. Cardiac sonographers, vascular imaging technologists, exercise physiologists, noninvasive nursing staff, and CT/MRI technologists were provided body dosimeter badges. Sonographers were provided dosimeter rings for their scanning hands. Radiation exposure was quantified from the dosimeter data, reported in millirems (mrem) for deep, eye, and shallow exposure, as well as shallow exposure data from the rings. Data were prospectively collected for 63 employees over a 12-month period and retrospectively analyzed. The mean annual deep body exposure in sonographers was 8.2 mrem/year, shallow exposure 9.8 mrem/year, eye exposure 8.5 mrem/year, and ring exposure 207 mrem/year. There was a significant difference between body and ring exposure (P = .0002). When comparing exposure data between the vascular imaging technologists, CT/MRI technologists, noninvasive nursing staff, and the cardiac sonographers, there were no statistical differences (P > .23). Exercise physiologists had significantly higher exposure compared to sonographers (P exposure is low, cardiac sonographers are exposed to workplace radiation, most likely from patient emitted radiation. The finding that radiation exposure from rings exceeded body exposure supports this conclusion. Continued education and assessment of work flow practices should be employed to minimize staff radiation exposure. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Laboratory methods of evaluating tomato resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented investigations was to determine uniform laboratory methods of evaluating horizontal resistance of tomatoes to late blight. It was found that the best tests were infecting whole plants at the 5-leaf stage and infecting leaves removed from the middle part of the shoot. The best method of testing the resistance of fruit to infection was instilling a suspension of spores on the calyx with the sepals left in place.

  8. Evaluation of effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana using a standard laboratory bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In laboratory bioassays, the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) was tested under various temperature conditions. Six different strains of fungus B. bassiana was investigated. The evaluation was based on vitality bioassays including germination and growth index assessment and the bioassay of virulence based on target organism T. molitor was also assessed growth and yield of conidia different strains of fungus B. bassiana on...

  9. Qualitative risk evaluation of environmental restoration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the evaluation of risks associated with environmental restoration activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two tools supplied by DOE to provide a consistent set of risk estimates across the DOE complex: Risk Data Sheets (RDS) and Relative Risk Ranking. The tools are described, the process taken characterized, results provided and discussed. The two approaches are compared and recommendations provided for continuing improvement of the process.

  10. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  11. High Contrast Imaging and Wavefront Control with a PIAA Coronagraph: Laboratory System Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Totems, Julien; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Taro; Blain, Celia; Belikov, Ruslan

    2009-01-01

    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is a high performance coronagraph concept able to work at small angular separation with little loss in throughput. We present results obtained with a laboratory PIAA system including active wavefront control. The system has a 94.3% throughput (excluding coating losses) and operates in air with monochromatic light. Our testbed achieved a 2.27e-7 raw contrast between 1.65 lambda/D (inner working angle of the coronagraph configuration tested) and 4.4 lambda/D (outer working angle). Through careful calibration, we were able to separate this residual light into a dynamic coherent component (turbulence, vibrations) at 4.5e-8 contrast and a static incoherent component (ghosts and/or polarization missmatch) at 1.6e-7 contrast. Pointing errors are controlled at the 1e-3 lambda/D level using a dedicated low order wavefront sensor. While not sufficient for direct imaging of Earth-like planets from space, the 2.27e-7 raw contrast achieved already exceeds requirem...

  12. Laboratory evaluations of insecticide product efficacy for control of Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Miller, Dini M

    2006-12-01

    A susceptible, laboratory strain of bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., was used to determine the efficacy of insecticide products labeled or possessing a site label for bed bug control. Field strain bed bugs also were used to evaluate one insecticide product. The lethal time (LT),, values calculated for the laboratory strain bed bugs indicated that all of the pyrethroid products killed significantly faster than chlorfenapyr (0.5% [AIl; Phantom: BASF; LT50 = 10 d and 9 h). lamda-Cyhalothrin (0.03%; Demand CS; Syngenta) was the fastest acting insecticide (LT50 = 20 min), followed by bifenthrin (0.02% [AI]; Talstar One, FMC; LT50 = 53 min), deltamethrin (0.06% [AI]; Suspend SC; Bayer; LT50 = 61 min), and permethrin (0.05%; Dragnet SFR; FMC; LT50 = 88 min). The field strain bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin had an LT50 value of 14 day 8 h, indicating that the field strain was significantly less susceptible to deltamethrin than the laboratory strain. Chlorfenapyr exposure did not prevent the laboratory strain bed bugs from mating and laying eggs, nor did it prevent the eggs from hatching during the 2-wk exposure period. Surprisingly, none of the insecticides tested, including the pyrethroids, were repellent to laboratory strain bed bugs. Bed bugs rested on pyrethroid-treated panels and remained in contact with the panels until they died (2 h). Chlorfenapyr was also not repellent to bed bugs, but it caused no mortality during the 2-h test period. This study suggests that although pyrethroids were effective for controlling laboratory strain bed bugs, there is the potential for significant resistance in field strains. This study also determined that pyrethroid products were not repellent to bed bugs and would not cause bed bug aggregations to scatter or avoid treated surfaces.

  13. Laboratory and Ambulatory Evaluation of Vasomotor Symptom Monitors from the MsFLASH Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Joffe, Hadine; Reed, Susan D.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Milata, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate monitors for assessing vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in laboratory and ambulatory settings prior to use in the MsFLASH network clinical trials testing VMS therapies. Methods This was a 3-phase study: Phase 1 - laboratory testing of the Freedman and prototype Bahr Monitor™; Phase 2 - laboratory testing of the commercial Bahr Monitor™ and Biolog™; and Phase 3 - ambulatory testing of the commercial Bahr Monitor™ and Biolog™. All phases enrolled midlife women with VMS, midlife women without VMS, and young women without VMS. Participants self-reported VMS by pressing event marker buttons. Questionnaires assessed demographics (all phases) and monitor acceptability (phases 2 and 3). Results Phase I testing was stopped due to sensitivity of the Freedman device to ambient humidity changes and lack of analytic software for the prototype Bahr Monitor™. In phases 2 and 3, agreement between event-marked and commercial Bahr or Biolog™-recorded VMS was higher in the laboratory than the ambulatory setting, however, agreement between monitors was poor in 2 of 3 laboratory groups (midlife no VMS and young no VMS) and all ambulatory groups. During ambulatory monitoring, the mean number of Bahr Monitor™ VMS was 16.33 in midlife women with VMS, 9.61 in midlife women without VMS, and 14.63 in young women without VMS (software version March, 2011). The Bahr Monitor™ was more acceptable than the larger Biolog™, but feedback reflected annoyance at having to wear a device that itched and was visible under clothing. Conclusions The Bahr Monitor™ and Biolog™ appear suitable for use in controlled, laboratory conditions over short periods of time. However, the current versions of these monitors may not be suitable for ambulatory clinical trials at this time. PMID:22228321

  14. Controlling population evolution in the laboratory to evaluate methods of historical inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mardulyn

    Full Text Available Natural populations of known detailed past demographic history are extremely valuable to evaluate methods of historical inference, yet are extremely rare. As an alternative approach, we have generated multiple replicate microsatellite data sets from laboratory-cultured populations of a gonochoric free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei, that were constrained to pre-defined demographic histories featuring different levels of migration among populations or bottleneck events of different magnitudes. These data sets were then used to evaluate the performances of two recently developed population genetics methods, BayesAss+, that estimates recent migration rates among populations, and Bottleneck, that detects the occurrence of recent bottlenecks. Migration rates inferred by BayesAss+ were generally over-estimates, although these were often included within the confidence interval. Analyses of data sets simulated in-silico, using a model mimicking the laboratory experiments, produced less biased estimates of the migration rates, and showed increased efficiency of the program when the number of loci and sampled genotypes per population was higher. In the replicates for which the pre-bottleneck laboratory-cultured populations did not significantly depart from a mutation/drift equilibrium, an important assumption of the program Bottleneck, only a portion of the bottleneck events were detected. This result was confirmed by in-silico simulations mirroring the laboratory bottleneck experiments. More generally, our study demonstrates the feasibility, and highlights some of the limits, of the approach that consists in generating molecular genetic data sets by controlling the evolution of laboratory-reared nematode populations, for the purpose of validating methods inferring population history.

  15. Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Methods A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Results Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application. Conclusion Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them. PMID:24373202

  16. Penumbral imaging and numerical evaluation of large area source neutron imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The fusion neutron penumbral imaging system Monte Carlo model was established. The transfer functions of the two discrete units in the neutron source were obtained in two situations:Imaging in geometrical near-optical and real situation. The spatial resolutions of the imaging system in two situations were evaluated and compared. The penumbral images of four units in the source were obtained by means of 2-dimensional (2D) convolution and Monte Carlo simulation. The penumbral images were reconstructed with the same method of filter. The same results were confirmed. The encoding essence of penumbral imaging was revealed. With MCNP(Monte Carlo N-particle) simulation,the neutron penumbral images of the large area source (200 μm×200 μm) on scintillation fiber array were obtained. The improved Wiener filter method was used to reconstruct the penumbral image and the source image was obtained. The results agree with the preset neutron source image. The feasibility of the neutron imaging system was verified.

  17. Penumbral imaging and numerical evaluation of large area source neutron imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueLei; HU HuaSi; ZHANG BoPing; LI LinBo; CHEN Da; SHAN Qing; ZHU Jie

    2009-01-01

    The fusion neutron penumbral imaging system Monte Carlo model was established. The transfer func-tions of the two discrete units in the neutron source were obtained in two situations: Imaging in geo-metrical near-optical and real situation. The spatial resolutions of the imaging system in two situations were evaluated and compared. The penumbral images of four units in the source were obtained by means of 2-dimensional (2D) convolution and Monte Carlo simulation. The penumbral images were reconstructed with the same method of filter. The same results were confirmed. The encoding essence of penumbral imaging was revealed. With MCNP(Monte Carlo N-particle) simulation, the neutron pen-umbral images of the large area source (200 μm×200 μm) on scintillation fiber array were obtained. The improved Wiener filter method was used to reconstruct the penumbral image and the source image was obtained. The results agree with the preset neutron source image. The feasibility of the neutron imaging system was verified.

  18. Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Annual report, April 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Casstevens, J.M.; Sutton, B.J.

    1979-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory (ORFEL) was assembled, and the initial stages of proof testing were completed in FY 1979. The significant accomplishments for the past year included the establishment of adequate full-time personnel; facility modification to reflect the emphasis on flywheel evaluation over simple testing; and the facility proof test involving two aluminum disk flywheels and one composite flywheel. This report contains details of the FY 1979 program plans for ORFEL, personal profiles of the dedicated manpower, and details of the tests performed.

  19. Meat quality evaluation by hyperspectral imaging technique: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread

  20. Evaluation of Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Concept Images for Quadrilaterals

    OpenAIRE

    ERŞEN, Zeynep; KARAKUŞ, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine preservice elementary teachers' images for some special quadrilaterals. The case study was conducted with 6 preservice elementary teachers. The data were collected by clinical interviews to evaluate preservice teachers’ images for quadrilaterals. Hence, initially, the questionnaire consisting of two parts was given to preservice teachers. In the first part, preservice teachers were asked to draw 3 different squares, rectangles, trapezoids and parall...

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  2. Image Segmentation for Food Quality Evaluation Using Computer Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini. P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality evaluation is an important factor in food processing industries using the computer vision system where human inspection systems provide high variability. In many countries food processing industries aims at producing defect free food materials to the consumers. Human evaluation techniques suffer from high labour costs, inconsistency and variability. Thus this paper provides various steps for identifying defects in the food material using the computer vision systems. Various steps in computer vision system are image acquisition, Preprocessing, image segmentation, feature identification and classification. The proposed framework provides the comparison of various filters where the hybrid median filter was selected as the filter with the high PSNR value and is used in preprocessing. Image segmentation techniques such as Colour based binary Image segmentation, Particle swarm optimization are compared and image segmentation parameters such as accuracy, sensitivity , specificity are calculated and found that colour based binary image segmentation is well suited for food quality evaluation. Finally this paper provides an efficient method for identifying the defected parts in food materials.

  3. Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornet, Clémence; Vaillant, Jérôme; Decroux, Thomas; Hérault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of CMOS sensors performance in terms of color accuracy and noise is a big challenge for camera phone manufacturers. On this paper, we present a tool developed with Matlab at STMicroelectronics which allows quality parameters to be evaluated on simulated images. These images are computed based on measured or predicted Quantum Efficiency (QE) curves and noise model. By setting the parameters of integration time and illumination, the tool optimizes the color correction matrix (CCM) and calculates the color error, color saturation and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). After this color correction optimization step, a Graphics User Interface (GUI) has been designed to display a simulated image at a chosen illumination level, with all the characteristics of a real image taken by the sensor with the previous color correction. Simulated images can be a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker, for which reflectance of each patch is known, or a multi-spectral image, described by the reflectance spectrum of each pixel or an image taken at high-light level. A validation of the results has been performed with ST under development sensors. Finally we present two applications one based on the trade-offs between color saturation and noise by optimizing the CCM and the other based on demosaicking SNR trade-offs.

  4. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of physical characteristics of laboratory -made chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Olga Lj.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of chocolate, as a complex multicompound system, is one of the ways to define and control its physico-chemical characteristics, i.e. quality. Chocolate quality depends on structure and ingredients percentage that influence its appearance, taste and behaviour in the production processes and storage. The aim of this work was to compare certain quality factors of laboratory-made chocolate with added emulsifier-blooming inhibitor, determinated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Sensory evaluation of chocolate samples was made according to ISO 6685:1985 method (total score system. This ISO standard method was supplemented with QDA method for determination of mouth feel. The results of colour sensory evaluation showed good agreement with whiteness obtained on a MOM Colour 100 instrument by Hunter system evaluation. This showed that the sensory analysis, in comparison with instrumental determination of some quality factors, is an objective method.

  5. Evaluation of the Beckman Synchron CX4 clinical chemistry analyzer in a hospital laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambus, T; Korogyi, N; DeCampos, F; Groom, B; Innanen, V T

    1990-01-01

    The Beckman Synchron CX4 random-access multianalyzer was evaluated in a medium sized hospital laboratory. The instrument does end-point, rate, and multipoint assays and carries on-board reagents for 24 tests. In addition to predefined tests, the instrument can be programmed for 100 user-defined tests; these are stored on the hard disk and can utilize up to three component reagents each. The throughput is 200 tests per hour. There is stat testing capability. In our evaluation, within-run and between-run precision and linearity were good, and no reagent carryover was detected. There was good correlation with the in-house methodology for the 19 tests evaluated. A disadvantage at the time of evaluation was interference by elevated bilirubin on creatinine, phosphorus, uric acid, and triglycerides. This problem of interference is being addressed by the manufacturer.

  6. Standard guide for evaluating and qualifying oilfield and refinery corrosion inhibitors in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oilfield and refinery applications in well defined flow conditions. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather covers a range of approaches which have found application in inhibitor evaluation. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in inhibitor evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

  7. Process evaluation of an open architecture real-time molecular laboratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jackson, Keith D; Walter, Adam M

    2014-10-01

    The needs of molecular diagnostic laboratories that perform both Food and Drug Administration-cleared as well as laboratory-developed tests are usually not met on a single analytical platform. Furthermore, little information is available about the direct impact of molecular automation on labor costs and efficiency in clinical laboratories. We performed a process impact analysis from time and motion studies of a novel molecular diagnostic robotic system designed to automate sample preparation, extraction, and analysis. All 27 preanalytical tasks were quantified for the amount of time spent preparing 24 specimens for analysis. These steps were completed in 899 s (14 min, 59 s) followed by 7887 s (131 min, 27 s) of instrument operation independent of operator control (walk-away time). Postanalytical results evaluation required 1 min per specimen. The instrument automatically extracted the nucleic acid from the specimen, added the eluted DNA to the amplification reagents, and performed the analysis. Only 12% of the total instrument operations required relatively unskilled human labor. Thus, the availability of automated molecular diagnostic instruments will facilitate the expansion of molecular testing in the clinical laboratory because they reduce operator costs with respect to time and complexity of the tasks they are asked to perform.

  8. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 2. Laboratory and combustion test results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the second of three volumes describing a multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume presents the results of laboratory, atomization, and combustion tests which were performed on six slurries and their parent coals. The objectives of these tests was to establish laboratory test procedures for evaluating CWS fuels, to investigate relationships between laboratory properties and CWS combustion and handling characteristics and to develop preliminary guidelines for CWS specifications. These tests showed that the preparation processes and chemical additives used by the slurry manufacturers had a significant effect on viscosity and atomization properties. The most important factor for good combustion performance was droplet size, but droplet size did not correlate with viscosity measured at low shear rates in the laboratory tests. It was also found that some slurries had greater fouling potential than their parent coals due to the use of sodium-containing additives. Tests were also conducted to determine whether the slurries could be transported and stored without coal settling. These tests showed that little settling occurred during either transportation or storage for at least three weeks. 98 figures, 27 tables.

  9. Photon detection efficiency of laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast imaging techniques for mammography: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghamanesh, S.; Aghamiri, S. M.; Kamali-Asl, A.; Yashiro, W.

    2017-09-01

    An important challenge in real-world biomedical applications of x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) techniques is the efficient use of the photon flux generated by an incoherent and polychromatic x-ray source. This efficiency can directly influence dose and exposure time and ideally should not affect the superior contrast and sensitivity of XPCI. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of the photon detection efficiency of two laboratory-based XPCI methods, grating interferometry (GI) and coded-aperture (CA). We adopt a Monte Carlo approach to simulate existing prototypes of those systems, tailored for mammography applications. Our simulations were validated by means of a simple experiment performed on a CA XPCI system. Our results show that the fraction of detected photons in the standard energy range of mammography are about 1.4% and 10% for the GI and CA techniques, respectively. The simulations indicate that the design of the optical components plays an important role in the higher efficiency of CA compared to the GI method. It is shown that the use of lower absorbing materials as the substrates for GI gratings can improve its flux efficiency by up to four times. Along similar lines, we also show that an optimized and compact configuration of GI could lead to a 3.5 times higher fraction of detected counts compared to a standard and non-optimised GI implementation.

  10. Fusion for Evaluation of Image Classification in Uncertain Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    We present in this article a new evaluation method for classification and segmentation of textured images in uncertain environments. In uncertain environments, real classes and boundaries are known with only a partial certainty given by the experts. Most of the time, in many presented papers, only classification or only segmentation are considered and evaluated. Here, we propose to take into account both the classification and segmentation results according to the certainty given by the experts. We present the results of this method on a fusion of classifiers of sonar images for a seabed characterization.

  11. A new method to evaluate imaging quality of CCD cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-juan; DU Hai-hui; DAI Jing-min; CHEN Ying-hang

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras fully and rapidly,the minimum resolvable contrast (MRC) is presented in this paper and the system of measuring MRC is constructed as well,in which two integrating spheres are proposed to illuminate two sides of the target respectively.The variable contrast can be obtained by regulating the luminance of integrating spheres. Experimental results indicate that the error of measuring luminance is within ±0.3 cd/m2,MRC rises with the increase of the spatial frequency.The experimental results show that the method proposed is an effective approach to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras.

