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Sample records for images illustrating principles

  1. Synthesis of electromagnetic metasurfaces: principles and illustrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achouri Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial overview of the mathematical synthesis and the physical realization of metasurfaces, and related illustrative examples. The synthesis consists in determining the exact tensorial surface susceptibility functions of the metasurface, based on generalized sheet transition conditions, while the realization deals with both metallic and dielectric scattering particle structures. The examples demonstrate the capabilities of the synthesis and realization techniques, thereby showing the plethora of possible metasurface field transmission and subsequent applications. The first example is the design of two diffraction engineering birefringent metasurfaces performing polarization beam splitting and orbital angular momentum multiplexing, respectively. Next, we discuss the concept of the electromagnetic remotely controlled metasurface spatial processor, which is an electromagnetic linear switch based on destructive interferences. Then, we introduce a non-reciprocal non-gyrotropic metasurface using a pick-up circuit radiator (PCR architecture. Finally, the implementation of all-dielectric metasurfaces for frequency dispersion engineering is discussed.

  2. Synthesis of Electromagnetic Metasurfaces: Principles and Illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Achouri, Karim; Gupta, Shulabh; Lavigne, Guillaume; Salem, Mohamed Ahmed; Caloz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents partial overview of the mathematical synthesis and the physical realization of metasurfaces, and related illustrative examples. The synthesis consists in determining the exact tensorial surface susceptibility functions of the metasurface, based on generalized sheet transition conditions, while the realization deals with both metallic and dielectric scattering particle structures. The examples demonstrate the capabilities of the synthesis and realization techniques, thereby showing the plethora of possible metasurface field transmission and subsequent applications. The first example is the design of two diffraction engineering birefringent metasurfaces performing polarization beam splitting and orbital angular momentum multiplexing, respectively. Next, we discuss the concept of the "transistor" metasurface, which is an electromagnetic linear switch based on destructive interferences. Then, we introduce a non-reciprocal non-gyrotropic metasurface using a pick-up circuit radiator (PCR) archite...

  3. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....941-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application... Act corporation, has taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction under section 941) for...

  4. Radiology illustrated. Gynecologic imaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-07-01

    Up-to-date and image-oriented for use in clinical practice. Chapters are organized by disease entity for quick reference. Includes high-quality images and schematic drawings. Radiology Illustrated: Gynecologic Imaging is an up-to-date, image-oriented reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Individual chapters focus on the various imaging techniques, normal variants and congenital anomalies, and the full range of pathology. Each chapter starts with a concise overview, and abundant examples of the imaging findings are then presented. In this second edition, the range and quality of the illustrations have been enhanced, and image quality is excellent throughout. Many schematic drawings have been added to help readers memorize characteristic imaging findings through pattern recognition. The organization of chapters by disease entity will enable readers quickly to find the information they seek. Besides serving as an outstanding aid to differential diagnosis, this book will provide a user-friendly review tool for certification or recertification in radiology.

  5. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Illustration 1 Illustration 2 : Taux des éléments représentés en fonction du niveau scolaire et du type d’identification Illustration 1 : Les positions GPS Illustration 2 : Espace d’investissement d’un enfant de 8 ans Source : Données A. Legendre Illustration 3 : Espace des enfants Source : Données A. Legendre Illustration 4 : Co-présence des enfants Source : Données A. Legendre

  6. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Illustration I – Source : Exposition coloniale internationale. Guide officiel. Illustration II – Carte : « Paris sociologique », Paris, Guide Dent, (sd). Illustration III – André Granet, La Tour Eiffel illuminée pour l’Exposition de 1937, Fonds Eiffel, RMN. Illustration IV – Robert Delaunay, Tour, première étude, 1909, MAMVP, 1985, ©L&M SERVICES B.V. Amsterdam 981005. Illustration V – Robert Delaunay, La Ville de Paris, 1910-1912, MAM, ©L&M SERVICES B.V. Amsterdam 981005. Illustration VI...

  7. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  8. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  9. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  10. Evidence-based endocrinology: illustrating its principles in the management of patients with pituitary incidentalomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, I; Natt, N; Murad, M H; Montori, V M

    2012-02-01

    Incidentally discovered pituitary lesions are commonly encountered in the current era of ever-increasing imaging. Individualizing a particular approach implies a thorough analysis of existing evidence and balancing it against different patient expectations. We will illustrate the application of principles of Evidence-Based Medicine to a case of a pituitary incidentaloma by formulating questions that are important to patient care and finding related evidence. Our objective is to reflect the opportunities and the challenges that an evidence-based clinical approach offers to clinicians and patients.

  11. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  12. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fig. 1 – Fiche d’identité du baron de Plazanet avec ses deux illustrations, gravure et photographie, extraite du Relevé des Députés, IVe législature, 1889. Fig. 2 et 3 – Deux portraits de Xavier Vallat en 1919 et 1936. Sur la première, la pose de profil permet de masquer l’œil borgne, grâce à une lentille opaque qui évoque un monocle. En 1936, les profils se raréfient et le député préfère une pose de face, accentuant la perte de son œil. Un indice du retour de la culture d’ancien combattant ...

  13. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  14. A thought to illustrate the uncertainty principle on the base of Otto-Wiener's experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Tapas

    2014-01-01

    In this short paper a new thought experiment has been introduced to illustrate the famous Heisenberg's uncertainty principle based on Otto-Wiener's experiment (1890) associated with standing light waves. This illustration is quite easy as well as far more realizing than all other thought experiments generally found in textbooks. In this work seeding of quantum nature of light has been done with the Otto-Wiener's experiment. May be this new thought experiment will help the students to understand the Heisenberg's principle in a better way and also enhance their interest of learning quantum mechanics from the beginning of their course.

  15. Some Illustrative Vignettes on the Uses of the Seven Principles and the Faculty and Institutional Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Louis M.

    1991-01-01

    Uses of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education and Faculty and Institutional Inventories by Alverno College (Wisconsin), American Association of State Colleges and Universities, College of Marin (California), Columbia College (Michigan), University of Maryland, and Wayne State College (Nebraska) illustrate their…

  16. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  17. Medical imaging principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Peterson, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a selective review of key imaging modalities focusing on modalities with established clinical utilization. It provides a detailed overview of x-ray imaging and computed tomography, fundamental concepts in signal acquisition and processes, followed by an overview of functional MRI (fMRI) and chemical shift imaging. It also covers topics in Magnetic Resonance Microcopy, the physics of instrumentation and signal collection, and their application in clinical practice. The selection of topics provides readers with an appreciation of the depth and breadth of the field and the challenges ahead of the technical and clinical community of researchers and practitioners.

  18. Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-05-31

    The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

  19. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields.

  20. Sparse microwave imaging: Principles and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG BingChen; HONG Wen; WU YiRong

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides principles and applications of the sparse microwave imaging theory and technology.Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an important method of modern remote sensing.During decades microwave imaging technology has achieved remarkable progress in the system performance of microwave imaging technology,and at the same time encountered increasing complexity in system implementation.The sparse microwave imaging introduces the sparse signal processing theory to radar imaging to obtain new theory,new system and new methodology of microwave imaging.Based on classical SAR imaging model and fundamental theories of sparse signal processing,we can derive the model of sparse microwave imaging,which is a sparse measurement and recovery problem and can be solved with various algorithms.There exist several fundamental points that must be considered in the efforts of applying sparse signal processing to radar imaging,including sparse representation,measurement matrix construction,unambiguity reconstruction and performance evaluation.Based on these considerations,the sparse signal processing could be successfully applied to radar imaging,and achieve benefits in several aspects,including improvement of image quality,reduction of data amount for sparse scene and enhancement of system performance.The sparse signal processing has also been applied in several specific radar imaging applications.

  1. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  2. The Sabatier Principle Illustrated by Catalytic H2O2 Decomposition on Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Man, Isabela Costinela; Trinhammer, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis is important in today’s industry. Hence, it is imperative to introduce students to this field and its tools. A new way of introducing one of these tools, the Sabatier principle, via a laboratory exercise is presented. A volcano plot is constructed for the well-known hetero......Heterogeneous catalysis is important in today’s industry. Hence, it is imperative to introduce students to this field and its tools. A new way of introducing one of these tools, the Sabatier principle, via a laboratory exercise is presented. A volcano plot is constructed for the well...

  3. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Joseph A.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the prim...

  4. Images of war in the Srpska zora illustrated magazine (1876­1881)

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes images of war in the Srpska zora magazine, which was launched by a group of Serbs in Vienna. As the magazine for entertainment and lessons, it was being published from 1876 till 1881. Most of illustrations in the Srpska zora magazine (portraits, landscapes and images of war) were used for propaganda of Serbian national idea and imaging of national identity. The paper analyzes images of current war actions, very popular throughout Europe at that time - uprisings in Bosnia a...

  5. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joseph A; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation.

  6. Management of zygomatic-maxillary fracture (The principles of diagnosis and surgical treatment with a case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical trauma to the face may cause complex fracture of the zygoma and the maxilla. The characteristic clinical signs of zygomatic bone fracture include flattening of the cheek, infraorbital nerve paraesthesia, diplopia, and trismus, whereas maxillary fracture may typically cause flattening of the midface and malocclusion. The diagnosis of zygomatic and maxillary fracture should be established with thorough clinical examination and careful radiologic evaluation so that a three-dimensional view of the fractured bones can be obtained. This is essential in order to plan a proper surgical treatment to reconstruct the face in terms of functions and aesthetic. A standard surgical protocol should also be followed in performing the surgical reconstruction of the zygoma and the maxilla. A case of delayed bilateral fracture of zygoma and maxilla is presented here to give illustration on how the principle of diagnosis and surgical treatment of complex zygomatico-maxillary fracture are applied.

  7. [Illustrations in the 'Dutch Journal of Medicine': from woodcut to layered imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Kunen, Maartje B H; Slagter, Ron P

    2011-01-01

    Illustrations of any kind were few and far between in the first volumes of the Journal, founded in 1857. They were mostly woodcuts, then later also lithographs, which had to be printed and bound separately. Just before 1900 photos began to be printed, but it was only from the 1930s that improvement of techniques meant that better-quality photographs could be printed more easily--although again almost always on separate pages. From the 1950s text and photographs could be printed together and graphic work became rare once more. This changed in the 1990s, when computer graphics made it possible to supplement radiological and histological images with explanatory drawings. Through these the illustrator highlights relevant structures with colour, symbols and captions, without spoiling the original image. One new development--layered images--allows the reader to see 'through' organs and discover underlying structures. The next step is interactive anatomy, via the Internet.

  8. An illustrated heuristic prototype facilitates scientific inventive problem solving: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Li, Wenfu; Tang, Chaoying; Yang, Wenjing; Tian, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-07-01

    Many scientific inventions (SI) throughout history were inspired by heuristic prototypes (HPs). For instance, an event or piece of knowledge similar to displaced water from a tub inspired Archimedes' principle. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this insightful problem solving are not very clear. Thus, the present study explored the neural correlates used to solve SI problems facilitated by HPs. Each HP had two versions: a literal description with an illustration (LDI) and a literal description with no illustration (LDNI). Thirty-two participants were divided randomly into these two groups. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between LDI and LDNI groups were measured. Greater activity in the right middle occipital gyrus (RMOG, BA19), right precentral gyrus (RPCG, BA4), and left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG, BA46) were found within the LDI group as compared to the LDNI group. We discuss these results in terms cognitive functions within these regions related to problem solving and memory retrieval.

  9. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  10. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) magnetic resonance imaging illustrated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivon, Anne A; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Thibault, Fabienne; El Khoury, Carl

    2007-02-01

    Illustrated cases are presented here, for training the reader to BIRADS MRI. This article offers guidance in integrating findings from the different MR sequences, morphology and kinetics of an abnormal enhancement: report organization, use of lexicon for describing the detected lesion, final assessment with BI-RADS assessment categories.

  11. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) magnetic resonance imaging illustrated cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardivon, Anne A. [Department of Radiology, Institut CURIE, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: anne.tardivon@curie.net; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, Institut CURIE, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Thibault, Fabienne [Department of Radiology, Institut CURIE, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); El Khoury, Carl [Department of Radiology, Institut CURIE, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-02-15

    Illustrated cases are presented here, for training the reader to BIRADS MRI. This article offers guidance in integrating findings from the different MR sequences, morphology and kinetics of an abnormal enhancement: report organization, use of lexicon for describing the detected lesion, final assessment with BI-RADS assessment categories.

  12. Catching Meaning while Forgetting Image,an Illustration Based on Evolution in Arts and Primitive Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenlan; Zhang Yahui

    2015-01-01

    One of Alfred C. Haddon’s most no-table achievements must be his fieldwork on the Torres Strait Islands. Based on fieldwork material, he illustrated the life history of designs in his book Evolution in Arts. In this book he mentioned that the study of art should be separated from the hu-man mind and personal preference. He suggested three basic rules: first,even the history of art fol-lows the rule of evolution,all the symbols,no mat-ter simple or complex,have an original source. Sec-ond,in order to explain why different tribes or cul-tures have the same symbols,anthropologists should make their conclusions based upon detailed materi-als and scientific methods. Third, bcause we can find the origin of art and the meaning of symbols by analyzing present symbols,simpler civilizations and cultures might be a good start. From these three rules,it is quite clear that Haddon wanted to sum-marize the life history of designs from fieldwork material. However,the main idea of this article is to uncover the hidden structure of this history, apart from evolutionism. In this way, not only is the change of the symbol’s meaning mentioned,but E-mile Durkheim’s and Marcel Mauss’ famous work Primitive Classification will also be compared in the following paragraphs. Alfred C. Haddon found that the “Line” and the “Curve” were the most basic designs in Papua New Guinea. He found that the use of different de-signs have a connection with geographical location. But how were they connected? And,how did local residents understand these designs? Haddon noted that even in these primitive cultures, the meaning of the symbols were not primitive. Those lines and curves were not as simple as we thought. Haddon believed that they all derived from the portrayal of local animals and plants. For instance,the polygo-nal line came from the description of the crocodile, and curves got their image from birds. In other words, before the images of specific animals or plants had been

  13. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  14. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen , Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.

  15. Text and images: relations in illustrated book for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory, the paper presents and discusses the response of children with visual impairment on the illustrated children’s book, analyzing how to establish relationships and dialogue between text and image support in the book from the perspective of non- visual , mainly in concerns the cognitive feature and the specific conditions of visual impairment . This study is justified by the importance that access to different languages ( image and text , added to the literary function of fictional narrative can provide the Bantam player, as well as access to imaging and its meaning to the reader , there is still the possibility include children with visual impairment in the literary universe in a field whose intricate set of languages provides the reader with a multiplicity of meanings that can take children’s reader to find new ways to relate to the world . The method used here , interview - conversation ( SARAMAGO , 2001 , questions blind and low vision between 10 and 14 years Londrinense Institute of Education and Work for the Blind of Londrina / PR on the relationship between image and text children during reading two illustrated works adapted : forgotten Adelia Adelia and dreamy, both selected by the diversity of graphical features ( smooth textures , flocked , granular , etc. used in the translation of images for relief . The aim is to compare two aspects equivalences and differences between reading narratives that rely on graphics to convey its essential message and that can easily be understood only by the text in order to verify that an integration or fragmentation of languages that exist on integrating image text - in the context of visual impairment . Results indicate that the experience of reading is complexed in each book , unique to each turn of the page and predominantly verbal. However, typologies act as effective parameter for understanding the various relationships between image and text observed during the interview and awaken

  16. Voriconazole-induced periostitis post transplant: an illustrative review of thoracic computed tomography imaging manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinboldt, M; Delproposto, Z; Agarwal, R

    2015-12-01

    Voriconazole, first commercially approved in 2002 as a second-generation antifungal agent, is commonly used in the immunocompromised setting as both a therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Since 2009, scattered case reports and small case series have detailed a secondary drug-related hyperfluorosis-induced painful periostitis that can occur in the treated patient population. We present a pictorial review of the thoracic imaging manifestations utilizing 3 illustrative cases in the setting of both solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. Knowledge of the relatively characteristic radiographic appearance and distribution, when coupled with the appropriate clinical context and associated laboratory findings, is important in narrowing an otherwise relatively broad differential diagnosis.

  17. Principles of MR image formation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerk, J L

    1999-11-01

    This article describes a number of concepts that provide insights into the process of MR imaging. The use of shaped, fixed-bandwidth RF pulses and magnetic field gradients is described to provide an understanding of the methods used for slice selection. Variations in the slice-excitation profile are shown as a function of the RF pulse shape used, the truncation method used, and the tip angle. It should be remembered that although the goal is to obtain uniform excitation across the slice, this goal is never achieved in practice, thus necessitating the use of slice gaps in some cases. Excitation, refocusing, and inversion pulses are described. Excitation pulses nutate the spins from the longitudinal axis into the transverse plane, where their magnetization can be detected. Refocusing pulses are used to flip the magnetization through 180 degrees once it is in the transverse plane, so that the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneities is eliminated. Inversion pulses are used to flip the magnetization from the +z to the -z direction in invesrsion-recovery sequences. Radiofrequency pulses can also be used to eliminate either fat or water protons from the images because of the small differences in resonant frequency between these two types of protons. Selective methods based on chemical shift and binomial methods are described. Once the desired magnetization has been tipped into the transverse plane by the slice-selection process, two imaging axes remain to be spatially encoded. One axis is easily encoded by the application of a second magnetic field gradient that establishes a one-to-one mapping between position and frequency during the time that the signal is converted from analog to digital sampling. This frequency-encoding gradient is used in combination with the Fourier transform to determine the location of the precessing magnetization. The second image axis is encoded by a process known as phase encoding. The collected data can be described as the 2D Fourier

  18. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammer, Roland. E-mail: roland@s-word.stanford.edu

    2003-03-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), image contrast is determined by the random microscopic motion of water protons. During the last years, DWI has become an important modality in the diagnostic work-up of acute ischemia in the CNS. There are also a few promising reports about the application of DWI to other regions in the human body, such as the vertebral column or the abdomen. This manuscript provides an introduction into the basics of DWI and Diffusion Tensor imaging. The potential of various MR sequences in concert with diffusion preparation are discussed with respect to acquisition speed, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to bulk physiologic motion. More advanced diffusion measurement techniques, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging, are also addressed.

  19. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

  20. Principles of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disselhorst, Jonathan A; Bezrukov, Ilja; Kolb, Armin; Parl, Christoph; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid PET/MR systems have rapidly progressed from the prototype stage to systems that are increasingly being used in the clinics. This review provides an overview of developments in hybrid PET/MR systems and summarizes the current state of the art in PET/MR instrumentation, correction techniques, and data analysis. The strong magnetic field requires considerable changes in the manner by which PET images are acquired and has led, among others, to the development of new PET detectors, such as silicon photomultipliers. During more than a decade of active PET/MR development, several system designs have been described. The technical background of combined PET/MR systems is explained and related challenges are discussed. The necessity for PET attenuation correction required new methods based on MR data. Therefore, an overview of recent developments in this field is provided. Furthermore, MR-based motion correction techniques for PET are discussed, as integrated PET/MR systems provide a platform for measuring motion with high temporal resolution without additional instrumentation. The MR component in PET/MR systems can provide functional information about disease processes or brain function alongside anatomic images. Against this background, we point out new opportunities for data analysis in this new field of multimodal molecular imaging. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Obtained Through the Mastoid Fontanelle in Neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Man; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography performed through the mastoid fontanelle is more useful to evaluate the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem rather than that performed through the anterior fontanelle. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem and to suggest appropriate scan planes for performing neonatal cranial sonography through the mastoid fontanelle using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs. A neonate with normal features on ultrasonography and good image quality on MRI, including the 3D-SPGR axial scans, was selected. We made the reconstructed MR images corresponding to the sonongraphic planes and the anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images by using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We demonstrated the sonographic images at the levels of the body of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus, the head of the caudate nucleus and thalamus, the third ventricle and midbrain, and the midbrain and cerebellar vermis on the oblique axial scans. Four oblique coronal images at the levels of the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and tentorium were also obtained. We illustrated the anatomic atlas with including four oblique axial scans and four oblique coronal scans that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the mastoid fontanelle. We objectively analyzed the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem by using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs and we provided the standardized sonographic scan planes through the mastoid fontanelle. This study will be very helpful for evaluating the abnormalities of the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

  2. GAUSSIAN PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS FOR NONLOCAL MEANS IMAGE DENOISING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiangping; Wang Xiaotian; Shi Guangming

    2011-01-01

    NonLocal Means (NLM),taking fully advantage of image redundancy,has been proved to be very effective in noise removal.However,high computational load limits its wide application.Based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA),Principle Neighborhood Dictionary (PND) was proposed to reduce the computational load of NLM.Nevertheless,as the principle components in PND method are computed directly from noisy image neighborhoods,they are prone to be inaccurate due to the presence of noise.In this paper,an improved scheme for image denoising is proposed.This scheme is based on PND and uses preprocessing via Gaussian filter to eliminate the influence of noise.PCA is then used to project those filtered image neighborhood vectors onto a lower-dimensional space.With the preprocessing process,the principle components computed are more accurate resulting in an improved denoising performance.A comparison with some NLM based and state-of-art denoising methods shows that the proposed method performs well in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) as well as image visual fidelity.The experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms existing methods both subjectively and objectively.

  3. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  4. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma: Choice of radiographic imaging modality - Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging? Illustration through a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands arising primarily from the parotid gland. Computed tomography (CT is one of the primary imaging modalities used to assess the tumors of salivary glands. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may provide additional information over CT. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a slowly enlarging, well-defined, round, painless, non-fixated, rubber-like swelling over the left ramus region below the ear, measuring about 4 × 4.5 cm, covering the lower border of the mandible near the angle. A provisional diagnosis of PA was given and CT and MRI were used to study the lesion. Discussion: Through this case, which was suspected to have undergone malignant transformation because of indistinct margins and focal hypodense areas on CT but was later confirmed to be a benign salivary gland tumor on MRI, we illustrate the role of CT and MRI as diagnostic aids in PA and emphasize on what should be the choice of imaging modality for parotid tumors.

  6. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  7. Guidelines for imaging retinoblastoma: imaging principles and MRI standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Pim de; Rodjan, Firazia; Castelijns, Jonas A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Galluzzi, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliera e Universitaria Senese, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , Unit of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Siena (Italy); Maeder, Philippe [CHUV, Service de Radiodiagnostic et Radiologie Interventionelle, Lausanne (Switzerland); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Departement d' Imagerie, Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. The diagnosis is usually established by the ophthalmologist on the basis of fundoscopy and US. Together with US, high-resolution MRI has emerged as an important imaging modality for pretreatment assessment, i.e. for diagnostic confirmation, detection of local tumor extent, detection of associated developmental malformation of the brain and detection of associated intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma). Minimum requirements for pretreatment diagnostic evaluation of retinoblastoma or mimicking lesions are presented, based on consensus among members of the European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC). The most appropriate techniques for imaging in a child with leukocoria are reviewed. CT is no longer recommended. Implementation of a standardized MRI protocol for retinoblastoma in clinical practice may benefit children worldwide, especially those with hereditary retinoblastoma, since a decreased use of CT reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  8. Revising an Engineering Design Rubric: A Case Study Illustrating Principles and Practices to Ensure Technical Quality of Rubrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Lynn Goldberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a detailed account of a rubric revision process to address seven common problems to which rubrics are prone: lack of consistency and parallelism; the presence of - orphan- and - widow- words and phrases; redundancy in descriptors; inconsistency in the focus of qualifiers; limited routes to partial credit; unevenness in incremental levels of performance; and inconsistencies across suites or sets of related rubrics. The author uses examples from both the draft stage precursor and the first revised (pilot version of the Engineering Design Process Portfolio Scoring Rubric (EDPPSR, to illustrate the application of broadly relevant guidelines that can inform the creation of a new-'or revision of an existing-'rubric to achieve technical quality while preserving content integrity

  9. FORMATION AND USE OF ILLUSTRATIVE IMAGES IN THE “BIOETHICS AND QUESTIONS OF BIO SAFETY” COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the experience of formation and creating illustrative images for the course called «Bioethics and questions of bio safety». The peculiarity of this course is to review bioethical problems in the context of concrete scientific activities of the biologist – research, experimental work. The part of the course issues related to Bio safety, is revealed as an interdisciplinary area of knowledge focusing on the identification, study and understanding of biological practice and biological research associated with broad philosophical and moral component. The main blocks have been identified, which form visual resources: animals in the experiment, the questions of bioethics in the media; the metamorphosis of the human body; chimeras in works of art. In the selection of illustrative images we have taken into account several aspects: illustration, as an information resource for the analysis of the studied phenomenon; illustration, as a form of motivation to seek information, the answer to the question; illustration, as an element of ethical education of the student to different issues of bioethics. For each semantic unit collected 20-30 illustrative images within two years. They are used both when reading a lecture course and as material for independent work of students. It is shown that the presented visual resources for the course reflect the basic components of visual thinking: linear; structural; combinatorial and functional

  10. Linking data repositories - an illustration of agile data curation principles through robust documentation and multiple application programming interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Servilla, M. S.; Vanderbilt, K.; Wheeler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The growing volume, variety and velocity of production of Earth science data magnifies the impact of inefficiencies in data acquisition, processing, analysis, and sharing workflows, potentially to the point of impairing the ability of researchers to accomplish their desired scientific objectives. The adaptation of agile software development principles (http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html) to data curation processes has significant potential to lower barriers to effective scientific data discovery and reuse - barriers that otherwise may force the development of new data to replace existing but unusable data, or require substantial effort to make data usable in new research contexts. This paper outlines a data curation process that was developed at the University of New Mexico that provides a cross-walk of data and associated documentation between the data archive developed by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Office (PASTA - http://lno.lternet.edu/content/network-information-system) and UNM's institutional repository (LoboVault - http://repository.unm.edu). The developed automated workflow enables the replication of versioned data objects and their associated standards-based metadata between the LTER system and LoboVault - providing long-term preservation for those data/metadata packages within LoboVault while maintaining the value-added services that the PASTA platform provides. The relative ease with which this workflow was developed is a product of the capabilities independently developed on both platforms - including the simplicity of providing a well-documented application programming interface (API) for each platform enabling scripted interaction and the use of well-established documentation standards (EML in the case of PASTA, Dublin Core in the case of LoboVault) by both systems. These system characteristics, when combined with an iterative process of interaction between the Data Curation Librarian (on the LoboVault side of the process

  11. The VTTVIS line imaging spectrometer - principles, error sources, and calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging with a spatial resolution of a few mm2 has proved to have a great potential within crop and weed classification and also within nutrient diagnostics. A commonly used hyperspectral imaging system is based on the Prism-Grating-Prism(PGP) principles produced by Specim Ltd....... Finland. One of the novel systems based on the PGP spectrograph (VTTVIS) was build by The Department of Agricultural Sciences, AgroTechnology, KVL, Denmark, in 1995. Several other agricultural institutions havenow implemented the technology in their research. None of these has published any thoroughly...

  12. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  13. The readability of international illustration of auditor’s report: An advanced reflection on the compromise between normative principles and linguistic requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondher Fakhfakh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The independent auditors periodically publish reports that summarize the audit results. These reports reinforce the financial communication and reliability of accounting information. International Standards on Auditing (ISA determine the content of audit reports and the quality of audit results. Theoretically, the audit standardization must model intelligible and clear reports for readers. Compliance with linguistic principles contributes to the improvement of the structure of audit reports. In practice, the effectiveness of these reports is criticized because users do not understand the audit information. In order to improve the content of audit reports, International Federation of Accountants (IFAC had revised International Standards on Auditor’s report: ISA 700: Forming an opinion and reporting on financial statements. Linguistically, standardized audit reports could be unreadable by many users of financial statements. This article discusses the linguistic problems related to the preparation of reports. This discussion focuses on the audit reports which are illustrated by the International Standards on Auditing. The results show that in the presence of conflicting requirements (auditing standards versus linguistic principles, independent auditors must optimize the presentation of their reports.

  14. Modeling of errors in Nakagami imaging: illustration on breast mass characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Aymeric; Noble, J Alison

    2014-05-01

    Nakagami imaging is an attractive tissue characterization method, as the parameter estimated at each location is related to properties of the tissues. The application to clinical ultrasound images is problematic, as the estimation of the parameters is disturbed by the presence of complex structures. We propose to consider separately the different aspects potentially affecting the value of the Nakagami parameters and quantify their effects on the estimation. This framework is applied to the classification of breast masses. Quantitative parameters are computed on two groups of ultrasound images of benign and malignant tumors. A statistical analysis of the result indicated that the previously observed difference between average values of the Nakagami parameters is explained mostly by estimation errors. In the future, new methods for reliable computation of Nakagami parameters need to be developed, and factors of error should be considered in studies using Nakagami parameters.

  15. Image Filtering Based on Mathematical Morphology and Visual Perception Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGXiaojun; YUNong; SHANGYong

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems that include morphological operation and Structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined, so the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. How to design adaptively the optimal morphological filter so as to automatically and delicately complete the tasks of target detection and recognition, becomes one of the current research hotspots and subtle technical problems. Based on the filtering theory of the mathematical morphology, by introducing appropriate visual perception principle, this paper presents how to design the filtering architecture and its target detection model through the optimal parameter training. By this way it can provide good detection results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background. It is sure to provide a new approach to automatic target recognition with mathematical morphology theory.

  16. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet S Kochar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively.

  17. Molecular Imaging : Computer Reconstruction and Practice - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Imaging from Physical Principles to Computer Reconstruction and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...

  18. Illustrators of the New World. The Image in the Spanish Scientific Expeditions of the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Samper, Miguel Ángel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Eighteenth Century, with the boom in the exploration of the Earth, most travellers and explorers had painters and illustrators at their sides who recorded their adventures, even their deaths, the exotic locations they visited, the aborigines, the landscapes or the strange creatures or plants that inhabited them. The presence of artists would increase in these types of exploration companies, sent by Spain, in order to recognise the natural resources and the imperial control of their territories. We take as a starting point Löfling’s expedition, in which naturalist artists seek to comply with the requirements of the Linnaean classification system then, looking at the case of Francisco Requena, who cartographically represented the territory and drew the activities of his own expedition members along the boundaries with the Portuguese empire. Likewise, we analyze expeditions known as “Botanical” to the different viceroyalties, which attempted to transmit the American nature idealized in a few “types” that were drawn and recorded to make the new species and the wealth of the Empire known, until finally arriving at the expedition of Malaspina, in which there is a step towards the depiction of the imperial landscape.

    En el siglo XVIII, con la explosión de la exploración de la Tierra, la mayoría de los viajeros y expedicionarios llevan a su lado a pintores y dibujantes que dejan constancia de sus aventuras, incluso de su muerte, de los lugares exóticos visitados, los aborígenes, el paisaje o las extrañas criaturas vegetales o animales que las habitan. La presencia de artistas irá incrementándose en este tipo de empresas de exploración enviadas por España para el reconocimiento de los recursos naturales y el control imperial de sus territorios. Tomamos como punto de partida la expedición de Löfling, en la que los dibujantes naturalistas buscan cumplir con los requisitos del sistema linneano de clasificación, pasando

  19. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  20. Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing: Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing : Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging THESIS MARCH 2015 Megan E. Lewis, Second...IN COMPRESSED SENSING : DISCRETE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES AND FAST HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Mathematics and...MARCH 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENC–MS-15-M-002 RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPRESSED SENSING

  1. An illustrated comparison of processing methods for MR phase imaging and QSM: combining array coil signals and phase unwrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Simon Daniel; Bredies, Kristian; Khabipova, Diana; Dymerska, Barbara; Marques, José P; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-09-13

    Phase imaging benefits from strong susceptibility effects at very high field and the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by multi-channel coils. Combining the information from coils is not trivial, however, as the phase that originates in local field effects (the source of interesting contrast) is modified by the inhomogeneous sensitivity of each coil. This has historically been addressed by referencing individual coil sensitivities to that of a volume coil, but alternative approaches are required for ultra-high field systems in which no such coil is available. An additional challenge in phase imaging is that the phase that develops up to the echo time is "wrapped" into a range of 2π radians. Phase wraps need to be removed in order to reveal the underlying phase distribution of interest. Beginning with a coil combination using a homogeneous reference volume coil - the Roemer approach - which can be applied at 3 T and lower field strengths, we review alternative methods for combining single-echo and multi-echo phase images where no such reference coil is available. These are applied to high-resolution data acquired at 7 T and their effectiveness assessed via an index of agreement between phase values over channels and the contrast-to-noise ratio in combined images. The virtual receiver coil and COMPOSER approaches were both found to be computationally efficient and effective. The main features of spatial and temporal phase unwrapping methods are reviewed, placing particular emphasis on recent developments in temporal phase unwrapping and Laplacian approaches. The features and performance of these are illustrated in application to simulated and high-resolution in vivo data. Temporal unwrapping was the fastest of the methods tested and the Laplacian the most robust in images with low SNR. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accredited programs prepare students for a career in academic or research health science centers, industry, or consulting. As members of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  3. Cloud Engineering Principles and Technology Enablers for Medical Image Processing-as-a-Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Plassard, Andrew J; Landman, Bennett A; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2017-04-01

    Traditional in-house, laboratory-based medical imaging studies use hierarchical data structures (e.g., NFS file stores) or databases (e.g., COINS, XNAT) for storage and retrieval. The resulting performance from these approaches is, however, impeded by standard network switches since they can saturate network bandwidth during transfer from storage to processing nodes for even moderate-sized studies. To that end, a cloud-based "medical image processing-as-a-service" offers promise in utilizing the ecosystem of Apache Hadoop, which is a flexible framework providing distributed, scalable, fault tolerant storage and parallel computational modules, and HBase, which is a NoSQL database built atop Hadoop's distributed file system. Despite this promise, HBase's load distribution strategy of region split and merge is detrimental to the hierarchical organization of imaging data (e.g., project, subject, session, scan, slice). This paper makes two contributions to address these concerns by describing key cloud engineering principles and technology enhancements we made to the Apache Hadoop ecosystem for medical imaging applications. First, we propose a row-key design for HBase, which is a necessary step that is driven by the hierarchical organization of imaging data. Second, we propose a novel data allocation policy within HBase to strongly enforce collocation of hierarchically related imaging data. The proposed enhancements accelerate data processing by minimizing network usage and localizing processing to machines where the data already exist. Moreover, our approach is amenable to the traditional scan, subject, and project-level analysis procedures, and is compatible with standard command line/scriptable image processing software. Experimental results for an illustrative sample of imaging data reveals that our new HBase policy results in a three-fold time improvement in conversion of classic DICOM to NiFTI file formats when compared with the default HBase region split policy

  4. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 1. Principles and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Mooij, J.M.; Maassen, J.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-based optical diagnostics, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence and, especially, Raman imaging, often require selective spectral filtering. We advocate the use of an imaging spectrograph with a broad entrance slit as a spectral filter for two-dimensional imaging. A spectrograph in this mo

  5. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 1. Principles and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Mooij, J.M.; Maassen, J.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-based optical diagnostics, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence and, especially, Raman imaging, often require selective spectral filtering. We advocate the use of an imaging spectrograph with a broad entrance slit as a spectral filter for two-dimensional imaging. A spectrograph in this mo

  6. A Primer on the Physical Principles of Tissue Harmonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Arash; Forsberg, Flemming; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) is a routinely used component of diagnostic ultrasonography (US). In this method, higher-frequency harmonic waves produced by nonlinear fundamental US wave propagation are used to generate images that contain fewer artifacts than those seen on conventional fundamental wave US tissue imaging. Harmonic frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The majority of current clinical US systems use second harmonic echoes for THI image formation. Image processing techniques (ie, bandwidth receive filtering, pulse inversion, side-by-side phase cancellation, and pulse-coded harmonics) are used to eliminate the fundamental frequency echoes, and the remaining harmonic frequency data are used to generate the diagnostic image. Advantages of THI include improved signal-to-noise ratio and reduced artifacts produced by side lobes, grating lobes, and reverberation. THI has been accepted in US practice, and variations of the technology are available on most US systems typically used for diagnostic imaging in radiologic practice. Differential THI is a further improvement that combines the advantages of THI, including superior tissue definition and reduced speckle artifact, with the greater penetration of lower frequency US, which permits high-quality harmonic imaging at greater depth than could previously be performed with conventional THI. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  7. Real-time portal imaging devices operating on high-pressure gaseous electronic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George C.; Richardson, Donna B.; Ghotra, P.; Pillai, Bindu; Seetharaman, Lakshmi; Passalaqua, Anthony M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Endorf, Robert J.; Devidas, Sreenivas

    1995-05-01

    A novel real-time portal imaging scanning detector, based on high-pressure gaseous electronics principles and operating up to 60 atmospheres, is presented and the predicted performance of this detector is analyzed. The idea is to utilize high pressure gaseous electronics imaging detectors operating in the saturation regime, aimed at improving image performance characteristics in real time portal imaging. As a result, beam localization errors are controlled, identified and corrected accurately and the patient radiotherapy treatment becomes more effective.

  8. Illustrated WPF

    CERN Document Server

    Solis, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Windows Presentation Foundation is Microsoft's newest API for creating Windows applications. It gives the programmer the ability to produce dazzling, graphics-rich programs easily without having to delve into the messy details of the graphics subsystem. To use this power, however, the programmer must learn new concepts for laying out pages and displaying graphics. Illustrated WPF presents these concepts clearly and visually-making them easier to understand and retain. What you'll learn* The important new concepts underlying programming in WPF, including the visual tree, the logical tree, depen

  9. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Mass spectrometry imaging of plant metabolites--principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Li, Bin; D'Alvise, Janina; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Covering: up to the end of 2013 New mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques are gaining importance in the analysis of plant metabolite distributions, and significant technological improvements have been introduced in the past decade. This review provides an introduction to the different MSI techniques and their applications in plant science. The most common methods for sample preparation are described, and the review also features a comprehensive table of published studies in MSI of plant material. A number of significant works are highlighted for their contributions to advance the understanding of plant biology through applications of plant metabolite imaging. Particular attention is given to the possibility for imaging of surface metabolites since this is highly dependent on the methods and techniques which are applied in imaging studies.

  11. [Adrenal tumors: principles of imaging and differential diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhart, C

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal masses are very common and are usually detected incidentally. Less frequently, imaging is performed for the localization of the underlying lesion in the case of endocrine disease. The differentiation between adenomas and non-adenomas is fundamental. Adenomas show a low density on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and a rapid washout of contrast agents. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adenomas are characterized by a low signal in opposed phase imaging as compared to in phase imaging. According to the literature a density of less than 10 HU in an adrenal mass has a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 71% for the presence of an adenoma and MRI is slightly more sensitive. Some adrenal lesions, e.g. cysts or myelolipomas can be diagnosed with high accuracy due to pathognomonic findings. In the majority of cases the synopsis of imaging along with clinical and laboratory findings is necessary for a reliable diagnosis. For the evaluation of an adrenal mass the CT examination should begin with an unenhanced scan, if necessary followed by a washout examination. In the case of MRI in phase and opposed phase imaging are essential components of the examination.

  12. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  13. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  14. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  15. Skylab Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This artist's concept is a cutaway illustration of the Skylab with the Command/Service Module being docked to the Multiple Docking Adapter. In an early effort to extend the use of Apollo for further applications, NASA established the Apollo Applications Program (AAP) in August of 1965. The AAP was to include long duration Earth orbital missions during which astronauts would carry out scientific, technological, and engineering experiments in space by utilizing modified Saturn launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. Established in 1970, the Skylab Program was the forerurner of the AAP. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  16. Quality Management Principles as Illustrated by the Organization of Romanian Inter-War Factories. A Century of Romanian Industrial Tradition in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela RUSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-war Romania developed 6 aircraft factories, the first starting its activity in 1916. Four of these, with three located in Bucharest, produced over 2000 aircraft, maily for the military use as Romania entered the Second World War. The activity of these factories was undertaken in times when nobody thought about formulating the principles of quality management and the research of the first scientists in quality, Deming, Shewhart and Juran had not yet been accepted or published. The work aims to present the inter-war Romanian aeronautical industry developments regarding the quality management.

  17. Comparison of four microfinance markets from the point of view of the effectuation theory, complemented by proposed musketeer principle illustrating forces within village banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Tomáš

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance services are essential tools of formalization of shadow economics, leveraging immature entrepreneurship with external capital. Given the importance of shadow economics for the social balance of developing countries, the importance of an answer to a question of how microfinance entities come into existence, is rather essential. While decision-taking process leading to entrepreneurship were explained by the effectuation theory developed in the 90’, these explanations were not concerned with the logics of creation of microenterprises in neither developing countries nor microfinance village banks. While the abovementioned theories explain the nascence of companies in environment of developed markets, importance of a focus on emerging markets related to large share of human society of microfinance clientele is obvious. The study provides a development streak to the effectuation Theory, adding the musketeer principle to the five effectuation principles proposed by Sarasvathy. Furthermore, the hitherto not considered relationship between social capital and effectuation related concepts is another proposal of the paper focusing on description of the nature of microfinance clientele from the point of view of effectuation theory and social capital drawing a comparison of microfinance markets in four countries, Turkey, Sierra Leone, Indonesia and Afghanistan.

  18. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  19. SAR Images Unsupervised Change Detection Based on Combination of Texture Feature Vector with Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHUANG Huifu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, spatial-contextual information would be used in change detection because there is significant speckle noise in synthetic aperture radar(SAR images. In this paper, using the rich texture information of SAR images, an unsupervised change detection approach to high-resolution SAR images based on texture feature vector and maximum entropy principle is proposed. The difference image is generated by using the 32-dimensional texture feature vector of gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM. And the automatic threshold is obtained by maximum entropy principle. In this method, the appropriate window size to change detection is 11×11 according to the regression analysis of window size and precision index. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is better could both reduce the influence of speckle noise and improve the detection accuracy of high-resolution SAR image effectively; and it is better than Markov random field.

  20. Industrial positron-based imaging: principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.J. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Broadbent, C.J. (School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Fowles, P. (School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Fryer, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); McNeil, P.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has great potential as a non-invasive flow imaging technique in engineering, since 511 keV gamma-rays can penetrate a considerable thickness of (e.g.) steel. The RAL/Birmingham multiwire positron camera was constructed in 1984, with the initial goal of observing the lubricant distribution in operating aero-engines, automotive engines and gearboxes, and has since been used in a variety of industrial fields. The major limitation of the camera for conventional tomographic PET studies is its restricted logging rate, which limits the frequency with which images can be acquired. Tracking a single small positron-emitting tracer particle provides a more powerful means of observing high speed motion using such a camera. Following a brief review of the use of conventional PET in engineering, and the capabilities of the Birmingham camera, this paper describes recent developments in the Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) technique, and compares the results obtainable by PET and PEPT using, as an example, a study of axial diffusion of particles in a rolling cylinder. ((orig.))

  1. Basic principles and applications of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omami, Galal [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The Hong Kong University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Tamimi, Dania [BeamReaders Inc., Orlando (United States); Branstette, Barton F. [Dept. of Otolaryngology and Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) and computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners.

  2. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  3. First-Principles Atomic Force Microscopy Image Simulations with Density Embedding Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuki; Lee, Alex J; Chelikowsky, James R

    2016-05-11

    We present an efficient first-principles method for simulating noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) images using a "frozen density" embedding theory. Frozen density embedding theory enables one to efficiently compute the tip-sample interaction by considering a sample as a frozen external field. This method reduces the extensive computational load of first-principles AFM simulations by avoiding consideration of the entire tip-sample system and focusing on the tip alone. We demonstrate that our simulation with frozen density embedding theory accurately reproduces full density functional theory simulations of freestanding hydrocarbon molecules while the computational time is significantly reduced. Our method also captures the electronic effect of a Cu(111) substrate on the AFM image of pentacene and reproduces the experimental AFM image of Cu2N on a Cu(100) surface. This approach is applicable for theoretical imaging applications on large molecules, two-dimensional materials, and materials surfaces.

  4. First-Principle Calculation for Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopic Images of a Monolayer Graphite Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 押山淳; 岡田晋; 芶清泉

    2003-01-01

    We have applied first-principle total-energy electronic structure calculations in the local density approximation to calculate the scanning tunnelling microscopy images of a monolayer graphite surface near the Fermi level. The results obtained agree well with the observation, which has not been interpreted before.

  5. ArcGIS和Adobe Illustrator在影像地图制作中的应用%Application of ArcGIS and Adobe Illustrator in Image Map Producing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盛银

    2013-01-01

    The expression effect of image maps which is produced by ArcGIS is not perfect. Adobe Illustrator does not support the spatial coordinates and spatial analysis. And its data processing is very complex. The combination of ArcGIS and Adobe Illustrator could be used to produce expressional richer image maps.%使用ArcGIS制作的影像地图,表达效果不够完美.而Adobe Illustrator不支持空间坐标和空间分析等,数据的处理过程比较复杂.将ArcGIS与Adobe Illustrator相结合,能够更高效地制作出表达效果更为丰富的影像地图.

  6. Fluid Dynamics (Science Press, Beijing, 2004).Design principles of a novel X-ray imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Yu; Benkang Chang; Shiyun Wang; Qingbao Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel X-ray imaging system (NXRIS) and the design principles are given in this paper. Different from the existing digital X-ray imaging systems, the X-ray image intensifying system of NXRIS is a non-vacuum system composed of the intensifying screen and the brightness intensifier, and the brightness intensifier is named low light level image intensifier applied in military affairs. This structure makes NXRIS of big visual field (15 inch, even to larger) and low cost. When designing NXRIS, the spectral compatibility of the component devices and the relation between the visual field and the spatial resolution of the component devices are analyzed. The images produced by NXRIS are given and the image performance is good enough to be applied to security checking, non-destructive testing, and industry detection.

  7. CONTEMPORARY AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the contemporary agrobotanical illustration, as an integral part of scientific and educational work. For the analysis of the issue, we set up the basis of illustrative images, which acted as the test material. It has been shown that visual images serve as the material for the development of visual thinking students are taught to read information, which represents the worksheet, to think and to create something new. The article considers art of graphics pencil using a computer-drawing program with processing in Photoshop. There are mixed techniques (mixed media, based on the use of traditional drawing and herbarium specimen, processed in Photoshop in the color. Another new direction of contemporary agroillustration is infographics. Its using in educational and scientific process is determined by the fact that infographics involves analytical processing of quantitative data obtained during the experiment. On the other hand, the data is needed to visualize, execute and present. A new direction in contemporary agro-botanical illustration is plant images taken with X-rays. The modern level of requirements to create images is high enough and it must be taken into account when carrying out scientific experiments, when it is necessary to demonstrate the object of research results. Modern agroillustration can be processed using various systems of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, for example, the system named “Edos”

  8. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  9. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer.

  11. Development of the super high angular resolution principle for X-ray imaging *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhang; Shuang-Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Development of the Super High Angular Resolution Principle (SHARP)for coded-mask X-ray imaging is presented. We prove that SHARP can be considered as a generalized coded mask imaging method with a coding pattern comprised of diffraction-interference fringes in the mask pattern. The angular resolution of SHARP can be improved by detecting the fringes more precisely than the mask's element size,i.e. by using a detector with a pixel size smaller than the mask's element size. The proposed mission SHARP-X for solar X-ray observations is also briefly discussed.

  12. 64-row multi-dector computed tomography coronary image from a center with early experience: first illustration of learning curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Chee Khoon LIEW; M.Tobias Seyfarth; Fong Yean Yip ALAN; Houng Bang LIEW; Kui Hian SIM

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives The recent joint ACCF/AHA clinical competence statement on cardiac imaging with multi-detector computed tomography recommended a minimum of 6 months training and 300 contrast examinations, of which the candidate must be directly involved in at least 100 studies. Whether this is adequate to become proficient in interpretation of coronary computed tomogsignificant coronary stenosis in a center with 1 year's experience using a 64-row scanner. Methods A total of 778 patients underwent contrast-enhanced CTA between January and December 2005. Out of these patients, 301 patients also underwent contrast-enhanced conventional coronary angiography (CCA). These patients were divided into 4 groups according to the time the examination was underwent. Group Q1: first quarter of the year (n=20), Group Q2: second quarter (n=128), Group Q3: third quarter (n=134), and Group Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were Q1 - 64%, 89%, 49% and 94%, respectively; Q2 -79%, 96%, 74% and 97%, respectively; Q3 - 78%, 96%, 74%, 97%, respectively, and Q4 - 100% for all. Conclusions In a center with formal training and high caseload, our accuracy in CTA analysis reached a plateau after 6 months experience. Test-bolus protocols produce better image quality and can improve accuracy. New centers embarking on CTA will need to overcome an initial 6-month learning curve depending upon the caseload during which time they should consider correlation with CCA.

  13. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  14. The Scientist as Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators.

  15. Magnetic particle imaging an introduction to imaging principles and scanner instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This is an overview of recent progress in magnetic particle imaging, which uses various static and oscillating magnetic fields and tracer materials made from iron oxide nanoparticles to perform background-free measurements of the particles' local concentration.

  16. Design Principles of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Gu, Xinbin; Wang, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that introduces molecular agents into traditional imaging techniques, enabling visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The promise of molecular imaging lies in its potential for selective potency by targeting biomarkers or molecular targets and the imaging agents serve as reporters for the selectivity of targeting. Development of an efficient molecular imaging agent depends on well-controlled high-quality experiment design involving target selection, agent synthesis, in vitro characterization, and in vivo animal characterization before it is applied in humans. According to the analysis from the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD, books/NBK5330/">), more than 6000 molecular imaging agents with sufficient preclinical evaluation have been reported to date in the literature and this number increases by 250-300 novel agents each year. The majority of these agents are radionuclides, which are developed for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) account for only a small part. This is largely due to the fact that MRI is currently not a fully quantitative imaging technique and is less sensitive than PET and SPECT. However, because of the superior ability to simultaneously extract molecular and anatomic information, molecular MRI is attracting significant interest and various targeted nanoparticle contrast agents have been synthesized for MRI. The first and one of the most critical steps in developing a targeted nanoparticle contrast agent is target selection, which plays the central role and forms the basis for success of molecular imaging. This chapter discusses the design principles of targeted contrast agents in the emerging frontiers of molecular MRI.

  17. UCXp camera imaging principle and key technologies of data post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Liu, Jianmin; Wu, Liang; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The large format digital aerial camera product UCXp was introduced into the Chinese market in 2008, the image consists of 17310 columns and 11310 rows with a pixel size of 6 mm. The UCXp camera has many advantages compared with the same generation camera, with multiple lenses exposed almost at the same time and no oblique lens. The camera has a complex imaging process whose principle will be detailed in this paper. On the other hand, the UCXp image post-processing method, including data pre-processing and orthophoto production, will be emphasized in this article. Based on the data of new Beichuan County, this paper will describe the data processing and effects.

  18. Particle image velocimetry - Principles and first results; La velocimetrie par images de particules. Principes et premiers resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, A.; Marechal, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique elaborated towards the end of the 1970`s, but which has developed considerably in recent years. The general principle of PIV is very simple and enables access to instantaneous velocity fields. It consists in recording images of tracer-particles injected into the flow and determining the distance covered by these particles. Since we know the time lapse between successive images of the same particle, we can derive the local fluid velocity. Among the many existing image acquisition and processing methods, the image inter-correlation analysis techniques, used with a pulsed laser source, is the most effective. Since we know the influence of different parameters (number of particles, beam power, time lapse between two successive images, size of query zones, etc.) on the quality of the final result, we can optimize practical adjustment of the PIV measurement scheme. The PIV was tested on the LAVITA hydraulic mockup (simulating the operation of a tangential fan). First results are, all in all, highly satisfactory. These have enabled the rapid drafting of instantaneous mean velocity field maps (20 images acquired in less than 90 seconds, with a post-processing time of about 10 minutes). Observation of the instantaneous fields has evidenced the presence of low frequency non-stationary phenomena which are not revealed by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Quantitative comparison between LDV and PIV, concerning average fields, showed close results, with, however, local divergences which could be relatively marked. It must nevertheless be noted that the PIV measurements performed on LAVITA have not been optimized with a view to obtaining a consistently good accuracy level. Priority in the present case was given to the scope of the field explored, with a view to observing the large non-stationary structures within a flow. The PIV measurement technique is thus operational for prompt flow characterization. However

  19. Radiology illustrated. Uroradiology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-07-01

    Uroradiology is an up-to-date, image-oriented reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. All aspects of the imaging of urologic diseases are covered, and case studies illustrate the findings obtained with the relevant imaging modalities in both common and uncommon conditions. Most chapters focus on a particular clinical problem, but normal findings, congenital anomalies, and interventions are also discussed and illustrated. In this second edition, the range and quality of the illustrations have been enhanced, and many schematic drawings have been added to help readers memorize characteristic imaging findings through pattern recognition. The accompanying text is concise and informative. Besides serving as an outstanding aid to differential diagnosis, this book will provide a user-friendly review tool for certification or recertification in radiology. (orig.)