  12. The influence of uncertainties of measurements in laboratory performance evaluation using an intercomparison program of radionuclide assays in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.br; Elizabeth Couto Machado Vianna, Maria [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Eduardo de Oliveira, Antonio [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cristina de Melo Ferreira, Ana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Julia Camara da Silva Braganca, Maura [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faria Clain, Almir [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP:22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    To show the influence of measurement uncertainties in performance evaluation of laboratories, data from 42 comparison runs were evaluated using two statistical criteria. The normalized standard deviation, D, used by US EPA, that mainly takes into account the accuracy, and the normalized deviation, E, that includes the individual laboratory uncertainty used for performance evaluation in the key-comparisons by BIPM. The results show that data evaluated by the different criteria give a significant deviation of laboratory performance in each radionuclide assay when we analyse a large quantity of data.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of periosteal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Trad, Clovis Simao; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge; Simao, Marcelo Novelino, E-mail: marcello@fmrp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Sa, Jose Luiz de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cecilio Vieira de [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Tomoson, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil); Engel, Edgard Eduard [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Aparelho Locomotor

    2010-07-15

    The objective of the present essay was to encourage a careful evaluation of periosteal reactions on magnetic resonance images. The initial approach to bone lesions is made by conventional radiography and, based on the imaging findings, periosteal reactions are classified into classical subtypes. Although magnetic resonance imaging is considered as the gold standard for local staging of bone tumors, the utilization of such method in the study of periosteal reactions related to focal bone lesions has been poorly emphasized, with relatively few studies approaching this subject. The literature review revealed a study describing an experimental animal model of osteomyelitis suggesting that magnetic resonance imaging is superior to other imaging methods in the early identification of periosteal reactions. Another study has suggested a good correlation between conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging in the identification and classification of periosteal reactions in cases of osteosarcoma. The present essay illustrates cases of periosteal reactions observed at magnetic resonance imaging in correlation with findings of conventional radiography or other imaging methods. (author)

  14. Fast Multi-Operator Image Resizing and Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ming Dong; Guan-Bo Bao; Xiao-Peng Zhang; Jean-Claude Paul

    2012-01-01

    Current multi operator image resizing methods succeed in generating impressive results by using image similarity measure to guide the resizing process.An optimal operation path is found in the resizing space.However,their slow resizing speed caused by inefficient computation strategy of the bidirectional patch matching becomes a drawback in practical use.In this paper,we present a novel method to address this problem.By combining seam carving with scaling and cropping,our method can realize content-aware image resizing very fast.We define cost functions combing image energy and dominant color descriptor for all the operators to evaluate the damage to both local image content and global visual effect.Therefore our algorithm can automatically find an optimal sequence of operations to resize the image by using dynamic programming or greedy algorithm.We also extend our algorithm to indirect image resizing which can protect the aspect ratio of the dominant object in an image.

  15. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  16. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2015-12-23

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  17. Learning evaluation of ultrasound image segmentation using combined measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mengjie; Luo, Yongkang; Ding, Mingyue

    2016-03-01

    Objective evaluation of medical image segmentation is one of the important steps for proving its validity and clinical applicability. Although there are many researches presenting segmentation methods on medical image, while with few studying the evaluation methods on their results, this paper presents a learning evaluation method with combined measures to make it as close as possible to the clinicians' judgment. This evaluation method is more quantitative and precise for the clinical diagnose. In our experiment, the same data sets include 120 segmentation results of lumen-intima boundary (LIB) and media-adventitia boundary (MAB) of carotid ultrasound images respectively. And the 15 measures of goodness method and discrepancy method are used to evaluate the different segmentation results alone. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that compared with the discrepancy method, the accuracy with the measures of goodness method is poor. Then, by combining with the measures of two methods, the average accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 2 segmentation groups are higher than 93% and 0.9 respectively. And the results of MAB are better than LIB, which proved that this novel method can effectively evaluate the segmentation results. Moreover, it lays the foundation for the non-supervised segmentation evaluation system.

  18. Assessing agreement between preclinical magnetic resonance imaging and histology: An evaluation of their image qualities and quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Cindy; Korn, Paula; Hauptstock, Maria; Schulz, Matthias C; Range, Ursula; Jünger, Diana; Scheler, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of demographic change is the increasing demand for biocompatible materials for use in implants and prostheses. This is accompanied by a growing number of experimental animals because the interactions between new biomaterials and its host tissue have to be investigated. To evaluate novel materials and engineered tissues the use of non-destructive imaging modalities have been identified as a strategic priority. This provides the opportunity for studying interactions repeatedly with individual animals, along with the advantages of reduced biological variability and decreased number of laboratory animals. However, histological techniques are still the golden standard in preclinical biomaterial research. The present article demonstrates a detailed method comparison between histology and magnetic resonance imaging. This includes the presentation of their image qualities as well as the detailed statistical analysis for assessing agreement between quantitative measures. Exemplarily, the bony ingrowth of tissue engineered bone substitutes for treatment of a cleft-like maxillary bone defect has been evaluated. By using a graphical concordance analysis the mean difference between MRI results and histomorphometrical measures has been examined. The analysis revealed a slightly but significant bias in the case of the bone volume [Formula: see text] and a clearly significant deviation for the remaining defect width [Formula: see text] But the study although showed a considerable effect of the analyzed section position to the quantitative result. It could be proven, that the bias of the data sets was less originated due to the imaging modalities, but mainly on the evaluation of different slice positions. The article demonstrated that method comparisons not always need the use of an independent animal study, additionally.

  19. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: field and laboratory evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P; Karns, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Microbial activities are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-year field evaluations coupled with controlled laboratory column studies. Field data from two bioretention cells show that the concentration of indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli) was reduced during most storm events, and that the probability of meeting specific water quality criteria in the discharge was increased. Indicator bacteria concentration in the input flow typically increased with higher daily temperature. Although bacterial removal efficiency was independent of temperature in the field and laboratory, column tests showed that bacterial decay coefficients in conventional bioretention media (CBM) increase exponentially with elevated temperature. Increases in levels of protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria associated with increasing temperature appear to contribute to faster die-off of trapped E. coli in CBM via predation and competition.

  20. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Parker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9-tricosene. In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z-9 > methomyl + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z-9 bait.

  1. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  2. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn;

    2016-01-01

    -transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical......The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus......-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV...

  3. Porometric properties of siliciclastic marine sand: A comparison of traditional laboratory measurements with image analysis and effective medium modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A.H.; Briggs, K.B.; Lavoie, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    During the 1999 sediment acoustics experiment (SAX99), porometric properties were measured and predicted for a well sorted, medium sand using standard laboratory geotechnical methods and image analysis of resin-impregnated sediments. Sediment porosity measured by laboratory water-weight-loss methods (0.372 ?? 0.0073 for mean ??1 standard deviation) is 0.026 lower than determined by microscopic image analysis of resin-impregnated sediments (0.398 ?? 0.029). Values of intrinsic permeability (m2) determined from constant-head permeameter measurements (3.29 ?? 10-11 ?? 0.60 ?? 10-11) and by microscopic image analysis coupled with effective medium theory modeling (2.78 ?? 10-11 ?? 1.01 ?? 10-11) are nearly identical within measurement error. The mean value of tortuosity factor measured from images is 1.49 ?? 0.09, which is in agreement with tortuosity factor determined from electrical resistivity measurements. Slight heterogeneity and anisotropy are apparent in the top three centimeters of sediment as determined by image-based porometric property measurements. However, the overall similarity for both measured and predicted values of porosity and permeability among and within SAX99 sites indicates sediments are primarily homogeneous and isotropic and pore size distributions are fairly uniform. The results indicate that an effective medium theory technique and two-dimensional image analysis accurately predicts bulk permeability in resin-impregnated sands.

  4. Video Image Analysis of Turbulent Buoyant Jets Using a Novel Laboratory Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, T. J.; Colgan, R. E.; Ferencevych, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent buoyant jets play an important role in the transport of heat and mass in a variety of environmental settings on Earth. Naturally occurring examples include the discharges from high-temperature seafloor hydrothermal vents and from some types of subaerial volcanic eruptions. Anthropogenic examples include flows from industrial smokestacks and the flow from the damaged well after the Deepwater Horizon oil leak of 2010. Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for measuring the volumetric flow rates of turbulent buoyant jets, we have constructed a laboratory apparatus that can generate these types of flows with easily adjustable nozzle velocities and fluid densities. The jet fluid comprises a variable mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, which can be injected at any angle with respect to the vertical into the quiescent surrounding air. To make the flow visible we seed the jet fluid with a water fog generated by an array of piezoelectric diaphragms oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies. The system can generate jets that have initial densities ranging from approximately 2-48% greater than the ambient air. We obtain independent estimates of the volumetric flow rates using well-calibrated rotameters, and collect video image sequences for analysis at frame rates up to 120 frames per second using a machine vision camera. We are using this apparatus to investigate several outstanding problems related to the physics of these flows and their analysis using video imagery. First, we are working to better constrain several theoretical parameters that describe the trajectory of these flows when their initial velocities are not parallel to the buoyancy force. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop well-calibrated methods for establishing volumetric flow rates using trajectory analysis. Second, we are working to refine optical plume velocimetry (OPV), a non-invasive technique for estimating flow rates using temporal cross-correlation of image

  5. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  6. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  7. Estimation of reactive surface area using a combined method of laboratory analyses and digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    Fluid-rock interactions play an important role in the engineering processes such as chemical stimulation of enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. However, these interactions highly depend on the accessible reactive surface area of the minerals that are generally poorly constrained for natural geologic samples. In particular, quantifying surface area of each reacting mineral within whole rock samples is challenging due to the heterogeneous distribution of minerals and pore space. In this study, detailed laboratory analyses were performed on sandstone samples from deep geothermal sites in Lithuania. We measure specific surface area of whole rock samples using a gas adsorption method (so-called B.E.T.) with N2 at a temperature of 77.3K. We also quantify their porosity and pore size distribution by a Helium gas pycnometer and a Hg porosimetry, respectively. Rock compositions are determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and quantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which are later geometrically mapped on images of two-dimensional SEM- Backscattered electrons (BSE) with a resolution of 1.2 μm and three-dimensional micro-CT with a resolution of 10.3 μm to produce a digital mineral map for further constraining the accessibility of reactive minerals. Moreover, we attempt to link the whole rock porosity, pore size distribution, and B.E.T. specific surface area with the digital mineral maps. We anticipate these necessary analyses to provide in-depth understanding of fluid sample chemistry from later hydrothermal reactive flow-through experiments on whole rock samples at elevated pressure and temperature.

  8. High-Contrast Imaging and Wavefront Control with a PIAA Coronagraph: Laboratory System Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Martinache, Frantz; Totems, Julien; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Taro; Blain, Celia; Belikov, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is a high-performance coronagraph concept able to work at small angular separation with little loss in throughput. We present results obtained with a laboratory PIAA system including active wavefront control. The system has a 94.3% throughput (excluding coating losses) and operates in air with monochromatic light. Our testbed achieved a 2.27 × 10-7 raw contrast between 1.65λ/D (inner working angle of the coronagraph configuration tested) and 4.4λ/D (outer working angle). Through careful calibration, we were able to separate this residual light into a dynamic coherent component (turbulence, vibrations) at 4.5 × 10-8 contrast and a static incoherent component (ghosts and/or polarization mismatch) at 1.6 × 10-7 contrast. Pointing errors are controlled at the 10-3λ/D level using a dedicated low-order wavefront sensor. While not sufficient for direct imaging of Earthlike planets from space, the 2.27 × 10-7 raw contrast achieved already exceeds requirements for a ground-based extreme adaptive optics system aimed at direct detection of more massive exoplanets. We show that over a 4 hr period, averaged wavefront errors have been controlled to the 3.5 × 10-9 contrast level. This result is particularly encouraging for ground-based extreme-AO systems relying on long-term stability and absence of static wavefront errors to recover planets much fainter than the fast boiling speckle halo.

  9. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    assessment in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured......Context: Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape...... evaluating overall soundscape quality in urban recreational areas. Laboratory evaluations may not fully reflect how subjective loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort are affected by sound level....

  10. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Cold Neutron Laboratory Building by Design Change of Guide Shielding Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Youngki; Kim, Harkrho

    2007-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of the structural integrity evaluation for the cold neutron laboratory building by design change of guide shielding room. The design of the guide shielding room was changed by making its structure members in normal concrete (2.3 g/cc) instead of heavy concrete (3.5 g/cc) because the heavy concrete could be not supplied to meet its design specification. Therefore, it was decided that the guide shielding room is made of the normal concrete. And, the shielding performance of the normal concrete was recalculated to confirm satisfying its design specification, which is of a 9000 zone according to HANARO radiation region classification. The change makes the shielding wall thicker than existing design, and then it is caused to qualify the structural integrity evaluation of the CNLB. Finally, the structural integrity of the CNLB was re-evaluated by considering the design change of the guide shielding room.

  11. Aortic Stenosis: Evaluation with Multidetector CT Angiography and MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Lim, Cheong; Park, Kye Hyun; Chang, Hyuk Jae; Choi, Dong Ju [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Aortic valvular stenosis (AS) is the most common valve disease which results in the need for a valve replacement. Although a Doppler echocardiography is the current reference imaging method, the multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently emerged as a promising method for noninvasive valve imaging. In this study, we briefly describe the usefulness and comparative merits of the MDCT and MRI for the evaluation of AS in terms of valvular morphology (as the causes of AS), quantification of aortic valve area, pressure gradient of flow (for assessment severity of AS), and the evaluation of the ascending aorta and cardiac function (as the secondary effects of AS). The familiarity with the MDCT and MRI features of AS is considered to be helpful for the accurate diagnosis and proper management of patients with a poor acoustic window.

  12. Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  14. Image Quality Assessment for Performance Evaluation of Focus Measure Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Memon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of eight focus measure operators namely Image CURV (Curvature, GRAE (Gradient Energy, HISE (Histogram Entropy, LAPM (Modified Laplacian, LAPV (Variance of Laplacian, LAPD (Diagonal Laplacian, LAP3 (Laplacian in 3D Window and WAVS (Sum of Wavelet Coefficients. Statistical matrics such as MSE (Mean Squared Error, PNSR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, SC (Structural Content, NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation, MD (Maximum Difference and NAE (Normalized Absolute Error are used to evaluate stated focus measures in this research. . FR (Full Reference method of the image quality assessment is utilized in this paper. Results indicate that LAPD method is comparatively better than other seven focus operators at typical imaging conditions

  15. Evaluation of digital halftones image by vector error diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1998-12-01

    The vector error diffusion (VED) method is applied to proudce the digital halftone images by an electrophotographic printer with 600 dpi. Objective image quality of those obtained images is evaluated and analyzed. As a result, in the color reproduction of halftone image by the VED method, it was clear that there are large color difference between target color and printed color typically in the mid-tone colors. We consider it is due to the printer properties including dot-gain. It was also clear that the color noise of the VED method is larger compared with that of the conventional scalar error diffusion method in some patches. It was remarkable that ununiform patterns are generated by the VED method.

  16. Evaluation of Skybox Video and Still Image products

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2014-11-01

    The SkySat-1 satellite lauched by Skybox Imaging on November 21 in 2013 opens a new chapter in civilian earth observation as it is the first civilian satellite to image a target in high definition panchromatic video for up to 90 seconds. The small satellite with a mass of 100 kg carries a telescope with 3 frame sensors. Two products are available: Panchromatic video with a resolution of around 1 meter and a frame size of 2560 × 1080 pixels at 30 frames per second. Additionally, the satellite can collect still imagery with a swath of 8 km in the panchromatic band, and multispectral images with 4 bands. Using super-resolution techniques, sub-meter accuracy is reached for the still imagery. The paper provides an overview of the satellite design and imaging products. The still imagery product consists of 3 stripes of frame images with a footprint of approximately 2.6 × 1.1 km. Using bundle block adjustment, the frames are registered, and their accuracy is evaluated. Image quality of the panchromatic, multispectral and pansharpened products are evaluated. The video product used in this evaluation consists of a 60 second gazing acquisition of Las Vegas. A DSM is generated by dense stereo matching. Multiple techniques such as pairwise matching or multi image matching are used and compared. As no ground truth height reference model is availble to the authors, comparisons on flat surface and compare differently matched DSMs are performed. Additionally, visual inspection of DSM and DSM profiles show a detailed reconstruction of small features and large skyscrapers.

  17. Evaluating fracture healing using digital x-ray image analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... Her research interests are in orthopaedic engineering and implants, X-ray techniques and digital image ... in the research setting, in order to design useful studies for quantitative evaluation of the .... These types of bending are ...

  18. Evaluation of Infrared Images by Using a Human Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    thermal environmental history have been recorded. In this case, the thermal environmental history could be estimated from the behavior of a subject... environmental history and physiological condition history. An advantage of the evaluation of IR images using the thermal model is to provide

  19. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  20. Evaluation of stereoscopic 3D displays for image analysis tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Rehfeld, N.; Eck, R.

    2009-02-01

    In many application domains the analysis of aerial or satellite images plays an important role. The use of stereoscopic display technologies can enhance the image analyst's ability to detect or to identify certain objects of interest, which results in a higher performance. Changing image acquisition from analog to digital techniques entailed the change of stereoscopic visualisation techniques. Recently different kinds of digital stereoscopic display techniques with affordable prices have appeared on the market. At Fraunhofer IITB usability tests were carried out to find out (1) with which kind of these commercially available stereoscopic display techniques image analysts achieve the best performance and (2) which of these techniques achieve a high acceptance. First, image analysts were interviewed to define typical image analysis tasks which were expected to be solved with a higher performance using stereoscopic display techniques. Next, observer experiments were carried out whereby image analysts had to solve defined tasks with different visualization techniques. Based on the experimental results (performance parameters and qualitative subjective evaluations of the used display techniques) two of the examined stereoscopic display technologies were found to be very good and appropriate.

  1. An automated deformable image registration evaluation of confidence tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Neil; Chen, Josephine; Kim, Hojin; Morin, Olivier; Nie, Ke; Pouliot, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is a powerful tool for radiation oncology, but it can produce errors. Beyond this, DIR accuracy is not a fixed quantity and varies on a case-by-case basis. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of an automated program to create a patient- and voxel-specific evaluation of DIR accuracy. AUTODIRECT is a software tool that was developed to perform this evaluation for the application of a clinical DIR algorithm to a set of patient images. In brief, AUTODIRECT uses algorithms to generate deformations and applies them to these images (along with processing) to generate sets of test images, with known deformations that are similar to the actual ones and with realistic noise properties. The clinical DIR algorithm is applied to these test image sets (currently 4). From these tests, AUTODIRECT generates spatial and dose uncertainty estimates for each image voxel based on a Student’s t distribution. In this study, four commercially available DIR algorithms were used to deform a dose distribution associated with a virtual pelvic phantom image set, and AUTODIRECT was used to generate dose uncertainty estimates for each deformation. The virtual phantom image set has a known ground-truth deformation, so the true dose-warping errors of the DIR algorithms were also known. AUTODIRECT predicted error patterns that closely matched the actual error spatial distribution. On average AUTODIRECT overestimated the magnitude of the dose errors, but tuning the AUTODIRECT algorithms should improve agreement. This proof-of-principle test demonstrates the potential for the AUTODIRECT algorithm as an empirical method to predict DIR errors.

  2. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukoyama Yumi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC, which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0% were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7% between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant

  3. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andere Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  4. Imaging quality evaluation method of pixel coupled electro-optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Yuan, Li; Jin, Chunqi; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    With advancements in high-resolution imaging optical fiber bundle fabrication technology, traditional photoelectric imaging system have become ;flexible; with greatly reduced volume and weight. However, traditional image quality evaluation models are limited by the coupling discrete sampling effect of fiber-optic image bundles and charge-coupled device (CCD) pixels. This limitation substantially complicates the design, optimization, assembly, and evaluation image quality of the coupled discrete sampling imaging system. Based on the transfer process of grayscale cosine distribution optical signal in the fiber-optic image bundle and CCD, a mathematical model of coupled modulation transfer function (coupled-MTF) is established. This model can be used as a basis for following studies on the convergence and periodically oscillating characteristics of the function. We also propose the concept of the average coupled-MTF, which is consistent with the definition of traditional MTF. Based on this concept, the relationships among core distance, core layer radius, and average coupled-MTF are investigated.

  5. Evaluation of the use of surrogate Laminaria digitata in eco-hydraulic laboratory experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL Maike; HENRY Pierre-Yves T

    2014-01-01

    Inert surrogates can avoid husbandry and adaptation problems of live vegetation in laboratories. Surrogates are generally used for experiments on vegetation-hydrodynamics interactions, but it is unclear how well they replicate field conditions. Here, surrogates for the brown macroalgae Laminaria digitata were developed to reproduce its hydraulic roughness. Plant shape, stiffness and buoyancy of L. digitata were evaluated and compared to the properties of inert materials. Different surrogate materials and shapes were exposed to unidirectional flow. It is concluded that buoyancy is an important factor in low flow conditions and a basic shape might be sufficient to model complex shaped plants resulting in the same streamlined shape.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the Beckman Synchron CX3 clinical chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, M J; Pejakovic, M; White, G H

    1988-02-01

    In this evaluation of the Beckman Synchron CX3, the multi-analyte clinical chemistry analyzer exhibited high precision, good linearity, and no carryover for each of the eight analytes measured. Results obtained correlated well with those produced by our routine instrumentation (Beckman Astra, Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer). The instrument can process up to 75 samples per hour (600 tests per hour if all tests available are requested) and, after calibration, can provide urgent results for the complete panel of tests within 2 1/2 min. The performance characteristics of this instrument make it ideal as a routine or a "stat" analyzer for commonly requested tests in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

  8. Evaluation of controls for the assurance of quality data in a radiochemistry laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, J.S. [Radiological and Environmental Sciences Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The paper describes the controls implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) to secure data quality. A description of the analytical instrumentation and methodology employed by RESL is provided. The results of the intercomparison program with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are provided to demonstrate traceability to a primary source. A description of the methods and techniques used to ensure quality control on a daily basis is given. The techniques used to evaluate the sources of uncertainty are reviewed and specific examples cited. The intercomparison programs operated by RESL are discussed.

  9. Role of the clinical pathology laboratory in the evaluation of endometrial carcinomas for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Broaddus, Russell R

    2014-05-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing of endometrial carcinomas in the pathology laboratory has recently emerged as a key component of the clinical evaluation of Lynch syndrome in many centers. Testing modalities involve immunohistochemical and PCR-based analyses. This article outlines the routine application of these analyses, provides a practical guide for troubleshooting some of the common technical issues related to their performance, and reviews common pitfalls in their interpretation. Discrepancies between tissue testing and genetic testing results are discussed in the context of the current understanding of endometrial cancer biology. The merits of universal versus targeted tissue testing based on clinical patient history and histological tumor appearance are also addressed.

  10. Using computerized workflow simulations to assess the feasibility of whole slide imaging full adoption in a high-volume histology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, David S; Lee, Roy E; Gilbertson, John R

    2012-01-01

    Whole slide Imaging (WSI) has been touted by many as the future of pathology, with estimates of full adoption occurring sometime in the next 5 to 15 years. While WSI devices have become increasingly capable since their inception, there has been little consideration of how WSI will be implemented and subsequently affect the workflow of high volume histology laboratories. Histology workflow process data was collected from a high-volume histology laboratory (Massachusetts General Hospital) and a process model developed using business process management software. Computerized workflow simulations were performed and total histology process time evaluated under a number of different WSI conditions. Total histology process time increased approximately 10-fold to 20-fold over baseline with the presence of one WSI robot in the histology workflow. Depending on the specifications of the WSI robot, anywhere from 9 to 14 WSI robots were required within the histology workflow to minimize the effects of WSI. Placing a WSI robot into the current workflow of a high-volume histology laboratory with the intent of full adoption is not feasible. Implementing WSI without making significant changes to the current workflow of the histology laboratory would prove to be both disruptive and costly to surgical pathology.

  11. Removal site evaluation report on Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions, removal actions, or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas associated with Building 7602 pose no imminent hazards requiring maintenance actions. Adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. Current actions that are being taken to prevent further release of contamination and ensure worker safety within Building 7602 are considered adequate until decontamination and decommissioning activities begin. Given the current status and condition of Building 7602, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated.

  12. Clinical and Laboratory evaluation of measleslike rash in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewien Klaus Eberhard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical and laboratory evaluation of 11 children and young adults with measleslike rash was done during the measles outbreak in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan area at the end of 1996 and spread over the country during 1997. Measles was laboratory confirmed in 07 patients by specific IgM detection in acute serum specimens using an IgM-capture EIA, by specific IgG seroconversion in serum pairs, and by reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical presentations were not always classic; one of the 07 cases had received measles vaccine and corresponded to modified clinical case of measles. The 4 remaining cases were negative for measles and were diagnosed as exanthem subitum (2 cases, scarlet fever and Kawasaki disease. The present study reinforces the view that clinical features alone are not sufficient for establishing an accurate diagnosis in the post-vaccine era, and a surveillance system based on sensitive laboratory results is needed so that it can confirm IgM-negative measles cases.

  13. Comparative evaluation of phototrophic microtiter plate cultivation against laboratory-scale photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschett, Holger; Schiprowski, Danny; Rohde, Jannis; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2017-01-18

    Extended cultivation times, rendering phototrophic bioprocess development time inefficient, resulted in the recent development of micro-photobioreactors enabling accelerated process development. However, especially for laboratory photobioreactors, only little is known concerning the influence of design on process performance. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the scalability of a microtiter plate-based parallelized micro-photobioreactor against a representative set of established laboratory photobioreactors. Lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris was used as a model system. During exponential growth, the microtiter plate cultures achieved maximal growth rates of ca. 1.44 ± 0.02 day(-1) being in good agreement with the larger systems. Moreover, cultures in the micro-photobioreactor could be kept in the exponential phase up to the highest biomass concentrations most probably due to the beneficial light supply at this scale. Compared to the shake flask and test tube cultures, microtiter plate cultivation achieved an equivalent biomass yield, lipid content, and lipid fingerprint. In contrast, the flat-panel process resulted only in marginal productivity due to insufficient light supply. Thus, microtiter plates showed good scalability to the investigated laboratory photobioreactors as overall differences were rather small taking the differing scales into account.

  14. The design and evaluation of a graphical display for laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David T; Guerlain, Stephanie; Brown, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Advances in healthcare information technology have provided opportunities to present data in new, more effective ways. In this study, we designed a laboratory display that features small, data-dense graphics called sparklines, which have recently been promoted as effective representations of medical data but have not been well studied. The effect of this novel display on physicians' interpretation of data was investigated. Twelve physicians talked aloud as they assessed laboratory data from four patients in a pediatric intensive care unit with the graph display and with a conventional table display. Verbalizations were coded based on the abnormal values and trends identified for each lab variable. The correspondence of interpretations of variables in each display was evaluated, and patterns were investigated across participants. Assessment time was also analyzed. Physicians completed assessments significantly faster with the graphical display (3.6 min vs 4.4 min, p=0.042). When compared across displays, 37% of interpretations did not match. Graphs were more useful when the visual cues in tables did not provide trend information, while slightly abnormal values were easier to identify with tables. Data presentation format can affect how physicians interpret laboratory data. Graphic displays have several advantages over numeric displays but are not always optimal. User, task and data characteristics should be considered when designing information displays.

  15. Multi-modal hard x-ray imaging with a laboratory source using selective reflection from a mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Paganin, David M

    2014-04-01

    Multi-modal hard x-ray imaging sensitive to absorption, refraction, phase and scattering contrast is demonstrated using a simple setup implemented with a laboratory source. The method is based on selective reflection at the edge of a mirror, aligned to partially reflect a pencil x-ray beam after its interaction with a sample. Quantitative scattering contrast from a test sample is experimentally demonstrated using this method. Multi-modal imaging of a house fly (Musca domestica) is shown as proof of principle of the technique for biological samples.

  16. Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drion Iefke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 μmol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization; area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 μmol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading

  17. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  18. Clinical evaluation of irreversible image compression: analysis of chest imaging with computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, T; Sakuma, S; Ikeda, M; Itoh, Y; Suzuki, M; Iwai, S

    1990-06-01

    To implement a picture archiving and communication system, clinical evaluation of irreversible image compression with a newly developed modified two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT) and bit-allocation technique was performed for chest images with computed radiography (CR). CR images were observed on a cathode-ray-tube monitor in a 1,024 X 1,536 matrix. One original and five reconstructed versions of the same images with compression ratios of 3:1, 6:1, 13:1, 19:1, and 31:1 were ranked according to quality. Test images with higher spatial frequency were ranked better than those with lower spatial frequency and the acceptable upper limit of the compression ratio was 19:1. In studies of receiver operating characteristics for scoring the presence or absence of nodules and linear shadows, the images with a compression ratio of 25:1 showed a statistical difference as compared with the other images with a compression ratio of 20:1 or less. Both studies show that plain CR chest images with a compression ratio of 10:1 are acceptable and, with use of an improved DCT technique, the upper limit of the compression ratio is 20:1.

  19. Online hyperspectral imaging system for evaluating quality of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk

    2017-06-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut agricultural produce in Korea has been growing. The browning of fresh-cut vegetables that occurs during storage and foreign substances such as worms and slugs are some of the main causes of consumers' concerns with respect to safety and hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an on-line system for evaluating quality of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technology. The online evaluation system with single visible-near infrared hyperspectral camera in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm that can assess quality of both surfaces of agricultural products such as fresh-cut lettuce was designed. Algorithms to detect browning surface were developed for this system. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between browning and sound lettuce as well as between browning lettuce and the conveyor belt were investigated using the correlation analysis and the one-way analysis of variance method. The imaging algorithms to discriminate the browning lettuces were developed using the optimal wavebands. The ratio image (RI) algorithm of the 533 nm and 697 nm images (RI533/697) for abaxial surface lettuce and the ratio image algorithm (RI533/697) and subtraction image (SI) algorithm (SI538-697) for adaxial surface lettuce had the highest classification accuracies. The classification accuracy of browning and sound lettuce was 100.0% and above 96.0%, respectively, for the both surfaces. The overall results show that the online hyperspectral imaging system could potentially be used to assess quality of agricultural products.

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5% but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing′s syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing′s syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients.

  1. Evaluation of pleural and pericardial effusions by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscholakoff, D.; Sechtem, U.; De Geer, G.; Schmidt, H.; Higgins, C.B.

    1987-08-01

    MR examinations of 36 patients with pleural and/or pericardial effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine of MR imaging is capable of differentiating between pleural and pericardial effusions of different compositions using standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and nongated spin echo pulse sequences. Additional data was obtained from experimental pleural effusions in 10 dogs. The results of this study indicate that old haemorhages into the pleural or pericardial space can be differentiated from other pleural or pericardial effusions. However, further differentiation between transudates, exudates and sanguinous effusions is not possible on MR images acquired with standard spin echo pulse sequences. (orig./MG)

  2. Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

    2009-08-01

    The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults

  3. Laboratory and field magnetic evaluation of the heavy metal contamination on Shilaoren Beach, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghong; Huang, Qinghui; Lemckert, Charles; Ma, Ying

    2017-02-09

    This study uses magnetic measurements to evaluate the heavy metal contamination of the surface sediments on Shilaoren Beach. The values of the laboratory magnetic measurements have a positive relationship with the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, As and Pb. The field magnetic parameter provides an effective and rapid method for evaluating the distribution and dispersal of heavy metal. Sediments with higher heavy metal contents generally accumulate near higher and lower tide lines on the beach, reflecting the control of waves and tides. The sewage and stormwater outlets are the primary sources of the heavy metal contamination. Variations in seasonal waves and winds affect the sediment transport and the heavy metal distribution patterns. Based on the Australian ISQG-Low sediment quality criteria, Fe, Mn and Cr generally exhibit intermediate accumulation levels, whereas Pb and Zn exhibit higher accumulation levels because of the socioeconomic status of the area surrounding the beach.

  4. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured at each site......Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape assessment...... quality in urban recreational areas. Laboratory evaluations may not fully reflect how subjective loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort are affected by sound level....

  5. Laboratory evaluation of FCC commercial catalysts. Analysis of products of industrial importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamonti, Francisco J.; De la Puente, Gabriela; Sedran, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    The results of the conversion of a VGO over six equilibrium commercial FCC catalysts with different formulations in a batch CREC Riser Simulator laboratory reactor at 500 and 550 C, catalyst to oil ratio 6.1 and reaction times from 3 to 30 s, were analyzed. It was possible to define the main catalyst characteristics in terms of various evaluation items, such as activity, gasoline yield and quality, LPG yield and coke yield, or the yields of particular compounds like, e.g., isobutane. Important differences in activity between catalysts were not observed, but catalyst properties reflected clearly as significant differences in gasoline, LPG or coke selectivities. Particularly, catalyst's hydrogen transfer properties impacted on gasoline composition and isobutane yield. The results showed that the CREC Riser Simulator reactor is an important tool for the evaluation of both commercial catalysts and feedstocks and process conditions. (author)

  6. Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

    2004-07-27

    The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

    2004-07-27

    The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform: Part 3 Simulation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Cho, Heejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Dongsu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Cox, Sam [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides second-year project simulation results for the multi-year project titled “Evaluation of Variable Refrigeration Flow (VRF) system on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)’s Flexible Research Platform (FRP).”

  13. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  14. Evaluation of a laboratory system intended for use in physicians' offices. II. Reliability of results produced by health care workers without formal or professional laboratory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, R; Vandenbark, M; Goitein, R K; Baer, D M

    1987-07-17

    The Kodak DT-60 tabletop chemistry analyzer was evaluated with standardized protocols to determine the system's precision and accuracy when operated by four volunteers (a secretary, a licensed practical nurse, and two family medicine residents) in a simulated office laboratory. The variability of the results was found to be significantly greater than the variability of results produced by medical technologists who analyzed the same samples during the same study period with another DT-60 placed in the hospital laboratory. The source(s) of increased variance needs to be identified so the system can be modified or new control procedures can be developed to ensure the reliability of results used in patient care. Prospective purchasers, manufacturers, and patients need this kind of objective information about the reliability of results produced by systems intended for use in physicians' office laboratories.

  15. Local and global evaluation for remote sensing image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tengfei; Zhang, Shengwei

    2017-08-01

    In object-based image analysis, how to produce accurate segmentation is usually a very important issue that needs to be solved before image classification or target recognition. The study for segmentation evaluation method is key to solving this issue. Almost all of the existent evaluation strategies only focus on the global performance assessment. However, these methods are ineffective for the situation that two segmentation results with very similar overall performance have very different local error distributions. To overcome this problem, this paper presents an approach that can both locally and globally quantify segmentation incorrectness. In doing so, region-overlapping metrics are utilized to quantify each reference geo-object's over and under-segmentation error. These quantified error values are used to produce segmentation error maps which have effective illustrative power to delineate local segmentation error patterns. The error values for all of the reference geo-objects are aggregated through using area-weighted summation, so that global indicators can be derived. An experiment using two scenes of very different high resolution images showed that the global evaluation part of the proposed approach was almost as effective as other two global evaluation methods, and the local part was a useful complement to comparing different segmentation results.

  16. Visualization of small lesions in rat cartilage by means of laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzana, Massimo; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Das Neves Borges, Patricia; Endrizzi, Marco; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Being able to quantitatively assess articular cartilage in three-dimensions (3D) in small rodent animal models, with a simple laboratory set-up, would prove extremely important for the development of pre-clinical research focusing on cartilage pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA). These models are becoming essential tools for the development of new drugs for OA, a disease affecting up to 1/3 of the population older than 50 years for which there is no cure except prosthetic surgery. However, due to limitations in imaging technology, high-throughput 3D structural imaging has not been achievable in small rodent models, thereby limiting their translational potential and their efficiency as research tools. We show that a simple laboratory system based on coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging (CAXPCi) can correctly visualize the cartilage layer in slices of an excised rat tibia imaged both in air and in saline solution. Moreover, we show that small, surgically induced lesions are also correctly detected by the CAXPCi system, and we support this finding with histopathology examination. Following these successful proof-of-concept results in rat cartilage, we expect that an upgrade of the system to higher resolutions (currently underway) will enable extending the method to the imaging of mouse cartilage as well. From a technological standpoint, by showing the capability of the system to detect cartilage also in water, we demonstrate phase sensitivity comparable to other lab-based phase methods (e.g. grating interferometry). In conclusion, CAXPCi holds a strong potential for being adopted as a routine laboratory tool for non-destructive, high throughput assessment of 3D structural changes in murine articular cartilage, with a possible impact in the field similar to the revolution that conventional microCT brought into bone research.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: Evaluation of Standard Orthogonal and Tailored Paracoronal Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, S.R.; Zanetti, M.; Kramer, J.; Kaech, K.P.; Zollikofer, C.L.; Wentz, K.U. [Cantonal Hospital, Inst. of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland). MR Research Group

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the three standard orthogonal imaging planes and a paracoronal imaging plane for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Material and Methods: Ninety patients (91 knees; 29 F and 61 M) aged between 15 and 84 years (mean 36.9{+-}16.4 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee prior to arthroscopy. At surgery, 32 knees had an intact ACL, 4 a partial tear, and 55 a complete ACL tear. In all patients, axial, sagittal, coronal, and paracoronal T2-weighted turbo-SE images were acquired. The ACL was classified as intact, partially, or completely torn. Partial and complete tears were combined for statistical evaluation. Results: Partial ACL tears (four cases) were not correctly diagnosed at MRI except in one knee by one observer on coronal images. Sensitivity in detecting ACL tears was 95%/63% (reader1/reader2) in the axial, 93%/95% in the sagittal, 93%/86% in the coronal, and 100%/93% in the paracoronal plane. Specificity was 75%/81% in the axial, 72%/81% in the sagittal, 78%/94% in the coronal, and 78%/88% in the paracoronal plane. Conclusion: ACL tears can be diagnosed accurately with each of the standard orthogonal planes. Based on reader confidence and interobserver agreement paracoronal images may be useful in equivocal cases.