  20. Optical image hiding with silhouette removal based on the optical interference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2012-02-20

    The earlier proposed interference-based encryption method with two phase-only masks (POMs), which actually is a special case of our method, is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. However, it has been found recently that the encryption method has security problems and cannot be directly applied to image encryption due to the inherent silhouette problem. Several methods based on chaotic encryption algorithms have been proposed to remove the problem by postprocessing of the POMs, which increased the computation time or led to digital inverse computation in decryption. Here we propose a new method for image encryption based on optical interference and analytical algorithm that can be directly used for image encryption. The information of the target image is hidden into three POMs, and the silhouette problem that exists in the method with two POMs can be resolved during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  1. Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2014-09-01

    At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm

  2. Multiple-image encryption based on interference principle and phase-only mask multiplexing in Fresnel transform domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2013-10-01

    In this article, a multiple-image encryption method based on the optical interference principle and phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing is proposed. During the encryption process, each secret image is encoded into two analytically obtained POMs and one computer-generated random POM, in which no iterative computation is required. The analytically obtained POMs taken from different secret images are then synthesized by POM multiplexing and further encoded into two complex ciphertext images. The silhouette problem that exists in the earlier interference principle-based encryption approaches is totally resolved by the proposal. Both digital and optical means can be used for decryption. The crosstalk effect between the secret images will not appear in the decrypted results by using the proposed system. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposal. We also discuss briefly the influence of information compression on the quality of decrypted images.

  3. Developing a theoretical framework to illustrate associations among patient satisfaction, body image and quality of life for women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer W; Crosby, Melissa A; Reece, Gregory P

    2013-10-01

    Within the field of breast reconstruction there is increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes related to satisfaction, body image, and quality of life. These outcomes are deemed highly relevant because the primary goal of breast reconstruction is to recreate the appearance of a breast (or breasts) that is satisfying to the patient. Prominent researchers have suggested the need to develop improved standards for outcome evaluation which can ultimately benefit patients as well as physicians. The purpose of this article is to summarize key findings in the area of patient-reported outcomes for breast reconstruction and introduce a theoretical framework for advancing research in this field. We conducted an extensive literature review of outcome studies for breast reconstruction focusing on patient-reported results. We developed a theoretical framework illustrating core patient-reported outcomes related to breast reconstruction and factors associated with these outcomes. Our theoretical model highlights domains and distinguishing features of patient satisfaction, body image, and quality of life outcomes for women undergoing breast reconstruction. This model further identifies a broad range of variables (e.g., historical/premorbid influences, disease and treatment-related factors) that have been found to influence patient-reported outcomes and need to be taken into consideration when designing future research in this area. Additional attention is given to examining the relationship between patient reported outcomes and outside evaluation of breast reconstruction. Our proposed theoretical framework suggests key opportunities to expand research in this area with the goal of optimizing body image adjustment, satisfaction, and psychosocial outcomes for the individual patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D nanostructure reconstruction based on the SEM imaging principle, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yun; Wang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2014-05-09

    This paper addresses a novel 3D reconstruction method for nanostructures based on the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging principle. In this method, the shape from shading (SFS) technique is employed, to analyze the gray-scale information of a single top-view SEM image which contains all the visible surface information, and finally to reconstruct the 3D surface morphology. It offers not only unobstructed observation from various angles but also the exact physical dimensions of nanostructures. A convenient and commercially available tool (NanoViewer) is developed based on this method for nanostructure analysis and characterization of properties. The reconstruction result coincides well with the SEM nanostructure image and is verified in different ways. With the extracted structure information, subsequent research of the nanostructure can be carried out, such as roughness analysis, optimizing properties by structure improvement and performance simulation with a reconstruction model. Efficient, practical and non-destructive, the method will become a powerful tool for nanostructure surface observation and characterization.

  5. First-principles AFM image simulation with frozen density embedding theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuki; Lee, Alex J.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    We present efficient first-principles method of non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM). Ordinary nc-AFM simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) require exhaustive computational cost because it involves thousands of total energy calculations. Regarding the sample as a fixed external potential can reduce the computational cost, and we adopt frozen density embedding theory (FDET) for this purpose. Simulated nc-AFM images with FDET using a carbon monoxide tip well reproduces the full DFT images of benzene, pentacene, and graphene, although optimized tip-sample distances and interaction energies in FDET are underestimated and overestimated, respectively. The FDET-based simulation method is promising for AFM image simulation of surfaces and two-dimensional materials. This work was supported by U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46286 and Award No. DE-SC0008877, and by Welch Foundation under Grant F-1837. Computational resources are provided by NERSC and TACC.

  6. Image Denoising Algorithm Using Second Generation Wavelet Transformation and Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khmag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes novel image denoising algorithm using combination method. This method combines both Wavelet Based Denoising (WBD and Principle Component Analysis (PCA to increase the superiority of the observed image, subjectively and objectively. We exploit the important property of second generation WBD and PCA to increase the performance of our designed filter. One of the main advantages of the second generation wavelet transformation in noise reduction is its ability to keep the signal energy in small amount of coefficients in the wavelet domain. On the other hand, one of the main features of PCA is that the energy of the signal concentrates on a very few subclasses in PCA domain, while the noise’s energy equally spreads over the entire signal; this characteristic helps us to isolate the noise perfectly. Our algorithm compares favorably against several state-of-the-art filtering systems algorithms, such as Contourlet soft thresholding, Scale mixture by WT, Sparse 3D transformation and Normal shrink. In addition, the combined algorithm achieves very competitive performance compared with the traditional algorithms, especially when it comes to investigating the problem of how to preserve the fine structure of the tested image and in terms of the computational complexity reduction as well.

  7. Principles on the use of imaging studies in the diagnosis and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Vatutin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic principles on the use of imaging studies in the diagnosis and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, which have been elaborated by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR jointly with the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PreS. These principles will render certain assistance to practitioners in diagnosing and treating patients with JIA. Undoubtedly, there have been no answers to many questions so far. This primarily applies to the necessity of understanding the standards for the possibility to interpret the pathological process, to harmonize the respective MRI protocols, to identify bone marrow edema, erosions, and synovitis, and to determine the suitability of these or those examinations in order to reveal changes in individual joints. There are considerable conceptual differences in approaches to diagnostic techniques in adults and children. The EULAR-PReS experts assume that some studies may be impracticable or economically inaccessible and this may hinder their introduction into clinical practice. However, most techniques, including ultrasonography, are quite affordable. The practical application of these techniques certainly requires a high professionalism of specialists in functional diagnosis and other instrumental studies.

  8. The first formulation of image-based stereotactic principles: the forgotten work of Gaston Contremoulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Cole A; Mornet, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-François

    2017-02-17

    Although image-based human stereotaxis began with Spiegel and Wycis in 1947, the major principles of radiographic stereotaxis were formulated 50 years earlier by the French scientific photographer Gaston Contremoulins. In 1897, frustrated by the high morbidity of bullet extraction from the brain, the Parisian surgeon Charles Rémy asked Contremoulins to devise a method for bullet localization using the then new technology of x-rays. In doing so, Contremoulins conceived of many of the modern principles of stereotaxis, including the use of a reference frame, radiopaque fiducials for registration, images to locate the target in relation to the frame, phantom devices to locate the target in relation to the fiducial marks, and the use of an adjustable pointer to guide the surgical approach. Contremoulins' ideas did not emerge from science or medicine, but instead were inspired by his training in the fine arts. Had he been a physician instead of an artist, he might have never discovered his extraordinary methods. Contremoulins' "compass" and its variants enjoyed great success during World War I, but were abandoned by 1920 for simpler methods. Although Contremoulins was one of the most eminent radiographers in France, he was not a physician, and his personality was uncompromising. By 1940, both he and his methods were forgotten. It was not until 1988 that he was rediscovered by Moreau while reviewing the history of French radiology, and chronicled by Mornet in his extensive biography. The authors examine Contremoulins' stereotactic methods in historical context, describe the details of his devices, relate his discoveries to his training in the fine arts, and discuss how his prescient formulation of stereotaxis was forgotten for more than half a century.

  9. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  10. Illustrator CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A complete training package lets you learn Adobe Illustrator CC at your own speed Adobe Illustrator is the leading drawing and illustration software used to create artwork for a variety of media. This book-and-DVD package provides 13 self-paced lessons that get you up to speed on the latest version of Illustrator (Creative Cloud). Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are supported by video tutorials on the DVD. Together, these tools will help you learn Adobe Illustrator basics, essential skills, and all the new capabilities in Illustrator CC-in no time.  Includes step-by-step in

  11. Imaging patterns of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: an illustrated discussion of the International Consensus Guidelines for the Management of IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Naomi M; Katz, Seth S; Escalon, Joanna G; Do, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, necessitating an algorithm to help stratify patients into low- and high-risk groups, for follow-up versus more invasive evaluation. New evidence concerning their natural history and overall risk of malignancy has emerged since the 2006 International Association of Pancreatology consensus guidelines, prompting an update in 2012, that distinguishes radiologic 'worrisome features' from 'high-risk stigmata'. The aim of this article is to illustrate, with case examples, the variable imaging patterns of IPMN and how their radiologic features, such as cyst size and mural nodules, are interpreted in the context of the new 2012 guidelines. The 2012 and 2006 guidelines will be compared and discussed with reference to additional studies that have since been published. Despite these guidelines, lingering uncertainty remains about the natural history of IPMN, a source of unease to both radiologists and referring clinicians alike, mandating further refinement of clinical and radiologic parameters predictive of malignancy. Emerging data regarding the risk of extrapancreatic malignancy, as well as synchronous or metachronous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remote in location from a branch duct IPMN are also reviewed. With the expanding research and evolving understanding of this clinicopathologic entity across the globe, radiologists will continue to play an important role in the management of patients with IPMN.

  12. [(18)F]-Organotrifluoroborates as Radioprosthetic Groups for PET Imaging: From Design Principles to Preclinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, David M

    2016-07-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is revolutionizing our ability to visualize in vivo targets for target validation and personalized medicine. Of several classes of imaging agents, peptides afford high affinity and high specificity to distinguish pathologically distinct cell types by the presence of specific molecular targets. Of various available PET isotopes, [(18)F]-fluoride ion is preferred because of its excellent nuclear properties and on-demand production in hospitals at Curie levels. However, the short half-life of (18)F and its lack of reactivity in water continue to challenge peptide labeling. Hence, peptides are often conjugated to a metal chelator for late-stage, one-step labeling. Yet radiometals, while effective, are neither as desirable nor as available as [(18)F]-fluoride ion. Despite considerable past success in identifying semifeasible radiosyntheses, significant challenges continue to confound tracer development. These interrelated challenges relate to (1) isotope/prosthetic choice; (2) bioconjugation for high affinity; (3) high radiochemical yields, (4) specific activities of >1 Ci/μmol to meet FDA microdose requirements; and (5) rapid clearance and in vivo stability. These enduring challenges have been extensively highlighted, while a single-step, operationally simple, and generally applicable means of labeling a peptide with [(18)F]-fluoride ion in good yield and high specific activity has eluded radiochemists and nuclear medicine practitioners for decades. Radiosynthetic ease is of primordial importance since multistep labeling reactions challenge clinical tracer production. In the past decade, as we sought to meet this challenge, appreciation of reactions with aqueous fluoride led us to consider organotrifluoroborate (RBF3(-)) synthesis as a means of rapid aqueous peptide labeling. We have applied principles of mechanistic chemistry, knowledge of chemical reactivity, and synthetic chemistry to design stable RBF3(-)s. Over the past 10 years

  13. Skylab Program Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This image illustrates major areas of emphasis of the Skylab Program. In an early effort to extend the use of Apollo for further applications, NASA established the Apollo Applications Program (AAP) in August of 1965. The AAP was to include long duration Earth orbital missions during which astronauts would carry out scientific, technological, and engineering experiments in space by utilizing modified Saturn launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. Established in 1970, the Skylab Program was the forerurner of the AAP. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  14. Radiology illustrated. Chest radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Pathology; Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Medicine; Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Pattern approach to the diagnosis of lung diseases based on CT scan appearances. Guide to quick and reliable differential diagnosis. CT-pathology correlation. Emphasis on state-of-the-art MDCT. The purpose of this atlas is to illustrate how to achieve reliable diagnoses when confronted by the different abnormalities, or ''disease patterns'', that may be visualized on CT scans of the chest. The task of pattern recognition has been greatly facilitated by the advent of multidetector CT (MDCT), and the focus of the book is very much on the role of state-of-the-art MDCT. A wide range of disease patterns and distributions are covered, with emphasis on the typical imaging characteristics of the various focal and diffuse lung diseases. In addition, clinical information relevant to differential diagnosis is provided and the underlying gross and microscopic pathology is depicted, permitting CT-pathology correlation. The entire information relevant to each disease pattern is also tabulated for ease of reference. This book will be an invaluable handy tool that will enable the reader to quickly and easily reach a diagnosis appropriate to the pattern of lung abnormality identified on CT scans.

  15. Imaging principles and techniques in space-borne gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Volker E-mail: vos@mpe.mpg.de

    2004-06-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the photon energy band from several 100 keV up to say 10 GeV can only be performed from space. Tremendous progress has been made in this young research field during the last 40 years. All-Sky maps exist now in continuum and line emission and short gamma-ray bursts--lasting only seconds--can be located to better than 1 arcmin. The imaging principles used in gamma-ray astronomy are different at low energies (<30 MeV) and at high energies (>30 MeV). Low-energy telescopes are based on the photo- or Compton-effect, whereas high-energy telescopes use the pair-production effect. The angular resolutions achieved by modern telescopes are in the range of 0.1 to 1 deg. A review of previous, current, and future telescopes is given for gamma-ray astronomy in general, and for burst astronomy in particular.

  16. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  17. Accelerating Science TRIZ inventive methodology in illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Seraia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a powerful tool widely used in engineering community. It is based on identification of a physical contradiction in a problem, and based on the corresponding pair of contradicting parameters selecting a few of suitable inventive principles, narrowing down the choice and leading to a much faster solution of a problem. It is remarkable that TRIZ methodology can also be applied to scientific disciplines. Many of TRIZ inventive principles can be post factum identified in various in scientific inventions and discoveries. However, additional inventive principles, more suitable for scientific disciplines, should be introduced and added to standard TRIZ, and some of the standard inventive principles need to be reformulated to be better applicable to science - we call this extension Accelerating Science TRIZ. In this short note we describe and illustrate the AS-TRIZ inventive principles via scientific examples, identifying AS-TRIZ inventive principles in discoveries and inv...

  18. Principle and experimental results of ultra-wideband noise radar imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using diffraction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Asmuth, Mark A.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the principle, simulation, and experiment results of tomographic imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using random noise waveforms are presented. Theoretical analysis of scattering and the image reconstruction technique are developed based on physical optics approximation and Fourier diffraction tomography, respectively. The bistatic radar system is designed to transmit band-limited ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise waveforms at a fixed position, and a linear scanner allows a single receiving antenna to move along a horizontal axis for backward scattering measurement in the frequency range from 3-5 GHz. The reconstructed tomographic image of the rotating cylindrical conducting object based on experimental results are seen to be in good agreement with the simulation results, which demonstrates the capability of UWB noise radar for complete two-dimensional tomographic image reconstruction of a cylindrical conducting object.

  19. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  20. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  1. Multiple-image encryption using polarized light encoding and the optical interference principle in the Fresnel-transform domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Jinyun

    2013-12-20

    We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme, based on polarized light encoding and the interference principle of phase-only masks (POMs), in the Fresnel-transform (FrT) domain. In this scheme, each secret image is converted into an intensity image by polarized light encoding, where a random key image and a pixilated polarizer with random angles are employed as keys. The intensity encrypted images produced by different secret images are convolved together and then inverse Fresnel-transformed. Phase and amplitude truncations are used to generate the asymmetric decryption keys. The phase-truncated inverse FrT spectrum is sent into an interference-based encryption (IBE) system to analytically obtain two POMs. To reduce the transmission and storage load on the keys, the chaotic mapping method is employed to generate random distributions of keys for encryption and decryption. One can recover all secret images successfully only if the corresponding decryption keys, the mechanism of FrTs, and correct chaotic conditions are known. The inherent silhouette problem can be thoroughly resolved by polarized light encoding in this proposal, without using any time-consuming iterative methods. The entire encryption and decryption process can be realized digitally, or in combination with optical means. Numerical simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed scheme.

  2. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  3. X-ray phase sensitive imaging methods: basic physical principles and potential medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi, Zhihua; Li, Ke

    2010-01-01

    Phase sensitive imaging theoretically allows for a drastic reduction in x-ray dose while simultaneously achieving comparable or better spatial and contrast resolution compared to traditional x-ray absorption based imaging. Several techniques exist to extract the phase information from an x-ray signal, including x-ray interferometry, diffraction enhanced imaging, in-line holography, coded aperture x-ray imaging, and grating-based interferometry. The physics of each method is reviewed, along wi...

  4. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  5. Ares I concept illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  6. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  7. A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays by participants, a focus group discussion and field notes were used. The data explicitation, by means of a simplified version of Hycner's (1999 process, is further explained. The article finally contains commentary about the validity and truthfulness measures, as well as a synopsis of the findings of the study.

  8. Using Integrated 2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging Methods for Illustrating the Mud-Fluid Conduits of the Wushanting Mud Volcanoes in Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2D and 3D looped resistivity surveys in the Wushanting Natural Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA in order to understand the relationships of the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. 2D resistivity surveys were conducted along seven networked lines. Two separate C-shape looped electrode arrays surrounding the volcano craters were used in the study. First, the two 3D looped measurements were inverted separately. Yet the inverted 3D images of the mud-volcano system were inconsistent with the landscape features suggesting that artifacts perhaps appeared in the images. The 3D looped data were then combined with the 2D data for creating a global resistivity model of WNLPA. The resulting 3D image is consistent with the observed landscape features. With the resistivity model of WNLPA, we further tried to estimate the distribution of water content. The results suggest that the 3D resistivity image has the potential to resolve the dual porosity structures in the mudstone area. Last, we used a simplified WNLPA model for forward simulation in order to verify the field measurement results. We have concluded that the artifacts in the 3D looped images are in fact shadow effects from conductive objects out of the electrode loops, and that inverted images of combined 2D and 3D data provide detailed regional conductive structures in the WNLPA site.

  9. Illustrating Language through Computer Generated Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses the use of animated sequences which illustrate linguistic principles. The work of the Computer Graphics Research Group at Ohio State University is highlighted. It has been discovered that computer-assisted instructional systems enhance learning through greater…

  10. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Illustration de couverture : Dolmen n° 2 des Géandes avec le Mont Ventoux en arrière-plan, octobre 2006 (cliché Wolfgang Pape). Illustration de la quatrième de couverture : René Gilles sur le dolmen n° 5 des Géandes en mars 1989 (cliché Wolfgang Pape). Fig. 1 - Gorges de l’Ardèche au niveau de la grotte de Saint-Marcel (cliché Bernard Gély) 21 Fig. 2 - Doline de Bidon (cliché Wolfgang Pape) 21 Fig. 3 - Paysage de garrigue (cliché Wolfgang Pape) 22 Fig. 4 - Données radio-chronométriques de l’A...

  11. High resolution transmission electron microscope Imaging and first-principles simulations of atomic-scale features in graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-thin membranes such as graphene[1] are of great importance for basic science and technology applications. Graphene sets the ultimate limit of thinness, demonstrating that a free-standing single atomic layer not only exists but can be extremely stable and strong [2--4]. However, both theory [5, 6] and experiments [3, 7] suggest that the existence of graphene relies on intrinsic ripples that suppress the long-wavelength thermal fluctuations which otherwise spontaneously destroy long range order in a two dimensional system. Here we show direct imaging of the atomic features in graphene including the ripples resolved using monochromatic aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the images observed in TEM with simulated images based on an accurate first-principles total potential. We show that these atomic scale features can be mapped through accurate first-principles simulations into high resolution TEM contrast. [1] Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191, (2007). [2] Novoselov, K. S.et al. Science 306, 666-669, (2004). [3] Meyer, J. C. et al. Nature 446, 60-63, (2007). [4] Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Science 321, 385-388, (2008). [5] Nelson, D. R. & Peliti, L. J Phys-Paris 48, 1085-1092, (1987). [6] Fasolino, A., Los, J. H. & Katsnelson, M. I. Nat. Mater. 6, 858-861, (2007). [7] Meyer, J. C. et al. Solid State Commun. 143, 101-109, (2007).

  12. Adsorbed Water Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil. In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Handbook of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Edmund E; Tateishi, Ukihide; Baum, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    This handbook will provide updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging techniques as well as its clinical applications, including radionuclide therapy, to trainees and practitioners of nuclear medicine, radiology and general medicine. Updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging are vitally important and useful to both trainees and existing practitioners. Imaging techniques and agents are advancing and changing so rapidly that concise and pertinent information are absolutely necessary and helpful. It is hoped that this handbook will help readers be better equipped for the utilization of new imaging methods and treatments using radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. 王维辋川诗意象解读*%The Illustration of the Images of Wang Wei's Wang Chuan Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明英

    2013-01-01

    王维辋川诗意象的营造是他追求纯真高洁的审美理想,融合在自然美之中的结晶。诗人能辩证地处理意象的虚实、动静、主次、繁简的关系,精致地描绘山林幽美清空的空灵之境,使言外之旨、象外之趣包含在精炼的意象之中,王维乐隐林泉沉醉自然山水之情因他刻画的意象而跃然纸上。%The creation of images in Wang Wei's Wang Chuan poems is his aesthetic ideal,which means the pursuit of purity and nobility and is fused in the natural beauty's crystallization.The poet can dialectically handle the relations between the empty and solid,act and quiet,primary and seconda-ry,complicatedness and simple of the image,can skillfully depicts the airy transcendence of the na-ture's beauty,and can present the implicated meaning and the fun beside the image in the refined ima-ges.Thus,Wang Wei's love of nature has been expressed vividly for his application of images.

  15. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Through the Posterior Fontanelle in Neonates: Objective Analysis of Oblique Sonographic Scans using MRI and a Reconstruction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Dong Soo; Chang, Young Pyo [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography through the posterior fontanelle is more useful than through the anterior approach for the evaluation of posterior brain structures. The aims of this study were to determine the appropriate neonatal cranial sonography scan planes through the posterior fontanelle, and to objectively evaluate the anatomy of neonatal cranial sonographic images. Neonates who underwent cranial sonography and MRI including 3D-SPGR axial scans and showed normal features on both modalities were enrolled. We reconstructed MR images corresponding to sonographic planes, then constructed anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We successfully created anatomic atlas that represents 8 oblique coronal and 4 oblique sagittal scans and planes that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the posterior fontanelle. The objective manner of this anatomic research provided standardized sonographic scan planes and created anatomic model through the posterior fontanelle. Cranial sonographic models through the posterior fontanelle using MRI and multi-planar reconstruction program will be helpful in the evaluation of sonographic anatomy and detection of abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus and posterior part of the brain

  16. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schnackenburg, B. [Philips GmbH Unternehmensbereich Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Bamberg, C. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  18. Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahng, Geon Ho [Dept. of Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Li, Ka Loh [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Center, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Ostergaard, Leif [Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Dept. of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Calamante, Femando [Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Perfusion is a fundamental biological function that refers to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue by means of blood flow. Perfusion MRI is sensitive to microvasculature and has been applied in a wide variety of clinical applications, including the classification of tumors, identification of stroke regions, and characterization of other diseases. Perfusion MRI techniques are classified with or without using an exogenous contrast agent. Bolus methods, with injections of a contrast agent, provide better sensitivity with higher spatial resolution, and are therefore more widely used in clinical applications. However, arterial spin-labeling methods provide a unique opportunity to measure cerebral blood flow without requiring an exogenous contrast agent and have better accuracy for quantification. Importantly, MRI-based perfusion measurements are minimally invasive overall, and do not use any radiation and radioisotopes. In this review, we describe the principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. This review summarizes comprehensive updated knowledge on the physical principles and techniques of perfusion MRI.

  19. Lunar Module Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  20. Rendering HTML5 illustration

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and CANVAS are two new tools introduced in HTML5 that you can use to add illustration and interactive animation to your Web pages. Understand why there are two different formats, how you can use them, and where they can be used today. HTML 5, is the first major update to the core language of the Web in over a decade The focus of this book is on innovations that most directly effect Web site design and multimedia integration The companion Web site features working demonstrations and tutorial media for hands-on p

  1. Rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging by a novel method: theory, simulation testing and proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Black

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological challenge imaging has mapped, but rarely quantified, the sensitivity of a biological system to a given drug. We describe a novel method called rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. This method combines pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling, repeated small doses of a challenge drug over a short time scale, and functional imaging to rapidly provide quantitative estimates of drug sensitivity including EC50 (the concentration of drug that produces half the maximum possible effect. We first test the method with simulated data, assuming a typical sigmoidal dose-response curve and assuming imperfect imaging that includes artifactual baseline signal drift and random error. With these few assumptions, rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging reliably estimates EC50 from the simulated data, except when noise overwhelms the drug effect or when the effect occurs only at high doses. In preliminary fMRI studies of primate brain using a dopamine agonist, the observed noise level is modest compared with observed drug effects, and a quantitative EC50 can be obtained from some regional time-signal curves. Taken together, these results suggest that research and clinical applications for rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging are realistic.

  2. The ancient mammalian KRAB zinc finger gene cluster on human chromosome 8q24.3 illustrates principles of C2H2 zinc finger evolution associated with unique expression profiles in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expansion of multi-C2H2 domain zinc finger (ZNF genes, including the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB subfamily, paralleled the evolution of tetrapodes, particularly in mammalian lineages. Advances in their cataloging and characterization suggest that the functions of the KRAB-ZNF gene family contributed to mammalian speciation. Results Here, we characterized the human 8q24.3 ZNF cluster on the genomic, the phylogenetic, the structural and the transcriptome level. Six (ZNF7, ZNF34, ZNF250, ZNF251, ZNF252, ZNF517 of the seven locus members contain exons encoding KRAB domains, one (ZNF16 does not. They form a paralog group in which the encoded KRAB and ZNF protein domains generally share more similarities with each other than with other members of the human ZNF superfamily. The closest relatives with respect to their DNA-binding domain were ZNF7 and ZNF251. The analysis of orthologs in therian mammalian species revealed strong conservation and purifying selection of the KRAB-A and zinc finger domains. These findings underscore structural/functional constraints during evolution. Gene losses in the murine lineage (ZNF16, ZNF34, ZNF252, ZNF517 and potential protein truncations in primates (ZNF252 illustrate ongoing speciation processes. Tissue expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR showed similar but distinct patterns for all tested ZNF genes with the most prominent expression in fetal brain. Based on accompanying expression signatures in twenty-six other human tissues ZNF34 and ZNF250 revealed the closest expression profiles. Together, the 8q24.3 ZNF genes can be assigned to a cerebellum, a testis or a prostate/thyroid subgroup. These results are consistent with potential functions of the ZNF genes in morphogenesis and differentiation. Promoter regions of the seven 8q24.3 ZNF genes display common characteristics like missing TATA-box, CpG island-association and transcription factor binding site (TFBS modules. Common TFBS

  3. Unbiased estimation of the calcaneus volume using the Cavalieri principle on computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, N; Bayar, B; Basaloglu, H; Oner, E; Bayar, K; Sankur, S

    2008-11-20

    The size and shape of tarsal bones are especially relevant when considering some orthopedic diseases such as clubfoot. For this reason, the measurements of the tarsal bones have been the subject of many studies, none of which has used stereological methods to estimate the volume. In the present stereological study, we estimated the volume of calcaneal bone of normal feet and dry bones. We used a combination of the Cavalieri principle and computer tomographic scans taken from eight males and nine dry calcanei to estimate the volumes of calcaneal bones. The mean volume of dry calcaneal bones was estimated, producing mean results using the point-counting method and Archimedes principle being 49.11+/-10.7 or 48.22+/-11.92 cm(3), respectively. A positive correlation was found between anthropometric measurements and the volume of calcaneal bones. The findings of the present study using the stereological methods could provide data for the evaluation of normal and pathological volumes of calcaneal bones.