  18. High dynamic range hyperspectral imaging for camouflage performance test and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D.; Feenan, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of high dynamic range processing applied to the specific technique of hyper-spectral imaging with linescan spectrometers. The technique provides an improvement in signal to noise for reflectance estimation. This is demonstrated for field measurements of rural imagery collected from a ground-based linescan spectrometer of rural scenes. Once fully developed, the specific application is expected to improve the colour estimation approaches and consequently the test and evaluation accuracy of camouflage performance tests. Data are presented on both field and laboratory experiments that have been used to evaluate the improvements granted by the adoption of high dynamic range data acquisition in the field of hyperspectral imaging. High dynamic ranging imaging is well suited to the hyperspectral domain due to the large variation in solar irradiance across the visible and short wave infra-red (SWIR) spectrum coupled with the wavelength dependence of the nominal silicon detector response. Under field measurement conditions it is generally impractical to provide artificial illumination; consequently, an adaptation of the hyperspectral imaging and re ectance estimation process has been developed to accommodate the solar spectrum. This is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio for the re ectance estimation process of scene materials in the 400-500 nm and 700-900 nm regions.

  19. Proton Computed Tomography: iterative image reconstruction and dose evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinini, C.; Bonanno, D.; Brianzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.; Bruzzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method with a potential for increasing accuracy of treatment planning and patient positioning in hadron therapy. A pCT system based on a Silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter has been developed within the INFN Prima-RDH collaboration. The prototype has been tested with a 175 MeV proton beam at The Svedberg Laboratory (Uppsala, Sweden) with the aim to reconstruct and characterize a tomographic image. Algebraic iterative reconstruction methods (ART), together with the most likely path formalism, have been used to obtain tomographies of an inhomogeneous phantom to eventually extract density and spatial resolutions. These results will be presented and discussed together with an estimation of the average dose delivered to the phantom and the dependence of the image quality on the dose. Due to the heavy computation load required by the algebraic algorithms the reconstruction programs have been implemented to fully exploit the high calculation parallelism of Graphics Processing Units. An extended field of view pCT system is in an advanced construction stage. This apparatus will be able to reconstruct objects of the size of a human head making possible to characterize this pCT approach in a pre-clinical environment.

  20. Evaluation of sonic IR for NDE at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W O

    2001-02-01

    Sonic IR was evaluated as an NDE technique at LLNL using a commercial ThermoSoniX system from Indigo Systems Corp. The main effort was to detect small cracks in aluminum oxide, a dense stiff ceramic. Test coupons were made containing 0.2-mm cracks by surface grinding, 1-mm cracks by compression with a Vickers bit, and 4-mm cracks by 3-point bending. Only the 3-point bend cracks produced thermal images. Several parts shattered during testing, perhaps by being forced at resonance by the 20-kHz acoustic probe. Tests on damaged carbon composite coupons produced thermal images that were in excellent agreement with ultrasonic inspection. The composite results also showed some dependence on contact location of the acoustic probe, and on the method of support. Tests on glass with surface damage produced weak images at the pits. Tests on metal ballistic targets produced thermal images at the impact sites. Modal analyses suggest that the input frequency should be matched to the desired response, and also that forced resonance damaged some parts.

  1. Synthetically Evaluation System for Multi-source Image Fusion and Experimental Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; JING Zhong-liang; WU Jian-min; LIU Cong-yi

    2006-01-01

    Study on the evaluation system for multi-source image fusion is an important and necessary part of image fusion. Qualitative evaluation indexes and quantitative evaluation indexes were studied. A series of new concepts,such as independent single evaluation index, union single evaluation index, synthetic evaluation index were proposed. Based on these concepts, synthetic evaluation system for digital image fusion was formed. The experiments with the wavelet fusion method, which was applied to fuse the multi-spectral image and panchromatic remote sensing image, the IR image and visible image, the CT and MRI image, and the multi-focus images show that it is an objective, uniform and effective quantitative method for image fusion evaluation.

  2. Evaluation of internal characteristic in small adenocarcinomas by MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed MR images in 24 patients with small adenocarcinomas measuring 2 cm or less in size. Histological types of them were classified into three types based on a Noguchi's report: i.e. group 1 (Noguchi type A and B), group 2 (type C) and group 3 (type D, E and F). We evaluated the relationship between the nodule and vessels or bronchi, enhancement pattern, and internal signal patterns on MR images in three groups. Homogeneous signal intensity, vessels and bronchi branching within the nodule, and an early enhancement without a delayed enhancement on MR images were characteristic for group 1 with the most favorable disease-free-survival. (author)

  3. Lung cancer: evaluation with MR imaging during and after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelevitz, D F; Henschke, C I; Batata, M; Kim, Y S; Chu, F

    1994-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate treatment response of 10 consecutive lung cancer patients while they were receiving radiation therapy. Patients were scanned before treatment, during treatment, at completion of treatment, and if possible, at 3-month intervals thereafter. The initial tumor response to radiation was increasing signal intensity and increasing heterogeneity, best seen on T2-weighted images. Small tumors virtually disappeared, whereas larger masses remained as complex cystic structures or developed cavities. The adjacent irradiated lung parenchyma had increased signal on both the T1- and T2-weighted images as early as 17 days after start of treatment. The signal intensity continued to increase for several months after treatment, but subsequently decreased.

  4. Evaluation of the Etiological, Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Vurucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study we aimed to discuss the etiological risk factors, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients with cerebral palsy (CP according to the literature of knowledges. METHOD: The data including sex, age, social status of families, method of delivery, type of CP, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging and electroencephalograpy findings were retrospectively recorded from the patients’ files. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were included in this study. Of the patients 58.3% were boy, 41.7% were girl, and mean age at diagnosis was 8.98±5.34 months. Of the patients 77.8% had vaginal birth, 22.2% had cesarean birth. The patients who had vaginal birth had statisticaly higher ratio of comorbidity, and lower mean diagnostic age, respectively (respectively p=0,027, p=0,031. Of the patients 88.3% had spastic CP, 10.6% had ataxic-hypotonic CP and 1.2% had other CP types. Of the patients 51,1% had at least one etiological risk factors. Most common etiological risk factors were perianal asfixi (22.7%, prematurity (15.5%, small for gestational age (7.2% and others (18.9%. Of the patients 79.5% had at least one comorbidity. Most common comorbidities were lenguage disabilities (60%, eye abnormalities (56.6%, mental retardation (53.3%, epilepsy (41.1% and others (12.1%. Of the patients 85.6% had at least one brain imaging abnormality. Most common brain imaging abnormalities were cortical atrophy (34.4%, abnormalities of corpus callosum (20%, periventricular leukomalacia (16.6%, encephalomalasia (10.5%, cerebral infarction (10%, hypoxic ischemic encephalopaty (6.6% and others (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Most of the our patients had spastic type CP, comorbidities including lenguage disabilities, eye abnormalities, mental retardation, and epilepsy and brain imaging abnormalities including cortical atrophy, abnormalities of corpus callosum, and periventricular leukomalacia. Therefore we consider that there may be a relationship between brain imaging

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  6. Morton Neuroma: Evaluated with Ultrasonography and MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Jin Woo; Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of both ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of Morton neuroma. Our study group was comprised of 20 neuromas from 17 patients, and the neuromas were confirmed on surgery following evaluation with US, MRI, or both US and MRI. The diagnostic criterion for Morton neuroma, as examined by US, was the presence of a round or ovoid, well-defined, hypoechoic mass. The diagnostic criterion, based on MR imaging, was a well defined mass with intermediate to low signal intensity on both the T1- and T2-weighted images. The retrospective comparison between the sonographic and MR images was done by two experienced radiologists working in consensus with the surgical and pathologic correlations. The detection rate of Morton neuroma was 79% for 14 neuromas from 11 patients who had undergone US followed by an operation. The detection rate was 76% for 17 neuromas from 15 patients who had undergone MRI and a subsequent operation. The mean size of the examined neuromas was 4.9 mm on the US images and it was 5.1 mm on the MRI studies. Ten neuromas (71%) were 5 mm or less as measured by US, and three neuromas were not detected, whereas on the MRI analysis, 10 neuromas (59%) were 5 mm or less and four neuromas were not visualized. Among the patients examined during postoperative followup, symptoms were completely relieved in 85% and the symptoms were partially relieved in 15%. US and MR imaging are comparable modalities with high detection rate for the evaluation of Morton neuroma.

  7. Genetic programming approach to evaluate complexity of texture images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Gianluigi; Corchs, Silvia; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    We adopt genetic programming (GP) to define a measure that can predict complexity perception of texture images. We perform psychophysical experiments on three different datasets to collect data on the perceived complexity. The subjective data are used for training, validation, and test of the proposed measure. These data are also used to evaluate several possible candidate measures of texture complexity related to both low level and high level image features. We select four of them (namely roughness, number of regions, chroma variance, and memorability) to be combined in a GP framework. This approach allows a nonlinear combination of the measures and could give hints on how the related image features interact in complexity perception. The proposed complexity measure M exhibits Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.890 on the training set, 0.728 on the validation set, and 0.724 on the test set. M outperforms each of all the single measures considered. From the statistical analysis of different GP candidate solutions, we found that the roughness measure evaluated on the gray level image is the most dominant one, followed by the memorability, the number of regions, and finally the chroma variance.

  8. NIR hyperspectral imaging to evaluate degradation in captopril commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Leandro de Moura; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Simões, Simone da Silva; Grangeiro, Severino; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical quality control is important for improving the effectiveness, purity and safety of drugs, as well as for the prevention or control of drug degradation. In the present work, near infrared hyperspectral images (HSI-NIR) of tablets with different expiration dates were employed to evaluate the degradation of captopril into captopril disulfide in different layers, on the top and on the bottom surfaces of the tablets. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) models were used to extract the concentration distribution maps from the hyperspectral images. Afterward, multivariate image techniques were applied to the concentration distribution maps (CDMs), to extract features and build models relating the main characteristics of the images to their corresponding manufacturing dates. Resolution methods followed by extracting features were able to estimate the tablet manufacture date with a prediction error of 120days. The model developed could be useful to evaluate whether a sample shows a degradation pattern consistent with the date of manufacturing or to detect abnormal behaviors in the natural degradation process of the sample. The information provided by the HIS-NIR is important for the development of the process (QbD), looking inside the formulation, revealing the behavior of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) during the product's shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial nerve palsy: Evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T.; Ishii, K.; Okitsu, T.; Okudera, T.; Ogawa, T

    2001-11-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 147 patients with facial nerve palsy, using a 1.0 T unit. All of 147 patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the pattern of enhancement was compared with that in 300 control subjects evaluated for suspected acoustic neurinoma. RESULTS: The intrameatal and labyrinthine segments of the normal facial nerve did not show enhancement, whereas enhancement of the distal intrameatal segment and the labyrinthine segment was respectively found in 67% and 43% of patients with Bell's palsy. The geniculate ganglion or the tympanic-mastoid segment was enhanced in 21% of normal controls versus 91% of patients with Bell's palsy. Abnormal enhancement of the non-paralyzed facial nerve was found in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fracture. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the distal intrameatal and labyrinthine segments is specific for facial nerve palsy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can reveal inflammatory facial nerve lesions and traumatic nerve injury, including clinically silent damage in trauma. Kinoshita T. et al. (2001)

  10. Evaluation of congenital heart disease by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A. de; Roest, A.A.W. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be useful in the assessment of patients with complex congenital heart disease and in the post-surgical follow-up of patients with corrected congenital heart disease. A thorough understanding of the congenital cardiac malformations that can be encountered is needed and the use of the sequential segmental analysis helps to standardize the evaluation and diagnosis of (complex) congenital heart disease. After surgical correction of congenital heart defects, patients must be followed over extended periods of time, because morphological and functional abnormalities may still be present or may develop. The use of echocardiography may be hampered in these patients as scar tissue and thorax deformities limit the acoustic window. Magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be advantageous in the follow-up of these post-surgical patients and with the use of several different techniques the morphological as well as functional abnormalities can be evaluated and followed over time. (orig.)

  11. Development and laboratory evaluation of chemically-based baited ovitrap for the monitoring of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Américo D; García-Rejón, Julián E; Ríos-Delgado, Silvany; Torres-Estrada, José L

    2013-06-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is considered to be the most important dengue vector worldwide. Studies were conducted to design and evaluate a chemically-based baited ovitrap for monitoring Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. Several known chemical attractants and three types of ovitraps (ovitraps A, B, and C) were evaluated throughout the oviposition bioassays. Oviposition responses of gravid female Ae. aegypti were evaluated to n-heneicosane, 3-methylindole (skatole), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and phenol. Female Ae. aegypti were attracted to all the evaluated compounds. Among them, n-heneicosane at a concentration of 10 ppm (mg/l), skatole from 50 to 1000 ppm, p-cresol at 100 ppm, and phenol at 50 ppm showed a significant positive oviposition response. A blend of the four chemical attractants increased the oviposition response; 67% of the eggs were deposited in the treatment compared to the control. Female Ae. aegypti were significantly more attracted to ovitrap A loaded with the four-component synthetic blend compared to the standard ovitrap in the oviposition bioassays. The compound used in ovitrap A retained its attractant property for up to three days. The chemically-based baited ovitrap may be considered as an option to be integrated during the monitoring of dengue virus vectors in México. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Evaluation of tissue optical properties from light distribution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Chang, Ming; Hsieh, Jui-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Fong; Chou, Yi-Sheong

    2000-06-01

    Images of light distribution in biological soft tissue we used to study the optical characteristics of tissue. The light distribution image was taken under a microscope with light injected through a pinhole close to the edge of the top surface. Images taken on skin, fat, and muscle tissues were compared to study the effect of cellular structure and temperature on the light intensity distribution. Monte Carlo simulation with the same conditions was also performed to simulate the light intensity distribution in tissue for comparison. The anisotropy scattering of light in tissue is affected by the tissue microscopic structure, such as the direction of muscle tissue fibers. The change in optical properties of fat and muscle tissue with temperature was observed. The two-dimensional light distribution images offer more information than general reflectance and transmission measurements. By matching the simulated light intensity distribution with the light distribution image, the optical properties of biological tissue could be estimated. This method might be applied in tissue engineering as an economic way for evaluating the microscopic structure of tissue.

  13. Calibratio performance evaluation of the spaceborne hyperspectral CHRIS imager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xia; ZHANG; Bing; HU; Fangchao; TONG; Qingxi

    2006-01-01

    The CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) is a new imaging spectrometer, carried on board a new space platform called PROBA (Project for On Board Autonomy). The satellite was successfully launched in October 2001 by the European Space Agency (ESA). CHRIS operates over the visible/near infrared band (400-1050 nm). It has five work modes and can reach a maximum of 62 spectral bands. In this research, atmospheric correction based on hyperspectral images was performed on CHRIS images by using the popular radiance transfer code ACORN (Atmospheric Correction Now) and empirical algorithms. ACORN was also used to evaluate the calibration performance of CHRIS by the retrieved spectra of typical vegetation and soil. As a result,the maize reflectance spectrum corrected by ACORN could characterize vegetation reflectance in the range of 498-750 nm, but gave a fairly large deviation beyond 750 nm,showing the deficiency of spectral calibration beyond 750 nm. The ACORN-derived soil reflectance decreased beyond 800 nm, which was quite inconsistent with field-spectrummeasurement and showed that the calibration accuracy couldn't meet the requirements of ACORN for spectral and radiometric calibration within a certain spectral range. In addition,the stripes on the retrieved water-vapor content map indicated that the radiance-calibration performance of CHRIS is not perfect. As the first spaceborne hyperspectral imager of ESA, the calibration performance of CHRIS needs to be improved.

  14. Evaluation of color-embedded wavelet image compression techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Martha; Salama, Paul; Shen, Ke; Delp, Edward J., III

    1998-12-01

    Color embedded image compression is investigated by means of a set of core experiments that seek to evaluate the advantages of various color transformations, spatial orientation trees and the use of monochrome embedded coding schemes such as EZW and SPIHT. In order to take advantage of the interdependencies of the color components for a given color space, two new spatial orientation trees that relate frequency bands and color components are investigated.

  15. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  16. A Virtual Embedded Microcontroller Laboratory for Undergraduate Education: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeffrey J.; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is a major component of the engineering and technology undergraduate curricula. Traditional laboratory instruction is hampered by several factors including limited access to resources by students and high laboratory maintenance cost. A photorealistic 3D computer-simulated laboratory for undergraduate instruction in…

  17. A Virtual Embedded Microcontroller Laboratory for Undergraduate Education: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeffrey J.; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is a major component of the engineering and technology undergraduate curricula. Traditional laboratory instruction is hampered by several factors including limited access to resources by students and high laboratory maintenance cost. A photorealistic 3D computer-simulated laboratory for undergraduate instruction in…

  18. Multimodality Imaging Evaluation of an Uncommon Entity: Esophageal Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takman Mack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old male was referred to the Radiology Department with new onset of right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal pain. He had no past medical or surgical history. Physical exam was unremarkable. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI evaluation, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, and positron emission tomography (PET evaluation, revealing the presence of a heterogeneous esophageal mass. In light of imaging findings and clinical workup, the patient was ultimately referred for thorascopic surgery. Surgical findings and histology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal heterotopic pancreas.

  19. Imaging Evaluation of Superior Labral Anteroposterior (SLAP) Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubin, Jeremy; Maderazo, Alex; Fitzpatrick, Darren

    2015-10-01

    Superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears are common injuries that are best evaluated with magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA), as it provides the most detailed evaluation of the bicipital labral complex. Given the variety and complexity of SLAP tears, distention of the joint with intra-articular dilute gadolinium contrast properly separates the intra-articular biceps tendon, superior labrum, glenoid cartilage and glenohumeral ligaments to optimize assessment of these structures. This allows for increased diagnostic confidence of the interpreting radiologist and provides a better road map for the surgeon prior to arthroscopy. Indirect MRA and high-field magnetic resonance imaging are sensitive and specific alternative modalities if MRA cannot be performed.

  20. Applications of image processing and visualization in the evaluation of murder and assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Boxwala, Aziz; Stotts, David; Smith, John; Soltys, Mitchell; Symon, James; Cullip, Tim; Wagner, Glenn

    1994-09-01

    Recent advances in image processing and visualization are of increasing use in the investigation of violent crime. The Digital Image Processing Laboratory at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in collaboration with groups at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are actively exploring visualization applications including image processing of trauma images, 3D visualization, forensic database management and telemedicine. Examples of recent applications are presented. Future directions of effort include interactive consultation and image manipulation tools for forensic data exploration.