  4. General Principles of Integrity Checking of Digital Images and Application for Steganalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva Alla A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The new common approach for integrity checking of digital images is developed. The new features of formal parameters defining image are revealed, theoretically grounded and practically tested. The characteristics of the mutual arrangement of left and right singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular value of the image’s matrix (block of matrix and the vector composed of singular numbers is obtained. Formal parameters are obtained using normal singular decomposition of matrix (block of matrix which is uniquely determined. It is shown that for most blocks of original image (no matter lossy or lossless the angle between the left (right mentioned singular vector and vector composed of singular numbers is defined by the angle between the n-optimal vector and the vector of standard basis of the range corresponding dimension. It is shown that the determined feature brakes for the mentioned formal parameters in a non-original image. This shows the integrity violation of the image, i.e. the existence of the additional information embedded using steganography algorithms. So this can be used as a basis for development of new universal steganography methods and algorithms, and one example of the realization is proposed. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm won’t depend on the details of steganography method used for embedding. All the obtained results can be easily adapted for the digital video and audio analysis.

  5. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: basic principles, present situation and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-11-14

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS.

  6. Principles and applications of susceptibility weighted imaging; Grundlagen und Anwendungen der suszeptibilitaetsgewichteten Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, F.T.; Ziener, C.H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Radiologie E010, INF 280, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany); Freitag, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Radiologie E010, INF 280, Heidelberg (Germany); Bendszus, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), initially developed to provide an improved method for cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) venography, is now an integral part of neuroradiological diagnostics and is steadily gaining importance in non-cerebral imaging. Tissue-inherent susceptibility differences generate a local magnetic field in which the dephasing of signal-producing protons occurs. This leads to a characteristic phase shift that can be used as a means to enhance contrast in the well-known T2*-weighted imaging. Many medically relevant pathologies induce tissue alterations that also influence the magnetic properties of tissue. Thus, the detection of blood residues and calcifications in SWI is superior to conventional MR sequences. New techniques, such as quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) allow improved differentiation between blood residues and calcifications and provide an alternative imaging method for fiber tractography with respect to diffusion tensor imaging. (orig.) [German] Die suszeptibilitaetsgewichtete Bildgebung (SWI), urspruenglich entwickelt als verbessertes Verfahren fuer die zerebrale MR-Venographie, ist inzwischen ein fester Bestandteil der neuroradiologischen Diagnostik und gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung in der nichtzerebralen Bildgebung. Gewebespezifische Suszeptibilitaetsunterschiede erzeugen ein lokales Magnetfeld, in dem die Dephasierung der signalgebenden Protonen stattfindet. Dabei kommt es zu einer charakteristischen Phasenverschiebung, die als Kontrastverstaerkung in der bekannten T2*-Bildgebung genutzt werden kann. Viele medizinisch relevante Pathologien erzeugen Veraenderungen im Gewebe, die auch die magnetischen Eigenschaften beeinflussen. So koennen Blutungen und Verkalkungen in der SWI besser identifiziert werden als mit konventionellen MR-Sequenzen. Neuere Techniken wie die quantitative Suszeptibilitaetskartierung (QSM) bzw. die Suszeptibilitaets-Tensor-Bildgebung (STI) ermoeglichen

  7. Error Concealment Based on Matching-Principles in MPEG-2 Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOLuguo; WANGZhaohua; GUOHui; SUHansong

    2004-01-01

    The MPEG-2 compression algorithm is very sensitive to transmission errors due to the use of variable-length coding. Any errors can lead to noticeable degradation of image quality seriously, so that in part or entire slice information is lost until the next resynchronization point is reached. Error concealment (EC) methods offer one way of dealing with this problem. In this paper,two new algorithms, namely spatial EC based on edgematching and temporal EC based on block-matching, are presented to reconstruct the corrupted regions. According to the simulation results of experiments, the proposed methods can recover the high-quality MPEG-2 images.

  8. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging and correlation spectroscopy: Principles and examples of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Talisman Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization of cell-surface receptors in structurally distinct domains in the plasma membrane is of vital interest for correct cellular signaling. However, this dynamic process is difficult to study in cells with sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution. We present here two quantitative high-resolution methods with single-molecule sensitivity, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS and pair-correlation Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (pcPALM, which enable nondestructive study of receptor diffusion and lateral organization at the nanoscale level. We introduce here the methods and review their application in studies of lateral organization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs. Examples from our own work on opioid receptor lateral organization are presented in order to illustrate the most recent advances in the field. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015 i br. 45001

  9. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S; Wisner, Erik R; Johnson, Lynelle R; Stern, Joshua A; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t-test. The mean TRE

  10. An active coronagraph using a liquid crystal array for exoplanet imaging: principle and testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; De-Qing Ren; Yong-Tian Zhu; Jiang-Pei Dou

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging coronagraphs,used for the detection of exoplanets,have always adopted passive coronagraph optical components.It is therefore impossible to actively optimize the coronagraphs to achieve their best performance.To solve this problem,we propose a novel high-contrast imaging coronagraph which combines a liquid crystal array (LCA) for active pupil apodization and a deformable mirror (DM) for phase correction.The LCA we use is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator.The LCA is well calibrated and compensates for its amplitude non-uniformity and nonlinear intensity responsivity.We measured the imaging contrasts of the coronagraph system with the LCA only and without the DM deployed.Imaging contrasts of 10-4 and 10-5 can be reached at an inner working angular distance of 2.5 and 5λ/D,respectively.A simulation shows that the phase errors on the coronagraph pupil limit the contrast performance.The contrast could be further improved if a DM is deployed to correct the phase errors induced by the LCA and coronagraph optics.

  11. Adrenal tumors. Principles of imaging and differential diagnostics; Tumoren der Nebennieren. Prinzipien der Bildgebung und Differenzialdiagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhart, C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Adrenal masses are very common and are usually detected incidentally. Less frequently, imaging is performed for the localization of the underlying lesion in the case of endocrine disease. The differentiation between adenomas and non-adenomas is fundamental. Adenomas show a low density on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and a rapid washout of contrast agents. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adenomas are characterized by a low signal in opposed phase imaging as compared to in phase imaging. According to the literature a density of less than 10 HU in an adrenal mass has a specificity of 98 % and a sensitivity of 71 % for the presence of an adenoma and MRI is slightly more sensitive. Some adrenal lesions, e.g. cysts or myelolipomas can be diagnosed with high accuracy due to pathognomonic findings. In the majority of cases the synopsis of imaging along with clinical and laboratory findings is necessary for a reliable diagnosis. For the evaluation of an adrenal mass the CT examination should begin with an unenhanced scan, if necessary followed by a washout examination. In the case of MRI in phase and opposed phase imaging are essential components of the examination. (orig.) [German] Raumforderungen der Nebennieren sind haeufig und werden ueberwiegend inzidentell nachgewiesen. Seltener wird bei einer bereits bekannten endokrinologischen Erkrankung eine radiologische Diagnostik zur Lokalisation eines funktionellen Tumors gezielt durchgefuehrt. Grundlegend ist die Unterscheidung von Adenomen der Nebennieren und nichtadenomatoesen Raumforderungen. Adenome zeigen im Nativ-CT eine niedrige Dichte sowie ein rasches ''wash-out'' in Kontrastmitteluntersuchungen. Im MRT sind Adenome durch ein im Vergleich zur In-phase-Untersuchung niedrigeres Signal in der Opposed-phase-Untersuchung charakterisiert. Der Literatur zufolge spricht eine native Dichte innerhalb einer adrenalen Raumforderung von hoechstens 10 Hounsfield Units (HU) mit 98 % Spezifitaet und 71

  12. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Principles and simulations of high-resolution STM imaging with a flexible tip apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Ondrej; Hapala, Prokop; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    We present a robust but still efficient simulation approach for high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with a flexible tip apex showing sharp submolecular features. The approach takes into account the electronic structure of the sample and tip as well as relaxation of the tip apex. We validate our model by achieving good agreement with various experimental images which allows us to explain the origin of several observed features. Namely, we have found that the high-resolution STM mechanism consists of standard STM imaging, convolving electronic states of the sample and the tip apex orbital structure, with the contrast heavily distorted by the relaxation of the flexible apex caused by interaction with the substrate.

  14. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Electromagnetic image-guided orbital decompression: technique, principles, and preliminary experience with 6 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Juan J; Elia, Maxwell Dominic; Gong, Dan; Manes, R Peter; Black, Evan H; Levin, Flora

    2014-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of routine use of electromagnetic image guidance systems in orbital decompression. Six consecutive patients underwent stereotactic-guided three wall orbital decompression using the novel Fusion ENT Navigation System (Medtronic), a portable and expandable electromagnetic guidance system with multi-instrument tracking capabilities. The system consists of the Medtronic LandmarX System software-enabled computer station, signal generator, field-generating magnet, head-mounted marker coil, and surgical tracking instruments. In preparation for use of the LandmarX/Fusion protocol, all patients underwent preoperative non-contrast CT scan from the superior aspect of the frontal sinuses to the inferior aspect of the maxillary sinuses that includes the nasal tip. The Fusion ENT Navigation System (Medtronic™) was used in 6 patients undergoing maximal 3-wall orbital decompression for Graves' orbitopthy after a minimum of six months of disease inactivity. Preoperative Hertel exophthalmometry measured more than 27 mm in all patients. The navigation system proved to be no more difficult technically than the traditional orbital decompression approach. Electromagnetic image guidance is a stereotactic surgical navigation system that provides additional intraoperative flexibility in orbital surgery. Electromagnetic image-guidance offers the ability to perform more aggressive orbital decompressions with reduced risk.

  16. 2D Iterative MAP Detection: Principles and Applications in Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kekrt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a theoretical framework for the two-dimensional iterative maximum a posteriori detection. This generalization is based on the concept of detection algorithms BCJR and SOVA, i.e., the classical (one-dimensional iterative detectors used in telecommunication applications. We generalize the one-dimensional detection problem considering the spatial ISI kernel as a two-dimensional finite state machine (2D FSM representing a network of the spatially concatenated elements. The cellular structure topology defines the design of the 2D Iterative decoding network, where each cell is a general combination-marginalization statistical element (SISO module exchanging discrete probability density functions (information metrics with neighboring cells. In this paper, we statistically analyse the performance of various topologies with respect to their application in the field of image restoration. The iterative detection algorithm was applied on the task of binarization of images taken from a CCD camera. The reconstruction includes suppression of the defocus caused by the lens, CCD sensor noise suppression and interpolation (demosaicing. The simulations prove that the algorithm provides satisfactory results even in the case of an input image that is under-sampled due to the Bayer mask.

  17. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  18. Exoplanets imaging with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph - I. Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, O; Galicher, R; Martinache, F; Ridgway, S T; Woodruff, R A; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Galicher, Raphael; Martinache, Frantz; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Woodruff, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Using 2 aspheric mirrors, it is possible to apodize a telescope beam without losing light or angular resolution: the output beam is produced by ``remapping'' the entrance beam to produce the desired light intensity distribution in a new pupil. We present the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAAC) concept, which uses this technique, and we show that it allows efficient direct imaging of extrasolar terrestrial planets with a small-size telescope in space. The suitability of the PIAAC for exoplanet imaging is due to a unique combination of achromaticity, small inner working angle (about 1.5 $\\lambda/d$), high throughput, high angular resolution and large field of view. 3D geometrical raytracing is used to investigate the off-axis aberrations of PIAAC configurations, and show that a field of view of more than 100 $\\lambda/d$ in radius is available thanks to the correcting optics of the PIAAC. Angular diameter of the star and tip-tilt errors can be compensated for by slightly increasing the size o...

  19. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  20. A Review of Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Imaging: Principles, Concepts and Applications in Plant Tissue Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Türker-Kaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells, tissues and organs are composed of various biomolecules arranged as structurally diverse units, which represent heterogeneity at microscopic levels. Molecular knowledge about those constituents with their localization in such complexity is very crucial for both basic and applied plant sciences. In this context, infrared imaging techniques have advantages over conventional methods to investigate heterogeneous plant structures in providing quantitative and qualitative analyses with spatial distribution of the components. Thus, particularly, with the use of proper analytical approaches and sampling methods, these technologies offer significant information for the studies on plant classification, physiology, ecology, genetics, pathology and other related disciplines. This review aims to present a general perspective about near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging/microspectroscopy in plant research. It is addressed to compare potentialities of these methodologies with their advantages and limitations. With regard to the organization of the document, the first section will introduce the respective underlying principles followed by instrumentation, sampling techniques, sample preparations, measurement, and an overview of spectral pre-processing and multivariate analysis. The last section will review selected applications in the literature.

  1. A Review of Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Imaging: Principles, Concepts and Applications in Plant Tissue Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Huck, Christian W

    2017-01-20

    Plant cells, tissues and organs are composed of various biomolecules arranged as structurally diverse units, which represent heterogeneity at microscopic levels. Molecular knowledge about those constituents with their localization in such complexity is very crucial for both basic and applied plant sciences. In this context, infrared imaging techniques have advantages over conventional methods to investigate heterogeneous plant structures in providing quantitative and qualitative analyses with spatial distribution of the components. Thus, particularly, with the use of proper analytical approaches and sampling methods, these technologies offer significant information for the studies on plant classification, physiology, ecology, genetics, pathology and other related disciplines. This review aims to present a general perspective about near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging/microspectroscopy in plant research. It is addressed to compare potentialities of these methodologies with their advantages and limitations. With regard to the organization of the document, the first section will introduce the respective underlying principles followed by instrumentation, sampling techniques, sample preparations, measurement, and an overview of spectral pre-processing and multivariate analysis. The last section will review selected applications in the literature.

  2. Three-way component analysis : Principles and illustrative application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2001-01-01

    Three-way component analysis techniques are designed for descriptive analysis of 3-way data, for example, when data are collected on individuals, in different settings, and on different measures. Such techniques summarize all information in a 3-way data set by summarizing, for each way of the 3-way

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  4. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  5. Illustrator CS5 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    A book-and-video training package provides a unique illustration to the basics of Illustrator Adobe Illustrator is a unique design and drawing program that allows you to create and produce brilliant art for a variety of mediums. This full-color book-and-video training package deciphers even the most complex Illustrator tasks and gets you quickly up to speed using the capabilities of the newest release of Illustrator. Thirteen self-paced lessons explain how to create and produce vibrant graphics using this robust vector drawing application. The complementary lessons featured on the vid

  6. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A

    2001-06-01

    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  7. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Joseph R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images.

  8. The illustrated A brief history of time

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This is Stephen Hawking's updated, expanded and illustrated edition of his celebrated work which includes the most recent developments in the field, many of which were forecast by him. At the same time, he explains his complex theories through a fresh visual dimension. Over one hunded and fifty stunning colour illustrations have been specially commissioned for this purpose to help the reader understand what have become popular mythic images of our century, but which nonetheless remain difficult, abstract ideas to grasp. It includes a new introduction written specially for this edition.

  9. The effects of section thickness on the estimation of liver volume by the Cavalieri principle using computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirzeoglu, Mehmet [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139 (Turkey); Sahin, Bunyamin [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139 (Turkey)]. E-mail: bsahin@omu.edu.tr; Selcuk, Mustafa B. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139 (Turkey); Kaplan, Suleyman [Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139 (Turkey)

    2005-12-15

    Estimation of liver volume using routine CT scans has been described previously. We have, however, not found a gold standard study which analyzes the effect of section thickness on the estimation of liver volume using CT images. In the present study, five normal livers obtained from cadavers were scanned using a Spiral CT Scanner (Xpress/GX Toshiba, Tocigi-Ken) in the horizontal plane. Consecutive sections at a thickness of 10, 5 and 1 mm were used to estimate the total volume of the livers by means of the Cavalieri principle. With a view to evaluating inter-observer differences, liver volume was estimated by three observers. The estimated volume using the classical volume estimation formula did not concur with the actual volume of the livers obtained by the fluid displacement technique. The section thickness has an over- or under-projection effect on the estimated volume. The obtained volume estimation results were, therefore, calibrated using three different approaches. The volume obtained by the calibration formulae did not differ statistically from actual liver volumes (P < 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the performers' estimates (P > 0.05). Results showed that the effect of section thickness on the volume estimates could not be omitted and the obtained values could be calibrated using the proposed approaches presented in this study.

  10. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  11. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facettes multiples de la mangrove Divers faciès végétaux de la mangrove Rhizophora et Avicennia. © Cormier. Avicennia et Laguncularia. © Cormier. Mangrove : un écosystème forestier parcouru de bolons. © Cormier. Écosystème à mangrove (du rebord de plateau au bolon, y compris rizières de mangrove et tannes). Cormier © Orstom. Faune typique de la mangrove Monodactylus (Psettia sebae). Vidy © Orstom. Crabes violonistes (Uca spp.) Intès © Orstom. Les Rivières du Sud : des mangroves densémen...

  12. Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fragment de la « Carte generale de la Nouvelle France [...] », datée de 1692, publiée dans Premier Etablissement de la foy Dessins à l’encre, probablement de Leclercq ou du père Jumeau, trouvés dans un exemplaire de la Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie (voir éd. Ganong, p. 27, n. 2). Dessins à l’encre, probablement de Leclercq ou du père Jumeau, trouvés dans un exemplaire de la Nouvelle Relation de L· Gaspesie (voir éd. Ganong, p. 27, n. 2).

  13. Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fragment de la « Carte generale de la Nouvelle France [...] », datée de 1692, publiée dans Premier Etablissement de la foy Dessins à l’encre, probablement de Leclercq ou du père Jumeau, trouvés dans un exemplaire de la Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie (voir éd. Ganong, p. 27, n. 2). Dessins à l’encre, probablement de Leclercq ou du père Jumeau, trouvés dans un exemplaire de la Nouvelle Relation de L· Gaspesie (voir éd. Ganong, p. 27, n. 2).

  14. Training the renaissance medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, W M

    1976-11-01

    The professional training of the medical illustration student has been a subject of controvery for the last few years. Curricula of the schools accredited by the Association of Medical Illustrators have, to varying degrees, undergone change due to new demands on the practicing illustrator. The curriculum in Biomedical Illustration at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas attempts to balance time-proven courses with contemporary problem-solving approaches to the training of the medical illustrator. This paper reflects the history, philosophy and methods of implementation of the course of study leading to the M.A. degree in Biomedical Communication at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas.

  15. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  16. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhang; Shuang-Nan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the difffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 × 50 μm2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32arcsec above about 10keV and 0.36arcsec at 1.24keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed.

  17. A Super-high Angular Resolution Principle for Coded-mask X-ray Imaging Beyond the Diffraction Limit of Single Pinhole

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chen

    2008-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always demanded by astrophysics and solar physics, which can be realized by coded-mask imaging with very long mask-detector distance in principle. Previously the diffraction-interference effect has been thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at low energy end with very long mask-detector distance. In this work the diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size of 50* 50 square micrometers and the mask-detector distance of 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV, an...

  18. Developing a model: an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenga, Yolanda; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Model development may seem a daunting task for the novice. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the steps of model development applied to a real-life phenomenon using an inductive theory-generating research approach. The value of the illustration is that nurse researchers can follow the application of the process as a point of departure for their own work. A logical stepwise discussion is followed for empirical theory development. The logical thought process from identifying the phenomenon to describing the model as a visual metaphor of the phenomenon is illustrated.

  19. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  20. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  1. In the Artist’s Studio with "L’Illustration"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esner, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the two series of visits to the artist's studio that appeared in the famed French illustrated magazine L'Illustration in the 1850s and in 1886. An in-depth examination of both the texts and images reveals the verbal and visual tropes used to characterize the artists and their s

  2. In the Artist’s Studio with "L’Illustration"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esner, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the two series of visits to the artist's studio that appeared in the famed French illustrated magazine L'Illustration in the 1850s and in 1886. An in-depth examination of both the texts and images reveals the verbal and visual tropes used to characterize the artists and their s

  3. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  4. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  5. Roles of Illustrators in Visual Communication of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Okawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge is the knowledge accumulated by systematic studies and organized by general principles. Visual, verbal, numeric, and other types of representation are used to communicate scientific knowledge. Scientific illustration is the visual representation of objects and concepts in order to record and to convey scientific knowledge(Ford, 1993. There are some discussions on scientific illustrations in history, philosophy and the sociology of science(Burri & Dumit, 2008, but little has been done on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. This study focuses on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. The purpose is to show how illustrators create the visual messages in communications of scientific knowledge. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with 6 professional illustrators, creators and art directors, it is showed that illustrators select and edit scientific information, add non-scientific information, and organize information into one visual representation of scientific knowledge. The implication of this research will provide a new perspective to multisensory communication of scientific knowledge.

  6. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  7. An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard

    2005-01-01

    An experiment illustrating stereochemical principles, like different physical properties in achiral environments, assignment of absolute stereochemistry, and the stereoisomeric relationships to differences in absolute stereochemistry is devised. A demonstration of how enantiomers have the same physical properties until placed in chiral…

  8. A Laboratory Demonstration Illustrating Bioseparations Using Colorful Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Theodore M.; Rohs, Amanda E.; Lefebvre, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    A simple in class laboratory illustrating the principles of ion exchange chromatography as a bioseparation technique is described. A protein's isoelectric point as a driving force for ion exchange chromatography is easily demonstrated by using combinations of proteins with natural color or fluorescence, such as DsRed2, enhanced green fluorescent…

  9. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  10. ILLUSTRATOR 3D旋转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    在我们的Illustrator 3D系列第二部分.德里克·利亚将为我们介绍这一软件的Revolve(旋转成型)效果.并讲述如何在3D空间中旋转平面物体以得到精彩效果的。

  11. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J [University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kent, M; Wisner, E [University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Fujita, Y [Tokai University, Isehara (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  12. Bringing Life to Illustration and Illustrating the World in Movement through Visual Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    or emotional simulation. There are numerous scientists such as Richard Davidson, Paul Ekman or Dan Siegel, who study the effects of our emotions in our behavior and brain functions; unfortunately there are almost no existing references regarding how the creative process of images or animated movies help our...... reality by playing with images, full of emotions. These ones are extremely relevant in the learning process and interpretation of experiences which produce our thoughts and feelings. Emotions affect our decision making, problem solving and focus attention, features which we work on during the creative...... process of an animated movie or making illustrations. We present animation, including illustration as part of the process, as a social emotional learning tool and media to enhance wellbeing and work neuroplasticity; by means working on aspects from cognitive neuroscience, such as attention, transportation...

  13. MEMES AS A FORM OF ILLUSTRATION IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study we attempt to analyze a new form of illustration − the meme that is widely used in science and educational process. To achieve this goal we had to assemble a collection of images to catalog and description in order to understand the new role of the illustrative image. Meme is defined as a unit of cultural information. According to the definition of Wikipedia, a meme can consider any idea, character, manner or way of doing things, consciously or unconsciously transmitted from person to person through speech, video, writing, rituals, drawings, gestures, etc. The term meme and the concept of the meme was proposed by evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in 1976 in his book "the Selfish gene". The article shows illustrative examples of memes based on the artwork and paintings of the great masters of painting, considered the use of created images. It shows the history of illustrative memes and transformation of images in the modern world of science and education. Using memes in scientific work, as a form of illustration, it can be noted that visualization of the object of research allows you to develop visual thinking, which has identified a number of functions: cognitive, communicative, methodological. Cognitive function is manifested in the ability to cognize an object through an image, communicative – explain the problem or task through the image; methodological – to build research with consideration of the peculiarities of the structure and morphology of the object

  14. Psychological empowerment: issues and illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A

    1995-10-01

    Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across people, contexts, and times. A nomological network that includes intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral components is also presented. Two examples of psychological empowerment for voluntary service organization members and members of a mutual help organization are described to help illustrate differences in the specific variables that may be used to measure psychological empowerment in different populations and settings.

  15. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  16. Principles of engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  17. Measuring Stipple Aesthetics in Hand-Drawn and Computer-Generated Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, Ross; Isenberg, Tobias; Andrews, William M.; Ebert, David S.; Sousa, Mario Costa; Chen, Wei

    2008-01-01

    When people compare a computer-generated illustration to a hand-drawn illustration of the same object, they usually perceive differences. This seems to indicate that the two kinds of images follow different aesthetic principles. To explore and explain these differences, the authors compare texture s

  18. Molecular imaging of apoptosis and necrosis - basic principles of cell biology and use in oncology; Molekulare Bildgebung von Apoptose und Nekrose - Zellbiologische Grundlagen und Einsatz in der Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, I.; Traeber, F.; Block, W.; Schild, H. [Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Soon molecular imaging techniques will play a prominent role in basic scientific research and clinical approaches. In particular, important aspects of medicine such as apoptosis and gene- and stem-cell therapy will play a pivotal role in radiology too. This review presents the basic principles of apoptosis, recent results and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a precisely regulated, complex cascade of molecular events to eliminate individual cells. Disturbances may lead to diseases like malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases that are of clinical relevance. Several therapeutic strategies in oncology are based on apoptosis induction; conversely, resistance to therapy is indicative of decreased apoptosis induction. Whereas up to now the clinician had to depend exclusively on biopsy specimens to detect apoptosis, the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of this cell-biological phenomenon in vivo opens up new horizons in future. This review focuses on different modifications of this imaging technique, with and without the use of molecular probes (e.g. annexin V, synaptotagmin I), in vitro and in vivo using the various detector systems (like MRI, flow cytometry) currently available. Future perspectives are also addressed. (orig.)

  19. Illustration-inspired depth enhanced volumetric medical visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svakhine, Nikolai A; Ebert, David S; Andrews, William M

    2009-01-01

    Volume illustration can be used to provide insight into source data from CT/MRI scanners in much the same way as medical illustration depicts the important details of anatomical structures. As such, proven techniques used in medical illustration should be transferable to volume illustration, providing scientists with new tools to visualize their data. In recent years, a number of techniques have been developed to enhance the rendering pipeline and create illustrative effects similar to the ones found in medical textbooks and surgery manuals. Such effects usually highlight important features of the subject while subjugating its context and providing depth cues for correct perception. Inspired by traditional visual and line-drawing techniques found in medical illustration, we have developed a collection of fast algorithms for more effective emphasis/de-emphasis of data as well as conveyance of spatial relationships. Our techniques utilize effective outlining techniques and selective depth enhancement to provide perceptual cues of object importance as well as spatial relationships in volumetric datasets. Moreover, we have used illustration principles to effectively combine and adapt basic techniques so that they work together to provide consistent visual information and a uniform style.