  1. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, P. G.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gillam, J. E.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Oliver, J. F.; Sala, P. R.; Solevi, P.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-02-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  2. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, P G; Torres-Espallardo, I; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-03-07

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  3. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  4. Beef assessments using functional magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Davis, T H; Paniukov, D; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M; Miller, M F

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to unveil how some foods and basic rewards are processed in the human brain. This study evaluated how resting state functional connectivity in regions of the human brain changed after differing qualities of beef steaks were consumed. Functional images of participants (n=8) were collected after eating high or low quality beef steaks on separate days, after consumption a sensory ballot was administered to evaluate consumers' perceptions of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Imaging data showed that high quality steak samples resulted in greater functional connectivity to the striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex at various stages after consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, high quality steaks elicited higher sensory ballot scores for each palatability trait (P≤0.01). Together, these results suggest that resting state fMRI may be a useful tool for evaluating the neural process that follows positive sensory experiences such as the enjoyment of high quality beef steaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  6. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ethem Goren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008 archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After screening five-year archives using laboratory registration book, we determined that of 608 cases 49.5 % were from emergency medicine, 19.6 % from pediatric, 7.4 % from psychiatry, 4.4 % 4.4 from neurology, 2.3 % from other units of the hospital, 7.9 % from judicial authorities, 4.8 % from special requests and 6.1 % from circumjacent hospitals. 57.9 % of the cases are male and 42.1 % are female. 87.3 % of 608 cases were clinical cases, 7.9 % were forensic cases, 4.8 % special requests. 95.8 % of judicial cases were male and 85.4 % were drugs of abuse cases. 28.1 % of clinical cases were the carbon monoxide poisoning and 64.3 % of the carbon monoxide poisoning cases were female. Conclusion: When five-year data were evaluated, we determine that numbers of case are increasing every year. Males are more than in females. Forensic cases which were mostly drugs of abuse were most commonly have seen in male. When our data were investigated together with TUBIM’s data belong to 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Turkey Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, the use of drug abuse were seen most commonly in male. Also carbon monoxide poisoning in clinical cases were evaluated and we see that Carbon monoxide intoxication in winter was more than in summer due to heating. Women who exposed to carbon monoxide were more than men to be much more at home according to men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 675-680

  7. Evaluation of menstrual cycle-related changes in 85 clinical laboratory analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shiori; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Yamanishi, Hachiro; Hirano, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yuji; Kamisako, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    The menstrual cycle-related changes in clinical laboratory values were analysed by use of data obtained in the Asian multicentre study aimed at derivation of common reference intervals for 85 major clinical laboratory tests. Among 1876 healthy female volunteers, 893 had regular menstruation. They were classified into five groups according to dates between sample collection and the start of the last menstrual cycle: early follicular phase (1-6 days), late follicular phase (7-12 days), ovulatory phase (13-16 days), early luteal phase (17-22 days), and late luteal phase (23-31 days). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the menstrual cycle-related changes in test results. The magnitude was expressed as a standard deviation ratio of between-phase standard deviation to between-individual standard deviation based on nested ANOVA. Aside from obvious changes for four sex hormones (oestradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), we observed statistically significant menstrual cycle-related changes in the following tests (standard deviation ratio >0.15): Na, Cl, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, carbohydrate antigen 125, and parathyroid hormone were higher during the early follicular phase, while insulin, total cholesterol, and white blood cell were higher during the luteal phase. Significant associations of those test items with the four sex hormones were revealed. The menstrual cycle-related changes in laboratory test results were revealed in some commonly tested items other than sex hormones. The findings are of interest in understanding female physiology in relation to hormonal changes, but the magnitude of changes is rather small and not very relevant in interpreting test results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Evaluating image denoising methods in myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, S.; Karatrantou, A.; Korfiatis, P.; Costaridou, L.; Vassilakos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-10-01

    The statistical nature of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, due to the Poisson noise effect, results in the degradation of image quality, especially in the case of lesions of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A variety of well-established single-scale denoising methods applied on projection raw images have been incorporated in SPECT imaging applications, while multi-scale denoising methods with promising performance have been proposed. In this paper, a comparative evaluation study is performed between a multi-scale platelet denoising method and the well-established Butterworth filter applied as a pre- and post-processing step on images reconstructed without and/or with attenuation correction. Quantitative evaluation was carried out employing (i) a cardiac phantom containing two different size cold defects, utilized in two experiments conducted to simulate conditions without and with photon attenuation from myocardial surrounding tissue and (ii) a pilot-verified clinical dataset of 15 patients with ischemic defects. Image noise, defect contrast, SNR and defect contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) metrics were computed for both phantom and patient defects. In addition, an observer preference study was carried out for the clinical dataset, based on rankings from two nuclear medicine clinicians. Without photon attenuation conditions, denoising by platelet and Butterworth post-processing methods outperformed Butterworth pre-processing for large size defects, while for small size defects, as well as with photon attenuation conditions, all methods have demonstrated similar denoising performance. Under both attenuation conditions, the platelet method showed improved performance with respect to defect contrast, SNR and defect CNR in the case of images reconstructed without attenuation correction, however not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Quantitative as well as preference results obtained from clinical data showed similar performance of the

  9. Preclinical evaluation of a novel cyanine dye for tumor imaging with in vivo photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temma, Takashi; Onoe, Satoru; Kanazaki, Kengo; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PA imaging or PAI) has shown great promise in the detection and monitoring of cancer. Although nanocarrier-based contrast agents have been studied for use in PAI, small molecule contrast agents are required due to their ease of preparation, cost-effectiveness, and low toxicity. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of a novel cyanine dye IC7-1-Bu as a PAI contrast agent without conjugated targeting moieties for in vivo tumor imaging in a mice model. Basic PA characteristics of IC7-1-Bu were compared with indocyanine green (ICG), a Food and Drug Administration approved dye, in an aqueous solution. We evaluated the tumor accumulation profile of IC7-1-Bu and ICG by in vivo fluorescence imaging. In vivo PAI was then performed with a photoacoustic tomography system 24 and 48 h after intravenous injection of IC7-1-Bu into tumor bearing mice. IC7-1-Bu showed about a 2.3-fold higher PA signal in aqueous solution compared with that of ICG. Unlike ICG, IC7-1-Bu showed high tumor fluorescence after intravenous injection. In vivo PAI provided a tumor to background PA signal ratio of approximately 2.5 after intravenous injection of IC7-1-Bu. These results indicate that IC7-1-Bu is a promising PAI contrast agent for cancer imaging without conjugation of targeting moieties.

  10. Evaluation of image features and classification methods for Barrett's cancer detection using VLE imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Sander; van der Sommen, Fons; Swager, Anne-Fré; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2017-03-01

    Volumetric Laser Endomicroscopy (VLE) is a promising technique for the detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus (BE). VLE generates hundreds of high resolution, grayscale, cross-sectional images of the esophagus. However, at present, classifying these images is a time consuming and cumbersome effort performed by an expert using a clinical prediction model. This paper explores the feasibility of using computer vision techniques to accurately predict the presence of dysplastic tissue in VLE BE images. Our contribution is threefold. First, a benchmarking is performed for widely applied machine learning techniques and feature extraction methods. Second, three new features based on the clinical detection model are proposed, having superior classification accuracy and speed, compared to earlier work. Third, we evaluate automated parameter tuning by applying simple grid search and feature selection methods. The results are evaluated on a clinically validated dataset of 30 dysplastic and 30 non-dysplastic VLE images. Optimal classification accuracy is obtained by applying a support vector machine and using our modified Haralick features and optimal image cropping, obtaining an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.95 compared to the clinical prediction model at 0.81. Optimal execution time is achieved using a proposed mean and median feature, which is extracted at least factor 2.5 faster than alternative features with comparable performance.

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thiamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane.

  12. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

    2013-12-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility.

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  14. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-12

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  15. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-30

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  16. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  17. Design and Configuration of a Medical Imaging Systems Computer Laboratory Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selver, M. Alper

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging systems (MIS) constitute an important emergent subdiscipline of engineering studies. In the context of electrical and electronics engineering (EEE) education, MIS courses cover physics, instrumentation, data acquisition, image formation, modeling, and quality assessment of various modalities. Many well-structured MIS courses are…

  18. Quality of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography imaging: multicentre evaluation with a cardiac phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, J; Ahonen, A; Kuikka, J T; Rautio, P

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in Finnish hospitals. Nineteen nuclear medicine departments participated in the study. A myocardial phantom simulating clinical stress and rest conditions was filled with routinely used isotope solution (technetium-99m or thallium-201). The cardiac insert included three reversible defects (simulating ischaemia): 30x30x14 mm(3) septal (90% recovery at rest), 30x20x14 mm(3) posterobasal (full recovery) and 20x20x14 mm(3) lateral (full recovery). There were two fixed defects (simulating infarct): 30x20x14 mm(3) postero-apical and 10x10x6 mm(3) apical. The phantom was imaged and interpreted as a myocardial perfusion patient. Reconstruction, printout and reporting were performed according to the clinical routine of each centre. Three nuclear medicine specialists anonymously evaluated the quality of the image sets. The visual scores of the experts were ranked from 1 to 5. Additionally, points from 0 to 8 were given to research reports according to how well perfusion defects were detected. Quantitative points were calculated by comparing background-subtracted and -normalized counts from 12 regions of interest between stress and rest images. Results for technetium studies (12 departments) were better than those for thallium (7 departments). The average visual scores of the experts were 3.7+/-0. 9 for all image sets, 3.2+/-0.5 for thallium users and 3.9+/-0.6 for technetium users (P=0.003). Five laboratories received a low score which, according to the specialists, is barely sufficient for limited clinical use. Average points for the reports were 5.6+/-2.1, 4.9+/-1.5 and 6.5+/-1.7 (P=0.051), and for the quantitation 8.2+/-1. 0, 7.9+/-0.4 and 8.4+/-1.1 (P=0.185), respectively. Seven out of 22 interpreters did not detect the lateral 20x20x14 mm(3) defect; five of them used thallium. This study demonstrated the heterogeneity of myocardial perfusion SPET in

  19. Quality of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography imaging: multicentre evaluation with a cardiac phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Etela-Savo Hospital District, Mikkeli Central Hospital, Mikkeli (Finland); Ahonen, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Oulu University Hospital (Finland); Kuikka, J.T. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Rautio, P. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu (Finland)

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in Finnish hospitals. Nineteen nuclear medicine departments participated in the study. A myocardial phantom simulating clinical stress and rest conditions was filled with routinely used isotope solution (technetium-99m or thallium-201). The cardiac insert included three reversible defects (simulating ischaemia): 30 x 30 x 14 mm{sup 3} septal (90% recovery at rest), 30 x 20 x 14 mm{sup 3} posterobasal (full recovery) and 20 x 20 x 14 mm{sup 3} lateral (full recovery). There were two fixed defects (simulating infarct): 30 x 20 x 14 mm{sup 3} postero-apical and 10 x 10 x 6 mm{sup 3} apical. The phantom was imaged and interpreted as a myocardial perfusion patient. Reconstruction, printout and reporting were performed according to the clinical routine of each centre. Three nuclear medicine specialists anonymously evaluated the quality of the image sets. The visual scores of the experts were ranked from 1 to 5. Additionally, points from 0 to 8 were given to research reports according to how well perfusion defects were detected. Quantitative points were calculated by comparing background-subtracted and -normalized counts from 12 regions of interest between stress and rest images. Results for technetium studies (12 departments) were better than those for thallium (7 departments). The average visual scores of the experts were 3.7{+-}0.9 for all image sets, 3.2{+-}0.5 for thallium users and 3.9{+-}0.6 for technetium users (P=0.003). Five laboratories received a low score which, according to the specialists, is barely sufficient for limited clinical use. Average points for the reports were 5.6{+-}2.1, 4.9{+-}1.5 and 6.5{+-}1.7 (P=0.051), and for the quantitation 8.2{+-}1.0, 7.9{+-}0.4 and 8.4{+-}1.1 (P=0.185), respectively. Seven out of 22 interpreters did not detect the lateral 20 x 20 x 14 mm{sup 3} defect; five of them used thallium. This study demonstrated

  20. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author).

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  3. A clinical chemistry analyzer evaluated by NCCLS guidelines for use in a military field laboratory unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullinger, J; Garrett, P E

    1989-11-01

    In a previous comparison study of "dry chemistry" desktop analyzers, the ChemPro 1000 (Arden Medical Systems) was one of several instruments found suitable for field use. We have now evaluated the linearity, accuracy, and precision of the ChemPro 1000, according to NCCLS Document EP 10-P. We also compared results with those by the SMAC (Technicon) and the Nova 9 (Nova Biomedical) for electrolytes, serum urea nitrogen, and ionized calcium in field and laboratory environments. The precision (CV) of the ChemPro was within acceptable ranges for dry chemistry desktop analyzers for all analytes tested. This instrument is a suitable and reasonable alternative to manual chemistry or to large, automated instrumentation in a field environment.

  4. PREDICTION OF DISSOLVER LIFETIMES THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Woodsmall, T.; Hinz, W.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-03

    Non-destructive evaluation was used as the primary method of monitoring the corrosion degradation of nuclear material dissolvers and assessing the remaining lifetimes. Materials were typically processed in nitric acid based (4-14M) solutions containing fluoride concentrations less than 0.2 M. The primary corrosion issue for the stainless steel dissolvers is the occurrence of localized corrosion near the tank bottom and the heat affected zones of the welds. Laboratory data for a range of operational conditions, including solution chemistry and temperature, was used to assess the impact of processing changes on the dissolver corrosion rate. Experimental and NDE-based general corrosion rates were found to be in reasonable agreement for standard dissolution chemistries consisting of nitric acid with fluorides and at temperatures less than 95 C. Greater differences were observed when chloride was present as an impurity and temperatures exceeded 100 C.

  5. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply auxiliary heat for both space heating and domestic hot water. Poor performance is reported, with the solar fraction being only 4%. Also given are the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and the coefficient of performance. The performance data are given for the collector, storage, solar water heating and solar space heating subsystems as well as the total system. Typical system operation and solar energy utilization are briefly described. The system design, performance evaluation techniques, weather data, and sensor technology are presented. (LEW)

  6. Laboratory evaluation of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the termite, Microcerotermes diversus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest Iran. One sustainable control strategy that usually helps to reduce subterranean termite damage in buildings, is the use of insect growth regualtors in a suitable bait matrix that are safe to the user and the environment. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, to M. diversus was evaluated under force-feeding and choice trials. Flurox induced worker and nymph mortality and incomplete ecdysis in nymphs of M. diversus under no-choice and two-choice feeding tests. These adverse effects may cause disruption of the caste balance in M. diversus, leading to the collapse of the colony. These assays determined concentrations of Flurox that can be used in bait formulations.

  7. Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    Two types of secondary zinc cell have been evaluated in our laboratory to assess their suitability to power an electric van. Single cells were charged and discharged with constant-current cycles as well as with controlled-power discharge profiles, scaled to the predicted mass of a full-size battery. Both cells were able to meet the requirements for power discharge specified by the so-called Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS) early in life (the first 15 cycles). The Zn/air cell achieved an average of 72 SFUDS repetions (7.2 h) per discharge. The Zn/NiOOH cell achieved an average of 51 SFUDS repetitions (5.1 h) per discharge. The bifunctional air electrodes did not reach oxygen-evolution potentials during the 8-s regenerative breaking portions of the SFUDS cycle.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

    2010-09-01

    Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls.

  9. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated.

  10. Online laboratory evaluation of seeding-machine application by an acoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, H.; Navid, H.; Mahmoudi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Researchers and planter manufacturers have been working closely to develop an automated system for evaluating performance of seeding. In the present study, an innovative use of acoustic signal for laboratory evaluation of seeding-machine application is described. Seed detection technique of the proposed system was based on a rising voltage value that a microphone sensed in each impaction of seeds to a steel plate. Online determining of seed spacing was done with a script which was written in MATLAB software. To evaluate the acoustic system with desired seed spacing, a testing rig was designed. Seeds of wheat, corn and pelleted tomato were used as experimental material. Typical seed patterns were positioned manually on a belt stand with different spacing patterns. When the belt was running, the falling seeds from the end point of the belt impacted to the steel plate, and their acoustic signal was sensed by the microphone. In each impact, data was processed and spacing between the seeds was automatically obtained. Coefficient of determination of gathered data from the belt system and the corresponding seeds spacing measured with the acoustic system in all runs was about 0.98. This strong correlation indicates that the acoustic system worked well in determining the seeds spacing. (Author)

  11. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  12. Evaluation of severity in aplastic anemia by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Lim, Gye Yeon; Kim, Euy Neyng; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Dong Wook; Han, Chi Wha; Kim, Chun Choo [The Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the role of bone marrow (BM) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for assessment of the severity of aplastic anemia (AA). Eighty patients with AA, ranging in age from 16 to 44 years underwent MR imaging. Fifty four patients had clinically severe AA(SAA), while in 26 the condition was moderate(MAA). Sagittal T1-weighted images (T1WI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images of lumbar vertebral BM were analysed. Bulk T1, T2 and rho values (msec) were also measured, with mixed sequences. Signal intensity (SI) on both T1WI and STIR was classified into four patterns according to the amount fatty marrow : pattern I, homogeneous fatty marrow ; 2, fatty marrow with focal cellular nodules ; 3, mixed fatty and cellular marrow ; 4, cellular marrow with focal fatty nodules. These SI patterns and bulk T1, T2 and rho values of the lumbar BM were compared with the clinical severity of AA. On both T1WI and STIR sequences, MR imaging of lumbar vertebral BM in patients with AA showed various SI patterns. Pattern 1, 2 and 3 were much frequently seen in the SAA group (48 of 54 patients on T1WI and 43 of 54 on STIR) and pattern 4 was common in the MAA group (16 of 26 patients on T1WI and 18 of 26 on STIR). The SI patterns of AA seen on both T1WI and STIR sequences closely correlated with clinical severity (x 2 test, p=0.0001). Bulk T1 value was significantly different between SAA and MAA (SAA : 382.82msec {+-} 113.91 ; MAA : 517.99msec {+-} 151.92 ; t test, p=0.0001). The SI pattern seen on MR imaging, and T1 relaxation time of lumbar spinal BM can be useful for assessing the severity of AA.

  13. New performance evaluation models for character detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong; Wang, Kongqiao

    2010-02-01

    Detection of characters regions is a meaningful research work for both highlighting region of interest and recognition for further information processing. A lot of researches have been performed on character localization and extraction and this leads to the great needs of performance evaluation scheme to inspect detection algorithms. In this paper, two probability models are established to accomplish evaluation tasks for different applications respectively. For highlighting region of interest, a Gaussian probability model, which simulates the property of a low-pass Gaussian filter of human vision system (HVS), was constructed to allocate different weights to different character parts. It reveals the greatest potential to describe the performance of detectors, especially, when the result detected is an incomplete character, where other methods cannot effectively work. For the recognition destination, we also introduced a weighted probability model to give an appropriate description for the contribution of detection results to final recognition results. The validity of performance evaluation models proposed in this paper are proved by experiments on web images and natural scene images. These models proposed in this paper may also be able to be applied in evaluating algorithms of locating other objects, like face detection and more wide experiments need to be done to examine the assumption.