  20. 宝石CT能谱成像原理及其扫描射线剂量%Principle and Radiation Dose of Energy Imaging for Discovery CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云

    2012-01-01

    目前CT已成为疾病诊断的一种重要手段.与常规CT相比,能谱CT最显著的特征就是提供了多种定量分析工具与多参数成像为基础的综合诊断模式,如基物质图像、单能量图像、能谱曲线等.其独特的多参数成像模式给长期习惯于单一诊断模式的影像科医生提出了前所未有的挑战,熟悉其成像原理、影像表现与应用价值是非常必要的.本文首先回顾了能量CT研发的必要性及其实现途径;随后深入剖析了单源瞬时kVp切换能谱成像的物理基础,并介绍了实现该技术所必需的解析技术;接着从基础实验的角度,展现了能谱成像能够在更低剂量条件下保证同常规CT一致的图像质量.%Computed tomography (CT) has become an important modality for diagnosing diseases. The most prominent advantages of Spectral CT which has over conventional CT are its set of quantitative analysis tools as well as its integrated diagnostic method based on multi-parameter images, including material-decomposition images, monochromatic images and spectra! curves. On the other hand, this unique multi-parameter imaging method has also introduced unprecedented challenges to radiologists accustomed to me single-parameter diagnostic mode- It is thus important for radiologists to understand the imaging principles, image appearance, and clinical applications of Spectral CT. This paper begins by reviewing the history of energy CT with emphases on the necessity of the development of energy CT, followed by a thorough analysis of the fundamentals of Spectral CT imaging with single tube-fast kVp acquisition approach in terms of its necessary image generation algorithm, it then demonstrates the ability of Spectral CT imaging in quantification using phantom experiments, and it reveals the tremendous value of Spectral CT in improving image quality as well reducing the radiation dose.

  1. Illustrating the practice of statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Christina A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The practice of statistics involves analyzing data and planning data collection schemes to answer scientific questions. Issues often arise with the data that must be dealt with and can lead to new procedures. In analyzing data, these issues can sometimes be addressed through the statistical models that are developed. Simulation can also be helpful in evaluating a new procedure. Moreover, simulation coupled with optimization can be used to plan a data collection scheme. The practice of statistics as just described is much more than just using a statistical package. In analyzing the data, it involves understanding the scientific problem and incorporating the scientist's knowledge. In modeling the data, it involves understanding how the data were collected and accounting for limitations of the data where possible. Moreover, the modeling is likely to be iterative by considering a series of models and evaluating the fit of these models. Designing a data collection scheme involves understanding the scientist's goal and staying within hislher budget in terms of time and the available resources. Consequently, a practicing statistician is faced with such tasks and requires skills and tools to do them quickly. We have written this article for students to provide a glimpse of the practice of statistics. To illustrate the practice of statistics, we consider a problem motivated by some precipitation data that our relative, Masaru Hamada, collected some years ago. We describe his rain gauge observational study in Section 2. We describe modeling and an initial analysis of the precipitation data in Section 3. In Section 4, we consider alternative analyses that address potential issues with the precipitation data. In Section 5, we consider the impact of incorporating additional infonnation. We design a data collection scheme to illustrate the use of simulation and optimization in Section 6. We conclude this article in Section 7 with a discussion.

  2. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  3. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  4. A correspondence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  5. Introduction to the basic principles and techniques of diffusion-weighted imaging; Einfuehrung in die Grundlagen und Techniken der Diffusionsbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laun, F.B. [DKFZ Heidelberg, Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); DKFZ Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Sektion Quantitative Bildbasierte Krankheitscharakterisierung, Heidelberg (Germany); Fritzsche, K.H. [DKFZ Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Sektion Quantitative Bildbasierte Krankheitscharakterisierung, Heidelberg (Germany); DKFZ Heidelberg, Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kuder, T.A. [DKFZ Heidelberg, Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, B. [DKFZ Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Sektion Quantitative Bildbasierte Krankheitscharakterisierung, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    This article gives an overview of the many different technical aspects of diffusion-weighted imaging and a review of the physical and mathematical background. Specific terms, such as free and restricted diffusion are introduced and elucidated. The measurement of diffusion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and which phenomena can occur are described. Finally, an overview of current developments in diffusion imaging and its application in research is presented. (orig.) [German] Dieser Artikel bietet dem Leser einen Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen Techniken der Diffusionsbildgebung und deren physikalisch-mathematische Hintergruende. Begriffe wie freie und eingeschraenkte Diffusion werden eingefuehrt und erklaert. Die Messung der Diffusion mittels MRT wird beschrieben und verschiedene der dabei auftretenden Phaenomene erklaert. Schliesslich wird eine Auswahl aktueller, forschungsrelevanter Diffusionsbildgebungstechniken vorgestellt. (orig.)

  6. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles Found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as…

  7. Solid Rocket Booster-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway of the solid rocket booster (SRB) sections with callouts. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  8. Experience the beauty of fashion illustration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, fashion illustration is one of the new form of painting, fashion illustration compared to the previous illustration, it tends to be more professional and meticulous. Fashion illustration is often used in commercial ad-vertising, fashion magazines, packaging design, etc. Fashion illustrator for its strong contrast vivid colors and strong deco-rative effect, become the carrier of designers chasing with feelings of fashion .

  9. Imaging of orthopedic sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L. (eds.) [University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Maas, M. [Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)

  10. New illustrated stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Chris; Nicolson, Iain; Stott, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Stars & Plantes, written by experts and popular science writers, is a comprehensive overview of our Universe - what is it, where it came from and how we discovered it. This intriguing, information-rich new reference book contains over 300 stunning images from the Hubble Telescope and leading observatories from around the world as well as diagrams to explain the finer points of theory. With extensive sections on everything from the Solar System to how stars form Stars & Planets will appeal to beginners and the serious stargazer alike.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  12. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  13. First-Principles Calculations of Scanning-Tunnelling-Microscopy Images of Ar Atoms Adsorbed on a Graphite Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉林; 周晓林; 陈向荣; 芶清泉

    2003-01-01

    Local density approximation within the framework of the density functional theory is applied to calculate the scanning tunnelling microscopy(STM)images of Ar atoms adsorbed on a graphite sheet(Ar/graphite system).It is found that the optimal site of adsorbed Ar atom is at the top of the centre of the carbon hexagon and its equilibrium distance from the graphite surface is about 3.20A.We demonstrate that it is the hybridization of the C 2 p electronic states with the Ar 3 p and 4 s electronic states,which renders Ar atoms visible in the STM experiment.

  14. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  15. X-ray diffraction imaging with the Multiple Inverse Fan Beam topology: principles, performance and potential for security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G; Fleckenstein, H; Kosciesza, D; Olesinski, S; Strecker, H; Theedt, T; Zienert, G

    2012-07-01

    The steadily increasing number of explosive threat classes, including home-made explosives (HMEs), liquids, amorphous and gels (LAGs), is forcing up the false-alarm rates of security screening equipment. This development can best be countered by increasing the number of features available for classification. X-ray diffraction intrinsically offers multiple features for both solid and LAGs explosive detection, and is thus becoming increasingly important for false-alarm and cost reduction in both carry-on and checked baggage security screening. Following a brief introduction to X-ray diffraction imaging (XDI), which synthesizes in a single modality the image-forming and material-analysis capabilities of X-rays, the Multiple Inverse Fan Beam (MIFB) XDI topology is described. Physical relationships obtaining in such MIFB XDI components as the radiation source, collimators and room-temperature detectors are presented with experimental performances that have been achieved. Representative X-ray diffraction profiles of threat substances measured with a laboratory MIFB XDI system are displayed. The performance of Next-Generation (MIFB) XDI relative to that of the 2nd Generation XRD 3500TM screener (Morpho Detection Germany GmbH) is assessed. The potential of MIFB XDI, both for reducing the exorbitant cost of false alarms in hold baggage screening (HBS), as well as for combining "in situ" liquid and solid explosive detection in carry-on luggage screening is outlined.

  16. Principle and Application of the Medical Image Paper Printing System%医学影像纸介质打印系统原理与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡寅进; 郑芳; 何胜洪; 陈春新

    2013-01-01

    目前影像科广泛使用的于式激光胶片成本高、速度慢、环境污染等问题日益突出,取而代之的是一种新型经济实用的纸质医疗影像输出系统将走上市场.本文通过对激光打印机结构和原理的介绍,简述了纸介质打印系统的应用价值和特点,分析了该系统在降低成本、提高效益、保护环境等方面的重要意义,提出了纸介质打印系统是未来医学影像资料打印的必然趋势和最佳选择.%In view of the increasingly serious problems resulted from the widely-used dry laser imager in medical imaging in the aspects of high cost,low efficiency and environmental pollution,a new and economical medical image paper printing system emerges and enters the medical market.Through introduction of the structure and principle of the system,this paper expatiates its characteristics,analyzes the significance in cost reduction,benefit enhancement and environmental protection and further explains that the system is an underlying trend and optimal choice for medical image print in the future.

  17. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  18. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration.

  19. Energy-Based Tree Illustration System: ETIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAKAJIMA, Katsuto; MAMA, Azusa; MORIMOTO, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    We propose a system named ETIS (Energy-based Tree Illustration System) for automatically generating tree illustrations characteristic of two-dimensional ones with features such as exaggerated branch curves, leaves, and flowers...

  20. In the Artist's Studio with L'Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esner, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the two series of visits to the artist's studio that appeared in the famed French illustrated magazine L'Illustration in the 1850s and in 1886. An in-depth examination of both the texts and images reveals the verbal and visual tropes used to characterize the artists and their spaces, linking these to broader notions of "the artist" – his moral characteristics, behaviors, and artistic practice – as well as to the politics of the art world and the (bourgeois ideology of L'Illustration. The aim is to uncover not only the language but also the mechanics of the "mediatization" of the image of the artist in this crucial period.

  1. [Retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging - basic principles, current developments and ophthalmological perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M B; Kaule, F; Grzeschik, R; Behrens-Baumann, W; Wolynski, B

    2011-07-01

    Since its initial introduction in the mid-1990 s, retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has contributed greatly to our understanding of the human visual system. Multiple cortical visual field representations have been demonstrated and thus numerous visual areas identified. The organisation of specific areas has been detailed and the impact of pathophysiologies of the visual system on the cortical organisation uncovered. These results are based on investigations at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla or less. In a field-strength comparison between 3 and 7 Tesla, it was demonstrated that retinotopic mapping benefits from a magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. Specifically, the visual areas can be mapped with high spatial resolution for a detailed analysis of the visual field maps. Applications of fMRI-based retinotopic mapping in ophthalmological research hold promise to further our understanding of plasticity in the human visual cortex. This is highlighted by pioneering studies in patients with macular dysfunction or misrouted optic nerves.

  2. Developing a Diagnostic Brain Imaging Protocol for Recent Onset Psychosis which Embodies Principles of Predictive Coding and Free Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Breakspear

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although schizophrenia is usually conceptualized of as a disorder of well formed hallucinations and delusions, its onset is more typically characterized by heightened arousal, a vague but pervasive feeling of unease and poorly formed misperceptions. This unstable constellation of symptoms challenges clinical diagnosis at a time when properly guided interventions are most likely to have the greatest long-term benefits. It is possible to frame this clinical picture as a disturbance in the capacity of the cortex to optimally form predictive models of the environment, to appropriately sample visual scenes in order to estimate the likelihood of such models and to hence minimize surprise in a dynamic social landscape. This approach suggests that manipulating the relationship between visual search strategies and natural scene statistics might be a sensitive means of quantifying core neurobiological deficits early in the course of emerging psychotic disorders. We are developing a diagnostic tool for the prodromal phase of these disorders which involves experimentally disturbing the relationship between visual saccades and the stream of natural images in well directed films. I will outline the conceptual and computational bases and early experimental results thus far obtained, including a canonical example of paranoia and theory of mind in a spaghetti western.

  3. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  4. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  5. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  6. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  7. Principles of compilers

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yunlin

    2011-01-01

    ""Principles of Compilers: A New Approach to Compilers Including the Algebraic Method"" introduces the ideas of the compilation from the natural intelligence of human beings by comparing similarities and differences between the compilations of natural languages and programming languages. The notation is created to list the source language, target languages, and compiler language, vividly illustrating the multilevel procedure of the compilation in the process. The book thoroughly explains the LL(1) and LR(1) parsing methods to help readers to understand the how and why. It not only covers estab

  8. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa, Fars, Iran. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional one among all 50 radiation workers employed in radiology departments of this city. A questionnaire was the means of evaluation which contained demographic information and questions about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiology staff regarding the radiation protection. All of the completed questionnaires were analyzed, using SPSS19 software. Results: Radiographers’ participation rate was 100%, and the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation workers in the field of radiation protection was 42.36, 62.4, and 48.54, respectively. Depending on the degree of their knowledge, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographers’ age, gender, and work experience, and the relationship between the following factors was not substantial. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the level of education, the awareness of radiation workers increases, too. To raise awareness of radiation protection for radiation workers, it is better to hold training courses.

  9. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  10. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  11. UNIQUE ILLUSTRATIONS IN TIBETAN BUDDHIST SUTRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The illustrations for Tibetan sutras are coloured in two ways:in black and white or colours-the monotone illustrations accompanying Tibetan characters and usually engraved on woodblocks.The illustrations are often showed on the cover pages or two sides of the head pages of sutras; they are frequently displayed at two frames and in the middle of end pages.In this paper,I am going to introduce the

  12. The Economics of Illustration: The Revue illustrée in the 1890s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanghelia Stead

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Parisian Revue Illustrée (1885–1912, a middle-class periodical of broad circulation and sophisticated iconography, lets us examine the expansion of fin-de-siècle culture beyond the so-called ‘petites revues’, particularly in the years 1894–1903. Through this fashionable all-publics fortnightly, typically fin-de-siècle tales and songs on transient motives, replete with Art Nouveau images and ornamentation, reach bourgeois households. The article shows the niche category the magazine occupied through its copious and exciting iconography. Using unpublished correspondence and print material culture, it throws light on the ways its editors turned the more refined parts of the magazine into deluxe photo-mechanically produced books. The study focuses on two men, René Baschet, the Revue’s editor from 1889 to 1904, and Jérôme Doucet, his assistant editor from July 1897 to 1902, and two fin-de-siècle writers, Catulle Mendès and Jean Lorrain, as well as up-coming artists André Cahard, Henry Bellery-Desfontaines, Manuel Orazi, and Carloz Schwabe. The case shows that sophisticated illustration was a financial spur that came cheap while it supported the so-called ‘decadent’ writings. Further, with refined taste, numerous connexions to artists, and work for a Dutch publisher, Jérôme Doucet emerges as a key figure behind the scenes.

  13. Image and video processing in the compressed domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    As more images and videos are becoming available in compressed formats, researchers have begun designing algorithms for different image operations directly in their domains of representation, leading to faster computation and lower buffer requirements. Image and Video Processing in the Compressed Domain presents the fundamentals, properties, and applications of a variety of image transforms used in image and video compression. It illustrates the development of algorithms for processing images and videos in the compressed domain. Developing concepts from first principles, the book introduces po

  14. Digital image analysis of palaeoenvironmental records and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental change signals in geological or biological records are commonly reflected on their reflecting or transmitting images. These environmental signals can be extracted through digital image analysis. The analysis principle involves section line selection, color value reading and calculating environmental proxy index along the section lines, layer identification, auto-chronology and investigation of structure evolution of growth bands. On detailed illustrations of the image technique, this note provides image analyzing procedures of coral, tree-ring and stalagmite records. The environmental implications of the proxy index from image analysis are accordingly given through application demonstration of the image technique.

  15. Illustrating the machinery of life: viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a mature HIV particle in blood serum. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  17. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  18. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  19. Verbal Visuality at the Service of Pathemization in Illustrated Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos Feres

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work, mostly based on the Semiolinguistic Theory of Discourse Analysis, intends to discuss aspects of the verbal-visual semiosis in illustrated books regarding the process of pathemization, that is, the triggering of emotions from descriptive staging. It is assumed that pathemization, of an intentional nature, is activated in the text-reader interaction due to a manifested discursive planning in (verbal and visual representations endowed with cultural valuation prone to reactive emotions. The observed complementarity between word and image in the analyzed illustrated books allows for not only a higher density of meaning, but also for the enhancement of qualities and categories that are not always “signifiable.” The symbolization by analogy updated in the images (visual or metaphorical, or in the superposition of both, complexifies signification, allowing not only for effects of meaning, but also for felt effects, stemming from knowledge and beliefs on which representations are founded, whether verbally or visually configured.

  20. Direct demonstration of tissue uptake of an inhaled drug: proof-of-principle study using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehniger, Thomas E; Végvári, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Prikk, Kaiu; Ross, Peeter; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Edula, Goutham; Sepper, Ruth; Marko-Varga, György

    2011-11-01

    Drug therapy is often directed to specific organ and tissue compartments where the mode of action of the compound affects specifically targeted biological processes. However, the direct measurement of drug uptake in terms of a time kinetic and concentrations attained at the local sites has not been readily available as a clinical index for most drugs. A proof-of-principle study was conducted to test the utility of applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to demonstrate the qualitative distribution pattern of a locally administered drug within tissue sites of targeted action. Here we have measured the occurrence of an inhaled bronchodilator, the muscarinic receptor antagonist ipratropium, within human bronchial biopsies obtained by fiber optic bronchoscopy shortly after dosing exposure. Cryo-preserved biopsy samples from five subjects being evaluated for airway obstruction or potential tumor development were prepared as thin frozen sections. Samples coated with a MALDI matrix were analyzed by a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer at large (100 μm) and small (30 μm) raster sizes. Our results demonstrate that ipratropium is rapidly absorbed into the airway wall. Ipratropium parent ion (m/z 332.332) and daughter ions (m/z 166.2 and 290.2) were coincidently partitioned within submucosal spaces containing targeted airway smooth muscle in four out of five subjects. The signal intensity of ipratropium fragment ions provided estimates that local drug concentrations between 3 and 80 nM were achieved within the airway wall. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study in applying MALDI-MSI to demonstrate the localization of a drug administered at therapeutic levels. The study highlights the potential benefit of MALDI-MSI to provide important measurements of drug efficacy in clinical settings.

  1. The Flexible Use of Illustrative Musical Notations in Singing Teaching%图谱在歌唱教学中的“活用”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱明娟

    2014-01-01

    Illustrative musical notations are pictures which young children can recognize, consisting of symbols, images and lines that are rearranged in accordance with the structures of songs. Il-lustrative musical notations can help young children understand and experience songs, so it is a strategy for kindergarten singing teaching. The practice and research on the design and application of illustrative music notations refers to the practice and research on the design principles and application methods of illustrative musical notations. This paper elaborated the flexible application of illustrative musical notations in singing teaching from pluralis-tic design of illustrative musical notations, flexible use of illustrative notations, and effective manifestation of illustrative musical nota-tions.%图谱是指根据歌曲的结构,运用符号、图画、线条等编辑起来,绘制成幼儿所能认知的图。图谱可以帮助幼儿理解感受歌曲,是幼儿园歌唱教学中常用的一种教学策略。幼儿园歌唱活动中图谱设计与运用的实践研究,是指在幼儿园的歌唱教学活动中,对歌曲教学图谱设计原则及运用方法进行的实践研究。本文从多元化设计图谱、灵活运用图谱、有效体现图谱三个方面阐述图谱在歌唱活动中的灵活运用。

  2. The changing role of the medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R; Nicholls, J; Williams, R

    2000-06-01

    The annual meeting of the Australian Institute of Medical and Biological Illustration in Melbourne in November 1998 included keynote addresses from Richard Morton and Robin Williams. Both speakers looked at the future of the medical illustration profession, and in particular the impact of new technology. This matter was also addressed by Joe Nicholls in a presentation given at the Institute of Medical Illustrators' Annual Symposium in Warwick, UK, in September 1998. This paper is a synthesis of the ideas presented by these three speakers and elaborates on common themes in their presentations.

  3. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  4. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  5. Teaching Spreadsheets: Curriculum Design Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Tort, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    EuSpRIG concerns direct researchers to revisit spreadsheet education, taking into account error auditing tools, checklists, and good practices. This paper aims at elaborating principles to design a spreadsheet curriculum. It mainly focuses on two important issues. Firstly, it is necessary to establish the spreadsheet invariants to be taught, especially those concerning errors and good practices. Secondly, it is important to take into account the learners' ICT experience, and to encourage them to attitudes that foster self-learning. We suggest key principles for spreadsheet teaching, and we illustrate them with teaching guidelines.

  6. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  7. The changing role of the medical illustrator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrick, M D

    1975-11-01

    The author takes issue with the claim that the role of the medical illustrator is changing today. Not so, he says. The role is the same, and the need is as great as it ever was. Rather, some medical illustrators are changing in the desire to expand their field and become "biocommunicators.' Such expansion, the author suggests, is not for everyone, and those who choose to continue in their traditional role need make no apologies. It is a vital one.

  8. Information Graphics - A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    This beautifully illustrated book is the first complete handbook to visual information. Well written, easy to use, and carefully indexed, it describes the full range of charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, and tables used daily to manage, analyze, and communicate information. It features over 3,000 illustrations, making it an ideal source for ideas on how to present information. It is an invaluable tool for anyone who writes or designs reports, whether for scientific journals, annual reports, or magazines and newspapers.

  9. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  10. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  11. The principle of primacy versus the principle of national procedural autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortlep, R.; Verhoeven, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The case law of the Court of Justice on revoking a national final administrative decision or judgement which is not compliant with EU law can illustrate the existing tension between the principle of primacy on the one hand, and the principle of national procedural autonomy on the other. Although the

  12. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  13. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  14. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  15. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of the general principles. 780.138 Section 780.138 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... principles. Some examples will serve to illustrate the above principles. Employees of a fruit grower who...

  16. Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Pal, Soumik

    2009-01-01

    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known results about sphere packing.

  17. Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Chen, Zhen-Qing; Pal, Soumik

    2009-01-01

    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes’ principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known ...

  18. Fairy Tale Illustrations and Real World Gender: Function, Conceptualization, and Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Bottigheimer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fairy tales that have been illustrated with a single image apiece are themselves generally a commercial enterprise, whose content and design must be conceived in a broadly acceptable mode in order to sell. Second, the selling process assumes a profit motive. Third, it can be shown that the single illustration mode results in projecting an individual illustratorʹs vision of a tale. Fourth, when large numbers of illustrations in single‐illustration mode exist in commercially produced books, the aggregate range of their content comprises the range of culturally‐acceptable images for a given story. (A methodology for analyzing fairy tales with multiple images will be introduced separately at the end of this article.

  19. Implementation of Image Retrieval Algorithm through VB6.0%基于VB6.0图像检索算法的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫华; 宋连友; 高全胜

    2012-01-01

    简述了两种图像检索的基本原理,给出了与之相对应的基于VB6.0检索图像的算法.%Two kinds of image retrieval principles are briefly illustrated and the corresponding image retrieval algorithms through VB6.0 are offered.

  20. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  1. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators.

  2. Spiritual care illustrated: creating a shared language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Louis

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to schematically illustrate the pastoral care intervention to scientifically minded professionals and colleagues the author developed a model that can be used as an interdisciplinary teaching tool. Within the setting of hospital ministry, the tool also provides insights into the stages of "crisis experience" and illustrates the transformational process involved in The Healing Journey. These change-processes are explained against the background of a multi-level anthropology. This approach births a Healing Journey diagram, a spiritual pain assessment tool, and a seven-phase intervention model that may be helpful in Clinical Pastoral Education.

  3. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  4. Still image and video compression with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the principles of image and video compression techniques and introduces current and popular compression standards, such as the MPEG series. Derivations of relevant compression algorithms are developed in an easy-to-follow fashion. Numerous examples are provided in each chapter to illustrate the concepts. The book includes complementary software written in MATLAB SIMULINK to give readers hands-on experience in using and applying various video compression methods. Readers can enhance the software by including their own algorithms.

  5. Acupressure for Educators: An Illustrated Workbook for the Practice of Simple Acupressure Techniques. Experiencing Energy. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Jeanne

    The guidelines are intended to familiarize educators with the basics of acupressure and to suggest ways in which the principles may help relieve anxiety and stress in school students. Eight energy exercises are introduced, followed by a review of the basic principles of energy and guidelines for giving and receiving acupressure. Illustrations of…

  6. 48 CFR 9904.408-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrations. 9904.408-60 Section 9904.408-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF... completed years of service, with allowance for forfeitures if material. (c) Company C's sick leave...

  7. Flow Visualization using Illustrative Line Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias; Bekker, Paulus

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view- oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for visual

  8. Illustrative Line Styles for Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view-oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for visuali

  9. Electric Circuit Theory--Computer Illustrated Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer-illustrated text (CIT) with integrated software to teach electric circuit theory to college students. Examples of software use are given, including simple animation, graphical displays, and problem-solving programs. Issues affecting electric circuit theory instruction are also addressed, including mathematical…

  10. Energy Sustainability: A Pragmatic Approach and Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen

    2009-01-01

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. Numerous illustrations demonstrate measures consistent with the a...

  11. The "Illustrated" Souls of Black Folk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, W. E. B.

    2004-01-01

    Richly illustrated, this special edition of Du Bois's seminal work includes historical woodcuts and engravings, photos and documents. Most of the photos, engravings, and documents are from the 19th and early 20th century and depict American slavery and its legacy, African-American life, and the prominent figures and events associated with the…

  12. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  13. Using Cichlids for Illustrating Mendel's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Eugene D.; Winters, Charlotte M.

    1978-01-01

    A classroom experiment is proposed in which students can mate a banded or spotted convict cichlid with a pink convict cichlid and observe the markings of their "children" and "grandchildren" as a way of illustrating Mendel's Laws of Dominance and Segregation. (MN)

  14. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  15. The Testing Effect: Illustrating a Fundamental Concept and Changing Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gilles O.; Mullet, Hillary G.; Harrison, Tyler L.

    2012-01-01

    An important recent finding is that testing improves learning and memory. In this article, the authors describe a demonstration that illustrates this principle and helps students incorporate more testing into their learning. The authors asked students to read one text using a Study-Study strategy and one text using a Study-Test strategy. One week…

  16. Type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 李秦川

    2002-01-01

    This paper originally presents a systematic general type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Based on the properties and geometrical conditions of structure constraint of minor-mobility parallel manipulators, this principle will be a cornerstone in solving the problem of type synthesis of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Many mechanisms have been synthesized by this principle, which illustrated the validity and universality of this principle.