  14. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  15. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  16. Laboratory and numerical evaluation of borehole methods for subsurface horizontal flow characterization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedler, William H. (Radon Abatement Systems, Inc., Golden, CO); Jepsen, Richard Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2003-08-01

    The requirement to accurately measure subsurface groundwater flow at contaminated sites, as part of a time and cost effective remediation program, has spawned a variety of flow evaluation technologies. Validation of the accuracy and knowledge regarding the limitations of these technologies are critical for data quality and application confidence. Leading the way in the effort to validate and better understand these methodologies, the US Army Environmental Center has funded a multi-year program to compare and evaluate all viable horizontal flow measurement technologies. This multi-year program has included a field comparison phase, an application of selected methods as part of an integrated site characterization program phase, and most recently, a laboratory and numerical simulator phase. As part of this most recent phase, numerical modeling predictions and laboratory measurements were made in a simulated fracture borehole set-up within a controlled flow simulator. The scanning colloidal borescope flowmeter (SCBFM) and advanced hydrophysical logging (NxHpL{trademark}) tool were used to measure velocities and flow rate in a simulated fractured borehole in the flow simulator. Particle tracking and mass flux measurements were observed and recorded under a range of flow conditions in the simulator. Numerical models were developed to aid in the design of the flow simulator and predict the flow conditions inside the borehole. Results demonstrated that the flow simulator allowed for predictable, easily controlled, and stable flow rates both inside and outside the well. The measurement tools agreed well with each other over a wide range of flow conditions. The model results demonstrate that the Scanning Colloidal Borescope did not interfere with the flow in the borehole in any of the tests. The model is capable of predicting flow conditions and agreed well with the measurements and observations in the flow simulator and borehole. Both laboratory and model results showed a

  17. A laboratory-based evaluation of four rapid point-of-care tests for syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Causer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. METHODS: Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. RESULTS: In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive. Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8-98.3, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 89.8%(87.3-91.9 and Bioline 87.8%(85.1-90.0. Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1-97.8, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 98.3%(96.5-99.2, and Bioline 98.5%(96.8-99.3. Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4-90.2% compared to secondary syphilis (94.3-98.6%. No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR ≥ 8 (range: 94.6-99.5% than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3-92.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would need to be

  18. Entropy analysis to psychological evaluation of tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Dodanuki, S.; Moribe, N. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Entropy analysis to psychological evaluation for tomographic images is applied. An optic canal and an internal ear tomogram are taken by hypocycloidal, elliptical, spiral and circular blurring movements. Fifteen tomograms are taken for each tomographic blurring movement of the two different parts, so a total of 60 sheets of tomograms are taken. All optic canal tomograms are evaluated by two groups composed of five ophthalmologists and five radiologic technologists, and internal ear tomograms are evaluated by five otolaryngologists and five radiologic technologists. Each observer participated in this experiment twice, so the total number of tomograms are 120 sheets per observer. The subjects were directed to classify 120 tomograms by using a three-category rating scale. Characteristics of each observer and each group can be shown quantitatively by calculated information values.

  19. Sports-related groin pain: evaluation with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden); Sjoeberg, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden); Westlin, N. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)

    1996-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess the role of MRI in evaluating the musculoskeletal system in athletes with chronic pain laterally in the groin of unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the public ring was performed in 11 young athletes (soccer players) with long-standing groin pain. MR findings were compared with plain films and isotope examination (bone scan Tc99M). Abnormal MRI findings included a broadened and irregular symphysis with a characteristic pattern of low signal intensity on T1W and high signal intensity on T2W images localized in the superior public ramus at a distance from the symphysis. Positive findings were also observed on plaon films and on nuclear medicine studies. However, the imaging findings in the superior pubic ramus of the symphysis was located considerably more laterally on MRI. MRI is a valuable method for evaluating discrete and ambiguous pelvic pain in athletes, particularly for identifying concomitant changes in the superior ramus, which may give rise to long-standing pain localized laterally in the groin. (orig.)

  20. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  1. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, A; Damianidis, Ch; Kyriakou, V; Kotziamani, N; Emmanouilidou, M; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, I

    2010-03-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common intraorbital lesion in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) characteristics of cavernous hemangioma and their role in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors. Eight patients with orbital cavernous hemangiomas, five women and three men with a mean age of 48 years were examined in a period of six years. All patients underwent MRI examination and four patients were also evaluated by US. In all cases MRI depicted a well-defined intraconal tumor. The lesions were homogeneous, isointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequence and hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted sequence in six patients. In one patient the mass was isointense on T1WI with heterogeneous signal intensity on T2WI and in one patient the lesion had heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. After intravenous contrast medium administration, the tumors showed initial inhomogeneous enhancement with progressive accumulation of contrast material on delayed images in seven patients and initial homogeneous enhancement in one patient. On ultrasonography, the orbital masses appeared slightly hyperechoic, heterogeneous with small areas of slow blood flow. The analysis of imaging characteristics of a well-defined intraconal lesion in an adult patient with painless progressive proptosis can be highly suggestive of the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma.

  2. A Realistic Approach To Evaluating Digital Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinacher, C. F.; Bach, E.,; Muller, K.,; Patzelt, K.

    1984-06-01

    Current systems for the production of medical images and current development trends give a basis of experience for the design of a digital PACS including images and demographic data. Such a PACS must contain software and hardware concepts which permit the medical requirements, as presently understood, to be realized. As part of its research Siemens is designing and evaluating a hybrid network configuration which allows extensive flexibility and growth potential despite current limitations in available network bandwidth and storage capacity. As demand for digital data expands, additional installations can be added to the system. The modular concept permits incorporation of technological advances with minimal difficulty. The system allows different digital imaging modalities to communicate with a central data storage and processing system. Data display facilities both with and without manipulation capability are realized using high speed multi image storage devices. The human interface is designed to be ergono-metric, interactive, and user-friendly. Standardized, commercially available hardware has been included wherever possible to provide economical worldwide acceptance. Estimates of digital data per unit time under different conditions are presented and compared to the specifications of software and hardware elements both currently available and envisaged in the near future. Potential limitations of the design, as well as possible solutions incorporating expected technological developments, are discussed.

  3. Cardiopulmonary imaging, functional and laboratory studies in sickle cell disease associated pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; Nur, Erfan; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R.; van Esser, Joost W. J.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Kappers-Klunne, Maria C.; Duits, Ashley J.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Schnog, John-John B.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) occurs in approximately 30% of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is an independent risk factor for early death. In this study, we aimed to determine the value of general laboratory testing, plain chest radiography, electrocardiography (ECG), high-resolution compu

  4. Laboratory Calibration of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Stewart, Mike F.; Christian, Hugh J.; Bergstrom, James W.; Hall, John M.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    We present in detail the laboratory apparatus and techniques that were used to complete a full radiometric calibration of two space-based lightning detectors developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). A discussion of the methods applied to geolocate lightning and to estimate lightning detection efficiency are provided.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliitis in early seronegative spondylarthropathy. Abnormalities correlated to clinical and laboratory findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhakka, K B; Jurik, A G; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new MRI scoring system of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in early spondylarthropathy (SpA) with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Forty-one patients (24 males, 17 females) with a median age of 26 yr and a median duration of inflammatory low back pain of 19 months...

  6. Evaluation of selected martensitic stainless steels for use in downhole tubular expansion - Results of a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Robert [Shell International E and P, b.v. Kessler Park 1, Postbus 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory program was performed to evaluate the potential of selected martensitic stainless steels for downhole cladding applications. The evaluation of the effects of tubular expansion on mechanical properties, defects, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking demonstrated that some steels were acceptable for the intended application. The results were used to qualify and select the stainless steel for the intended sweet cladding applications. (authors)

  7. 77 FR 67013 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Battelle Laboratories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Battelle....12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Battelle...: Facility: Battelle Laboratories King Avenue Location: Columbus, Ohio. Job Titles and/or Job Duties: All...

  8. Reducing radiation to patients and improving image quality in a real-world nuclear cardiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Stephen A; Meyers, Karen

    2017-03-22

    In part because of aging equipment and reduced reimbursement for imaging services in the last several years, nuclear cardiologists who remain in private practice face challenges in maintaining high quality and in reducing radiation exposure to patients. We review patient-centered approaches and affordable software solutions employed in our practice combined with supine-prone myocardial perfusion imaging to achieve increased interpretive confidence with reduced radiation exposure to patients.

  9. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF CLINICAL LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ANTIPLATELET THERAPY EFFECTIVENESS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sirotkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the functional activity of platelets by the optical standard aggregatometry and induced flow cytofluorometry during antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA.Material and methods. The evaluation of platelet function in 30 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA and clopidogrel was performed by two methods: the standard photometric method with the assessment of degree of light transmission at the maximum point and by the original method of induced flow cytofluorometry with the platelet activity evaluation by changing of glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa receptor level and the expression of P-selectin before and after ADP induction.Results. Increase in platelet functional activity was detected in patients with ASA monotherapy at initial evaluation by both induced flow cytofluorometry and standard photometric method. After one month dual antiplatelet therapy platelet function significantly decreased according to standard photometric method (from 61.4Ѓ}3.6 to 45.9Ѓ}3.7; p<0.05; the induction of 2.5 mM ADP, as well as according to flow cytofluorometry with changing of GP IIb/IIIa receptor level (from 12.2Ѓ}0.8% to 5.2Ѓ}0.8%; p<0.05 and the expression of P-selectin (from 70.5Ѓ}5.9% to 57.4Ѓ}5.9%; p<0.05.Conclusion. The combined use of laboratory methods to assess platelet function (traditional and high-tech provides cardiologist with additional tool for assessing the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF CLINICAL LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ANTIPLATELET THERAPY EFFECTIVENESS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sirotkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the functional activity of platelets by the optical standard aggregatometry and induced flow cytofluorometry during antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA.Material and methods. The evaluation of platelet function in 30 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA and clopidogrel was performed by two methods: the standard photometric method with the assessment of degree of light transmission at the maximum point and by the original method of induced flow cytofluorometry with the platelet activity evaluation by changing of glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa receptor level and the expression of P-selectin before and after ADP induction.Results. Increase in platelet functional activity was detected in patients with ASA monotherapy at initial evaluation by both induced flow cytofluorometry and standard photometric method. After one month dual antiplatelet therapy platelet function significantly decreased according to standard photometric method (from 61.4Ѓ}3.6 to 45.9Ѓ}3.7; p<0.05; the induction of 2.5 mM ADP, as well as according to flow cytofluorometry with changing of GP IIb/IIIa receptor level (from 12.2Ѓ}0.8% to 5.2Ѓ}0.8%; p<0.05 and the expression of P-selectin (from 70.5Ѓ}5.9% to 57.4Ѓ}5.9%; p<0.05.Conclusion. The combined use of laboratory methods to assess platelet function (traditional and high-tech provides cardiologist with additional tool for assessing the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lieu, H.C. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Intelligent Systems Div.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lieu, H.C. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Intelligent Systems Div.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  14. CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING EVALUATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT LIPOMATOSIS (RRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Boruah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon benign entity where abundance of fibrofatty tissue proliferation occurs in renal sinus with further extension of proliferated fatty tissues into renal hilum, perinephric and periureteric spaces. It is usually associated with renal atrophy and marked renal parenchymal destruction. Aim of our study was cross-sectional imaging evaluation of Renal Replacement Lipomatosis (RRL. METHODS A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised of 16 patients presenting to the Departments of Radio-diagnosis, Surgery and Urology in a tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically and ultrasonographically followed by cross-sectional imaging modality like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or both. RESULTS Out of 16 patients of renal replacement lipomatosis, 15 patients (93.8% had associated renal pelvic or ureteric calculus while 1 patient (6.2% had left para-aortic mass without associated calculus. Out of fifteen patients of calculus related RRL, 8 patients (53.3% had calculus size more than 40 mm, followed by 4 patients (26.7% who had size from 20 to 40 mm and 3 patients (20% had size less than 20 mm. The mean CT HU value of calculus was 1334±84.5 in our study. Three patients (18.8% had only renal hilar fatty excessive deposition, 1 patient (6.2% had renal hilar and perinephric space fat depositions, 3 patients (18.8% had renal hilar, perinephric and periureteric spaces depositions and 9 patients (56.2% had renal hilar and periureteric excessive fatty depositions. Delayed renal functioning was noted in 9 patients (56%, followed by non-functioning in 5 patients (31.2% and 2 patients (12.5% had normally functioning kidneys. CONCLUSION Cross-sectional imaging like CT and MRI scan helps in diagnosing RRL and proper delineation of extensions of excessive fatty tissue proliferation.

  15. For geological investigations with airborne thermal infrared multispectral images: Transfer of calibration from laboratory spectrometer to TIMS as alternative for removing atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Anderson, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical method to correct TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for atmospheric effects by transferring calibration from a laboratory thermal emission spectrometer to the TIMS multispectral image. The method does so by comparing the laboratory spectra of samples gathered in the field with TIMS 6-point spectra for pixels at the location of field sampling sites. The transference of calibration also makes it possible to use spectra from the laboratory as endmembers in unmixing studies of TIMS data.

  16. Contact Thermocouple Methodology and Evaluation for Temperature Measurement in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph J.; Krause, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory testing of advanced aerospace components very often requires highly accurate temperature measurement and control devices, as well as methods to precisely analyze and predict the performance of such components. Analysis of test articles depends on accurate measurements of temperature across the specimen. Where possible, this task is accomplished using many thermocouples welded directly to the test specimen, which can produce results with great precision. However, it is known that thermocouple spot welds can initiate deleterious cracks in some materials, prohibiting the use of welded thermocouples. Such is the case for the nickel-based superalloy MarM-247, which is used in the high temperature, high pressure heater heads for the Advanced Stirling Converter component of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator space power system. To overcome this limitation, a method was developed that uses small diameter contact thermocouples to measure the temperature of heater head test articles with the same level of accuracy as welded thermocouples. This paper includes a brief introduction and a background describing the circumstances that compelled the development of the contact thermocouple measurement method. Next, the paper describes studies performed on contact thermocouple readings to determine the accuracy of results. It continues on to describe in detail the developed measurement method and the evaluation of results produced. A further study that evaluates the performance of different measurement output devices is also described. Finally, a brief conclusion and summary of results is provided.

  17. Laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swellable polymer for fracture shutoff in injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, Prentice [Kinder Morgan, Houston, TX (United States); Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swelling polymer (WSP) that can be bullheaded to shut off fractures in injection wells. The WSP is capable of absorbing 30 to 400 times its own weight in water. The material was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing controllable swelling rates, shutting off the flow of water in synthetic cores with simulated fractures, and providing long-term stability in H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} environments. In addition, this paper presents the field implementation of this technology along with successful case histories in west Texas. The water swellable material is mixed on the fly, entering fissures and fracture systems as they swell without invading the matrix of the rock. The rate of absorption can be controlled based on the specified particle size ranging from 600-mesh size up to 14 mm and the type of carrier fluid. This WSP presents an innovative technology for fracture, fissure, and highly eroded out permeability shutoff to improve the sweep efficiency of water and gas injection. In addition, the WSP is resistant to acid contamination and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S environments. To date, more than 200 jobs have been performed with this technology. (author)

  18. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  19. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of hot metal de siliconizing process in ladle; Avaliacao laboratorial do processo de dessiliciacao do gusa na panela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Sergio R.M.; Furtado, Henrique S.; Bentes, Miguel A.G.; Almeida, Pedro S. de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1996-12-31

    The attractiveness of hot metal de siliconizing in ladle, relative to the process in blast furnace runner, is the previous knowledge of silicon content of hot metal, without the constraints of slag removing by skimmer met in torpedo car, and the better efficiency in low range silicon content, making easier the process controllability. Meanwhile, the main question about this technology is the extent of the resulfurization of hot metal that may occur due to process be performed after the desulfurization. This work simulates de de siliconizing process in ladle by experiments in induction furnace to compare the efficiencies of various de siliconizing agents available at CSN iron and steel making plant, and to evaluate the resulfurization intensity able to occur during the process, as well as, unexpected increasing of refractory wear. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  2. Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, R O; Aseltine, M S; Church, D C

    1981-12-01

    Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

  3. Electrooptical Evaluation Techniques of Image Intensifier 'Ibbes - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Bhasin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive night vision devices are used for viewing the military targets at low light levels of illuminations during night. In these passive night vision devices, image intensifier tubes areused to amplify scene imagery. The performance of these tubes depends upon electrooptical parameters. The techniques of evaluating these parameters, eg, luminous gain, automatic rightness control and maximum screen luminance, photocathode sensitivity, radiant gain, equivalent background illumination, magnification and distortion, signal-to-noise ratio, veilingglare, screen brightness variation, etc. have been described.

  4. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging of Arnold-Chiari malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Kimihiro; Suga, Masakazu; Takemoto, Motohisa

    1987-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of the Arnold-Chiari malformation. The patient, a 52-year-old man, complained of dizziness on walking. He initially refused to undergone myelography, but 4 months later, underwent MRI test, which lead to the diagnosis of Arnold-Chiari malformation (I type). Not all patients with symptoms of Arnold-Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, syringobulbia and cervical spinal tumor, undergone myelography, which is an invasive technique, therefore MRI should be the first examination for the patients with disorders involving the craniocervical junction.

  5. [Brucellosis: retrospective evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features of 151 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroğlu, Y Ziya; Turunç, Tuba; Alişkan, Hikmet; Colakoğlu, Sule; Arslan, Hande

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics, complications and treatment oucomes of 151 brucellosis cases (age range: 15-79 years; 89 female), who were followed in our clinic between the period of January 2003-July 2005. Of them, 66.2% were diagnosed as acute, 23.8% as subacute and 9.9% as chronic brucellosis. Risk factors were detected as consumption of unpasteurized milk and diary products (80%), stock-breeding (14%) and risky profession such as veterinary, laboratory technician and butcher (3.3%). Most common complaints were arthralgia (87.4%), malaise (86%), fever (79.5%), sweating (78%), and waist pain (71%). In view of laboratory findings, increased erytrocyte sedimentation rate was detected in 61.6%, C-reactive protein positivity in 60%, lymphomonocytosis in 44.4% and anemia in 51.7% of them. Blood cultures were performed from 125 of the patients, and 64 (51.2%) of them yielded Brucella spp. The other specimens in which bacterial growth were detected in one of each, were bone marrow, sternoclavicular joint, psoas abscess, urine and pleural fluid. Standard tube agglutination (STA) test was found negative in 1.3% of patients who were culture positive, while it was positive at 1/160 titer in 20.5%, at 1/320 in 14%, at 1/640 in 14.6% and > or = 1/1280 in 49.7 percent. The most common complication was found as musculo-skeletal system involvement (30 spondylodiscitis, 15 sacroileitis, five peripheric arthritis, one tendinitis) with a rate of 33.7 percent. Other complications were nervous system involvement in 6% (two acute and seven chronic meningitis), genitourinary involvement in 5.3% (five epididymo-orchitis, two prostatitis, one with Brucella positive urine culture), peritonitis in 0.6% and skin involvement in 0.6 percent. Seven different therapy protocols were applied to the patients according to complications and case specialty, however doxycycline+rifampicin combination during six weeks was the most

  6. Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

    2012-10-15

    Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities

  7. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    of STA imaging in comparison to conventional imaging. The purpose is to evaluate whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo. and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition...... using randomized blinded presentation. Penetration and image quality were scored and evaluated statistically. Results show that in-vivo imaging using STA imaging is feasible with improved image quality compared to conventional imaging.......Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study...

  8. Optical coherence tomography imaging for evaluating the photo biomodulation effects on tissue regeneration in the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Craig B.