  17. Three-dimensional second-harmonic generation imaging of fibrillar collagen in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiansong; Ferbas, John; Juan, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    Multiphoton-induced second-harmonic generation (SHG) has developed into a very powerful approach for in depth visualization of some biological structures with high specificity. In this unit, we describe the basic principles of three-dimensional SHG microscopy. In addition, we illustrate how SHG imaging can be utilized to assess collagen fibrils in biological tissues. Some technical considerations are also addressed.

  18. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  19. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  20. Selling pictures: the illustrated auction catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pergam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is based upon a survey of reproductions in auction catalogues – from their first appearance in the early eighteenth century until their more consistent use in the second decade of the twentieth century. Examining the role of these illustrations sheds light on how auctions functioned; it was not just the works of art that were traded, but knowledge about those works of art became currency to be exchanged. In contrast to the high end engravings and photographs of luxury illustrated art books, reproductions in auction catalogues – publications produced as ephemeral marketing tools – were of noticeably lower quality. This study of the status of reproductions, therefore, investigates the evolving understanding of art knowledge, both aesthetic and economic, and the interdependence of the market and connoisseurship.

  1. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  2. Robert Carswell: the first illustrator of MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T J

    2009-09-01

    The first illustration of multiple sclerosis (MS) was by a young Scottish physician and artist, Dr Robert Carswell. Recognized as a talented illustrator by his teachers, he was encouraged to create an anatomy and pathology atlas. He spent years in the hospitals and mortuaries of Paris and Lyon painting watercolours and pen and ink drawings of patients and post mortem preparations. Of the 1034 paintings, 99 are of the brain and spinal cord and Plate 4, figure 4.4 in the atlas (Figure 2), is of MS. Carswell indicated he saw two examples of this pathology, but had not examined either patient, but illustrated one of them. We know little about the clinical history other than that the patient was paralyzed. About 200 of the atlases were printed, and it is still regarded as one of the greatest and most beautiful of all medical books. Carswell was appointed as the first Professor of Anatomy at the North London Hospital, later renamed the University College Hospital UK, where the original copy of his great atlas is archived. Due to ill health he resigned after a few years to reside in the healthier air outside Brussels, Belgium. He was appointed physician to King Leopold, but was also noted for his care of the poor. Queen Victoria knighted him for his care of King Louis Philippe of France when he was in exile. Although English journals did not note his passing at the age of 64 years, his great atlas remains as his memorial.

  3. Illustration of Ares I During Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the Ares I is illustrated during lift off. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. With a primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I uses a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine, derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle, will power the Ares I second stage. Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.

  4. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Lee, Edward Y. [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave. Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  5. The application of pragmatic principles in competitive business writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business English writing, as an important means of communication, plays a vital role in international business communication. And pragmatic principle, as the universal principle, exists in all communication situations. This paper gives a brief introduction to the pragmatic principles and business English writing principles and illustrates the high consistency between these principles. By analyzing samples, it also points out the instructive significance of pragmatic principles in competitive business English writing. To a certain extent, this provides a theoretical support for the research of business English writing.

  6. The Marian Illustrations of the Legend of Montserrat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, Concepción

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The books telling the story of Montserrat used to contain illustrative engravings. Montserrat presents us with a special case, because this monastery holds an uninterrupted record of illustrated texts or of texts with engraved images from the miniatures of the Llibre Vermell and the first fruits of the printing press to the 19th century. Admittedly, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries the books exhibit the engravings on the cover or within the first sheets; it is only in the 19th century that illustrations appear inserted in the text so as to make the story more agreeable. The images intensify the value of texts, since illustrations can help us understand the written word and may suggest other readings of the corresponding passages, clearer and more precise. Illustrations in the books on the history of a monastery are but a part of a larger set of ideas, projects and self-service which the Church aims at the reader. Furthermore, the iconographic models of the Virgin Mary and the Mountain are of great interest for the history of engraving and of the Catalan and Spanish devotions.

    Los libros en que se contaba la historia de Montserrat contenían estampas que los ilustraban. Montserrat es un caso inusual, porque posee un registro ininterrumpido de textos ilustrados o acompañados con imágenes grabadas, desde el Llibre Vermell y los primeros momentos de la imprenta hasta el siglo XIX. Bien es cierto que en los libros de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII sólo se colocan los grabados en la portada o en las primeras hojas; Hasta el siglo XIX no encontramos un tipo de ilustración insertada en el interior del texto amenizando la historia. Las imágenes intensifican el valor de los textos, porque nos ayudan a comprenderlos y a la vez sugieren nuevas lecturas, más precisas y claras. Las ilustraciones de los libros de historia de un santuario forman parte de todo un enjambre de

  7. Totally Accessible MRI A User's Guide to Principles, Technology, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lipton, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    This is a practical guide that offers a lucid introduction to the principles of MRI physics. The author, recognized in the imaging community for his exceptional teaching methods and lectures, has written an easy to understand text. Each chapter explains the "why" and "how" behind MRI physics. Readers will understand how altering MRI parameters will have many different consequences for image quality and the speed in which images are generated. Practical topics, selected for their value to clinical practice, include progressive changes in key MRI parameters, imaging time, and signal to noise ratio. A wealth of high quality illustrations, complemented by concise text, enables readers to gain a thorough understanding of the subject without requiring prior in-depth knowledge

  8. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  9. Multimode C-arm fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT for image-guided interventions: from proof of principle to patient protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, J. H.; Daly, M. J.; Bachar, G.; Moseley, D. J.; Bootsma, G.; Brock, K. K.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, G. A.; Chhabra, S.; Jaffray, D. A.; Irish, J. C.

    2007-03-01

    High-performance intraoperative imaging is essential to an ever-expanding scope of therapeutic procedures ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. The need for precise visualization of bony and soft-tissue structures with minimal obstruction to the therapy setup presents challenges and opportunities in the development of novel imaging technologies specifically for image-guided procedures. Over the past ~5 years, a mobile C-arm has been modified in collaboration with Siemens Medical Solutions for 3D imaging. Based upon a Siemens PowerMobil, the device includes: a flat-panel detector (Varian PaxScan 4030CB); a motorized orbit; a system for geometric calibration; integration with real-time tracking and navigation (NDI Polaris); and a computer control system for multi-mode fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT. Investigation of 3D imaging performance (noise-equivalent quanta), image quality (human observer studies), and image artifacts (scatter, truncation, and cone-beam artifacts) has driven the development of imaging techniques appropriate to a host of image-guided interventions. Multi-mode functionality presents a valuable spectrum of acquisition techniques: i.) fluoroscopy for real-time 2D guidance; ii.) limited-angle tomosynthesis for fast 3D imaging (e.g., ~10 sec acquisition of coronal slices containing the surgical target); and iii.) fully 3D cone-beam CT (e.g., ~30-60 sec acquisition providing bony and soft-tissue visualization across the field of view). Phantom and cadaver studies clearly indicate the potential for improved surgical performance - up to a factor of 2 increase in challenging surgical target excisions. The C-arm system is currently being deployed in patient protocols ranging from brachytherapy to chest, breast, spine, and head and neck surgery.

  10. I La Galigo Folklore Illustration on Textile Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosepin Sri Ningsih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was an effort in conserving the I La Galigo epic story while at the same time adding value to silk, the famous textile product from South Sulawesi and the origin of I La Galigo. As a work of literature, I La Galigo is categorized as an epic. It is known locally as Sureq Galigo in Bugis. It is divided in a number of episodes or tereng. The most well-known tereng is the one which describes the relationship between Sawerigading and a princess called I We Cudai. From that relationship I La Galigo, the central character of this epic is born. For this project six of the most well-known episodes were selected because of the amount of available supporting data, both theoretical and visual. The selected episodes were translated from their original narrative form into visual language or images. The illustration technique used in this project was STP (Space Time Plane. With this technique every object is drawn from varying viewpoints in one frame, both in space and time. Hand embroidery was added to the painted images. The silk painting can be used as an interior element with value added by the I La Galigo illustrations.

  11. ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR AND GIMP - AN APPROACH TO GARMENT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDRIE Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing clothes has become easier with the use of clothing design software. One of the most popular and basic software made for garments design is Adobe Illustrator. It enables designers and small to medium businesses to create clothing designs with easy access to all assets, including images, colors, brushes, and type styles. While Illustrator has all the necessary elements and features that are ideal for creating designer clothing, GIMP provides basic set of tools for image editing. When used in combination with one another, these two programs provide just about all the tools an apparel designer needs to draw fashion design sketches, technical flat sketches, CAD presentations, graphic artworks, design embroideries etc. In this paper we show how to use the instruments of those two software in order to draw a woman jacket’s garments components and to fill with texture the jacket created. By utilizing Illustrator’s Symbol we created libraries of jacket components (puller zipper, label, then the brushes to design the zipper detail. Finally, by a drag and drop we added the zipper, the zipper puller and the label. GIMP gave us access to precise fabric textures which make our output so realistic that you can almost touch the fabric.

  12. Illustrating cerebral function: the iconography of arrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    2000-12-29

    For over a century the arrow has appeared in illustrations of cerebral function, yet the implications of using such symbols have not been previously considered. This review seeks to outline the nature, evolution, applications and limitations of this deceptively simple graphic device when it is used to picture functions of the brain. The arrow is found to have been used in several different ways: as a means of endowing anatomical structures with functional properties; as a method of displaying neural function either in free-standing form or in a structural or spatial framework; as a device for correlating functional data with underlying brain topography; and as a technique for linking functions of the brain with the world outside and with various philosophical concepts. For many of these uses the essential feature of the arrow is its directional characteristic. In contrast to the line, it is direction that enables the arrow to display information about time, which in turn can be exploited to depict functional rather than structural data. However, the use of the arrow is fraught with difficulties. It is often unclear whether an arrow has been used to illustrate fact, hypothesis, impression or possibility, or merely to provide a decorative flourish. Furthermore, the powerful symbolic nature of the arrow can so easily confer a spurious validity on the conjectural. Increasingly now there are insuperable difficulties when attempting to illustrate complex mechanisms of brain function. In the iconography of cerebral function, therefore, arrows with all their ambiguities may in certain circumstances become superseded by more non-representational symbols such as the abstract devices of the computational neuroscientist.

  13. Illustrated & Dissected: Professor Richard Sawdon Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Alternative Gallery feature introduces the photographic artist Professor Richard Sawdon Smith. Professor Sawdon Smith's work stems around a fascination with representations of anatomy that have been fuelled by his experience as a hospital patient. The work has allowed him to explore ideas through the use of medical illustrations which include early anatomical drawings, personal medical photography and facial modelling. The work highlights how such imagery can be used in the context of a patient seeking understanding and acceptance of ill health and disease using the body as a canvas on which to translate the experience.

  14. An illustrative experiment on electromagnetic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Escalante, J; Montes, D; Vázquez, J L

    2005-01-01

    It is the purpose of this manuscript to place an illustrative demonstration on the measurement of damped electromagnetic oscillations for a RLC circuit that it is easy to set in any physics laboratory equipped with PASCO technologies and USB Electrical PASPort sensors together with standard electrical components. The results of recording the electrical voltage with DATA Studio software have a very good agreement with performed simulations from MULTISIM software and/or standard calculations from theory. Our students and instructors enjoy of the experiment for their simplicity set up in addition to the instructive oscillations.

  15. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  16. Illustrating the concept of quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Jozsa, R

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade quantum information theory has developed into a vigorous field of research despite the fact that quantum information, as a precise concept, is undefined. Indeed the very idea of viewing quantum states as carriers of some kind of information (albeit unknowable in classical terms), leads naturally to interesting questions that might otherwise never have been asked, and corresponding new insights. We will discuss some illustrative examples, including a strengthening of the well known no-cloning theorem leading to a property of permanence for quantum information, and considerations arising from information compression that reflect on fundamental issues.

  17. On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1987-01-01

    Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...

  18. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  19. Optimizing Technology Development and Adoption in Medical Imaging Using the Principles of Innovation Diffusion, Part I: Theoretical, Historical, and Contemporary Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Bruce I.

    2011-01-01

    The pioneering work performed in the social sciences on diffusion of innovation can be applied to medical imaging and shed valuable insights as to how innovation is analyzed and adopted within the population of end-users. Successful innovation must take into account unique stakeholder differences, changes in communication and social interactions, and shifting priorities in market economics. The dramatic changes currently underway in current medical imaging practice provides unique innovation ...

  20. Principle and Program of Evaluating Diffuse Seismicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong

    2001-01-01

    Concept and origin of the term "the diffuse seismicity" are illustrated. Some different viewpoints regarding the diffuse seismicity and the influence characteristics on determining seismic design basis of engineering from the seismicity are analyzed. Principle and program for evaluating diffuse seismicity are studied and discussed base on over contents.

  1. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  2. Principles and practices of sustainable water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Xu

    2010-01-01

    Literature related to sustainable water management is reviewed to illustrate the relationship among water management, sustainability (sustainable development), and sustainable water management. This review begins with the explanation on the definition of sustainable water management, followed by a discussion of sustainable water management principles and practices.

  3. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that: (1) The illustration be of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half, in linear dimension, of each part of any matter so illustrated; (2) The illustration be one-sided; and...

  4. On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1987-01-01

    Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results......Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...

  5. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  6. Dynamic Programming Foundations and Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Sniedovich, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on the modeling and solution of deterministic multistage decision problems, this book looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving optimization method. With over 400 useful references, this edition discusses the dynamic programming analysis of a problem, illustrates the rationale behind this analysis, and clarifies the theoretical grounds that justify the rationale. It also explains the meaning and role of the concept of state in dynamic programming, examines the purpose and function of the principle of optimality, and outlines solution strategies for problems defiant of conventi

  7. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  8. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The fullness of empathy: reflections and illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, S M

    1995-01-01

    Seven core values are said to undergird the profession of occupational therapy, with empathy serving as a hallmark of one of those values-personal dignity. This inquiry explores the meaning of empathy within a practice that holds occupation at its center. The literature on empathy in both philosophy and the behavioral sciences yields cogent thoughts about the fullness of empathy and its characteristics actions. The Healing Heart, the biography of a pioneer therapist, Ora Ruggles, shows the manner in which occupational therapists can be empathic in their practice. These reflections and illustrations serve to sharpen the vision of occupational therapists as persons who reach for both the hands and the hearts of others.

  10. Chemical constituents from Aspidosperma illustre (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Lara F.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino, E-mail: curcino@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LCQ/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    A new natural product oleanane-type triterpene, olean-12-ene-11{alpha}-methoxy-3{beta}-acetate (10) was isolated from Aspidosperma illustre, together with {beta}-amyrin (3), lupeol (4), {beta}-amyrin acetate (5), lupeol acetate (6), olean-12-ene-28-hydroxy-3{alpha}-tetradecanoate (7), olean-12-ene-28-carboxy-3{alpha}-hexadecanoate (8), ursolic acid (9) triterpenes, and two monoterpenic indole alkaloids, b-yoimbine (1) and 1,2-dehydroaspidospermidine (2). These compounds were characterized on their spectral data basis, mainly one- ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, APT) and two-dimensional ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H-COSY, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}HNOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and mass spectra, involving also comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  11. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  12. Labeling of Anti-MUC-1 Binding Single Chain Fv Fragments to Surface Modified Upconversion Nanoparticles for an Initial in Vivo Molecular Imaging Proof of Principle Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Haase

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo optical Imaging is an inexpensive and highly sensitive modality to investigate and follow up diseases like breast cancer. However, fluorescence labels and specific tracers are still works in progress to bring this promising modality into the clinical day-to-day use. In this study an anti-MUC-1 binding single-chain antibody fragment was screened, produced and afterwards labeled with newly designed and surface modified NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles as fluorescence reporter constructs. The MUC-1 binding of the conjugate was examined in vitro and in vivo using modified state-of-the-art small animal Imaging equipment. Binding of the newly generated upconversion nanoparticle based probe to MUC-1 positive cells was clearly shown via laser scanning microscopy and in an initial proof of principal small animal optical imaging approach.

  13. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annual financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; for establishing... preparation of reliable financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in... accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and financial statements...

  15. Real Options: Examples and Principles of Valuation and Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); L. Trigeorgis (Lenos)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper illustrates the use of real options and game theory principles to value prototypical investment projects and capture important competitive/strategic dimensions in a step-by-step analysis of investment decisions (options) under uncertainty. It first illustrates the application o

  16. Real-time sentinel lymph node biopsy guidance using combined ultrasound, photoacoustic, fluorescence imaging: in vivo proof-of-principle and validation with nodal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeeun; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hak Jong; Kim, Haemin; Wilson, Brian C.; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Precise sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification is crucial not only for accurate diagnosis of micro-metastases at an early stage of cancer progression but also for reducing the number of SLN biopsies (SLNB) to minimize their severe side effects. Furthermore, it is desirable that an SLNB guidance should be as safe as possible in routine clinical use. Although there are currently various SLNB guidance methods for pre-operative or intra-operative assessment, none are ideal. We propose a real-time SLNB guidance method using contrast-enhanced tri-modal images (i.e., ultrasound, photoacoustic, and fluorescence) acquired by a recently developed hand-held tri-modal probe. The major advantage of tri-modal imaging is demonstrated here through an in vivo study of the technically-difficult case of nodal obstruction that frequently leads to false-negative results in patients. The results in a tumor model in rabbits and normal controls showed that tri-modal imaging is capable of clearly identifying obstructed SLNs and of indicating their metastatic involvement. Based on these findings, we propose an SLNB protocol to help surgeons take full advantage of the complementary information obtained from tri-modal imaging, including for pre-operative localization, intra-operative biopsy guidance and post-operative analysis. PMID:28327582

  17. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  18. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  19. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  20. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  1. Practical opto-electronics an illustrated guide for the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how to create opto-electronic systems in a most efficient way, avoiding typical mistakes. It covers light detection techniques, imaging, interferometry, spectroscopy, modulation-demodulation, heterodyning, beam steering, and many other topics common to laboratory applications. The focus is made on self-explanatory figures rather than on words. The book guides the reader through the entire process of creating problem-specific opto-electronic systems, starting from optical source, through beam transportation optical arrangement, to photodetector and data acquisition system. The relevant basics of beam propagation and computer-based raytracing routines are also explained, and sample codes are listed. the book teaches important know-how and practical tricks that are never disclosed in scientific publications.  The book can become the reader's personal adviser in the world of opto-electronics and navigator in the ocean of the market of optical components and systems. Succinct, well-illustrate...

  2. Spinal gout: A review with case illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgafy, Hossein; Liu, Xiaochen; Herron, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize clinical presentations and treatment options of spinal gout in the literature from 2000 to 2014, and present theories for possible mechanism of spinal gout formation. METHODS The authors reviewed 68 published cases of spinal gout, which were collected by searching “spinal gout” on PubMed from 2000 to 2014. The data were analyzed for clinical features, anatomical location of spinal gout, laboratory studies, imaging studies, and treatment choices. RESULTS Of the 68 patients reviewed, the most common clinical presentation was back or neck pain in 69.1% of patients. The most common laboratory study was elevated uric acid levels in 66.2% of patients. The most common diagnostic image finding was hypointense lesion of the gout tophi on the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan. The most common surgical treatment performed was a laminectomy in 51.5% and non-surgical treatment was performed in 29.4% of patients. CONCLUSION Spinal gout most commonly present as back or neck pain with majority of reported patients with elevated uric acid. The diagnosis of spinal gout is confirmed with the presence of negatively birefringent monosodium urate crystals in tissue. Treatment for spinal gout involves medication for the reduction of uric acid level and surgery if patient symptoms failed to respond to medical treatment. PMID:27900275

  3. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  4. American Illustration, 1890-1925: Romance, Adventure, & Suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Judy L.

    This book explores the popularity of American illustration from the late 1800s through the 1920s. Illustrated books, periodicals, the public consumption of illustrations, and various themes of illustration are discussed. Themes include: (1) "The Smart Set"; (2) "The Masses"; (3) "The Domestic Scene"; (4) "Town and Country"; (5) "Let Me Call You…

  5. Professional representation and the free-lance medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, K N; Daugherty, J

    1994-01-01

    We researched factors related to the success or failure in working relationships between free-lance medical illustrators and artist's representatives. In the fall of 1992, surveys were mailed to 230 medical illustrators; 105 (46%) completed surveys were returned. Respondents were divided into three categories: 1) medical illustrators currently represented, 2) medical illustrators previously represented, and 3) medical illustrators who had never been represented. Comparisons made among illustrators from the three groups included business practices, clientele, experience, and self-promotion techniques. These comparisons revealed notable differences and similarities between the three groups and were subsequently analyzed to identify the characteristics of medical illustrators who would benefit from professional representation.

  6. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part I: theoretical, historical, and contemporary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2011-10-01

    The pioneering work performed in the social sciences on diffusion of innovation can be applied to medical imaging and shed valuable insights as to how innovation is analyzed and adopted within the population of end-users. Successful innovation must take into account unique stakeholder differences, changes in communication and social interactions, and shifting priorities in market economics. The dramatic changes currently underway in current medical imaging practice provides unique innovation opportunities to those individuals and companies which can utilize this knowledge and effect change in objective and reproducible means. Successful innovation should rely upon data-driven objective analysis, which can scientifically validate the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the innovation, when compared with the idea or technology it supercedes.

  7. William Cheselden: anatomist, surgeon, and medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M A

    1999-11-01

    William Cheselden was Great Britain's foremost surgeon/scientist in the first half of the 18th century. Cheselden directly challenged the Company of Barber-Surgeons' exclusive right to control dissection in London by being the first to conduct a regular series of anatomy lectures and demonstrations outside of the Company's Hall. He incorporated his lecture syllabus into a handbook of anatomy, The Anatomy of the Humane Body, which was used by students for nearly 100 years. Cheselden also wrote the text and drew the illustrations for a majestic atlas of comparative osteology, the Osteographia, or the Anatomy of the Bones. Cheselden used his superior knowledge of anatomy to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with perineal lithotomy, one of the few operations possible in his era. Sagacious and pragmatic, Cheselden recognized that the enlightened practice of surgery beginning to take root in 18th-century London could flourish only under an autonomous body of surgeons. Cheselden used his personal funds and political skills to urge Parliament to pass legislation for the dissolution of the combined Company of Barber-Surgeons and the establishment of separate and distinct Surgeons' and Barbers' Companies. After disjoinder of the two groups on May 2, 1745, Cheselden served as one of the Wardens of the new Company of Surgeons--a predecessor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. In 1746, Cheselden, who helped design the first Surgeons' Hall, served as the Company's Master.

  8. Illustration of Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Saturn V launch vehicle with callouts of the major components. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle developed in the United States. It was a three stage rocket, 363 feet in height, used for sending American astronauts to the moon and for placing the Skylab in Earth orbit. The Saturn V was designed to perform Earth orbital missions through the use of the first two stages, while all three stages were used for lunar expeditions. The S-IC stage (first stage) was powered by five F- engines, which burned kerosene and liquid oxygen to produce more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust. The S-II (second) stage was powered by five J-2 engines, that burned liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and produced 1,150,000 pounds thrust. The S-IVB (third) stage used one J-2 engine, producing 230,000 pounds of thrust, with a re-start capability. The Marshall Space Flight Center and its contractors designed, developed, and assembled the Saturn V launch vehicle stages.

  9. An illustration of whole systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Kanwal; Carson, Ewart; Cramp, Derek

    2006-08-01

    The complexity of policy-making in the NHS is such that systemic, holistic thinking is needed if the current government's plans are to be realized. This paper describes systems thinking and illustrates its value in understanding the complexity of the diabetes National Service Framework (NSF); its role in identifying problems and barriers previously not predicted; and in reaching conclusions as to how it should be implemented. The approach adopted makes use of soft systems methodology (SSM) devised by Peter Checkland. This analysis reveals issues relating to human communication, information provision and resource allocation needing to be addressed. From this, desirable and feasible changes are explored as means of achieving a more effective NSF, examining possible changes from technical, organizational, economic and cultural perspectives. As well as testing current health policies and plans, SSM can be used to test the feasibility of new health policies. This is achieved by providing a greater understanding and appreciation of what is happening in the real world and how people work. Soft systems thinking is the best approach, given the complexity of health care. It is a flexible, cost-effective solution, which should be a prerequisite before any new health policy is launched.

  10. User-friendly imaging algorithms for interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Thiébaut, Éric; Duvert, Gilles; Vannier, Martin; Garcia, Paulo; Mella, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    OPTICON currently supports a Joint Research Activity (JRA) dedicated to providing easy to use image reconstruction algorithms for optical/IR interferometric data. This JRA aims to provide state-of-the-art image reconstruction methods with a common interface and comprehensive documentation to the community. These tools will provide the capability to compare the results of using different settings and algorithms in a consistent and unified way. The JRA is also providing tutorials and sample datasets to introduce the principles of image reconstruction and illustrate how to use the software products. We describe the design of the imaging tools, in particular the interface between the graphical user interface and the image reconstruction algorithms, and summarise the current status of their implementation.

  11. Comparison of glomerular activity patterns by fMRI and wide-field calcium imaging: Implications for principles underlying odor mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Rebello, Michelle R; Herman, Peter; Papademetris, Xenophon; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-02-01

    Functional imaging signals arise from distinct metabolic and hemodynamic events at the neuropil, but how these processes are influenced by pre- and post-synaptic activities need to be understood for quantitative interpretation of stimulus-evoked mapping data. The olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli, spherical neuropil regions with well-defined neuronal circuitry, can provide insights into this issue. Optical calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye imaging (OICa(2+)) reflects dynamics of pre-synaptic input to glomeruli, whereas high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using deoxyhemoglobin contrast reveals neuropil function within the glomerular layer where both pre- and post-synaptic activities contribute. We imaged odor-specific activity patterns of the dorsal OB in the same anesthetized rats with fMRI and OICa(2+) and then co-registered the respective maps to compare patterns in the same space. Maps by each modality were very reproducible as trial-to-trial patterns for a given odor, overlapping by ~80%. Maps evoked by ethyl butyrate and methyl valerate for a given modality overlapped by ~80%, suggesting activation of similar dorsal glomerular networks by these odors. Comparison of maps generated by both methods for a given odor showed ~70% overlap, indicating similar odor-specific maps by each method. These results suggest that odor-specific glomerular patterns by high-resolution fMRI primarily tracks pre-synaptic input to the OB. Thus combining OICa(2+) and fMRI lays the framework for studies of OB processing over a range of spatiotemporal scales, where OICa(2+) can feature the fast dynamics of dorsal glomerular clusters and fMRI can map the entire glomerular sheet in the OB.

  12. Illustrating Latin American Geology With Free Geospatial Data Obtained Through the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, M. J.; Cole, L.; Estep, T.; Collins, L.; Travers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Geoscience educators can use images from global geospatial data archives to illustrate the geology of any part of the world. For example, Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) Geosciences faculty and students used free geospatial data obtained through the internet to prepare illustrations for a "Geology for Teachers" course to be taught in Costa Rica during Summer 2007. MTSU geoscientists downloaded data with the freeware Multi-protocol Geoinformation Client (MPGC) developed by the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain"). MTSU geoscientists used MPGC to download images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory World Map Service and the Integrated Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) European Data Server. These images were derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mapping (SRTM), Blue Marble Next Generation (BMNG), Defense Meteorological Satellite Mapping (DMSP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. MTSU geoscientists also downloaded SRTM data through the U.S. Geological Survey Seamless Data Distribution System, and they downloaded bathymetry through the University of California, San Diego's Satellite Geodesy web site. After downloading the data, MTSU geoscientists used Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) software to prepare the illustrations. Features visible on illustrations include the geomorphic regions of Costa Rica, the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica's Pacific Coast, faults, active volcanoes and human settlements. With data downloaded through MPGC and the other internet data sources listed above, geoscientists can illustrate the geology of any part of Latin America.

  13. Politeness Principle and Business Correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅婷

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the process of global economy, the international economic cooperation and exchanges are increasing. It is impossible that we meet al our trading partners face to face, a courteous and descent business letter can help to build a favorable business image for the company and do business better. This paper aims to analyze the politeness principle make people understand the importance of politeness in business letters better.

  14. MRI is unable to illustrate the absorption time of the absorbable TIGR mesh in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Stina; Andresen, Kristoffer; Møller, Jakob M;

    2015-01-01

    3 years in sheep. The patient was therefore followed for 3 years by annual magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) to illustrate the absorption time in humans. During follow-up, the thickness of the absorbable mesh slightly decreased, and at the last clinical examination, the patient was without...... a recurrence. However, MRI failed to illustrate absorption of the TIGR mesh, perhaps since new connective tissue and the mesh material had the same appearance on the images. In conclusion, MRI was unable to confirm an absorption time of 3 years for the TIGR mesh, and further studies are needed to investigate...

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the head. Kernspintomographie des Kopfes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D. (Sankt-Vincenz-Krankenhaus, Paderborn (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Radiologie); Higer, H.P. (Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.)); Lukas, P. (Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie); Sehlen, S. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherap

    1990-01-01

    This pocket book is a clearly arranged and amply illustrated textbook presenting practice-oriented information for readers who seek a concise but nevertheless complete introduction to the complex subject: The technical aspects and physical principles are explained, and a catalogue of reference data and principles for image interpretation is given. The specific information refers to the clinical neuroanatomy and neuropathology of the most frequent lesions (intracranial tumors; cerebrovascular, inflammatory and degenerative lesions; hydrocephalus, multiple sclerosis, traumata, post-surgical changes, radiation effects). There also is a chapter discussing neuropediatric lesions. (orig.) With 257 ill. covering 401 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. Methods We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Key Results and Conclusions Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the

  17. ‘Where is the Prince?’ Unlocking Doré’s Illustration of Perrault’s Cinderella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sitzia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to consider illustrations as “intersemiotic translation” from words into images. Using this methodology, illustrations give particular insights into the reception and interpretation of Perrault’s fairy tales in a specific cultural, social and political environment. The question then becomes what do Doré’s illustrations say about the reception of Perrault’s fairy tales in 19th‐century France?

  18. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  19. 引入SMART原则在超声影像临床教学中的运用与效果分析%SMART principle introduced in ultrasonic imaging in clinical teaching and effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杨; 朱小虎; 查晓霞; 王艳; 周成香; 游岚岚; 周江英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨SMART原则在医学影像专业实习带教中的应用效果。方法选取2012至2014年进入我院超声科实习的影像专业本科学生50人为研究对象,随机分为两组各25人,对照组学生采用传统带教方法,观察组学生采用“SMART”原则进行带教。所有学生在实习结束后分别进行理论及操作考核,并且采用问卷调查形式调查学生对带教方法的满意度。结果理论知识、操作技能及总成绩比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组学生对带教方法的满意度高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采用SMART原则带教具有目标清晰、可量化、切实可行等优点,可以提升实习生对知识点的掌握,提高实习生对带教方法的满意度。%Objective Discussion on the application effect of SMART principle in the practice teaching of medical imaging specialty. Methods Select from 2012 to 2014 to enter our hospital ultrasound department of the image of professional undergraduate students for the study of 50 subjects. Randomly divided into two groups of 25 people, the control group of students using the traditional teaching methods, the observation group of students using the "SMART" principle of teaching. The researcher conducted a theoretical and operational assessment of all students at the end of the internship. And the researchers used a questionnaire survey to investigate students' satisfaction with teaching methods. Results Theoretical knowledge, operation skills and total score were statistically significant (P<0.05). The degree of satisfaction of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The SMART principle is used to teach the teaching with the advantages of clear objective, measurable, practical and so on. It can enhance the students' knowledge and improve the degree of satisfaction with teaching methods.

  20. Jefferson fracture in a child--illustrative case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Marcus C; Kapser, Alexandra; Weinzierl, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    In adults, atlas burst fractures (Jefferson fractures) are not uncommon. In the pediatric population, they are extremely rare, and only few cases have been reported so far. They all showed a highly consistent clinical presentation with rare neurological deficits as well as recovery with full function without any surgical intervention. We describe a case of a Jefferson fracture in a 7.5-year-old-boy after falling onto the top of his head, presenting solely with slight neck pain. The initial radiological characteristics are presented on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT); the bony bridging and fusion of the fracture sites are demonstrated on CT during the course of the healing. The patient was placed in a rigid cervical collar, and his physical examination results remained normal according to age. Complete fusion of both fracture sites was seen on the third follow-up 6.5 months after presentation. In this rare case of a Jefferson fracture in a child monitored by radiological imaging techniques, important aspects of conservatively treated atlas burst fractures are illustrated. It underlines their benign character and favorable outcome with full functional recovery without any surgical intervention.

  1. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT USING IMAGE FUSION AND IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-01-01

    Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Digital image enhancement techniques provide a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images. Appropriate choice of such techniques is greatly influenced by the imaging modality, task at hand and viewing conditions. This paper will provide a combination of two concepts, image fusion by DWT and digital image processing techniques. The e...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  3. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FOURTH CLASS GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the illustrations found in five different Geography textbooks in Romania. The analysis is based on several criteria: number, size, clarity, pedagogical usefulness. The following conclusions have been drawn: the illustrations are numerous; most of the illustrations are too small and unclear to be efficiently used in the teaching activity; the purpose of some materials is purely illustrative; some illustrations are overcharged with details, which prevent children from understanding them. Authors and publishing houses are advised to choose the illustrations in the fourth class Geography textbooks more carefully.

  5. Multislice CT: technical principles and new trends in medical imaging and radiotherapy; Tomodensitometrie multicoupe principes techniques, nouvelles applications en imagerie et en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceugnart, L.; Taieb, S. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Dept. d' Imagerie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2005-06-15

    Development and availability of multislice CT modifies quickly procedures for diagnostic and pre-therapeutic explorations. This new technology provides many advantages such as: to reduce time of examination and to facilitate exploration of larger anatomical volumes, to reduce partial volume effects, to enhance the ratio signal/noise, to improve intravascular concentration of contrast product and then to better identify arterial or venous phases. Use of multislice CT for exploration with respiratory gating is also discussed. On the other hand, multislice CT requires new requirements as medical time occupation and handling of important number of images. Active collaboration between radiologists and radiation oncologists is needed to define new acquisition modalities and practical ways of co-interpretation. (authors)0.

  6. "Can There Be a Full Moon at Daytime?" Young Students Making Sense of Illustrations of the Lunar Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Karlsson, Karl Göran; Ottosson, Torgny

    2017-01-01

    Teaching and learning situations nowadays typically build on richly illustrated material or multimodal presentations. Under these circumstances, the transparency of images and models used for explaining various phenomena becomes central. The present study deals with 20 Swedish children, 9-12 years old, discussing an illustration meant to show the…

  7. Diffractive-imaging-based optical image encryption with simplified decryption from single diffraction pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Qiong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  8. Phidippides cardiomyopathy: a review and case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivax, Justin E; McCullough, Peter A

    2012-02-01

    Phidippides was a Greek messenger who experienced sudden death after running more than 175 miles in two days. In today's world, marathon running and other endurance sports are becoming more popular and raising concern about sudden deaths at these events. Once etiologies such has hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, anomalous coronary arteries, and coronary atherosclerosis have been excluded, there is now an additional consideration termed Phidippides cardiomyopathy. Because endurance sports call for a sustained increase in cardiac output for several hours, the heart is put into a state of volume overload. It has been shown that approximately one-third of marathon runners experience dilation of the right atrium and ventricle, have elevations of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides, and in a smaller fraction later develop small patches of cardiac fibrosis that are the likely substrate for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as the diagnostic test of choice for this condition. This review and case report summarizes the key features of this newly appreciated disorder.

  9. 基于共线原理的全景影像真彩色点云生成算法%The true-color point-cloud algorithm based on collinear principle and panoramic image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋杨; 曾凡洋; 李长辉; 钟若飞

    2015-01-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor .Cameras can provide texture ,color ,and other information of the corresponding object .Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and conducive to the visualization ,classification and modeling of point-cloud .Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems(MMS) , the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same . A method is proposed to generate the color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud .The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud are based on the collinear principle of three points .The experimental results show the proposed algorithm and formula are correct .%常规激光点云数据通过将激光点云与彩色影像进行融合,将影像所富含的色彩信息赋给相应的激光点云、可形成一种“纹理丰富、颜色直观、位置准确”的真彩色点云成果,不同类型相机拍摄得到的影像对激光点云赋彩色的原理和过程均不相同。文中基于移动测量系统及360°全景影像的测绘高新技术,研究全景相机拍摄的影像与激光点云的匹配、融合,提出一种基于共线原理的由全景影像给激光点云赋彩色的算法。算法充分利用全景影像360°可视以及激光点云位置精确的特点,经实验验证算法推导正确,生成的真彩色点云色彩纹理细致,空间位置准确。

  10. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy.

  11. The Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI) Gold Awards 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IMI Awards celebrate the medical illustration profession, bringing together the disciplines of clinical photography, medical art, illustration, graphic design and video within healthcare. Here are the Gold Award winning entries for 2016.

  12. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS in 2014 (copyright 2013, which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  13. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyon Lee

    2016-01-01

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  14. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyon Lee

    2017-01-01

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  15. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Yon [Dept. of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Cancer Institute, Breast Imaging Center, New York (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  16. Supersonic Shear Wave Imaging to Assess Arterial Nonlinear Behavior and Anisotropy: Proof of Principle via Ex Vivo Testing of the Horse Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shcherbakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI is a noninvasive, ultrasound-based technique to quantify the mechanical properties of bulk tissues by measuring the propagation speed of shear waves (SW induced in the tissue with an ultrasound transducer. The technique has been successfully validated in liver and breast (tumor diagnostics and is potentially useful for the assessment of the stiffness of arteries. However, SW propagation in arteries is subjected to different wave phenomena potentially affecting the measurement accuracy. Therefore, we assessed SSI in a less complex ex vivo setup, that is, a thick-walled and rectangular slab of an excised equine aorta. Dynamic uniaxial mechanical testing was performed during the SSI measurements, to dispose of a reference material assessment. An ultrasound probe was fixed in an angle position controller with respect to the tissue to investigate the effect of arterial anisotropy on SSI results. Results indicated that SSI was able to pick up stretch-induced stiffening of the aorta. SW velocities were significantly higher along the specimen's circumferential direction than in the axial direction, consistent with the circumferential orientation of collagen fibers. Hence, we established a first step in studying SW propagation in anisotropic tissues to gain more insight into the feasibility of SSI-based measurements in arteries.

  17. Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the life and work of the artist, Winslow Homer, a 19th century painter and illustrator. Focuses on the exhibition, "Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888." Includes the itinerary for the exhibition and examples of his illustrations. (CMK)

  18. [Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  19. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  20. Billgren versus Edelfelt : The Illustrations for J. L. Runeberg's Fanrik Stals sagner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    Albert Edelfelt's Illustrations for Runeberg's Fanrik Stals sagner from 1900 are without doubt the best known of all made for this epic narrative. Nevertheless, in 2004, Swedish artist Ernst Billgren took up the challenge of creating a new image of the Tales of Ensign Stal. Edelfelt works in a narra

  1. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of employing 2D drawing tools, such as Adobe Illustrator, the students define their tessellation in mathematical formulas, using the Mathematica software. This procedure enables them to understand the mathematical principles on which graphical tools, such as Illustrator are built upon. But we do not stop at a digital representation of their tessellation design we continue to cut their tessellations in Perspex. It moves the abstract concepts of math into the real world, so that the students can experience them directly, which provides a tremendous reward to the students.

  2. Instrumentation challenges in multi-modality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasse, D., E-mail: david.brasse@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Boisson, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-11

    Based on different physical principles, imaging procedures currently used in both clinical and preclinical applications present different performance that allow researchers to achieve a large number of studies. However, the relevance of obtaining a maximum of information relating to the same subject is undeniable. The last two decades have thus seen the advent of a full-fledged research axis, the multimodal in vivo imaging. Whether from an instrumentation point of view, for medical research or the development of new probes, all these research works illustrate the growing interest of the scientific community for multimodal imaging, which can be approached with different backgrounds and perspectives from engineers to end-users point of views. In the present review, we discuss the multimodal imaging concept, which focuses not only on PET/CT and PET/MRI instrumentation but also on recent investigations of what could become a possible future in the field.

  3. Darwin's Error: Using the Story of Pangenesis to Illustrate Aspects of Nature of Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of aspects of the nature of science that can be illustrated by considering the development of pangenesis, a principle proposed by Charles Darwin to describe the rules of inheritance, explain the source of new variation, and solve other natural history puzzles. Pangenesis--although false--can be used to illustrate…

  4. Darwin's Error: Using the Story of Pangenesis to Illustrate Aspects of Nature of Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of aspects of the nature of science that can be illustrated by considering the development of pangenesis, a principle proposed by Charles Darwin to describe the rules of inheritance, explain the source of new variation, and solve other natural history puzzles. Pangenesis--although false--can be used to illustrate…

  5. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively.

  6. Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, Second Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Smardon

    2014-01-01

    This is a book review of Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, second edition, by Paul Keddy. This review focuses on the book’s content as it relates to wetland sustainability for both science and management. Besides overall comments, comparisons are made with the first edition of the book and then very specific chapter-by-chapter relationships to wetland sustainability are made to illustrate specific applications toward wetland sustainability.

  7. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  8. Digital Signal Processing for Medical Imaging Using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2013-01-01

    This book describes medical imaging systems, such as X-ray, Computed tomography, MRI, etc. from the point of view of digital signal processing. Readers will see techniques applied to medical imaging such as Radon transformation, image reconstruction, image rendering, image enhancement and restoration, and more. This book also outlines the physics behind medical imaging required to understand the techniques being described. The presentation is designed to be accessible to beginners who are doing research in DSP for medical imaging. Matlab programs and illustrations are used wherever possible to reinforce the concepts being discussed.  ·         Acts as a “starter kit” for beginners doing research in DSP for medical imaging; ·         Uses Matlab programs and illustrations throughout to make content accessible, particularly with techniques such as Radon transformation and image rendering; ·         Includes discussion of the basic principles behind the various medical imaging tec...

  9. [Illustrations of visceral referred pain. "Head-less" Head's zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, C; Beissner, F

    2011-04-01

    Reviewing anatomical, physiological and neurological standard literature for illustrations of referred visceral pain only one type of illustration can frequently be found, which is referred to as Treves and Keith. In fact, the original illustration as a model for most current pictures stems from the German edition of Sir Frederick Treves' famous book "Surgical Applied Anatomy" from 1914, which was reillustrated for didactical reasons for the German readership. While neither Treves and Keith nor the German illustrator Otto Kleinschmidt ever published any work on referred pain this illustration must have been adapted or copied from older sources by the illustrator. Therefore the comprehensive systematic original works before 1914 were reviewed, namely those of Sir Henry Head and Sir James Mackenzie. Due to the name of the phenomenon in the German literature of Head's zones, the illustrations were expected to be based mainly on Head's work. However, a comparison of all available illustrations led to the conclusion that Kleinschmidt chiefly used information from Mackenzie as a model for his illustration. Due to the inexact reproduction of Mackenzie's work by the illustrator some important features were lost that had been reported by the original authors. These include the phenomenon of Head's maximum points, which nowadays has fallen into oblivion.Therefore current charts, based on the illustration by Kleinschmidt from 1914, lack experimental evidence and appear to be a simplification of the observational results of both Head's and Mackenzie's original systematic works.

  10. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  11. Evaluation principles in Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Miccoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of the world heritage. Landscape projects play a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. The assessment of a project plays a dual role: it is a procedure to pass judgements on both “values” and “choices”. From a strictly economic perspective, the community’s appreciation of Landscape Projects may be ascertained through its “total economic value”. The value of a Landscape Project may be ascertained also through a multidimensional approach, based on the analysis of different project attributes whose outcome is calculated in non-monetary terms. This paper illustrates the cultural foundations and theoretical-methodological principles to assess Landscape Projects.

  12. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-05-19

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  13. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  14. [Introduction to magnetic resonance for clinical use. Physical principles and instrumentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canese, R; Podo, F

    1994-01-01

    The recent technological developments in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have made it possible to extend the use of this methodology to the formation of body images (MRI), as well as to the in vivo detection of metabolites in tissues and organs, by means of localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After presenting a brief semi-classical introduction to the NMR phenomenon, this article illustrates the principles of MRI, starting from phase encoding to the most commonly used pulse sequences. The main techniques of localized MRS are then introduced, with particular attention to their major advantages and limitations. The last session is devoted to the schematic description of a system for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

  15. Defending the beauty of the Invariance Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Customary stability analysis methods for nonlinear nonautonomous systems seem to require a strict condition of uniform continuity. Although extensions of LaSalle's Invariance Principle to nonautonomous systems that mitigate this condition have been available for a long time, they have remained surprisingly unknown or open to misinterpretations. The large scope of the Principle might have misled the prospective users and its application to Control problems has been received with amazing yet clear uneasiness. Counterexamples have been used in order to claim that the Invariance Principle cannot be applied to nonlinear nonautonomous systems. Because the original formulation of the Invariance Principle still imposes conditions that are not necessarily needed, this paper presents a new Invariance Principle that further mitigates previous conditions and thus further expands the scope of stability analysis. A brief comparative review of various alternatives to stability analysis of nonautonomous nonlinear systems and their implications is also presented in order to illustrate that thorough analysis of same examples may actually confirm the efficiency of the Invariance Principle approach when dealing with stability of nonautonomous nonlinear systems problems that may look difficult or even unsolvable otherwise.

  16. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickert Marc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  17. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  18. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Paul; Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and...

  19. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  20. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  1. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  2. [A review of Dyson optical system in the measure of infrared imaging spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Cui, Ji-cheng; Qi, Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult for the traditional infrared imaging spectrometers to satisfy the requirement of high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and small size simultaneously. The new infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers based on Dyson concentric optical configuration have the advantages of high aperture, high SNR, simpleness small volume and low weight. The Dyson imaging spectrometers can achieve high SNR, which is difficult for the traditional imaging spectrometers for infrared imaging spectrum. The present review introduces the beginning, the development and the present research of the Dyson imaging spectrometers, especially illustrates the principle of Dyson concentric spectrometer, difficulty during its manufacture and the application in the high-performance infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers, providing a reference for the high-performance research of infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers.

  3. Imaging in drug discovery and early clinical trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudin, M

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Imaging modalities: principles and information content Tobias Schaeffter ... 15 Magnetic resonance and fluorescence based molecular imaging technologies David...

  4. [Technical principles of adaptive optics in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, J L; Domdei, N; Holz, F G; Harmening, W M

    2017-02-13

    During the last 25 years ophthalmic imaging has undergone a revolution. This review gives an overview of the possibilities of adaptive optics (AO) for ophthalmic imaging technologies and their development and illustrates that the role of ophthalmic imaging changed from the documentation of obvious abnormalities to the detection of microscopic yet significant conspicuities. This enables earlier and more precise diagnoses. The implementation of AO for imaging systems like fundus cameras, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography has gained in importance. In recent years a couple of companies started developing commercially available AO systems, thus, indicating a future use in clinical routine.

  5. Thinning Algorithm Based on Geomatric Principle Axis and Hough Transform for UWB SAR Binary Edge Image%基于几何主轴和Hough变换的超宽带SAR二值边缘图像细化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦春雨; 常文革

    2013-01-01

    Thinning algorithm is a vital process in road extraction.Good thinning results can provide higher efficiency and accuracy in connecting the line segments.In this article,an efficient method of thinning binary edges of UWB SAR image,which is different from traditional morphlogical thinning algorithms,is presented.Combined the theory of geometric principle axis and Hough transform,the proposed method improves the integrity of the edges after thinning while avoiding the spurs and also declines errors while calculating direction of region in thinning.It also offers a good feature of line segments for line segment connecting.%从经典形态学细化方法研究出发,结合超宽带SAR图像特点和超宽带SAR图像道路提取的应用背景,提出了一种基于几何主轴和Hough变换的超宽带SAR图像边缘细化方法.该方法克服了经典形态学细化方法边缘细化中容易出现的毛刺现象和单纯Hough变换对于区域方向判定的误差,提高了道路边缘细化的完整性.其细化后的线基元形态良好,有利于线基元连接成完整的道路.

  6. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  7. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  8. Principles of snow hydrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeWalle, David R; Rango, Albert

    2008-01-01

    ... Hydrology describes the factors that control the accumulation, melting, and runoff of water from seasonal snowpacks over the surface of the earth. The book addresses not only the basic principles governing snow in the hydrologic cycle, but also the latest applications of remote sensing, and principles applicable to modelling streamflow from snowmelt across lar...

  9. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  10. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  11. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  12. Image registration

    CERN Document Server

    Goshtasby, A Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a thorough and detailed guide to image registration, outlining the principles and reviewing state-of-the-art tools and methods. The book begins by identifying the components of a general image registration system, and then describes the design of each component using various image analysis tools. The text reviews a vast array of tools and methods, not only describing the principles behind each tool and method, but also measuring and comparing their performances using synthetic and real data. Features: discusses similarity/dissimilarity measures, point detectors, feature extr

  13. Dynamic sealing principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  14. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  15. Software citation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfon M. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  16. Maximum-entropy principle as Galerkin modelling paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Bernd R.; Niven, Robert K.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2012-11-01

    We show how the empirical Galerkin method, leading e.g. to POD models, can be derived from maximum-entropy principles building on Noack & Niven 2012 JFM. In particular, principles are proposed (1) for the Galerkin expansion, (2) for the Galerkin system identification, and (3) for the probability distribution of the attractor. Examples will illustrate the advantages of the entropic modelling paradigm. Partially supported by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and an ADFA/UNSW Visiting Fellowship.

  17. Automatic Generation of Stippling Illustrations from two Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Arroyo

    2012-05-01

    This tool needs almost no user interaction. The user simply has to align both photographs and indicate the level of detail according to the distance. The rest is decided by our software. Whereas a professional illustrator needs more than 20 hours to finish a similar illustration, our software is able to do it in just few seconds.

  18. Making Visual Illustrations of Physics Accessible to Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Josiane Pereira; Mendes, Enicéia Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    The teaching of physics often involves the use of illustrations that complement and assist the understanding of a particular situation or physical phenomenon. Overall, the proper use of illustrations can maximize the learning and understanding of concepts and phenomena related to the teaching of science (physics, chemistry, biology) and mathematics.

  19. Becoming a Voice: A Conversation with George Littlechild, Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with George Littlechild, a Canadian Plains Cree artist, writer and illustrator who has created nearly 500 paintings that have been exhibited on several continents. Discusses his autobiographical "This Land is My Land" which is illustrated with his paintings and which won the Jane Addams Picture Book Award. (SG)

  20. 48 CFR 9905.501-60 - Illustration. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustration. 9905.501-60 Section 9905.501-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501-60 Illustration....

  1. Becoming a Voice: A Conversation with George Littlechild, Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with George Littlechild, a Canadian Plains Cree artist, writer and illustrator who has created nearly 500 paintings that have been exhibited on several continents. Discusses his autobiographical "This Land is My Land" which is illustrated with his paintings and which won the Jane Addams Picture Book Award. (SG)

  2. On image segmentation using information theoretic criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Aue, Alexander; 10.1214/11-AOS925

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation is a long-studied and important problem in image processing. Different solutions have been proposed, many of which follow the information theoretic paradigm. While these information theoretic segmentation methods often produce excellent empirical results, their theoretical properties are still largely unknown. The main goal of this paper is to conduct a rigorous theoretical study into the statistical consistency properties of such methods. To be more specific, this paper investigates if these methods can accurately recover the true number of segments together with their true boundaries in the image as the number of pixels tends to infinity. Our theoretical results show that both the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and the minimum description length (MDL) principle can be applied to derive statistically consistent segmentation methods, while the same is not true for the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Numerical experiments were conducted to illustrate and support our theoretical fin...

  3. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  4. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  5. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  6. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  7. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadpour, N. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. With 121 figs.

  8. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  9. GLOBAL MEASURE ON IMAGE CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigated approaches to supporting effective and efficient retrieval of image based on principle component analysis. First, it extracted the image content, texture and color. Gabor wavelet transforms were used to extract texture feature of the image and the average color was used to extract the color features. The principle component of the feature vector of image can be constructed. Content-based image retrieval was performed by comparing the feature vector of the query image with the projection feature vector of the image database on the principle component space of the query image. By this technique, it can reduce the dimensionality of feature vector, which in turn reduce the searching time.

  10. Medical imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1885. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modal...

  11. Beautiful Surfaces. Style and Substance in Florentius Schuyl's Illustrations for Descartes' Treatise on Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the Cartesian bête-machine is the invention of René Descartes (1596-1650) is rarely contested. Close examination of Descartes' texts proves that this is a concept founded not on the basis of his own writings, but a subsequent critical interpretation, which developed and began to dominate his work after his death. Descartes' Treatise on Man, published posthumously in two rival editions, Florentius Schuyl's Latin translation De Homine (1662), and Claude Clerselier's Traité de l'homme, has proved particularly problematic. The surviving manuscript copies of the Treatise on Man left no illustrations, leaving both editors the daunting task of producing a set of images to accompany and clarify the fragmented text. In this intriguing case, the images can be seen to have spoken louder than the text which they illustrated. This paper assesses Schuyl's choice to represent Descartes' Man in a highly stylized manner, without superimposing Clerselier's intentions onto De Homine.

  12. Bateman's principle and immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jens Rolff

    2002-01-01

    .... This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher...

  13. The Symmetry Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rosen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.