    2008-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging dental microstructure which has the potential of evaluating the health of periodontal tissue. OCT provides an "optical biopsy" of tissue 2-3 mm in depth. Optical biopsy is a measurement of the localized optical properties based on tissue type and pathology. This sixth modality of imaging was pioneered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. OCT is based on the optical scattering signatures within tissue structure. With the use of a broad spectrum bandwidth light source, high resolution images, 10 times the resolution of radiographs, can detect important tissue interfaces within the periodontal sulcus and its' relationship to the attachment apparatus of the tooth. Multiple cross-sectional tomograms can be stacked to create two and three dimensional images providing information as to health of periodontal tissue important to both the clinician and researcher.

  9. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function following total laryngectomy in laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasaddi Zarandy M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a well-documented complication after treatment of laryngeal cancer and is particularly significant among patients undergoing laryngectomy. We investigated the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients treated with total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. We also evaluated the effect of neck radiotherapy on thyroid function after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 31 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mean age 53.6 years. Among these patients, 14 were treated with surgery only and 17 were treated with surgery plus radiotherapy. Laboratory evaluation included levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, free T3, and antithyroid antibodies both preoperatively and postoperatively at the first day, as well as one and six months after surgery. Results: All patients had normal thyroid function before treatment; however, after 6 months, five patients (16.1% were hypothyroid. Of these, three patients (9.6% had subclinical symptoms, including elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free T4, and two patients (6.5% showed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Radiotherapy and neck dissection were significantly associated with higher incidences of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypothyroidism occurs in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal cancer. The results indicate that thyroid function studies should be routinely performed in the follow-up care of laryngeal cancer patients, especially if radiotherapy and neck dissection were part of the treatment. We suggest that this approach will improve the patient's quality of life and diminish the co-morbidity associated with this kind of surgery.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of the Chembio Dual Path Platform HIV-Syphilis Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille B. Kalou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of rapid diagnostic tests for HIV and syphilis has increased remarkably in the last decade. As new rapid diagnostic tests become available, there is a continuous need to assess their performance and operational characteristics prior to use in clinical settings.Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Chembio Dual Path Platform (DPP® HIV–Syphilis Assay to accurately diagnose HIV, syphilis, and HIV/syphilis co-infection.Method: In 2013, 990 serum samples from the Georgia Public Health Laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia, United States were characterised for HIV and syphilis and used to evaluate the platform. HIV reference testing combined third-generation Enzyme Immunoassay and Western Blot, whereas reference testing for syphilis was conducted by the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination method and the TrepSure assay. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the DPP assay on this panel by comparing results with the HIV and syphilis reference testing algorithms.Results: For HIV, sensitivity was 99.8% and specificity was 98.4%; for syphilis, sensitivity was 98.8% and specificity was 99.4%. Of the 348 co-infected sera, 344 (98.9% were detected accurately by the DPP assay, but 11 specimens had false-positive results (9 HIV and 2 syphilis due to weak reactivity.Conclusion: In this evaluation, the Chembio DPP HIV–Syphilis Assay had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting both HIV and treponemal antibodies. Our results indicate that this assay could have a significant impact on the simultaneous screening of HIV and syphilis using a single test device for high-risk populations or pregnant women needing timely care and treatment.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  12. High Resolution Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Gallbladder: Value of Advanced Imaging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Su Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    A prospective study to determine the role of compound imaging, speckle reduction imaging and tissue harmonic imaging techniques in high-resolution gallbladder ultrasound examination. Gallbladders in 39 patients were examined with conventional imaging, compound imaging, compound imaging combined with speckle reduction imaging, and compound imaging combined with harmonic imaging techniques, using 7- to 10-MHz linear array transducer. The overall image qualities, sharpness of the anterior wall, depiction of the wall layers, and degree of internal artifact were evaluated. In cases of a gallbladder lesion, its conspicuity, margin sharpness, and intensity of posterior shadowing were evaluated. Two radiologists independently evaluated each image and graded each finding with a four-part scale. The Wilcoxon signs rank test was used. Compound imaging technique provided better results than conventional imaging technique in all categories except the intensity of posterior shadowing of gallstone (p < 0.01). Compound imaging technique well depicted the gallbladder wall layers in 34 of 39 cases and depicted them better than conventional ultrasonography in 31 of 39 cases. Compound imaging also improved conspicuity and margin sharpness of the lesions. Combined use of compound imaging and speckle reduction imaging technique did not provide better results than compound imaging. Combined use of compound imaging and harmonic imaging provided better overall image quality and fewer internal artifacts than compound imaging (p < 0.05). Compound imaging technique was superior to conventional imaging in evaluating gallbladder and its lesion with high frequency transducer. Combined use of compound imaging and harmonic imaging was helpful to enhance overall image quality and reduce artifacts

  13. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  14. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  15. Quality evaluation of edge detection in a road image sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. de A. Gallis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mobile mapping systems map interest features along roads such as poles, traffic signs, curb lines, garbage cans etc. The lab work, concerned to the object reconstruction, consists of transforming the video into still images on which homologous points and features of the road sequence are selected and measured. By means of photogrammetric intersection the object coordinates of these features and points are computed for 3D reconstruction. Using Canny algorithm for the automatic edge detection in a road image sequence the article initially focuses on the empiric determination of the required parameters (standard deviation s and high Ta and low Tb threshold. Then it presents the quality in terms of displacement of the automatically detected edges similar to those visually (manually selected straight features extracted by a human operator that takes them as correct, therefore, as reference for the automatic extraction comparison and the quality evaluation. The results of the tests are discussed and show that the quality of the automatic detection – measured by a quantity of rights and wrongs – vary accordingly to the empirically determined standard deviation and high and low thresholds and also to the image sequence environment (street or road.

  16. Evaluation of cutaneous body image dissatisfaction in the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous body image (CBI), defined as the individual's mental representation of his or her skin, hair, and nails, is an important clinical factor in dermatologic disorders and often the primary consideration in deciding whether to proceed with cosmetic procedures or institute treatment in some skin disorders such as acne. CBI is a highly subjective construct that can be significantly confounded by cultural, psychosocial, and psychiatric factors. Assessment of CBI in the dermatology patient is best accomplished using a biopsychosocial model that involves (1) evaluation of concerns about the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails, (2) assessment of comorbid body image pathologies, especially body dysmorphic disorder, and (3) assessment of other psychiatric comorbidities such as major depressive disorder that can confound the presentation of the CBI complaint. Depending on the psychiatric comobidities, an assessment of suicide risk may have to be done, and if necessary, a referral made to a mental health professional. The clinician should consider the patient's developmental stage (eg, body image concerns are likely to be much greater in the adolescent patient independent of his or her dermatologic disorder) and sociocultural background (eg, a desire for lighter skin in some ethnic groups), factors that can also have a major effect on CBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  18. Filter Design and Performance Evaluation for Fingerprint Image Segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Hoang Thai

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition plays an important role in many commercial applications and is used by millions of people every day, e.g. for unlocking mobile phones. Fingerprint image segmentation is typically the first processing step of most fingerprint algorithms and it divides an image into foreground, the region of interest, and background. Two types of error can occur during this step which both have a negative impact on the recognition performance: 'true' foreground can be labeled as background and features like minutiae can be lost, or conversely 'true' background can be misclassified as foreground and spurious features can be introduced. The contribution of this paper is threefold: firstly, we propose a novel factorized directional bandpass (FDB segmentation method for texture extraction based on the directional Hilbert transform of a Butterworth bandpass (DHBB filter interwoven with soft-thresholding. Secondly, we provide a manually marked ground truth segmentation for 10560 images as an evaluation benchmark. Thirdly, we conduct a systematic performance comparison between the FDB method and four of the most often cited fingerprint segmentation algorithms showing that the FDB segmentation method clearly outperforms these four widely used methods. The benchmark and the implementation of the FDB method are made publicly available.

  19. Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke R Koltz; Russell, Donna K; Naiji Lu; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Sharlin Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep ® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep ® Imaging System (TIS). Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-...

  20. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of pediatric spinal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Durlabhbhai Dhingani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spinal dysraphisms are congenital abnormalities of the spine due to imperfect fusion of midline mesenchymal, bony and neural structures. Imaging plays a vital role in their evaluation as significant portion of patients may present with concurrent anomalies that need to be corrected simultaneously to avoid repeat surgeries. Aims: The aims of the study were to evaluate Spinal dysraphisms using USG and MRI and to correlate imaging findings with operative findings in patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design: Hospital based observational study conducted over a period of year. Materials and Methods: 38 cases of both sexes and below 12 years of age with spinal dysraphism were studied. USG was performed in 29 cases where acoustic window was available for proper evaluation. MRI was performed in all cases. USG findings were compared with MRI findings and operative follow up was taken in 23 cases who underwent operative management. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analysed using percentage and arithmetic mean. Results: 39.47 % cases were male and 60.53 % cases were female. Neonatal period was the most common presenting age group. Closed spinal dysraphism (63.16% was more common than open (36.84%. 79.31% cases showed full agreement between spinal USG and MRI examinations and 6 out of 20.69% showed partial agreement. On operative correlation, USG findings were confirmatory in 91.30% cases and MRI findings were confirmatory in 100% cases. Conclusions: USG can be used as the initial modality for evaluation of spinal dysraphism as well as for screening of suspected cases. MRI is indicated to confirm abnormal USG findings, which shows all concurrent abnormalities and also provides additional anatomical details relevant to surgical planning.

  1. Tularemia in Children: Evaluation of Clinical, Laboratory and Treatment Outcomes of 15 Tularemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Koyuncu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tularemia is a zoonotic diseases caused by Francisella tularensis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of 15 children with the diagnosis of tularemia.Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases admitted with fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy and a F. tularensis antibody titer of 1/160 and above in the microagglutination test (MAT were evaluated retrospectively. Their sociodemographic characteristics, contact with animals, history of tick bite, duration of complaints, clinical and laboratory findings, treatments and clinical courses were studied.Results: The mean age of patients was 11.5±5.1 (3-17 years and 61.3% were male. Fifty-three percent of the patients were living in rural areas, and had contact with contaminated water. Swelling in the neck (93.3%, sore throat (66.7% and fever (66.7% were the most frequently observed symptoms. Oropharyngeal tularemia (66.7% was predominated. In 27% of the patients LAPs were drained surgically, and in 13.3% of cases they were drained by itself. The mean duration between onset of tularemia symptoms and diagnosis was 53±45.3 (5-150 days. Sixty percent of patients were received beta-lactam-antibiotics before admission. It was noted that 6 patients with suppurative lymph nodes were admitted to hospital within median 61 (20-150 days, while others were admitted within median 35 (5-75 days (p<0.05. Mean leukocyte count was 8558.6±1384.5 (6030-11400/mm3, mean CRP was 5.8±2.9 (1-6.7 mg/dl, and mean ESR was 33.1±28.9 (6-103 mm/h. MAT showed that titers ranged from 1/160 to 1/1280. Gentamicin was given in seven patients (47%, streptomycin in five patients (33%, and doxycycline in 3 patients (20%.Conclusions: Tularemia should to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis in patients having tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenopathy without response to beta-lactam antibiotics in rural areas. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:61-6

  2. Are clinical, laboratory, and imaging markers suitable predictors of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Mavadati, Shiva; Oveisi, Sonia; Habibi, Morteza; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection. One hundred fifty-three children with their first febrile urinary tract infection were divided into two groups according to the results of voiding cystourethrography: 60 children with vesicoureteral reflux and 93 children without. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, likelihood ratio (positive and negative), and accuracy of the clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux were determined. Of the 153 children with febrile urinary tract infection, 60 patients (39.2%) had vesicoureteral reflux. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding fever>38℃, suprapubic pain, C-reactive protein quantitative level, number of red blood cells in the urine, and results of renal ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (p38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning and vesicoureteral reflux. Also, there were significant positive correlations between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux. This study revealed fever>38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning as the best predictive markers for vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection. In addition, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound are the best predictive markers for high-grade vesicoureteral reflux.

  3. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  4. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  5. 3D nanoscale imaging of biological samples with laboratory-based soft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlinger, Aurélie; Blechschmidt, Anne; Grötzsch, Daniel; Jung, Robert; Kanngießer, Birgit; Seim, Christian; Stiel, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, where the theoretical resolution limit depends on the wavelength of the probing light, radiation in the soft X-ray regime can be used to analyze samples that cannot be resolved with visible light microscopes. In the case of soft X-ray microscopy in the water-window, the energy range of the radiation lies between the absorption edges of carbon (at 284 eV, 4.36 nm) and oxygen (543 eV, 2.34 nm). As a result, carbon-based structures, such as biological samples, posses a strong absorption, whereas e.g. water is more transparent to this radiation. Microscopy in the water-window, therefore, allows the structural investigation of aqueous samples with resolutions of a few tens of nanometers and a penetration depth of up to 10μm. The development of highly brilliant laser-produced plasma-sources has enabled the transfer of Xray microscopy, that was formerly bound to synchrotron sources, to the laboratory, which opens the access of this method to a broader scientific community. The Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope at the Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray technologies (BLiX) runs with a laser produced nitrogen plasma that emits radiation in the soft X-ray regime. The mentioned high penetration depth can be exploited to analyze biological samples in their natural state and with several projection angles. The obtained tomogram is the key to a more precise and global analysis of samples originating from various fields of life science.

  6. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Mosquiron® 0.12CRD, a New Formulation of Novaluron, Against Culex Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Melgoza, Alfonso; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to assess the activity and efficacy of Mosquiron® 0.12CRD, a new formulation containing 0.12% novaluron, against immature Culex mosquitoes. In laboratory bioassays, this formulation was highly active against Culex quinquefasciatus as indicated by low inhibition of emergence (IE) values (IE50 and IE90). When Mosquiron 0.12CRD was applied at 1 briquet per underground stormwater vault, counts of late instars showed a significant reduction on day 28 posttreatment. When the late instars and pupae collected from Mosquiron-treated water were brought back to the laboratory for posttreatment observation, emergence inhibition was >90% on day 7. When the late instars from a laboratory colony of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to the Mosquiron-treated water, 99% and 95% emergence inhibition was noted on day 7 and day 14, respectively. When Mosquiron 0.12CRD was applied at 11 briquets per vault, significant reductions of larval populations were encountered on days 7 and 35 posttreatment for early instars, and on days 14, 21, and 35 posttreatment for late instars. Laboratory observation of late instars and pupae sampled from the treated vault water showed nearly complete emergence inhibition from day 7 to day 28 posttreatment. A similar trend was observed in laboratory-reared late instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus when exposed to the treated water. Preliminary evaluations indicated that Mosquiron 0.12CRD is a useful new tool to control Culex mosquitoes breeding in persistent sources.

  7. Evaluation Existential of Medical Record Laboratory at the Diploma 3 Program for Medical Record & Health Information, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty, Gadjah Mada University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Citra Budi

    2009-06-01

    Evaluation on the existence of laboratory was presumably exploited to consider future development and management as expected that this Laboratory could be taken as example for medical record management in hospitals.

  8. Evaluation of an LED Retrofit Project at Princeton University’s Carl Icahn Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Murphy, Arthur L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The LED lighting retrofit at the Carl Icahn Laboratory of the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics was the first building-wide interior LED project at Princeton University, following the University’s experiences from several years of exterior and small-scale interior LED implementation projects. The project addressed three luminaire types – recessed 2x2 troffers, cove and other luminaires using linear T8 fluorescent lamps, and CFL downlights - which combined accounted for over 564,000 kWh of annual energy, over 90% of the lighting energy used in the facility. The Princeton Facilities Engineering staff used a thorough process of evaluating product alternatives before selecting an acceptable LED retrofit solution for each luminaire type. Overall, 815 2x2 luminaires, 550 linear fluorescent luminaires, and 240 downlights were converted to LED as part of this project. Based solely on the reductions in wattage in converting from the incumbent fluorescent lamps to LED retrofit kits, the annual energy savings from the project was over 190,000 kWh, a savings of 37%. An additional 125,000 kWh of energy savings is expected from the implementation of occupancy and task-tuning control solutions, which will bring the total savings for the project to 62%.

  9. Laboratorial evaluation of potential donors of organs and tissues for transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinidia Lúcia Duarte de Almeida Quithé de Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the laboratorial complementary evaluation in potential donors of organs and tissues for transplantation. It is a descriptive, quantitative study made in six hospitals in Natal/ Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between August/2010 to February/2011. The sample consisted of 65 potential donors and a checklist type instrument was used. Information was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. From a total number of donors, 89.2% had blood typing, 80.0% hematological tests and verification of the electrolytes. As for the functions, 70.8% had tests for verification of pulmonary function and 80.0% for renal function. From the alterations detected, 69.2% presented hyperoxia, 66.2% leukocytosis, 47.7% hypernatremia, 43.1% increase in the creatine kinase, 10.0% with positive serology. Relevant tests were not made. It is essential to assess potential donors to detect and treat alterations, ensuring the quality of the organs and the quality of the transplantation.

  10. SEQUESTRATION OF METALS IN ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS: A LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.; Knox, A.

    2012-02-13

    Active capping involves the use of capping materials that react with sediment contaminants to reduce their toxicity or bioavailability. Although several amendments have been proposed for use in active capping systems, little is known about their long-term ability to sequester metals. Recent research has shown that the active amendment apatite has potential application for metals contaminated sediments. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of apatite in the sequestration of metal contaminants through the use of short-term laboratory column studies in conjunction with predictive, numerical modeling. A breakthrough column study was conducted using North Carolina apatite as the active amendment. Under saturated conditions, a spike solution containing elemental As, Cd, Co, Se, Pb, Zn, and a non-reactive tracer was injected into the column. A sand column was tested under similar conditions as a control. Effluent water samples were periodically collected from each column for chemical analysis. Relative to the non-reactive tracer, the breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite. Furthermore, breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite compared to the sand column. Finally, a simple 1-D, numerical model was created to qualitatively predict the long-term performance of apatite based on the findings from the column study. The results of the modeling showed that apatite could delay the breakthrough of some metals for hundreds of years under typical groundwater flow velocities.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  12. Evaluation of the Earth Systems Research Laboratory's global Observing System Simulation Experiment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki C. Privé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE system has been implemented at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Earth Systems Research Laboratory in the US as part of an international Joint OSSE effort. The setup of the OSSE consists of a Nature Run from a 13-month free run of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational model, synthetic observations developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, and an operational version of the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation and Global Forecast System numerical weather prediction model. Synthetic observations included both conventional observations and the following radiance observations: AIRS, AMSU-A, AMSU-B, HIRS2, HIRS3, MSU, GOES radiance and OSBUV. Calibration was performed by modifying the error added to the conventional synthetic observations to achieve a match between data denial impacts on the analysis state in the OSSE system and in the real data system. Following calibration, the performance of the OSSE system was evaluated in terms of forecast skill scores and impact of observations on forecast fields.