  14. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  15. Principles of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    This is the first monograph on nanomagnetism. It emphasizes general principles and mechanisms relevant to the understanding of the intriguing properties of nanomagnetic objects including thin films, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanodisks and nanorings.

  16. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. Principles Scientifiques, Principes Philosophiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Gaston Granger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A principle is a starting point of departure as well as a rule. In science principles are either alleged evident rules or generalizations of already accepted laws, or formal determinations for objects in a given domain. Thus two problems arise: first, does their nature have a conventional character? and sencond, what kind of truth is to be assigned to them. In philosophy principles are taken as a method of thinking as well as fundamental experiences. Even though they are points of departure, their true meaning is known only after a philosophical job is done. Thus, paradoxically enough, we can say that in both science and philosophy a principle is at the same time in the begining and in the end.

  18. Heisenberg's observability principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, JE

    2014-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper ‘Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations’ marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be ‘founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable’. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpr...

  19. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  1. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  2. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  3. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  4. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  5. Generalized uncertainty principles

    CERN Document Server

    Machluf, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...

  6. Useing Illustrator to Achieve Exquisite Illustration Design%利用Illustrator实现精美插画设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白君芬

    2013-01-01

    介绍了Illustrator软件的功能与特点,阐述了利用Illustrator进行插画设计的方法,并且给出了详细的绘制流程。实践证明,利用Illustrator可以快速、高效、高质量地设计出精美插画。%Describes the functions and features of Illustrator software, describes the use of Illustrator for illustration design ap-proach, and gives a detailed drawing processes. Practice has proved that the use of Illustrator you can quickly, efficiently and beau-tifully designed high-quality illustrations.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  8. Are you a researcher as well as a medical illustrator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David

    2013-12-01

    When we list the areas of practice for medical illustrators we always include research, but how involved in research are we? The aim of this activity is to encourage your professional development not just as a medical illustrator but your involvement with research whether that is undertaking your own research, undertaking evidence based practice (1) , working as part of a research team, advising researchers on the value of medical illustration or supporting a student undertaking a research project for their degree or post-graduate qualification.

  9. Extending the Extreme Physical Information to Universal Cognitive Models via a Confident Information First Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhao Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of extreme physical information (EPI can be used to derive many known laws and distributions in theoretical physics by extremizing the physical information loss K, i.e., the difference between the observed Fisher information I and the intrinsic information bound J of the physical phenomenon being measured. However, for complex cognitive systems of high dimensionality (e.g., human language processing and image recognition, the information bound J could be excessively larger than I (J ≫ I, due to insufficient observation, which would lead to serious over-fitting problems in the derivation of cognitive models. Moreover, there is a lack of an established exact invariance principle that gives rise to the bound information in universal cognitive systems. This limits the direct application of EPI. To narrow down the gap between I and J, in this paper, we propose a confident-information-first (CIF principle to lower the information bound J by preserving confident parameters and ruling out unreliable or noisy parameters in the probability density function being measured. The confidence of each parameter can be assessed by its contribution to the expected Fisher information distance between the physical phenomenon and its observations. In addition, given a specific parametric representation, this contribution can often be directly assessed by the Fisher information, which establishes a connection with the inverse variance of any unbiased estimate for the parameter via the Cramér–Rao bound. We then consider the dimensionality reduction in the parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. We show that the single-layer Boltzmann machine without hidden units (SBM can be derived using the CIF principle. An illustrative experiment is conducted to show how the CIF principle improves the density estimation performance.

  10. Atlas of PET/MR imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratib, Osman [University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland). Nuclear Medicine Division; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Beyer, Thomas (eds.) [General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    2013-08-01

    Numerous illustrated clinical cases in different oncology domains. Includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. Interactive version based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring the widest compatibility. Edited by three international opinion leaders/imaging experts in the field. This new project on PET/MR imaging in oncology includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. The interactive version of the atlas is based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring compatibility with any computer operating system as well as a dedicated version for Apple iPad and iPhone. The book opens with an introduction to the principles of hybrid imaging that pays particular attention to PET/MR imaging and standard PET/MR acquisition protocols. A wide range of illustrated clinical case reports are then presented. Each case study includes a short clinical history, findings, and teaching points, followed by illustrations, legends, and comments. The multimedia version of the book includes dynamic movies that allow the reader to browse through series of rotating 3D images (MIP or volume rendered), display blending between PET and MR, and dynamic visualization of 3D image volumes. The movies can be played either continuously or sequentially for better exploration of sets of images. The editors of this state-of-the-art publication are key opinion leaders in the field of multimodality imaging. Professor Osman Ratib (Geneva) and Professor Markus Schwaiger (Munich) were the first in Europe to initiate the clinical adoption of PET/MR imaging. Professor Thomas Beyer (Zurich) is an internationally renowned pioneering physicist in the field of hybrid imaging. Individual clinical cases presented in this book are co-authored by leading international radiologists and nuclear physicians experts in the use of PET and MRI.

  11. Sparse Bayesian learning in ISAR tomography imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wu-ge; WANG Hong-qiang; DENG Bin; WANG Rui-jun; QIN Yu-liang

    2015-01-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging can be regarded as a narrow-band version of the computer aided tomography (CT). The traditional CT imaging algorithms for ISAR, including the polar format algorithm (PFA) and the convolution back projection algorithm (CBP), usually suffer from the problem of the high sidelobe and the low resolution. The ISAR tomography image reconstruction within a sparse Bayesian framework is concerned. Firstly, the sparse ISAR tomography imaging model is established in light of the CT imaging theory. Then, by using the compressed sensing (CS) principle, a high resolution ISAR image can be achieved with limited number of pulses. Since the performance of existing CS-based ISAR imaging algorithms is sensitive to the user parameter, this makes the existing algorithms inconvenient to be used in practice. It is well known that the Bayesian formalism of recover algorithm named sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) acts as an effective tool in regression and classification, which uses an efficient expectation maximization procedure to estimate the necessary parameters, and retains a preferable property of thel0-norm diversity measure. Motivated by that, a fully automated ISAR tomography imaging algorithm based on SBL is proposed. Experimental results based on simulated and electromagnetic (EM) data illustrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing algorithms.

  12. When not every response to climate change is a good one: identifying principles for sustainable adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eriksen, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available to the need for sustainable adaptation strategies and measures that contribute to social justice and environmental integrity. This paper presents four normative principles to guide responses to climate change and illustrates the significance...

  13. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  14. Modern methods of image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetter, R. C.

    The author reviews the image restoration or reconstruction problem in its general setting. He first discusses linear methods for solving the problem of image deconvolution, i.e. the case in which the data are a convolution of a point-spread function and an underlying unblurred image. Next, non-linear methods are introduced in the context of Bayesian estimation, including maximum likelihood and maximum entropy methods. Then, the author discusses the role of language and information theory concepts for data compression and solving the inverse problem. The concept of algorithmic information content (AIC) is introduced and is shown to be crucial to achieving optimal data compression and optimized Bayesian priors for image reconstruction. The dependence of the AIC on the selection of language then suggests how efficient coordinate systems for the inverse problem may be selected. The author also introduced pixon-based image restoration and reconstruction methods. The relation between image AIC and the Bayesian incarnation of Occam's Razor is discussed, as well as the relation of multiresolution pixon languages and image fractal dimension. Also discussed is the relation of pixons to the role played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in statistical physics and how pixon-based image reconstruction provides a natural extension to the Akaike information criterion for maximum likelihood. The author presents practical applications of pixon-based Bayesian estimation to the restoration of astronomical images. He discusses the effects of noise, effects of finite sampling on resolution, and special problems associated with spatially correlated noise introduced by mosaicing. Comparisons to other methods demonstrate the significant improvements afforded by pixon-based methods and illustrate the science that such performance improvements allow.

  15. Physics with illustrative examples from medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Benedek, George B

    Physics: with illustrative examples from medicine and biology is a three-volume set of textbooks in introductory physics written at the calculus level and designed primarily for students with career objectives in the life sciences.

  16. A Simple Illustration for the Need of Multiple Comparison Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical adjustments to accommodate multiple comparisons are routinely covered in introductory statistical courses. The fundamental rationale for such adjustments, however, may not be readily understood. This article presents a simple illustration to help remedy this.

  17. The role of illustrations in children's inferential comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Meredith M; Barnes, Marcia A; Barron, Roderick W

    2010-03-01

    Illustrations are a salient source of information in children's books, yet their effect on children's reading comprehension has been studied only through literal factual recall. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of illustrations on bridging inferences, an important aspect of meaning making in comprehension models. Identical short stories were presented under different illustration conditions with pictures that represented different parts of the story. Participants were 73 7- to 11-year-olds. Illustrations both facilitated and interfered with inferencing depending on the type of information depicted; however, this effect was reduced as grade increased. Additional findings were that the overall ability to make inferences increased with age and working memory was a significant predictor of this skill. Results are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental models of comprehension.

  18. Use of Pom Pons to Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that uses olefin pom pons to illustrate cubic crystal structure. Facilitates hands-on examination of different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. (JRH)

  19. Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stehlík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′  (or  Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.

  20. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  1. Modelling subset multivariate ARCH model via the AIC principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of identifying a parsimonious subset multivariate ARCH model based on the AIC principle. The proposed approach can reduce the number of parameters in the final ARCH specification and allows for non-constant correlations between the components. Some simulation results illustrate the viability of the proposed procedure.

  2. Variational principle and dynamical equations of discrete nonconservative holonomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Rong-Wan; Zhang Hong-Bin; Chen Li-Qun

    2006-01-01

    By analogue with the methods and processes in continuous mechanics, a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formulation of discrete mechanics are obtained. The dynamical equations including Euler-Lagrange equations and Hamilton's canonical equations of the discrete nonconservative holonomic systems are derived on a discrete variational principle. Some illustrative examples are also given.

  3. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  4. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  5. Compton scattered imaging based on the V-line radon transform and its medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M K; Regniery, R; Truong, T T; Zaidi, H

    2010-01-01

    The Radon transform (RT) on straight lines deals as mathematical foundation for many tomographic modalities (e.g. Xray scanner, Positron Emission Tomography), using only primary radiation. In this paper, we consider a new RT defined on a pair of half-lines forming a letter V, arising from the modeling a two-dimensional emission imaging process by Compton scattered gamma rays. We establish its analytic inverse, which is shown to support the feasibility of the reconstruction of a two-dimensional image from scattered radiation collected on a one-dimensional collimated camera. Moreover, a filtered back-projection inversion method is also constructed. Its main advantages are algorithmic efficiency and computational rapidity. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the working. To sum up, the V-line RT leads not only to a new imaging principle, but also to a new concept of detector with high energetic resolution capable to collect the scattered radiation.

  6. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  7. A Principle of Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  8. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  9. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  10. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  11. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  12. NanoBiosensing Principles, Development and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Huangxian; Wang, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This book will cover the full scope of nanobiosensing, which combines the newest research results in the cross-disciplines of chemistry, biology, and materials science with biosensing and bioanalysis to develop novel detection principles, sensing mechanisms, and device engineering methods. It not only covers the important types of nanomaterials for biosensing applications, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, quantum dots, fullerenes, fluorescent and biological molecules, etc., but also illustrates a wide range of sensing principles, including electrochemical detection, fluorescence, chemiluminesence, antibody-antigen interactions, and magnetic detection. The book details novel developments in the methodology and devices of biosensing and bioanalysis combined with nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as their applications in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, the reported works on the application and biofunction of nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention and interest, ...

  13. Principle and Application of Differential Spectroradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzdorf, J.; Möller, W.; Wittchen, T.; Hünerhoff, D.

    1991-01-01

    Differential spectroradiometry is based on the determination and analysis of the differential spectral response of photoelectric devices in the presence of bias irradiance that can be varied with wavelength and over many orders of magnitude. The principle is described. Differential spectroradiometry is particularly suitable for the following applications that are reviewed or illustrated by some examples: determination of spectral and weighted responsivities allowing the transfer of the spectral responsivity scale to high levels of irradiance; determination of nonlinearities in the photocurrent-irradiance characteristic; non-destructive characterization of photoinduced effects.

  14. Principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2005-01-01

    A thorough exploration of the universal principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, this volume explains the applications of these essential rules to a multitude of situations arising in physics and engineering. It develops their use in a variety of circumstances-including those involving gases, crystals, and magnets-in order to illustrate general methods of analysis and to provide readers with all the necessary background to continue in greater depth with specific topics.Author D. F. Lawden has considerable experience in teaching this subject to university students of varied abili

  15. Principles of network and system administration

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A practical guide for meeting the challenges of planning and designing a networkNetwork design has to be logical and efficient, decisions have to be made about what services are needed, and security concerns must be addressed. Focusing on general principles, this book will help make the process of setting up, configuring, and maintaining a network much easier. It outlines proven procedures for working in a global community of networked machines, and provides practical illustrations of technical specifics. Readers will also find broad coverage of Linux and other Unix versions, Windows(r), Macs,

  16. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  17. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  18. Application of a three-dimensional display in diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, B; Hitchner, L E; Anderson, R E

    1982-10-01

    An autostereoscopic viewing device for tomographic scans that allows a physician to examine multiple computed tomography sections with each section properly positioned in three dimensions has been constructed and tested. Images produced on the device allow the observer to utilize both motion parallax and stereoscopic depth cues as if viewing a real three-dimensional (3D) object. These 3D images can be very striking because of the ease with which one can form a true impression of depth relationships. We describe operating principles of the viewing device and the appearance of images produced on it. Stereo photographs made from 3D images displayed on the device are included to illustrate potential applications and problems.

  19. Imaging of appendicitis in adults; Bildgebung der Appendizitis beim Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karul, M.; Berliner, C.; Keller, S.; Yamamura, J. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tsui, T.Y. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral- and Thoracic Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Three imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Transabdominal ultrasound should be the first-line imaging test. Abdominal CT is superior to US and is required immediately in patients with atypical clinical presentation of appendicitis and suspected perforation. However, low-dose unenhanced CT is equal to standard-dose CT with intravenous contrast agents in the detection of five signs of acute appendicitis (thickened appendiceal wall more than 2 mm, cross-sectional diameter greater than 6 mm, periappendicitis, abscess, and appendicolith). MRI is necessary in pregnant women and young adults. This review illustrates the principles of state-of-the-art imaging techniques and their clinical relevance. (orig.)

  20. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  1. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  2. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  3. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.

  4. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  5. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  6. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  7. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P.J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  8. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  9. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  10. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  11. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  12. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  13. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Geoethics and its principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Štefan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing belong to the activities with a mostly negative impact on the environment. GAIA hypothesis should help us to understand the basic mechanisms of planetary homeostasis, influenced by human activities. Principles of the geoethics should help to respect the limits of disturbances and loading capacity of ecosystems, which have the essential importance for our survival.

  15. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  16. Image Enhancement By Partially Coherent Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.; Koizumi, M.

    1983-04-01

    A partially coherent Koehler-illumination imaging system equipped with complementary masks in source and pupil planes can be used to perform image enhancement operations such as directional or non-directional edge enhancement and emphasis of spatial bandpass features. With many objects the use of complementary masks results in high-contrast images. Underlying principles are explained and preliminary experimental results presented.

  17. Revising an Engineering Design Rubric: A Case Study Illustrating Principles and Practices to Ensure Technical Quality of Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gail Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a detailed account of a rubric revision process to address seven common problems to which rubrics are prone: lack of consistency and parallelism; the presence of "orphan" and "widow" words and phrases; redundancy in descriptors; inconsistency in the focus of qualifiers; limited routes to partial credit;…

  18. Principles and procedures of considering item sequence effects in the development of calibrated item pools: Conceptual analysis and empirical illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safir Yousfi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Item responses can be context-sensitive. Consequently, composing test forms flexibly from a calibrated item pool requires considering potential context effects. This paper focuses on context effects that are related to the item sequence. It is argued that sequence effects are not necessarily a violation of item response theory but that item response theory offers a powerful tool to analyze them. If sequence effects are substantial, test forms cannot be composed flexibly on the basis of a calibrated item pool, which precludes applications like computerized adaptive testing. In contrast, minor sequence effects do not thwart applications of calibrated item pools. Strategies to minimize the detrimental impact of sequence effects on item parameters are discussed and integrated into a nomenclature that addresses the major features of item calibration designs. An example of an item calibration design demonstrates how this nomenclature can guide the process of developing a calibrated item pool.

  19. Using the Relationship between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and CO[subscript 2] Emissions to Illustrate Chemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    This instructional resource utilizes consumer product information by which students compare theoretical stoichiometric calculations to CO[subscript 2] car emissions and fuel consumption data. Representing graphically the emission of CO[subscript 2] versus consumption of fuel provides a tangible way of connecting concepts studied in chemistry…

  20. THE PRINCIPLES OF METHODICAL SYSTEM OF TEACHING GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Feodosevna Miteneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main components of methodical system of teaching geometry, including the developing spatial thinking, the process of creating images, the conditions for the organization of students cognitive activity. The author describes the scheme of formation of spatial understanding of geometric objects, marks the conditions of students activities organization aimed at creating a spatial image of the studied object, lists research skills to address geometric problems and ways to implement these skills into practice, gives a summary of methods of teaching geometry, including the principle of holistic approach priority, the principle of an open multi-valuedness, the principle of subjective experience accounting.

  1. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching, cross-hatching, or no strokes), stroke orientation, spacing, intensity, length, and thickness. A mapping is learned from input geometric, contextual, and shading features of the 3D object to these hatching properties, using classification, regression, and clustering techniques. Then, a new illustration can be generated in the artist\\'s style, as follows. First, given a new view of a 3D object, the learned mapping is applied to synthesize target stroke properties for each pixel. A new illustration is then generated by synthesizing hatching strokes according to the target properties. © 2012 ACM.

  2. Technical illustration based on 3D CSG models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Wei-dong; DING Lei; YU Hong-feng; PAN Yun-he

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic non-photorealistic rendering approach to generating technical illustration from 3D models. It first decomposes the 3D object into a set of CSG primitives, and then performs the hidden surface removal based on the prioritized list, in which the rendition order of CSG primitives is sorted out by depth. Then, each primitive is illustrated by the pre-defined empirical lighting model, and the system mimics the stroke-drawing by user-specified style. In order to artistically and flexibly modulate the illumination, the empirical lighting model is defined by three major components: parameters of multi-level lighting intensities, parametric spatial occupations for each lighting level, and an interpolation method to calculate the lighting units into the spatial occupation of CSG primitives, instead of"pixel-by-pixel" painting. This region-by-region shading facilitates the simulation of illustration styles.

  3. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  4. Principles of computer graphics theory and practice using OpenGL and Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Govil-Pai, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Principles of Computer Graphics: Theory and Practice Using OpenGL and Maya' helps readers understand the principles of interactive computer graphics. Hands-on examples developed in OpenGL illustrate key concepts, and readers develop a professional animation, following traditional processes used in production houses.

  5. Some Principles for the Design of Clarifying Educational Environments. Preprint 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Omar K.; Anderson, Alan Ross

    The author's purpose in this paper is to explain and illustrate four principles for designing learning environments within which even young children can acquire complex symbolic skills with relative ease. After discussing the principles themselves and the theoretical system out of which they emerged, the author considers an illustrative…

  6. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇岚

    2007-01-01

    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications. Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications. But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle. This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners, and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle. At the ending of the essay, the guiding significance of politeness principle is p...

  7. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principles cannot be applied to bankruptcy procedures (accounting principle on accrual basis, principle of business continuity, independence principle, intangibility principle and the principle of substance over form, some are available only in certain situations (method consistency principle and the prudence principle and others do not apply to bankruptcy (the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; noncompensation principle and the principle of threshold significance.

  8. Trompe l'oeil painting for the scientific illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, G P

    2000-01-01

    Trompe l'oeil is a French term meaning fool-the-eye. When this concept is applied to the art of painting, the painted objects must look as convincingly real as do the actual objects. With the scientific illustrator having a background of rendering concepts which are realistic and accurate, he or she should have no trouble moving into the trompe l'oeil fine art field. The author lists the necessary aspects of why a trompe l'oeil painting is different from a realistic scientific illustration, a still life, or a landscape painting.

  9. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team An Illustrated Leadership Fable

    CERN Document Server

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The blockbuster bestseller now in a manga edition--fully illustrated and fun to read!Beautifully illustrated by Kensuke Okabayashi, this enthralling edition of Patrick Lencioni's massive bestseller gives readers a new format in which to understand the fascinating, complex world of teams. Kathryn Petersen, Decision Tech's CEO, faces the ultimate leadership crisis: Uniting a team in such disarray that it threatens to bring down the entire company. Will she succeed? Will she be fired? Will the company fail? Lencioni's gripping tale serves as a timeless reminder that leadership requires as much co

  10. The establishment of a 3D breast photography service in medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, R J; Ruddock, A; Hendren, K; O'Neill, P; Boyd, L A; McCaughan, E; McIntosh, S A

    2014-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the development of a 3D breast photography service managed by the Medical Illustration Department, in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland. Dedicated 3D breast photography equipment was installed in Medical Illustration for 18 months. Women were referred for a variety of indications including pre- and post-surgical assessment. A dedicated 3D breast photography protocol was developed locally and this requires further refinement to allow reproducibility in other centres. There are image/data artefacts associated with this technology and special techniques are required to reduce these. Specialist software is necessary for clinicians and scientists to use 3D breast photography data in surgical planning and measurement of surgical outcome.

  11. Pictures of evolution and charges of fraud: Ernst Haeckel's embryological illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Comparative illustrations of vertebrate embryos by the leading nineteenth-century Darwinist Ernst Haeckel have been both highly contested and canonical. Though the target of repeated fraud charges since 1868, the pictures were widely reproduced in textbooks through the twentieth century. Concentrating on their first ten years, this essay uses the accusations to shed light on the novelty of Haeckel's visual argumentation and to explore how images come to count as proper representations or illegitimate schematics as they cross between the esoteric and exoteric circles of science. It exploits previously unused manuscripts to reconstruct the drawing, printing, and publishing of the illustrations that attracted the first and most influential attack, compares these procedures to standard practice, and highlights their originality. It then explains why, though Haeckel was soon accused, controversy ignited only seven years later, after he aligned a disciplinary struggle over embryology with a major confrontation between liberal nationalism--and Catholicism--and why the contested pictures nevertheless survived.

  12. Molecular imaging, part 1: apertures into the landscape of genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghva, Alexander; Kim, Paul E; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2010-04-01

    Conventional imaging paradigms rely on the detection of anatomical changes in disease that are preceded by molecular genetic changes that go otherwise undetected. With the advent of molecular imaging, it will be possible to detect these changes prior to the manifestation of disease. Molecular imaging is the amalgamation of molecular biology and imaging technology that was spawned by parallel advances in the two fields. Fundamental to this technique is the ability to directly image biological processes that precede the anatomical changes detected by conventional imaging techniques. The two main strategies for imaging of biologic processes are direct and indirect imaging techniques. Direct techniques use molecules that have specific affinities for targets of interest that can be radiolabeled or otherwise detected on imaging. Indirect imaging uses reporter genes that are coexpressed with therapeutic proteins or other proteins of interest to image vector-transfected cells. Optical imaging and nanotechnology paradigms will also prove to be important additions to the imaging armamentarium. The first installment of this two-part series on molecular imaging seeks to demonstrate basic principles and illustrative examples for the uninitiated neophyte to this field.

  13. 福克纳和莫言笔下的母亲形象的对比研究--以《喧哗与骚动》和《丰乳肥臀》为例%Comparative study on mother images between Faulkner and Mo Yan--illustrated by The Sound and the Fury and Big Breasts and Wide Hips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2016-01-01

    福克纳和莫言在他们的作品中塑造了大量的母亲形象,他们以冷峻的目光重新审视母亲,他们笔下的母亲一改往日的伟大、无私和慈祥而变得粗鄙、自私和冷酷,退去神圣光环的母亲还原了作为一个自然人的本色。这些“恶之花”母亲在一定社会制度和一定历史条件下形成的的恶的本性。同时,作家们也指出:这种畸形的母爱是由于生活和社会的双重压力下,以及物质和精神的匮乏造成的,是父权制文化下一种精神病态的表现,这些恶母不是生成而是被变成的。%Faulkner and Mo Yan create a lot of mother images in their works, they relook the mother images reasonably and the mothers are not great, kind and unselfish, they become what we caled evil mothers who are vulgar, calous and selfish. Their evils are formed under certain society and history. They also pointed out: this deformed motherhoods are resulted from the pressure of society and life and the shortage of material and spiritual, which is also an expression of deformity of patriarchy. These evil mothers are not born to be but forced to be.

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: A quick review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaghela Viratsinh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to non-invasively map the hemodynamic changes occurring focally in areas of brain involved in various motor, sensory and cognitive functions by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has revolutionized research in neuroscience in the last two decades. This technique has already gained clinical use especially in pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy and neurosurgical planning of resection of mass lesions adjacent to eloquent cortex. In this review we attempt to illustrate basic principles and techniques of fMRI, its applications, practical points to consider while performing and evaluating clinical fMRI and its limitations.

  15. Diversity of Authors & Illustrators in First Grade Core Reading Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Eileen M.; Lightner, Sarah C.; Kelly, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the diversity of the authors and illustrators in core reading series and to evaluate the opportunities and limitations of these texts in relation to the goals of multicultural education. The authors began their research concerned about whose stories are told in core reading series, and who gets to tell…

  16. Child Illustrators: Making Meaning through Visual Art in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Alicia; Minton, Sylvia; Martinez, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In picture books, illustrations often play a critical role in helping authors tell stories. Instruction in the elements of composition including visual, textual, and peritextual features enhances meaning for children when they are given the opportunity to become authors of their own picturebooks. This study was conducted in a fourth grade…

  17. ANCOVA Procedures in Time-Series Experiments: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Victor L.

    A statistical model for analysis of multiple time-series observation is briefly outlined. The model incorporates a change parameter corresponding to intervention or interruption of the dependent series. The additional time-series are included in the model as covariates. The practical application of the procedure is illustrated with traffic…

  18. Transparency-Illustration-Notebook (TIN) Method for Teaching Cardiovascular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoth, L.

    1978-01-01

    A method for teaching cardiovascular physiology to veterinary students in an integrated systems program is described. The method consists of lectures that discuss illustrations projected overhead. An example of one of the teaching modules and a list of the benefits of this method are included. (JMD)

  19. Depth-Dependent Halos : Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for the illustrative rendering of 3D line data at interactive frame rates. We create depth-dependent halos around lines to emphasize tight line bundles while less structured lines are de-emphasized. Moreover, the depth-dependent halos combined with depth cueing via line width

  20. A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I. A.

    This book is a brief guide to understanding Islam, intended to help individuals better understand Islamic culture, Muslims, and the Holy Quran. It consists of the following three chapters: (1) Some Evidence for the Truth of Islam; (2) Some Benefits of Islam; and (3) General Information on Islam. The book is extensively illustrated with photographs…