  13. [An evaluation of the effectiveness of laboratory diagnostic methods for brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, B; Zheludkov, M M; Chernysheva, M I

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic value of bacteriological and serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was studied. In the analysis of milk and cheese specimens Brucella cultures were isolated and differentiated as B.melitensis, biovar I, and B.abortus, biovar 4. In 25.6% of cases B.melitensis culture, biovar 1, was isolated from the blood of persons suspected for brucellosis. The isolation of B.melitensis culture from milk showed that this infective agent migrated from small animals to cattle, which was indicative of a high risk of human infection in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The comparative evaluation of serological diagnostic methods (the agglutination test in test tubes, Huddleson's slide test, the acidic rose bengal test and the 2-mercaptoethanol test) showed high sensitivity of rapid tests (Huddleson's test and the rose bengal test in 93.7% and 87.9% of cases respectively). The 2-mercaptoethanol test which gave positive results in 63.8% of cases provided additional information characterizing the course of infections process.

  14. THGEM-based detectors for sampling elements in DHCAL: laboratory and beam evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, L; Chechik, R; Cortesi, M; Pitt, M; Rubin, A; da Luz, H Natal; Santos, J M F dos; Azevedo, C D R; Covita, D S; Oliveira, C A B; Veloso, J F C A; Breidenbach, M; Freytag, D; Haller, G; Herbst, R; Park, S; White, A; Yu, J; Oliveri, E

    2011-01-01

    We report on the results of an extensive R&D program aimed at the evaluation of Thick-Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) as potential active elements for Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL). Results are presented on efficiency, pad multiplicity and discharge probability of a 10x10 cm2 prototype detector with 1 cm2 readout pads. The detector is comprised of single- or double-THGEM multipliers coupled to the pad electrode either directly or via a resistive anode. Investigations employing standard discrete electronics and the KPiX readout system have been carried out both under laboratory conditions and with muons and pions at the CERN RD51 test beam. For detectors having a charge-induction gap, it has been shown that even a ~6 mm thick single-THGEM detector reached detection efficiencies above 95%, with pad-hit multiplicity of 1.1-1.2 per event; discharge probabilities were of the order of 1e-6 - 1e-5 sparks/trigger, depending on the detector structure and gain. Preliminary beam tests with a WELL hole-structur...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  16. Evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and electrophoretic profiles for diagnosis of malnutrition in hospitalized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Kelliton Fabretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major factor associated with increased rates of mortality and readmission, longer hospital stays, and greater health care spending. Recognizing malnourished or at-risk animals allows for nutritional intervention and improved prognosis. This study evaluated the association between clinical, laboratory, and electrophoretic variables and the nutritional status (NS of hospitalized dogs in order to generate a profile of the sick dog and to facilitate the diagnosis of malnutrition. We divided 215 dogs into groups according to the severity of the underlying disease and we determined the clinical NS based on the assessment of the body condition score and the muscle mass score. The NS was classified as clinically well nourished, clinical moderate malnutrition, or clinical severe malnutrition. Statistical analyses were conducted by using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test; the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for continuous variables. A strong association was found between malnutrition and the severity of the underlying disease. In hospitalized dogs, low body mass index values, anemia, low hemoglobin concentrations, high fibrinogen concentrations, decreased albumin fraction, and increased gamma-globulin fraction (in electrophoresis were associated with malnutrition, reinforcing the classification of poor NS. However, the skin and coat characteristics, the total number of lymphocytes, blood glucose, cholesterol, and total protein concentration were not found to be good predictors of NS.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of the impact of the addition of resid in FCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devard, Alejandra; de la Puente, Gabriela; Sedran, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654 (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    The conversion and product distributions from a mixture of 10% atmospheric tower bottom resid and a DO hydrocarbon cut similar to LCO that represented commercial feedstocks were assessed over two equilibrium commercial FCC catalysts in a laboratory CREC Riser Simulator reactor. The reaction temperature was 550 C, the catalyst to oil ratio was 5.8 and the reaction times were up to 25 s. The conversion of the mixture as compared to the DO base feed was higher in the case of the most active, conventional catalyst, and remained very similar on the resid catalyst. Since the yields of the main hydrocarbon groups dry gas, LPG, gasoline and coke followed very similar trends when the two pure feedstocks were converted, the corresponding yields from the mixture also obeyed that behaviour, and were the consequence of the conversion reached. The impact of the different catalyst formulations was observed in, for example, the selectively different yields obtained from the conversion of the resid, and in the composition of the gasoline. Independently of the catalyst, the gasoline was more olefinic and less aromatic when the resid was present. It was shown that in order to evaluate properly a given combination of feeds, catalysts and conditions, they must be considered together. (author)

  18. Laboratory evaluation of lactic acid on attraction of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The role of lactic acid was evaluated for attraction of Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tarsalis, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory using a dual-port olfactometer. When lactic acid was combined with chicken odor, attraction was increased for Cx. quinquefasciatus compared to chicken odor alone but not for Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti. Lactic acid combined with hand odor did not change attraction of Cx. tarsalis and Ae. aegypti but decreased attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The addition of lactic acid to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. Use of commercial lactic acid baits with CO(2) resulted in a similar trend except for Cx. nigripalpus which showed no difference. A blend of lactic acid, acetone, and dimethyl disulfide was attractive to Ae. aegypti (63.4%) but elicited low responses by all Culex spp. (1.3-26.8%). Addition of the blend to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. The mixture of compounds plus CO(2) was as attractive as a hand for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  2. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Physical and Mechanical Road Base Construction Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Road-bases are quarry materials, which are used in the construction of road pavements. They comprised a combination of coarse and fine crushed materials, which when placed and compacted at the correct moisture, form a stiff layer. For soil aggregates materials to be used correctly in road construction, it is necessary to know their properties. In addition, road-base material characterizations are needed to design an adequate pavement structure for expected traffics load. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the physical, chemical and mechanical behaviors of soil aggregate as granular road base materials in order to provide rudimentary understanding of roads based materials on mechanistic-empirical pavement design and analysis using experimental laboratory tests. These tests were performed in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM and British Standards (BS on fine and coarse soil aggregates along with base aggregate used in pavements. The results show that the optimum moisture content, maximum dry density and plasticity index have significant influence on the behavior of these materials.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against larvae and adults of onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, G; Chandler, D

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were done to measure the susceptibility of larvae and adults of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Muscidae: Anthomyiidae) to 27 isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from four genera [Beauveria Vuillemin, Lecanicillium (Petch) Zare & W. Gams, Metarhizium Sorokin, and Paecilomyces Bainier]. A novel bioassay was developed for D. antiqua larvae by using a diet based on mixed vegetable powder. When evaluated in a virulence screen, the fungal isolates caused less mortality of D. antiqua larvae than adults. Only three isolates caused > 50% mortality of larvae, whereas 12 isolates caused > 50% mortality of adults. Fungal species was a statistically significant factor affecting the mortality of larvae but not of adults. The fungal isolates causing the most mortality of larvae tended to belong to Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Two M. anisopliae isolates (389.93 and 392.93) were evaluated in dose-response bioassays. The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against larvae were 6.1 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 389.93 and 7.6 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 392.93. The emergence of adult flies from pupae was reduced at high concentrations of conidia (3.0 x 10(8) and 1.0 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against adults were 1.7 x 10(7) and 4.0 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Some of the fungal isolates examined may have potential as biological control agents of larvae of D. antiqua and related species.

  4. Laboratory column studies for evaluating a barrier system for providing oxygen and substrate for TCE biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Su, M C

    2001-08-01

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a biobarrier system containing oxygen-organic releasing material to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE in situ. The oxygen-organic material, which contains calcium peroxide and peat, is able to release oxygen and primary substrates continuously upon contact with water. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the oxygen-organic releasing material, and evaluate the oxygen and organic substrate (presented as COD equivalent) release from the designed oxygen-organic material. The observed oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) release rates were approximately 0.0246 and 0.052 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an oxygen-organic material column, followed by two consecutive soil columns. Aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in all three soil columns to provide microbial consortia for TCE biodegradation. Simulated TCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 l/day was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for TCE and other indicating parameters (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen). Results show that the decreases in TCE concentrations were observed over a 4-month operating period. Up to 99% of TCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Results indicate that the continuously released oxygen and organic substrates from the oxygen-organic materials enhanced TCE biotransformation. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology.

  5. Reproducibility evaluation of standard procedures for the proximate analysis of coals. [Between and within laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butina, I.V.; Gorelov, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Four coal samples were analyzed in the laboratories at eight coking plants, for metrological processing to determine the within- and between laboratory reproducibilities of the standard procedures for the basic coal property indices (ash, volatile matter and moisture content). The between-laboratory reproducibility is highest in the ash determination (S/sub b/ up to 0.17%) and the lowest in the volatile matter determination (S/sub b/ up to 0.9%). The within-laboratory reproducibility is up to 0.3% on ash and moisture content and up to 0.5% on volatile matter.

  6. Imaging and nanofabrication with the helium ion microscope of the Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory in Delft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Paul F A; Koster, Emma M; van Veldhoven, Emile; Maas, Diederik J

    2012-01-01

    Although helium ion microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are emerging. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular, the HIM secondary electron signal stems from an area that is extremely well localized around the point of incidence of the primary beam. This makes the HIM well suited for both high-resolution imaging and high-resolution nanofabrication. Another advantage in nanofabrication is the low ion backscattering fraction, which leads to a weak proximity effect. The subnanometer probe size and the unique beam-materials interactions have opened new areas of research. This review presents a selection of studies conducted on a single instrument. The selection encompasses applications ranging from imaging to nanofabrication and from fundamental academic research to applied industrial developments.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis of terrestrial lacustrine pillow basalts: Coordination of hyperspectral imaging with laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Rebecca N; Mustard, John F; Cloutis, Edward A; Mann, Paul; Wilson, Janette H.; Flemming, Roberta L; Robertson, Kevin; Salvatore, Mark R; Edwards, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We investigate an outcrop of ∼187 Ma lacustrine pillow basalts of the Talcott Formation exposed in Meriden, Connecticut, USA, focusing on coordinated analyses of one pillow lava to characterize the aqueous history of these basalts in the Hartford Basin. This work uses a suite of multidisciplinary measurements, including hyperspectral imaging, other spectroscopic techniques, and chemical and mineralogical analyses, from the microscopic scale up to the scale of an outcrop.

  8. Construction, implementation, and evaluation of an undergraduate biology laboratory teaching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Todd M.

    This dissertation documents a time series study in which an undergraduate non-majors biology laboratory was revised, leading to the development of a new teaching model. The course model was developed at a large Midwestern university enrolling about 827 students in 32 sections per semester and using graduate teaching assistants as primary instructors. The majority of the students consisted of freshman and sophomores, with the remainder being juniors and seniors. This dissertation explains the rationale leading to the development and implementation of this educational model using graduate teaching assistants as the primary course instructors and embedded course assessment as evidence of its success. The major components of this model include six major items including: learning community, course design, GTA professional development, course delivery, assessment, and the filter. The major aspects of this model include clear links between instruction, GTA professional development, embedded assessment (student and GTA), course revision, student perceptions, and performance. The model includes the following components: Formal and informal discourse in the learning community, teaching assistant professional development, the use of multiple assessment tools, a filter to guide course evaluation, and redirection and delivery of course content based on embedded formal course assessment. Teaching assistants receive both initial and ongoing professional development throughout the semester in effective instructional pedagogy from an instructor of record. Results for three years of operation show a significant increase in student biology content knowledge and the use of scientific process/critical thinking skills with mean improvement in student performance of 25.5% and 18.9% respectively. Mean attendance for ISB 208L is 95% for the six semesters of this study showing students regularly attend the laboratory classes and remain in the course with a completion rate of 93

  9. Formative evaluation of traditional instruction and cooperative inquiry projects in undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichas, Michael A.

    Reform agendas for practice in undergraduate chemistry are moving curriculum beyond traditional behaviorist teaching strategies to include constructivist approaches, for extending student learning beyond simple mastery of chemistry content (Bunce & Robinson, 1997; Lagowski, 1998; Herron & Nurrenburn, 1999). Yet implementing new strategies requires assessment of their benefit to learning. This study was undertaken to provide a formal and formative evaluation of the curricula in General and Organic chemistry laboratory courses, which are structured with both Traditional expository lab exercises, and a cooperative inquiry exercise called the Open Ended Project. Using a mixed-methodological case study framework, the primary goal of the research was to determine how the inclusion of these teaching strategies impacts student learning in the areas of Academic Achievement and Affective Learning from the perspective of the students enrolled in these lab classes. The findings suggest that the current curriculum structure of including both Traditional Instruction and the Open Ended Project does address students' Academic Achievement and Affective Learning. However, students perceived that these curriculum components each contributed differently to their learning. For Academic Achievement, Traditional Experiments and the Project had a positive impact on students' operational skills, such as how to use and choose lab techniques for performing or designing experiments, as well as their conceptual learning, such as understanding concepts, and relating those concepts during data analysis. Yet for Affective Learning, such as students' sense of confidence, accomplishment, and engagement, the Project, which has a cooperative learning element, had a positive impact on student learning, while Traditional Experiments, which do not have a cooperative learning element, had a moderate negative impact. The findings point to Cooperative Learning as the key element, which makes the positive

  10. Evaluation of usefulness of portal image using Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) in the patients who received pelvic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Heon Jong; Park, Seong Young; Cho, Young Kap; Loh, John J. K. [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of electronic portal imaging device through objective compare of the images acquired using an EPID and a conventional port film. From Apr. to Oct. 1997, a total of 150 sets of images from 20 patients who received radiation therapy in the pelvis area were evaluated in the Inha University Hospital and Severance Hospital. A dual image recording technique was devised to obtain both electronic portal images and port film images simultaneously with one treatment course. We did not perform double exposure. Five to ten images were acquired from each patient. All images were acquired from posteroanterior (PA) view except images from two patients. A dose rate of 100-300 MU/min and a 10-MV X-ray beam were used and 2-10 MUs were required to produce a verification image during treatment. Kodak diagnostic film with metal/film imaging cassette which was located on the top of the EPID detector was used for the port film. The source to detector distance was 140 cm. Eight anatomical landmarks (pelvic brim, sacrum, acetabulum, iliopectineal line, symphysis, ischium, obturator foramen, sacroiliac joint) were assessed. Four radiation oncologist joined to evaluate each image. The individual landmarks in the port film or in the EPID were rated-very clear (1), clear (2), visible (3), notclear (4), not visible (5). Using an video camera based EPID system, there was no difference of image quality between no enhanced EPID images and port film images. However, when we provided some change with window level for the portal image, the visibility of the sacrum and obturator foramen was improved in the portal images than in the port film images. All anatomical landmarks were more visible in the portal images than in the port film when we applied the CLAHE mode enhancement. The images acquired using an matrix ion chamber type EPID were also improved image quality after window level adjustment. The quality of image acquired using an electronic portal imaging device was

  11. Laboratory Earthquake Measurements with the High-speed Digital Image Correlation Method and Applications to Super-shear Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mapping full-field displacements and strains on the Earth's surface during an earthquake is of paramount importance to enhance our understanding of earthquake mechanics. In this study, the feasibility of such measurements using image correlation methods is investigated in a laboratory earthquake setup. Earthquakes are mimicked in the laboratory by dynamic rupture propagating along an inclined frictional interface formed by two Homalite plates under compression, using the configuration developed by Rosakis and coworkers (e.g., Rosakis et al., 2007). In our study, the interface is partially glued, in order to confine the rupture before it reaches the ends of the specimen. The specimens are painted with a speckle pattern to provide the surface with characteristic features for image matching. Images of the specimens are taken before and after dynamic rupture with a 4 Megapixels resolution CCD camera. The digital images are analyzed with two software packages: VIC-2D (Correlated Solutions Inc.) and COSI-Corr (Leprince et. al, 2007). Both VIC-2D and COSI-Corr are able to characterize the full-field static displacement of a dynamic crack. For example, in a case with secondary mode I cracks, the correlation analysis performed with either software clearly shows (i) the relative displacement (slip) along the frictional interface, (ii) the rupture arrest on the glued boundaries, and (iii) the presence of two wing cracks. The obtained displacement measurements are converted to strains, using de-noising techniques. The digital image correlation method is then used in combination with high-speed photography. We will report our progress on the study of a spontaneously expanding sub-Rayleigh shear crack advancing along an interface containing a patch of favorable heterogeneity, such as a preexisting subcritical crack or a patch with higher prestress. According to the predictions of Liu and Lapusta (2008), intersonic transition and propagation can be achieved in the presence of a

  12. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Modern Enterprise Image with Theory of Fuzzy Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭德庆; 胡培

    2003-01-01

    The multi-layered indexes for modern enterprise images are summarized to overcome the shortness of single-layered ones in evaluating modern enterprise images. The relevant multi-layered evaluation model and algorithm are proposed. As an example, an electrical appliance enterprise in Qingdao city is evaluated with the proposed model and evaluation indexes to show the reasonability of the proposed indexes.

  14. a Laboratory-Based X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Scanner with Applications in Biomedical and Non-Medical Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Munro, P. R. T.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Millard, T. P.; Speller, R.; Olivo, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines.

  15. Aquifer imaging with pressure waves—Evaluation of low-impact characterization through sandbox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YaoQuan; Lim, David; Cupola, Fausto; Cardiff, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the detailed spatial variation of hydraulic properties in the subsurface has been the subject of intensive research over the past three decades. A recently developed approach to characterize subsurface properties is hydraulic tomography, in which a series of pumping tests are jointly inverted using a heterogeneous numerical model. Recently, Cardiff et al. (2013) proposed a modified tomography approach named Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT), in which periodic pumping signals of different frequencies serve as the aquifer stimulation, and pressure responses are recorded at observation locations for tomographic analysis. Its key advantages over traditional hydraulic tomography are that: (1) there is no net injection or extraction of water, and (2) the impulse (an oscillatory signal of known frequency) is easily extracted from noisy data. However, OHT has only been evaluated through numerical experiments to date. In this work, we evaluate OHT performance by attempting to image known heterogeneities in a synthetic aquifer. An instrumented laboratory sandbox is filled with material of known hydraulic properties, and we measure aquifer responses due to oscillatory pumping stimulations at periods of 2, 5, 10, and 20 s. Pressure oscillation time series are processed through Fourier Transforms and inverted tomographically to obtain estimates of aquifer heterogeneity, using a fast, steady-periodic groundwater flow model. We show that OHT is able to provide robust estimates of aquifer hydraulic conductivity even in cases where relatively few pumping tests and observation locations are available. The use of multiple stimulation frequencies is also shown to improve imaging results.

  16. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…

  17. An Evaluation of Student Performance on Traditional vs. Synopsis Laboratory Reports in Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffa, David; Freeman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Prior research demonstrated that writing synopsis laboratory reports (succinct syntheses of the experiment, lecture, and readings) instead of traditional laboratory reports, did not influence student learning as measured by comprehensive exam scores. This study extended this research by investigating the impact of these lab report formats on…

  18. Mixed Methods Student Evaluation of an Online Systemic Human Anatomy Course with Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M.; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A.

    2016-01-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a…

  19. The Interest of the Diversity of Perspectives and Methodologies in Evaluating the Science Laboratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; Vidal, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The importance of researching the opinions of students and teachers has been pointed out concerning the improvement of teaching and learning in laboratory environments. In this regard, a study of the laboratory environment was carried out from a diversity of perspectives and methodologies. By means of a questionnaire it was learned that the…

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…